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Gilead
Gilead
or Gilaad (Hebrew: גִּלְעָד‬; English: /ˈɡɪliəd/[1]) is the name of three persons and two geographic places in the Bible. Gilead
Gilead
may mean hill of testimony. It is derived from galyêd, which in turn comes from gal (heap, mound, hill) and ‛êd (witness, testimony).[2] There also exists an alternative theory that it means rocky region.[3]

Contents

1 Places 2 People 3 Other uses 4 See also 5 References

Places[edit] Gilead
Gilead
was a mountainous region east of the Jordan
Jordan
River divided among the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh, and situated in modern-day Jordan. It is also referred to by the Aramaic
Aramaic
name Yegar-Sahadutha, which carries the same meaning as the Hebrew Gileed, namely: "heap [of stones] of testimony" (Genesis 31:47-48).[4][5] From its mountainous character, it is called the mount of Gilead
Gilead
(Genesis 31:25). In this instance the Hebrew term har seems to indicate a mountainous or hilly region rather than a single mountain-top; hence translations like New Revised Standard Version instead use the wording "the hill country of Gilead." The name Gilead
Gilead
first appears in the biblical account of the last meeting of Jacob
Jacob
and Laban (Genesis 31:21-22). According to Easton's Bible
Bible
Dictionary,[6] it refers to a region in Transjordan, approximately 20 by 60 miles in area. It is called also the land of Gilead
Gilead
(Numbers 32:1, Judges 10:4) in many translations, and sometimes simply Gilead
Gilead
(Genesis 37:25; Judges 10:8; Psalm 60:9). As a whole, it included the tribal territories of Gad, Reuben, and the eastern half of Manasseh (Deuteronomy 3:13; Numbers 32:40). In the Book of Judges, the thirty sons of the biblical judge Jair controlled the thirty towns of Gilead
Gilead
(Judges 10:4), and in the First Book of Chronicles, Segub controlled twenty-three towns in Gilead
Gilead
(1 Chronicles 2:21–22). It was bounded on the north by Bashan, and on the south by Moab
Moab
and Ammon
Ammon
(Genesis 31:21; Deuteronomy 3:12–17). "Half Gilead" was possessed by Sihon, and the other half, separated from it by the river Jabbok, by Og, king of Bashan. The deep ravine of the river Hieromax
Hieromax
(the modern Sheriat el-Mandhur) separated Bashan from Gilead, which was about 60 miles (97 km) in length and 20 miles (32 km) in breadth, extending from near the south end of the Lake of Gennesaret
Lake of Gennesaret
to the north end of the Dead Sea. Abarim, Pisgah, Nebo, and Peor are its mountains mentioned in Scripture. "Gilead" mentioned in the Book of Hosea
Book of Hosea
may refer to Ramoth-Gilead, Jabesh-Gilead, or the whole Gilead
Gilead
region; " Gilead
Gilead
is a city of those who work iniquity; it is stained with blood" (Hosea 6:8). After king Sihon was defeated, the Tribe of Reuben, Tribe of Gad, and half the Tribe of Manasseh
Tribe of Manasseh
were assigned to the area. Ammon
Ammon
and Moab sometimes expanded to include southern Gilead. King David fled to Mahanaim in Gilead
Gilead
during the rebellion of Absalom. Gilead
Gilead
is later mentioned as the homeplace of the prophet Elijah. King Tiglath-pileser III of Assyria
Assyria
says he established the province of Gal'azu (Gilead). Gilead
Gilead
(Arabic: جلعاد Ǧalʻād‎) is also used to refer to the mountainous land extending north and south of Jabbok. It is used more generally for the entire region east of the Jordan
Jordan
River. It corresponds today to the northwestern part of the Kingdom of Jordan. People[edit] Gilead
Gilead
may also refer to:

A grandson of Manasseh and son of Machir (Makir), ancestor of the Iezerites and Helekites and of Segub (Numbers 26:28-30 and 1 Chronicles 2:21). He also may have been the founder of the Israelite tribal group of Gilead, which is mentioned in biblical passages which textual scholars attribute to early sources. Textual scholars regard the genealogy in the Book of Numbers, which identifies Gilead
Gilead
as Machir's son, as originating in the priestly source, a document written centuries after the early JE source, in which the Gilead
Gilead
and Machir tribal groups are mentioned, and possibly having been written to rival the JE source.[7][8] Biblical scholars view the biblical genealogies as postdiction, an eponymous metaphor providing an aetiology of the connectedness of the group to others in the Israelite confederation;[9] the identification of Gilead
Gilead
as an aspect of Manasseh was the traditional explanation of why the tribal groups of Machir and Gilead
Gilead
are mentioned along with northern tribes in the ancient Song of Deborah, while Manasseh is absent from it.[10] The text of the Book of Numbers appears to portray Gilead
Gilead
as the father of Asriel, but the Book of Chronicles
Book of Chronicles
states that Manasseh was the father of Asriel;[11] it is possible for there to have been two different Asriels, though Manasseh is only indicated as having had one son – Machir – in the genealogy of the Book of Numbers. The son of Michael and father of Jaroah, in the Gadite genealogies (1 Chronicles 5:11-14); The father of Jephthah
Jephthah
(Judges 11:1).

In Israeli Hebrew, גלעד (transcribed Gilad or Ghil'ad) is used as a male given name and is often analysed as deriving from גיל (gil) "happiness, joy" and עד (ad) "eternity, forever"; i.e. "eternal happiness". Other uses[edit]

Gilead
Gilead
is the theocratic nation which replaces the United States in Margaret Atwood's dystopic novel The Handmaid's Tale. The first title of a multi-generational trilogy by Marilynne Robinson. The story is about fathers and sons and the spiritual battles that still rage at America's heart. The title of the trilogy comes from the fictional setting of the town in the novel, Gilead
Gilead
(novel), Iowa. Gilead
Gilead
is the fictional home of Roland Deschain
Roland Deschain
and Capital of the Barony of New Canaan from Stephen King's series "The Dark Tower".

See also[edit]

Balm of Gilead Machir Machir (tribal group) Shibboleth Tribe of Manasseh

References[edit]

^ LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 25 February 2012), IPA-ified from «gĭl´ē-ud» ^ Hebrew Dictionary, appendix to Strong's Concordance of the Bible, Reference #5707 ^ Smith's Bible
Bible
Dictionary, entry for "Gil'e-ad" ^ BibleAtlas.com,Jegar-sahadutha (Ramoth-gilead) [1] ^ Easton's Bible
Bible
Dictionary, Galeed [2] ^ Easton's Bible
Bible
Dictionary, "Gilead." http://www.biblegateway.com/resources/dictionaries/dict_meaning.php?source=1&wid=T0001487 ^ Richard Elliott Friedman, Who wrote the Bible? ^ Peake's commentary on the Bible ^ Peake's commentary on the Bible ^ Jewish Encyclopedia, Machir ^ 1 Chronicles 7:14

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica art

.