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Gilo
Gilo
(Hebrew: גִּלֹה‬) is an Israeli settlement
Israeli settlement
in south-western East Jerusalem, with a population of 40,000, mostly Jewish
Jewish
inhabitants. Although it is located within the Jerusalem Municipality, it is widely considered a settlement, because as one of the five Ring Neighborhoods built by Israel surrounding Jerusalem, it was built on land in the West Bank
West Bank
that was occupied by and annexed to Israel following the 1967 Six-Day War
Six-Day War
and 1980 Jerusalem Law.[1][2][3][4][5] The international community regards Israeli settlements illegal under international law, although Israel disputes this.[6][7] Israel also disputes its designation as a settlement, and it is administered as part of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
municipality.[2][3][7]

Map of the Gilo
Gilo
region

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Biblical era 2.2 Modern era

3 Demography 4 Schools and institutions 5 Settlement debate 6 Arab-Israeli conflict 7 Notable residents 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Geography

Panoramic view of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
from Gilo

View of Gilo
Gilo
from Beit Jala

Gilo
Gilo
is located on a hilltop in southwestern East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
separated from Beit Jala
Beit Jala
by a deep gorge. The Tunnels Highway to Gush Etzion runs underneath it on the east, and the settlement of Har Gilo
Har Gilo
is visible on the adjacent peak. Beit Safafa
Beit Safafa
and Sharafat are located north of Gilo, while Bethlehem
Bethlehem
is to the South.[8] History Biblical era A site dating to the period of Israelite settlement during Iron Age I (1200 – 1000 BC) was identified and excavated at Gilo. The site revealed a small planned settlement with dwellings along the perimeter of the site, together with pottery dating to the twelfth century BC.[9] The southern part of the Iron Age site at Gilo
Gilo
is believed to be one of the earliest Israelite sites from this period.[9] The site was surrounded by a defensive wall and divided into large yards, possibly sheep pens, with houses at the edges. Buildings at the site are amongst the earliest examples of the pillared four room house characteristic of Iron Age Israelite architecture, featuring a courtyard divided by stone pillars, a rectangular back room and rooms along the courtyard. The foundations of a structure built of large stones were also uncovered, possibly a fortified defense tower.[9] The biblical town of Gilo
Gilo
is mentioned in the Book of Joshua
Book of Joshua
(Joshua 15:51) and the Book of Samuel
Book of Samuel
(II Sam 15:12).[10] Some scholars believe that biblical Gilo
Gilo
was located in the central Hebron Hills, whereas the name of the modern settlement was chosen because of its proximity to Beit Jala, possibly a corruption of Gilo.[11] A cit During the construction of Gilo, archaeologists discovered a fortress and agricultural implements from the period of the First Temple
First Temple
period above the shopping center on Rehov Haganenet. Between Givat Canada and Gilo
Gilo
Park, they unearthed the remains of a farm and graves from the Second Temple
Second Temple
period. Roman and Byzantine remains have also been found at various sites.[12] Modern era During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Egyptian army positioned its artillery at Gilo, heavily shelling West Jerusalem. An attempt to advance on Jerusalem
Jerusalem
from Gilo
Gilo
was beaten back in a fierce battle. Kibbutz
Kibbutz
Ramat Rachel, located just north-east of Gilo, changed hands three times, ultimately remaining part of Israel, but Gilo
Gilo
remained on the side of the Green Line held by the Kingdom of Jordan until 1967.[13] In 1970, the Israeli government expropriated 12,300 dunams of land to build Ring Neighborhoods around Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on land conquered in the Six-Day War. Gilo
Gilo
was established in 1973. According to an Israeli municipal planner, most Gilo
Gilo
land had been legally purchased by Jews before World War II, much of it during the 1930s, and that Jewish
Jewish
landowners had not relinquished their ownership of their land when the area was captured by the Jordanians in the 1948 War.[14] According to other sources, the land belonged to the Palestinian villages of Sharafat, Beit Jala
Beit Jala
and Beit Safafa.[15][16] With its expansion over the years, Gilo
Gilo
has formed a wedge between Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Beit Jala-Bethlehem.[15] Demography

Beit Or hostel

From its inception, Gilo
Gilo
has provided housing to new Jewish
Jewish
immigrants from around the world. Many of those who spent their first months in the country at the immigrant hostel in Gilo, including those from Iran, Syria, France and South America, chose to remain in the neighborhood. Since the large influx of Soviet Jews
Soviet Jews
in the 1990s, Gilo has absorbed 15% of all immigrants of that wave settling in Jerusalem.[17] The immigrant hostel is now the site of an urban kibbutz, Beit Yisrael.[11] Gilo
Gilo
is a mixed community of religious and secular Jews, although more Haredi
Haredi
families are moving in.[11] Schools and institutions Beit Or (Home of Light), a hostel for autistic young adults, opened in Gilo
Gilo
in March 2008.[18] The Ilan home for handicapped adults is located in Gilo.[19] Gilo
Gilo
has 35 synagogues.[20] In 2009, the Gilo community center, one of the largest in the country, introduced a new hybrid water heating system that saves energy and greatly reduces pollution.[21] Park Gilo
Gilo
has a large adventure playground for children.[22] Settlement debate

Gilo
Gilo
shopping center and residential towers

Because Gilo
Gilo
is located beyond the 1949 Green Line, on land occupied since the Six Day War, the United Nations,[23] the European Union[24] and Japan[25] refer to it as an illegal settlement. Israel disputes this, and considers it a neighborhood of Jerusalem.[3][24] In an interview with the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post, Gilo community council director Yaffa Shitrit, invited the world "to come and see the neighborhood of Gilo
Gilo
and to understand the geography. We're not a settlement, we're part of the city of Jerusalem, we're a neighborhood like Katamon."[26] Palestinians regard it as occupied territory and make no distinction between Gilo
Gilo
and the West Bank settlements.[27] Plans to expand Gilo
Gilo
have drawn criticism from the United States and United Kingdom. Israel maintains that it has the right to build freely in Gilo
Gilo
because the neighborhood is within (expanded) Jerusalem municipal borders and not a West Bank
West Bank
settlement.[28] In 2009, the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Planning Committee approved construction of 900 new housing units in Gilo, sparking a fresh round of global criticism.[29] Arab-Israeli conflict

Concrete wall decorated with landscape mural built to shield Gilo residents from Palestinian gunfire (dismantled in 2010)

From 2000, Beit Jala, a predominantly Palestinian Christian
Palestinian Christian
town, was used as a base by Fatah's Tanzim gunmen to launch sniper and mortar attacks[30] against Gilo.[31] The Israeli government built a concrete barrier and installed bulletproof windows in the homes and schools on the periphery of Gilo, facing Beit Jala.[32] The attacks on Gilo subsided after Operation Defensive Shield, with the rate slowing to three incidents of gunfire that year.[33] On August 15, 2010, following years of relative quiet, the IDF started dismantling the concrete barrier, nearly a decade after its construction.[34] Seventeen of the 19 passengers killed in the Patt Junction bus bombing were residents of Gilo.[35] Notable residents

Eli Amir
Eli Amir
(born 1937), writer and civil servant Yisrael Friedman (born 1923), rabbi Rami Levy (born 1955), founder of Rami Levy Hashikma Marketing

See also

Positions on Jerusalem List of modern names for biblical place names

References

^ "UN official: Gilo
Gilo
expansion threatens Middle East peace". Haarerz. 24 November 2009.  ^ a b "Israel Angers Palestinians With Plan for Housing". New York Times. September 27, 2011.  ^ a b c KERSHNER, ISABEL (November 17, 2009). "Plan to Expand Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Settlement Angers U.S." The New York Times. Retrieved February 24, 2010.  ^ BEN-DAVID, LENNY (2007-12-15). "The strategic significance of Har Homa (op-ed)". The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post. Retrieved 2013-02-24.  ^ "Israel dismantles security barrier at Gilo". BBC News. August 16, 2010.  ^ Israel approves 942 Jewish
Jewish
homes in Gilo
Gilo
settlement (BBC, April 5th, 2011) ^ a b "The Geneva Convention". BBC News. December 10, 2009. Retrieved November 27, 2010.  ^ Arafat's media do support Jerusalem
Jerusalem
bus bombing – Likud of Holland ^ a b c Mazar, Amihai, (1994) “The Iron Age I” in Ben-Tor, Amnon (Ed.), “The Archaeology of Ancient Israel”, pp. 286–295, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-05919-1 ^ Gilo
Gilo
& Har Choma Archived 2007-02-27 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c LIDMAN, MELANIE (2009-11-29). "Housing on the horizon?". The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post. Retrieved 2013-03-24.  ^ Jerusalem
Jerusalem
neighborhoods ^ A history of Jerusalem's highest neighborhood ^ Rosenthal, Donna (2003). The Israelis: ordinary people in an extraordinary land. Simon & Schuster, New York. p. 397 note 16. ISBN 0-684-86972-1.  “According to former Jerusalem municipal planner, Israel Kimhi...” ^ a b Shaul Ephraim Cohen (1993). The politics of planting: Israeli-Palestinian competition for control of land in the Jerusalem periphery (Illustrated ed.). University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-11276-4. ISBN 9780226112763.  ^ Ashkenasi, Abraham (1999). Abraham Ashkenasi, ed. The future of Jerusalem. P. Lang. p. 293. ISBN 0-8204-3505-8. ISBN 9780820435053. " Gilo
Gilo
It was established in 1973 on Beit Safafa, Sharafat and Beit Jala
Beit Jala
land..." ^ Jerusalem
Jerusalem
neighborhoods: Gilo ^ A house for life ^ Gilo
Gilo
Residence of the Ilan Foundation ^ Our Jerusalem: Pain and sorrow are not a sign of weakness ^ Waldoks, Ehud Zion (2013-03-24). "Hybrid water heating system to be dedicated at Gilo
Gilo
community center". The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post. Retrieved 2013-03-24.  ^ Israel hot spots: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
information ^ SECRETARY-GENERAL DEPLORES ISRAEL'S SETTLEMENT EXPANSION DECISION November 17, 2009 ^ a b PHILLIPS, LEIGH (November 19, 2009). "EU rebukes Israel for Jerusalem
Jerusalem
settlement expansion". EUobserver.com. Retrieved February 25, 2010.  ^ McGlynn, John (December 28, 2008). "Japan, Israeli Settlements, and the Future of a Palestinian State". The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus (52-1-09). Retrieved February 25, 2010.  ^ Gilo
Gilo
residents issue invitation to the world ^ Klein Halevi, Yossi (December 22, 2000). "The War Within East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(op-ed)". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2010.  ^ Jeffrey Heller (Nov 18, 2009). "Obama criticizes Israel over settlement-building". Reuters.  ^ http://www.gojerusalem.com/discover/article_1240/Gilo-neighborhood-receives-approval-to-build-900-housing-units ^ Gilo
Gilo
Waits for Deliverance As Mideast Violence Goes On ^ Fields of Fire, Time Magazine ^ It's Back-to-School Day for Israeli children on Gilo's front line, Los Angeles Times ^ Shooting and buying, Haaretz ^ Gilo
Gilo
Parts With the Concrete Barrier After a Decade, Ynet ^ Mideast turmoil: In Jerusalem, Despair and Determination

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gilo.

Israeli Army Leaves Palestinian Town In West Bank
West Bank
After 2 Days of Tension, Clyde Haberman, New York Times Widening Hostilities, Israel Kills Chief of P.L.O. Faction, Joel Greenberg, New York Times Israeli troops won't relinquish West Bank
West Bank
town Michele Chabin, USA Today Israelis leaving Beit Jala, say Palestinians, CNN Israeli barrier draws artists to a cause Matthew Kalman, The Boston Globe To truly see Jerusalem, try varied perspectives, Steven Erlanger, San Diego Union Tribune School Students Heard Explosion Outside Associated Press Blast Hits Palestinian HQ, CBS News Gilo, settlements, and the Green Line in perspective

v t e

Neighborhoods of Jerusalem

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
neighborhoods east of the 1949 armistice line are depicted in green, those west of the line in blue (see Green Line).

Old City

Armenian Quarter Christian Quarter Muristan Jewish
Jewish
Quarter Muslim Quarter Bab al-Huta

Central Neighborhoods

Arzei HaBira Batei Ungarin Beit David Beit Ya'akov Beit Yisrael Bukharim Downtown Triangle Geula Givat HaVradim Givat Ram Katamon Kerem Avraham Kiryat HaLeom Kiryat HaMemshala Kiryat Shmuel Kiryat Shomrei Emunim Kiryat Wolfson Ma'alot Dafna Mahane Israel Mahane Yehuda Mea Shearim Mekor Baruch Mount Zion Musrara Nahalat Shiv'a Nachlaot Nayot Neve Granot Neve Sha'anan Rehavia Romema Russian Compound Sha'arei Hesed Shmuel HaNavi Talbiya Yemin Moshe Zikhron Moshe

Northern Neighborhoods

Al-Ram Beit Hanina Ezrat Torah French Hill Givat HaMivtar Har Hotzvim Kafr 'Aqab Kiryat Belz Kiryat Itri Kiryat Mattersdorf Kiryat Sanz Mount Scopus Neve Yaakov Pisgat Ze'ev Ramat Eshkol Ramat Shlomo Ramot Ramot
Ramot
Polin Sanhedria Sanhedria
Sanhedria
Murhevet Shikun Chabad Shuafat Tel Arza Unsdorf

Eastern Neighborhoods

American Colony Al Bustan Al-Issawiya At-Tur Bab a-Zahara Ir David Jabel Mukaber Kiryat Menachem
Kiryat Menachem
Begin Ma'ale HaZeitim Nahalat Shimon Nof Zion Ras al-Amud Sheikh Jarrah Shimon HaTzadik Silwan Wadi al-Joz

Southern Neighborhoods

Abu Tor Arnona Baka Beit Safafa East Talpiot German Colony Gilo Givat HaMatos Givat Oranim Givat Massuah Greek colony Har Homa Katamonim Malha Mekor Chaim Pat Ramat Rachel San Simon Sharafat Sur Baher Talpiot Umm Tuba

Western Neighborhoods

Bayit VeGan Beit HaKerem Ein Karem Givat Beit HaKerem Givat Shaul Givat Mordechai Har Nof Ir Ganim Kiryat HaYovel Kiryat Menachem Kiryat Moshe Motza Ramat Beit HaKerem Ramat Denya Ramat Sharett Yefeh Nof

Historical Neighborhoods

Atarot Batei Munkacs Batei Saidoff Even Yisrael Ezrat Yisrael Kirya Ne'emana Knesset Yisrael Lifta Mahane Yehuda Mamilla Mazkeret Moshe Mishkenot Sha'ananim Moroccan Quarter Ohel Shlomo Sha'arei Yerushalayim Sheikh Badr Zikhron Tuvya Zikhron Yosef

See also: Courtyard Neighborhoods • Ring Neighborhoods

Coordinates: 31°43′53″N 35°11′11″E / 31.73139°N 35.18639°E /

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