Giotto di Bondone (c. 1267 – January 8, 1337), known
Giotto (Italian: [ˈdʒɔtto]) and Latinised as
Giottus, was an Italian painter and architect from
Florence during the
Late Middle Ages. He worked during the "Gothic or Proto-Renaissance"
Giotto's contemporary, the banker and chronicler Giovanni Villani,
Giotto was "the most sovereign master of painting in his
time, who drew all his figures and their postures according to nature"
and of his publicly recognized "talent and excellence".
In his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and
Giorgio Vasari described
Giotto as making a decisive break
with the prevalent Byzantine style and as initiating "the great art of
painting as we know it today, introducing the technique of drawing
accurately from life, which had been neglected for more than two
Giotto's masterwork is the decoration of the Scrovegni Chapel, in
Padua, also known as the Arena Chapel, which was completed around
1305. The fresco cycle depicts the
Life of the Virgin
Life of the Virgin and the Life of
Christ. It is regarded as one of the supreme masterpieces of the Early
Giotto painted the Arena Chapel and that he was chosen by the
Florence in 1334 to design the new campanile (bell tower)
Florence Cathedral are among the few certainties about his
life. Almost every other aspect of it is subject to controversy: his
birth date, his birthplace, his appearance, his apprenticeship, the
order in which he created his works, whether or not he painted the
famous frescoes in the Upper Basilica of Saint Francis in
his burial place.
1 Early years
1.1 Frescoes of the Upper Church at Assisi
2 Other attributions
3 Scrovegni Chapel
4 Other works in Padua
5 Mature works
5.1 Ognissanti Madonna
Peruzzi and Bardi Chapels at Santa Croce
5.3 Stefaneschi Triptych
6 Later works
7 Later life
11 Further reading
12 External links
Tradition holds that
Giotto was born in a farmhouse, perhaps at Colle
di Romagnano or Romignano. Since 1850, a tower house in nearby
Colle Vespignano has borne a plaque claiming the honor of his
birthplace, an assertion that is commercially publicized. However,
recent research has presented documentary evidence that he was born in
Florence, the son of a blacksmith. His father's name was Bondone.
Most authors accept that
Giotto was his real name, but it is likely to
have been an abbreviation of Ambrogio (Ambrogiotto) or Angelo
A portrait of
Dante by Giotto
The year of his birth is calculated from the fact that Antonio Pucci,
the town crier of Florence, wrote a poem in Giotto's honour in which
it is stated that he was 70 at the time of his death. However, the
word "seventy" fits into the rhyme of the poem better than any longer
and more complex age so it is possible that Pucci used artistic
Vasari states that
Giotto was a shepherd boy, a merry and intelligent
child who was loved by all who knew him. The great Florentine painter
Giotto drawing pictures of his sheep on a rock.
They were so lifelike that
Giotto and asked if he
could take him on as an apprentice.
Cimabue was one of the two most
highly renowned painters of Tuscany, the other being Duccio, who
worked mainly in Siena.
Vasari recounts a number of such stories about Giotto's skill as a
young artist. He tells of one occasion when
Cimabue was absent from
the workshop, and
Giotto painted a remarkably-lifelike fly on a face
in a painting of Cimabue. When
Cimabue returned, he tried several
times to brush the fly off.
Vasari also relates that when the Pope sent a messenger to Giotto,
asking him to send a drawing to demonstrate his skill,
Giotto drew a
red circle so perfect that it seemed as though it was drawn using a
pair of compasses and instructed the messenger to send it to the Pope.
The messenger departed ill pleased, believing that he had been made a
fool of. The messenger brought other artists' drawings back to the
Pope in addition to Giotto's. When the messenger related how he had
made the circle without moving his arm and without the aid of
compasses the Pope and his courtiers were amazed at how Giotto's skill
greatly surpassed all of his contemporaries.
Many scholars today are uncertain about Giotto's training and consider
Vasari's account that he was Cimabue's pupil as legend; they cite
earlier sources that suggest that
Giotto was not Cimabue's pupil.
Giotto married Ciuta (Ricevuta), the daughter of Lapo del
Pela of Florence. The marriage produced four daughters and four sons,
one of whom became a painter. By 1301,
Giotto owned a house in
Florence, and when he was not traveling, he would return there and
live in comfort with his family.
Frescoes of the Upper Church at Assisi
Cimabue went to
Assisi to paint several large frescoes at
the new Basilica of St Francis of Assisi, and it is possible but not
Giotto went with him. The attribution of the fresco cycle
of the Life of St. Francis in the Upper Church has been one of the
most disputed in art history. The documents of the Franciscan Friars
that relate to artistic commissions during this period were destroyed
by Napoleon's troops, who stabled horses in the Upper Church of the
Basilica so scholars have debated over the attribution to Giotto. In
the absence of documentary evidence to the contrary, it has been
convenient to ascribe every fresco in the Upper Church that was not
Cimabue to Giotto, whose prestige has overshadowed that
of almost every contemporary.
One of the Legend of St. Francis frescoes at Assisi, the authorship of
which is disputed.
An early biographical source, Riccobaldo Ferrarese, mentions that
Giotto painted at
Assisi but does not specify the St Francis Cycle:
"What kind of art [Giotto] made is testified to by works done by him
in the Franciscan churches at Assisi, Rimini, Padua..." Since the
idea was put forward by the German art historian, Friedrich Rintelen
in 1912, many scholars have expressed doubt that
Giotto was the
author of the Upper Church frescoes.
Without documentation, arguments on the attribution have relied upon
connoisseurship, a notoriously unreliable "science"; but technical
examinations and comparisons of the workshop painting processes at
Padua in 2002 have provided strong evidence that
not paint the St. Francis Cycle. There are many differences
between the Francis Cycle and the Arena Chapel frescoes that are
difficult to account for by the stylistic development of an individual
artist. It is now generally accepted that four different hands are
identifiable and that they came from Rome. If this is the case,
Giotto's frescoes at
Padua owe much to the naturalism of the
The authorship of a large number of panel paintings ascribed to Giotto
by Vasari, among others, is as broadly disputed as the Assisi
frescoes. According to Vasari, Giotto's earliest works were for
the Dominicans at Santa Maria Novella. They include a fresco of The
Annunciation and the enormous suspended Crucifix, which is about 5
metres (16 feet) high. It has been dated to about 1290 and is
thought to be contemporary with the
Assisi frescoes. Earlier
attributed works are the San Giorgio alla Costa Madonna and Child, now
in the Diocesan Museum of Santo Stefano al Ponte, Florence, and the
signed panel of the Stigmata of St. Francis housed in the Louvre.
Crucifixion of Rimini
In 1287, at the age of about 20,
Giotto married Ricevuta di Lapo del
Pela, known as "Ciuta". The couple had numerous children (perhaps as
many as eight), one of whom, Francesco, became a painter. Giotto
worked in Rome in 1297–1300, but few traces of his presence there
Basilica of St. John Lateran
Basilica of St. John Lateran houses a small portion of a fresco
cycle, painted for the Jubilee of 1300 called by Boniface VIII. In
Giotto also painted the Badia Polyptych, now in the
Giotto's fame as a painter spread. He was called to work in
also in Rimini, where there remains only a Crucifix painted before
1309 and conserved in the Church of St. Francis. It influenced the
rise of the Riminese school of Giovanni and Pietro da Rimini.
According to documents of 1301 and 1304,
Giotto by this time possessed
large estates in Florence, and it is probable that he was already
leading a large workshop and receiving commissions from throughout
Giotto executed his most influential work, the interior
frescoes of the
Scrovegni Chapel in Padua. Enrico degli Scrovegni
commissioned the chapel to serve as a family worship, burial space
 and as a backdrop for an annually performed mystery play. 
The Scrovegni Chapel
The theme is Salvation, and there is an emphasis on the Virgin Mary,
as the chapel is dedicated to the
Annunciation and to the Virgin of
Charity. As was common in the decoration of the medieval period in
Italy, the west wall is dominated by the Last Judgement. On either
side of the chancel are complementary paintings of the angel Gabriel
and the Virgin Mary, depicting the Annunciation. The scene is
incorporated into the cycles of The Life of the Blessed Virgin Mary
and The Life of Christ. Giotto's inspiration for The Life of the
Virgin cycle was probably taken from The
Golden Legend by Jacopo da
Voragine ans The Life of Christ draws upon the Meditations on the Life
of Christ. The frescoes are more than mere illustrations of familiar
texts, however, and scholars have found numerous sources for Giotto's
interpretations of sacred stories.
Details of figures at the Golden Gate in the Meeting of Anna and
The cycle is divided into 37 scenes, arranged around the lateral walls
in three tiers, starting in the upper register with the story of St.
Joachim and St. Anne, the parents of the Virgin, and continuing with
her story. The life of Jesus occupies two registers. The Last Judgment
fills the entire pictorial space of the counter-façade.
The top right tier deals with the lives of Mary's parents, the left
with her early life and the middle tier with the early life and
miracles of Christ.
The bottom tier on both sides is concerned with the Passions of
Christ. He is depicted mainly in profile, as was the custom
historically to depict persons of importance. His eyes point
continuously to the right, perhaps to guide the viewer onwards in the
episodes. The kiss of Judas near the end of the sequence signals the
close of this left-to-right procession.
Kiss of Judas (1304–06), fresco, Scrovegni Chapel
Below the narrative scenes in color,
Giotto also painted the
allegories of seven Virtues and their counterparts in monochrome gray.
The monochrome frescoes appear as marble statues. Furthermore, the
allegories of Justice and Injustice in the middle of the sequence
oppose two specific types of government: peace leading to a festival
of Love and tyranny resulting in wartime rape.
Much of the blue in the fresco has been worn away by time. The expense
of the ultramarine blue pigment used made
Enrico degli Scrovegni
Enrico degli Scrovegni order
that it should be painted on top of the already-dry fresco (secco
fresco) to preserve its brilliance. That is why it has disintegrated
faster than the other colours, which have been fastened within the
plaster of the fresco. An example of the decay can clearly be seen on
the robe of Christ, as he sits on the donkey.
Between the scenes are quatrefoil paintings of
Old Testament scenes,
Jonah and the Whale
Jonah and the Whale that allegorically correspond and perhaps
foretell the life of Christ.
Cimabue painted in a manner that is clearly medieval, having
aspects of both the Byzantine and the Gothic, Giotto's style drew on
the solid and classicizing sculpture of Arnolfo di Cambio. Unlike
Cimabue and Duccio, Giotto's figures are not stylized or
elongated and do not follow the Byzantine models of his
contemporaries. They are solidly three-dimensional, have faces and
gestures that are based on close observation and are clothed, not in
swirling formalized drapery, but in garments that hang naturally and
have form and weight. He also took bold steps in foreshortening and
with having characters face inwards, with their backs towards the
observer creating the illusion of space.
Lamentation (The Mourning of Christ), Cappella degli Scrovegni
The figures occupy compressed settings with naturalistic elements,
often using forced perspective devices so that they resemble stage
sets. This similarity is increased by Giotto's careful arrangement of
the figures in such a way that the viewer appears to have a particular
place and even an involvement in many of the scenes. That can be seen
most markedly in the arrangement of the figures in the Mocking of
Christ and Lamentation in which the viewer is bidden by the
Giotto has created to become mocker in one and
mourner in the other.
Famous narratives in the series include the Adoration of the Magi, in
which a comet-like
Star of Bethlehem
Star of Bethlehem streaks across the sky.
thought to have been inspired by the 1301 appearance of Halley's
comet, which led to the name
Giotto being given to a 1986 space probe
to the comet.
Giotto's depiction of the human face and emotion sets his work apart
from that of his contemporaries. When the disgraced Joachim returns
sadly to the hillside, the two young shepherds look sideways at each
other. The soldier who drags a baby from its screaming mother in the
Massacre of the Innocents does so with his head hunched into his
shoulders and a look of shame on his face. The people on the road to
Egypt gossip about Mary and Joseph as they go. Of Giotto's realism,
the 19th-century English critic
John Ruskin said, "He painted the
Madonna and St. Joseph and the Christ, yes, by all means... but
essentially Mamma, Papa and Baby".
Besides his pivotal contribution to the development of a new realistic
Giotto might have been also responsible for the
reintroduction of true fresco technique to Western art. The
technological development allowed the creation of more-durable murals
with unprecedented colours and brilliance.
Other works in Padua
Among those frescoes in
Padua that have been lost are those in the
Basilica of. St. Anthony and the Palazzo della Ragione.
Numerous painters from northern
Italy were influenced by Giotto's work
in Padua, including Guariento, Giusto de' Menabuoi, Jacopo Avanzi, and
The Nativity in the Lower Church, Assisi
From 1306 to 1311
Giotto was in Assisi, where he painted the frescoes
in the transept area of the Lower Church of the Basilica of St.
Francis, including The Life of Christ, Franciscan Allegories and the
Maddalena Chapel, drawing on stories from the
Golden Legend and
including the portrait of Bishop Teobaldo Pontano, who commissioned
the work. Several assistants are mentioned, including Palerino di
Guido. However, the style demonstrates developments from Giotto's work
Giotto returned to Florence. A document from 1313 about his
furniture there shows that he had spent a period in Rome some time
beforehand. It is now thought that he produced the design for the
famous Navicella mosaic for the courtyard of the Old St. Peter's
Basilica in 1310, commissioned by Cardinal Giacomo or Jacopo
Stefaneschi and now lost to the
Renaissance church except for some
fragments and a
Baroque reconstruction. According to the cardinal's
necrology, he also at least designed the Stefaneschi Triptych, a
double-sided altarpiece for St. Peter's, now in the Vatican
Pinacoteca. However, the style seems unlikely for either
Giotto or his
normal Florentine assistants so he may have had his design executed by
an ad hoc workshop of Romans.
Ognissanti Madonna, (c. 1310) Tempera on wood, 325 by 204 centimetres
(128 by 80 inches) Uffizi, Florence
Main article: Ognissanti Madonna
In Florence, where documents from 1314 to 1327 attest to his financial
Giotto painted an altarpiece, known as the Ognissanti
Madonna, which is now on display in the Uffizi, where it is exhibited
beside Cimabue's Santa Trinita Madonna and Duccio's Rucellai
Madonna. The Ognissanti altarpiece is the only panel painting by
Giotto that has been universally accepted by scholars, despite the
fact that it is undocumented. It was painted for the church of the
Ognissanti (all saints) in Florence, which was built by an obscure
religious order, known as the Humiliati. It is a large painting
(325 x 204 cm), and scholars are divided on whether it was made
for the main altar of the church, where it would have been viewed
primarily by the brothers of the order, or for the choir screen, where
it would have been more easily seen by a lay audience.
He also painted around the time the Dormition of the Virgin, now in
Berlin Gemäldegalerie, and the Crucifix in the Church of
Peruzzi and Bardi Chapels at Santa Croce
According to Lorenzo Ghiberti,
Giotto painted chapels for four
different Florentine families in the church of Santa Croce, but he
does not identify which chapels. It is only with Vasari that the
four chapels are identified: the Bardi Chapel (Life of St. Francis),
Peruzzi Chapel (Life of
St. John the Baptist
St. John the Baptist and St. John the
Evangelist, perhaps including a polyptych of Madonna with Saints now
in the Museum of Art of Raleigh, North Carolina) and the lost Giugni
Chapel (Stories of the Apostles) and the Tosinghi Spinelli Chapel
(Stories of the Holy Virgin). As with almost everything in
Giotto's career, the dates of the fresco decorations that survive in
Santa Croce are disputed. The Bardi Chapel, immediately to the right
of the main chapel of the church, was painted in true fresco, and to
some scholars, the simplicity of its settings seems relatively close
to those of Padua, but the
Peruzzi Chapel's more complex settings
suggest a later date.
Peruzzi Chapel, The Ascension of St John the Evangelist
Peruzzi Chapel is adjacent to the Bardi Chapel and was largely
painted a secco. The technique, quicker but less durable than true
fresco, has resulted in a fresco decoration that survives in a
seriously-deteriorated condition. Scholars who date the cycle earlier
in Giotto's career see the growing interest in architectural expansion
that it displays as close to the developments of the giottesque
frescoes in the Lower Church at Assisi, but the Bardi frescoes have a
new softness of colour that indicates the artist going in a different
direction, probably under the influence of Sienese art so it must be
Details of figures from the Raising of Drusiana in the
Peruzzi Chapel pairs three frescoes from the life of St. John the
Annunciation of John's Birth to his father Zacharias; The
Birth and Naming of John; The Feast of Herod) on the left wall with
three scenes from the life of
St. John the Evangelist
St. John the Evangelist (The Visions of
John on Ephesus; The Raising of Drusiana; The Ascension of John) on
the right wall. The choice of scenes has been related to both the
patrons and the Franciscans. Because of the deteriorated condition
of the frescoes, it is difficult to discuss Giotto's style in the
chapel, but the frescoes show signs of his typical interest in
controlled naturalism and psychological penetration. The Peruzzi
Chapel was especially renowned during
Renaissance times. Giotto's
compositions influenced Masaccio's frescos at the Brancacci Chapel,
and Michelangelo is also known to have studied them.
Bardi Chapel: the Mourning of St. Francis
The Bardi Chapel depicts the life of St. Francis, following a similar
iconography to the frescoes in the Upper Church at Assisi, dating from
20 to 30 years earlier. A comparison shows the greater attention given
Giotto to expression in the human figures and the simpler,
better-integrated architectural forms.
Giotto represents only seven
scenes from the saint's life, and the narrative is arranged somewhat
unusually. The story starts on the upper left wall with St. Francis
Renounces his Father. It continues across the chapel to the upper
right wall with the Approval of the Franciscan Rule, moves down the
right wall to the Trial by Fire, across the chapel again to the left
wall for the Appearance at Arles, down the left wall to the Death of
St. Francis, and across once more to the posthumous Visions of Fra
Agostino and the Bishop of Assisi. The Stigmatization of St. Francis,
which chronologically belongs between the Appearance at Arles and the
Death, is located outside the chapel, above the entrance arch. The
arrangement encourages viewers to link scenes together: to pair
frescoes across the chapel space or relate triads of frescoes along
each wall. The linkings suggest meaningful symbolic relationships
between different events in St. Francis's life.
Giotto painted the Stefaneschi Triptych, now in the Vatican
Museum, for Cardinal Giacomo (or Jacopo) Gaetano Stefaneschi. It shows
St Peter enthroned with saints on the front, and on the reverse,
Christ is enthroned, framed with scenes of the martyrdom of Saints
Peter and Paul. It is one of the few works by
Giotto for which firm
evidence of a commission exists. The cardinal also commissioned
Giotto to decorate the apse of St. Peter's Basilica with a cycle of
frescoes that were destroyed during the 16th-century renovation.
According to Vasari,
Giotto remained in Rome for six years,
subsequently receiving numerous commissions in Italy, and in the Papal
seat at Avignon, but some of the works are now recognized to be by
The verso of The Stefaneschi Altarpiece
In 1328 the altarpiece of the Baroncelli Chapel, Santa Croce,
Florence, was completed. Previously ascribed to Giotto, it is now
believed to be mostly a work by assistants, including Taddeo Gaddi,
who later frescoed the chapel.
Giotto was called by King Robert of
Naples where he remained with a group of pupils until 1333.
Few of Giotto's Neapolitan works have survived: a fragment of a fresco
Lamentation of Christ
Lamentation of Christ in the church of Santa Chiara and
the Illustrious Men that is painted on the windows of the Santa
Barbara Chapel of Castel Nuovo, which are usually attributed to his
pupils. In 1332, King Robert named him "first court painter", with a
Giotto stayed for a while in Bologna, where he painted a
Polyptych for the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli and, according to
so E sources, a lost decoration for the Chapel in the Cardinal
Campanile di Giotto
Campanile di Giotto (Florence)
Giotto was appointed chief architect to
He designed the bell tower, known as Giotto's Campanile, begun on July
18, 1334. It was not completed entirely to his design.
Before 1337, he was in
Milan with Azzone Visconti, but no trace of
works by him remain in the city. His last known work was with
assistants' help: the decoration of Podestà Chapel in the Bargello,
In his final years,
Giotto had become friends with Giovanni Boccaccio
and Sacchetti, who featured him in their stories. In The Divine
Dante acknowledged the greatness of his living contemporary by
the words of a painter in
Purgatorio (XI, 94–96): "
that he held the field/In painting, and now
Giotto has the cry,/ So
the fame of the former is obscure."
Giotto died in January 1337.
According to Vasari,
Giotto was buried in the Cathedral of
Florence, on the left of the entrance and with the spot marked by a
white marble plaque. According to other sources, he was buried in the
Church of Santa Reparata. The apparently-contradictory reports are
explained by the fact that the remains of Santa Reparata are directly
beneath the Cathedral and the church continued in use while the
construction of the cathedral proceeded in the early 14th century.
During an excavation in the 1970s, bones were discovered beneath the
paving of Santa Reparata at a spot close to the location given by
Vasari but unmarked on either level. Forensic examination of the bones
Francesco Mallegni and a team of experts in 2000
brought to light some evidence that seemed to confirm that they were
those of a painter, particularly the range of chemicals, including
arsenic and lead, both commonly found in paint, which the bones had
The bones were those of a very short man, little over four feet tall,
who may have suffered from a form of congenital dwarfism. That
supports a tradition at the Church of Santa Croce that a dwarf who
appears in one of the frescoes is a self-portrait of Giotto. On the
other hand, a man wearing a white hat who appears in the Last
Padua is also said to be a portrait of Giotto. The
appearance of this man conflicts with the image in Santa Croce, in
regards to stature.
Vasari, drawing on a description by Boccaccio, a friend of Giotto,
says of him that "there was no uglier man in the city of Florence" and
indicates that his children were also plain in appearance. There is a
Giotto while he was painting the Scrovegni
Chapel and, seeing the artist's children underfoot asked how a man who
painted such beautiful pictures could have such plain children.
Giotto, who, according to Vasari was always a wit, replied, "I had
them in the dark."
Forensic reconstruction of the skeleton at Santa Reperata showed a
short man with a very large head, a large hooked nose and one eye more
prominent than the other. The bones of the neck indicated that the man
spent a lot of time with his head tilted backwards. The front teeth
were worn in a way consistent with frequently holding a brush between
the teeth. The man was about 70 at the time of death.
While the Italian researchers were convinced that the body belonged to
Giotto and it was reburied with honour near the grave of Filippo
Brunelleschi, others have been highly skeptical. Franklin Toker, a
professor of art history at the University of Pittsburgh, who was
present at the original excavation in 1970, says that they are
probably "the bones of some fat butcher".
^ Italian pronunciation: [ˈdʒɔtto di bonˈdoːne].
^ "Giotto's date of birth differs widely in the sources, but modern
art historians consider 1267 to be the most plausible, although the
years up to 1275 cannot be entirely discounted." Wolf, Norbert (2006).
Giotto di Bondone, 1267-1337: The Renewal of Painting. Hong Kong:
Taschen.p. 92. ISBN 9783822851609
Giotto at Encyclopædia Britannica
^ Hodge, Susie (November 2016). Art in Detail: 100 Masterpieces
(Hardcover)format= requires url= (help) (1 ed.). New York: Thames
& Hudson. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-500-23954-4. He worked
during the period described as Gothic or Pre-
^ Bartlett, Kenneth R. (1992). The Civilization of the Italian
Renaissance. Toronto: D.C. Heath and Company. ISBN 0-669-20900-7
(Paperback). p. 37.
^ a b c d e f g h i Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Artists, trans.
George Bull, Penguin Classics, (1965)[page needed]
^ a b Hartt, Frederick (1989). Art: a history of painting, sculpture,
architecture. Harry N. Abrams. pp. 503–506.
^ Sarel Eimerl, see below, cites Colbzs le di Romagnano. However, the
spelling is perhaps wrong, and the location referred to may be the
site of the present Trattoria di Romignano, in a hamlet of farmhouses
in the Mugello region.
^ Michael Viktor Schwarz and Pia Theis, "Giotto's Father: Old Stories
and New Documents", Burlington Magazine, 141 (1999) 676–677 and
idem, Giottus Pictor. Band 1: Giottos Leben, Vienna, 2004
^ a b c d e f g h i j Sarel Eimerl, The World of Giotto, Time-Life
^ Hayden B.J. Maginnis, "In Search of an Artist," in Anne Derbes and
Mark Sandona, The Cambridge Companion to Giotto, Cambridge, 2004,
^ Giotto, and Edi Baccheschi (1969). The complete paintings of Giotto.
New York: H.N. Abrams. p. 83. OCLC 2616448
^ Sarel. A. Teresa Hankey, "Riccobaldo of Ferraro and Giotto: An
Update," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, 54 (1991)
^ Friedrich Rintelen,
Giotto und die Giotto-apokryphen, (1912)
^ See, for example, Richard Offner's famous article of 1939, "Giotto,
non-Giotto", conveniently collected in James Stubblebine, Giotto: The
Arena Chapel Frescoes, New York, 1969 (reissued 1996), 135–155,
which argues against Giotto's authorship of the frescoes. In contrast,
Luciano Bellosi, La pecora di Giotto, Turin, 1985, calls each of
Offner's points into question.
^ Bruno Zanardi,
Giotto e Pietro Cavallini: La questione di
il cantiere medievale della pittura a fresco,
Milan 2002; Zanardi
provides an English synopsis of his study in Anne Derbes and Mark
Sandona, The Cambridge Companion to Giotto, New York, 2004, 32–62.
^ Maginnis, "In Search of an Artist", 23–28.
^ In 1312, the will of Ricuccio Pucci leaves funds to keep a lamp
burning before the crucifix "by the illustrious painter Giotto".
Ghiberti also cites it as a work by Giotto.
^ See the complaint of the Eremitani monks in James Stubblebine,
Giotto: The Arena Chapel Frescoes, New York, 1969, 106–107 and an
analysis of the commission by Benjamin G. Kohl, "
Giotto and his Lay
Patrons", in Anne Derbes and Mark Sandona, The Cambridge Companion to
Giotto, Cambridge, 2004, 176–193.
^ Schwarz, Michael Viktor, "Padua, its Arena, and the Arena Chapel: a
liturgical ensemble," in Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld
Institutes Vol. 73, 2010, 39-64.
^ Anne Derbes and Mark Sandona, The Usurer's Heart: Giotto, Enrico
Scrovegni, and the Arena Chapel in Padua, University Park, 2008; Laura
Giotto and the Arena Chapel: Art,
Architecture and Experience,
London, 2008; Andrew Ladis, Giotto's O: Narrative, Figuration, and
Pictorial Ingenuity in the Arena Chapel, University Park, 2009
^ Kérchy, Anna; Liss, Attila; Szönyi, György E., eds. (2012). The
Iconology of Law and Order (Legal and Cosmic). Szeged: JATEPress.
^ Péter Bokody, "Mural
Painting as a Medium: Technique,
Representation and Liturgy," in Image and Christianity: Visual Media
in the Middle Ages, ed. Péter Bokody (Pannonhalma: Pannonhalma Abbey,
^ The remaining parts (Stigmata of St. Francis,
Franciscans at Ceuta,
Crucifixion and Heads of Prophets) are most
likely from assistants.
^ Finished in 1309 and mentioned in a text from 1350 by Giovanni da
Nono. They had an astrological theme, inspired by the Lucidator, a
treatise famous in the 14th century.
^ White, 332, 343
^ La 'Madonna d'Ognissanti' di
Giotto restaurata, Florence, 1992;
Julia I. Miller and Laurie Taylor-Mitchell, "The Ognissanti Madonna
and the Humiliati Order in Florence", in The Cambridge Companion to
Giotto, ed. Anne Derbes and Mark Sandona, Cambridge, 2004, 157–175.
^ Julian Gardner, "Altars, Altarpieces and Art History: Legislation
and Usage," in Italian Altarpieces, 1250-1500, ed. Eve Borsook and
Fiorella Gioffredi, Oxford, 1994, 5–39; Irene Hueck, "Le opere di
Giotto per la chiesa di Ognissanti," in La 'Madonna d'Ognissanti' di
Giotto restaurata, Florence, 1992, 37–44.
^ Duncan Kennedy, Giotto's Ognissanti Crucifix brought back to life,
BBC News, 2010-11-05. Accessed 2010-11-07
^ Ghiberti, I commentari, ed. O Morisani,
Naples 1947, 33.
^ Giorgio Vasari, Le vite de' più eccellenti architetti, pittori, et
scultori Italiani ed. G. Milanesi, Florence, 1878, I, 373–374.
^ L. Tintori and E. Borsook, The
Peruzzi Chapel, Florence, 1965, 10;
J. White, Art and
Architecture in Italy, Baltimore, 1968, 72f.
^ C. Brandi, Giotto, Milan, 1983, 185–186; L.Bellosi, Giotto,
Florence, 1981, 65, 71.
^ Tintori and Borsook; Laurie Schneider Adams, "The Iconography of the
Peruzzi Chapel". L’Arte, 1972, 1–104. (Reprinted in Andrew Ladis
Giotto and the World of Early Italian Art New York and London
1998, 3, 131–144); Julie F. Codell, "Giotto's
Frescoes: Wealth, Patronage and the Earthly City," Renaissance
Quarterly, 41 (1988) 583–613.
^ The concept of such linkings was first suggested for
Padua by Michel
Alpatoff, "The Parallelism of Giotto's
Padua Frescoes", Art Bulletin,
39 (1947) 149–154. It has been tied to the Bardi Chapel by Jane C.
Long, "The Program of Giotto’s Saint Francis Cycle at Santa Croce in
Florence", Franciscan Studies 52 (1992) 85–133 and William R. Cook,
Giotto and the Figure of St. Francis", in The Cambridge Companion to
Giotto, ed. A. Derbes and M. Sandona, Cambridge, 2004, 135–156.
^ Gardner, Julian (1974). "The Stefaneschi Altarpiece: A
Reconsideration". Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. 37:
57–103 – via JSTOR.
^ a b c IOL, September 22, 2000
^ "Critics slam
Giotto burial as a grave mistake". Business Report.
Independent Online. Sapa-AP. 8 January 2001.
^ Johnston, Bruce (6 January 2001). "Skeleton riddle threatens
Giotto's reburial". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
Eimerl, Sarel. The World of Giotto, Time-Life Books, (1967),
Giotto e la sua bottega (1993)
Le vite de più eccellenti pittori, scultori e architetti (1568)
Lives of the Artists, trans. George Bull, Penguin Classics, (1965)
White, John. Art and
Architecture in Italy, 1250 to 1400, London,
Penguin Books, 1966, 2nd edn 1987 (now Yale History of Art series).
Agapiou, Natalia, L'autoritratto di Andrea Mantegna nella Camera
dipinta del castello di San Giorgio a Mantova: le peripezie di un
motivo ornamentale, Studi Umanistici Piceni, XXXII, ISSN 1126-4764.
Bandera Bistoletti, Sandrina, Giotto: catalogo completo dei dipinti (I
gigli dell'arte; 2) Cantini, Firenze 1989. ISBN 88-7737-050-5.
Basile, Giuseppe (a cura di), Giotto: gli affreschi della Cappella
degli Scrovegni a Padova, Skira, Milano 2002. ISBN 88-8491-229-6.
Giotto: le storie francescane, (I capolavori dell'arte) Electa, Milano
1996. ISBN 88-435-5678-9
Bellosi, Luciano, La pecora di Giotto, (Saggi; 681). Einaudi, Torino
1985. ISBN 88-06-58339-5.
Bokody, Péter, After Paradigm: Iconography and Giotto, IKON: Journal
of Iconographic Studies 7 (2014): 131–141.
Justice, Love and Rape: Giotto’s Allegories of Justice and Injustice
in the Arena Chapel, Padua, In The Iconology of Law and Order, ed.
Anna Kerchy and others, 55-66. Szeged: JATE Press, 2012.
Bokody, Péter, Mural
Painting as a Medium: Technique, Representation
and Liturgy, in Image and Christianity: Visual Media in the Middle
Ages, ed. Péter Bokody (Pannonhalma: Pannonhalma Abbey, 2014),
Bologna, Ferdinando, Novità su Giotto:
Giotto al tempo della Cappella
Peruzzi (Saggi; 438). Einaudi, Torino 1969.
Carrà, Carlo, Giotto, (Biblioteca moderna Mondadori; 227-228). A.
Mondadori, Milano 1951.
Cavalcaselle, Giovan Battista, e Joseph A. Crowe, Storia della pittura
in Italia dal secolo II al secolo XVI, 1: Dai primi tempi cristiani
fino alla morte di
Giotto 2. ed. con aggiunta di un'appendice. Le
Monnier, Firenze 1886.
Giotto (3rd ed.). (Valori plastici) Hoepli, Milano
1942 (3rd ed. 1950).
Ciatti, Marco e Max Seidel (a cura di), Giotto: La Croce di Santa
Maria Novella, Edifir, Firenze 2000. ISBN 88-7970-107-X.
Coletti, Luigi, I primitivi, vol. 1 Dall'arte benedettina a Giotto,
Istituto geografico De Agostini, Novara 1941.
Crowe, Joseph A., A history of painting in Italy: Umbria,
Siena from the second to the sixteenth century, vol. 2:
Giotto and the
giottesques. J. Murray, London 1903.
de Castris, Pierluigi Leone,
Giotto a Napoli, Electa Napoli, Napoli
2006. ISBN 88-510-0386-6.
Flores D'Arcais, Francesca, Giotto, Federico Motta Editore, Milano
1995. ISBN 88-7179-092-8 (ed. 2001).
Frugoni, Chiara, L'affare migliore di Enrico.
Giotto e la cappella
degli Scrovegni, (Saggi; 899). Einaudi, Torino 2008.
Fry, Roger, Giotto, a cura di Laura Cavazzini ; traduzione di
Electra Cannata, (Miniature; 63). ed. Abscondita, Milano 2008
Giotto architetto, Edizioni di Comunità, Milano
Gnudi, Cesare, Giotto, (I sommi dell'arte italiana) Martello, Milano
Giotto e i giotteschi. Pareri discordanti
sull'attribuzione di una delicata Madonna con il Bambino di influenza
giottesca: Pacino di Bonaguida, Lippo di Benivieni o il Maestro del
Trittico Horne? in Panorama Musei, Anno XVIII, n.2, 2013
Ladis, Andrew, Giotto's O: Narrative, Figuration, and Pictorial
Ingenuity in the Arena Chapel, Pennsylvania State UP, University Park,
Pennsylvania 2009. ISBN 9780271034072.
Giotto as an Ugly Genius: A Study in Self-Portrayal, in
Andrew Ladis, ed.,
Giotto as a Historical and Literary Figure:
Miscellaneous Studies, 4 vols. (Vol. 1:
Giotto and the World of Early
Italian Art), Garland Publishing, New York, 1998: 183–196.
Giotto spazioso, in Paragone n 31, 1958.
Giotto and Assisi, University Press, New York 1960.
Milizia, Umberto M., Il ciclo di
Giotto ad Assisi: struttura di una
leggenda (L'arco muto; 9). De Rubeis, Anzio 1994.
Moleta, Vincent. From St. Francis to Giotto, Franciscan Institute
Publications, 1984. ISBN 978-0-8199-0853-7.
Dante e Giotto: la Commedia degli Scrovegni, in
Dante fra il
settecentocinquantenario della nascita (2015) e il settecentenario
della morte (2021). Atti delle Celebrazioni in Senato, del Forum e del
Convegno internazionale di Roma: maggio-ottobre 2015, a cura di E.
Malato e A. Mazzucchi, Tomo II, Salerno Editrice, Roma 2016, pp.
Il miracolo della
Cappella degli Scrovegni
Cappella degli Scrovegni di Giotto, in Modernitas
– Festival della modernità (Milano 22-25 giugno 2006), Spirali,
Milano 2006, pp. 329–57.
I volti segreti di Giotto. Le rivelazioni della Cappella degli
Scrovegni, Rizzoli, Milano 2008; Editoriale Programma 2015,
pp. 1–366, ISBN 9788866433538.
Il capolavoro di Giotto. La Cappella degli Scrovegni, Editoriale
Programma, Treviso 2015, pp. 1–176. ISBN 9788866433507.
Il programma della Cappella degli Scrovegni, in
Giotto e il Trecento,
by A. Tomei, Skira, Milano 2009, I – I saggi, pp. 113–127.
La concezione agostiniana del programma teologico della Cappella degli
Scrovegni, in Alberto da Padova e la cultura degli agostiniani, a cura
di Francesco Bottin, Padova University Press, Padova 2014,
pp. 215–268. ISBN 978-88-6938-009-9.
La Desperatio, ultimo vizio nella
Cappella degli Scrovegni
Cappella degli Scrovegni di Giotto,
in Disperazione. Saggi sulla condizione umana tra filosofia, scienza e
arte, a cura di G.F. Frigo, Mimesis, Milano 2010, pp. 209–232.
La fonte agostiniana della figura allegorica femminile sopra la porta
palaziale della Cappella degli Scrovegni, in Bollettino del Museo
Civico di Padova XCIX, 2010 (2014), pp. 35–46.
Le allegorie della sovrapporta laterale d’accesso alla Cappella
degli Scrovegni di Giotto, Bollettino del Museo Civico di Padova XCV,
2006, pp. 67–77.
L’iconologia di Cristo Giudice nella
Cappella degli Scrovegni
Cappella degli Scrovegni di
Giotto, Bollettino del Museo Civico di Padova XCV, 2006,
L’ispirazione filosofico-teologica nella sequenza Vizi-Virtù della
Cappella degli Scrovegni, Bollettino del Museo Civico di Padova XCIII,
2004, Milano 2005, pp. 61–97.
Terapia umana e divina nella Cappella degli Scrovegni, Il Governo
delle cose, dir. Franco Cardini, Firenze, n. 51, anno VI, 2006,
Una nuova interpretazione del ciclo giottesco agli Scrovegni, Padova e
il suo territorio XXII, 125, 2007, pp. 4–8.
Giotto e la sua bottega, Fabbri, Milano 1967.
La fortuna dei Primitivi, Einaudi, Torino 1964.
Giotto und die Giotto-Apokryphen, Müller,
München - Leipzig 1912.
Romanini, Angiola Maria,
Arnolfo di Cambio
Arnolfo di Cambio e lo Stil nuovo del gotico
italiano, Sansoni, Firenze 1969.
Romano, Serena, La O di Giotto, Electa, Milano 2008.
Giotto and his works in Padua, London 1900 (2rd ed.
Salvini, Roberto, Giotto. Bibliografia, Fratelli Palombi, Roma 1938
Tutta la pittura di
Giotto (Biblioteca d'arte Rizzoli; 8-9). Rizzoli,
Milano 1952. (2rd ed. ampiamente rinnovata, 1962)
Selvatico, Pietro, Sulla cappellina degli Scrovegni nell'Arena di
Padova e sui freschi di
Giotto in essa dipinti, Padova 1836.
Schwarz, Michael Viktor,
Giotto (Beck'sche Reihe; 2503). Beck,
München 2009. ISBN 978-3-406-58248-6.
Schwarz, Michael Viktor and Theis, Pia, Giottos Leben: mit einer
Sammlung der Urkunden und Texte bis Vasari (Giottus Pictor I) Wien:
Böhlau, 2004. ISBN 9783205772439.
Schwarz, Michael Viktor and Theis, Pia, Giottos Werke (Giottus Pictor
II) Wien: Böhlau, 2008. ISBN 9783205773719.
Giotto and some of his followers (English translation
by Frederic Schenck). Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass.)
1917. (rist. New York 1975).
Smart, Alastair, The
Assisi problem and the art of Giotto: a study of
the legend of St. Francis in the upper church of San Francesco,
Assisi. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1971. 9780198171669.
Supino, Igino Benvenuto, Giotto. Firenze: Istituto di edizioni
Giotto, (Le vite). Le Monnier, Firenze 1927.
Thode, Henry, Giotto, 3rd ed. durchgesehen von W. F. Volbach,
(Kunstler-Monographien; 43). Velhagen & Klasing, Bielefeld -
Toesca, Pietro, Giotto, (I grandi italiani. collana di biografie; 18),
Utet, Torino 1941.
Tartuferi, Angelo (a cura di), Giotto. Bilancio critico di
sessant'anni di studi e ricerche, Catalogo mostra Firenze Galleria
dell'Accademia, Firenze, Giunti, 2000 ISBN 88-09-01687-4.
(a cura di), Giotto, itinerario fiorentino e guida alla mostra tenuta
a Firenze nel 2000. Giunti, Firenze 2000. ISBN 88-09-01686-6.
Tomei, Alessandro (a cura di),
Giotto e il Trecento: il più sovrano
maestro in dipintura catalogo della mostra tenuta a Roma nel 2009 (2
voll.). Skira, Milano 2009. ISBN 978-88-572-0117-7.
Giotto e Pietro Cavallini, la questione di
Assisi e il
cantiere medievale della pittura a fresco, (Biblioteca d'arte; 5)
Skira, Milano 2002. ISBN 88-8491-056-0.
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Giotto". Encyclopædia Britannica.
12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 34–37.
L'opera completa di Giotto, apparati critici e filologici di Edi
Baccheschi (Classici dell'arte; 3). Rizzoli, Milano 1966.
Giotto e i giotteschi in Assisi. Canesi, Roma 1969.
Giotto e il suo tempo: atti del Congresso internazionale per la
celebrazione del VII centenario della nascita di Giotto
(Assisi-Padova-Firenze, 24 settembre - 1º ottobre 1967) De Luca, Roma
La Madonna d'Ognissanti di
Giotto restaurata. (Gli Uffizi; 8) Centro
Di, Firenze 1992. ISBN 88-7038-219-2
Pittura italiana del Duecento e Trecento. Catalogo della mostra
giottesca di Firenze del 1937 a cura di Giulia Sinibaldi e Giulia
Brunetti. Sansoni, Firenze 1943.
Sciacca, Christine (2012).
Florence at the Dawn of the Renaissance:
Painting and Illumination, 1300-1500. Getty Publications.
ISBN 978-1-60606-126-8. Archived from the original on
Note: while reproductions of Giotto's paintings at external websites
are valuable, attributions may be misleading. Any website that shows,
without question, the frescoes of the Upper Church of St. Francis of
Assisi as being the work of Giotto, is ignoring modern scholarship on
the matter. Any website that claims
Giotto was placed in charge of the
decoration of the Upper Church or was selected as the "most suitable"
artist for its decoration is making a claim based on lack of evidence.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Giotto.
Giotto at Encyclopædia Britannica
Page at Web Gallery of Art
smARThistory: The Epiphany
Giotto - Biography, Style and Artworks
Giotto in Panopticon Virtual Art Gallery
Video of Giotto's Scrovegni Chapel
BBC video about
Giotto frescoes in the Basilica of Santa Croce,
(in Italian) Detailed history of
Giotto and high resolution photos of
Paintings by Giotto
Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata
ISNI: 0000 0001 2125 1587
BNF: cb11943568d (data)