Gilead or Gilaad (Hebrew: גִּלְעָד; English:
/ˈɡɪliəd/) is the name of three persons and two geographic
places in the Bible.
Gilead may mean hill of testimony. It is derived
from galyêd, which in turn comes from gal (heap, mound, hill) and
‛êd (witness, testimony). There also exists an alternative
theory that it means rocky region.
3 Other uses
4 See also
Gilead was a mountainous region east of the
Jordan River divided among
the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh, and situated in modern-day
Jordan. It is also referred to by the
Aramaic name Yegar-Sahadutha,
which carries the same meaning as the Hebrew Gileed, namely: "heap [of
stones] of testimony" (Genesis 31:47-48). From its mountainous
character, it is called the mount of
Gilead (Genesis 31:25). In this
instance the Hebrew term har seems to indicate a mountainous or hilly
region rather than a single mountain-top; hence translations like New
Revised Standard Version instead use the wording "the hill country of
Gilead first appears in the biblical account of the last
Jacob and Laban (Genesis 31:21-22). According to Easton's
Bible Dictionary, it refers to a region in Transjordan,
approximately 20 by 60 miles in area.
It is called also the land of
Gilead (Numbers 32:1, Judges 10:4) in
many translations, and sometimes simply
Gilead (Genesis 37:25; Judges
10:8; Psalm 60:9). As a whole, it included the tribal territories of
Gad, Reuben, and the eastern half of Manasseh (Deuteronomy 3:13;
Numbers 32:40). In the Book of Judges, the thirty sons of the biblical
Jair controlled the thirty towns of
Gilead (Judges 10:4), and in
the First Book of Chronicles, Segub controlled twenty-three towns in
Gilead (1 Chronicles 2:21–22). It was bounded on the north by
Bashan, and on the south by
Ammon (Genesis 31:21; Deuteronomy
"Half Gilead" was possessed by Sihon, and the other half, separated
from it by the river Jabbok, by Og, king of Bashan. The deep ravine of
Hieromax (the modern Sheriat el-Mandhur) separated Bashan
from Gilead, which was about 60 miles (97 km) in length and 20
miles (32 km) in breadth, extending from near the south end of
Lake of Gennesaret
Lake of Gennesaret to the north end of the Dead Sea. Abarim,
Pisgah, Nebo, and Peor are its mountains mentioned in Scripture.
"Gilead" mentioned in the
Book of Hosea
Book of Hosea may refer to Ramoth-Gilead,
Jabesh-Gilead, or the whole
Gilead region; "
Gilead is a city of those
who work iniquity; it is stained with blood" (Hosea 6:8).
Sihon was defeated, the Tribe of Reuben, Tribe of Gad, and
Tribe of Manasseh
Tribe of Manasseh were assigned to the area.
Ammon and Moab
sometimes expanded to include southern Gilead. King David fled to
Gilead during the rebellion of Absalom.
Gilead is later
mentioned as the homeplace of the prophet Elijah. King Tiglath-pileser
Assyria says he established the province of Gal'azu (Gilead).
Gilead (Arabic: جلعاد Ǧalʻād) is also used to refer to the
mountainous land extending north and south of Jabbok. It is used more
generally for the entire region east of the
Jordan River. It
corresponds today to the northwestern part of the Kingdom of Jordan.
Gilead may also refer to:
A grandson of Manasseh and son of
Machir (Makir), ancestor of the
Iezerites and Helekites and of Segub (Numbers 26:28-30 and 1
Chronicles 2:21). He also may have been the founder of the Israelite
tribal group of Gilead, which is mentioned in biblical passages which
textual scholars attribute to early sources. Textual scholars regard
the genealogy in the Book of Numbers, which identifies
Machir's son, as originating in the priestly source, a document
written centuries after the early JE source, in which the
Machir tribal groups are mentioned, and possibly having been written
to rival the JE source. Biblical scholars view the biblical
genealogies as postdiction, an eponymous metaphor providing an
aetiology of the connectedness of the group to others in the Israelite
confederation; the identification of
Gilead as an aspect of
Manasseh was the traditional explanation of why the tribal groups of
Gilead are mentioned along with northern tribes in the
ancient Song of Deborah, while Manasseh is absent from it. The
text of the Book of Numbers appears to portray
Gilead as the father of
Asriel, but the
Book of Chronicles
Book of Chronicles states that Manasseh was the father
of Asriel; it is possible for there to have been two different
Asriels, though Manasseh is only indicated as having had one son –
Machir – in the genealogy of the Book of Numbers.
The son of Michael and father of Jaroah, in the Gadite genealogies (1
The father of
Jephthah (Judges 11:1).
In Israeli Hebrew, גלעד (transcribed Gilad or Ghil'ad) is used as
a male given name and is often analysed as deriving from גיל (gil)
"happiness, joy" and עד (ad) "eternity, forever"; i.e. "eternal
Gilead is the theocratic nation which replaces the United States in
Margaret Atwood's dystopic novel The Handmaid's Tale.
The first title of a multi-generational trilogy by Marilynne Robinson.
The story is about fathers and sons and the spiritual battles that
still rage at America's heart. The title of the trilogy comes from the
fictional setting of the town in the novel,
Gilead (novel), Iowa.
Gilead is the fictional home of
Roland Deschain and Capital of the
Barony of New Canaan from Stephen King's series "The Dark Tower".
Balm of Gilead
Machir (tribal group)
Tribe of Manasseh
^ LDS.org: "Book of Mormon Pronunciation Guide" (retrieved 25 February
2012), IPA-ified from «gĭl´ē-ud»
^ Hebrew Dictionary, appendix to Strong's Concordance of the Bible,
Bible Dictionary, entry for "Gil'e-ad"
^ BibleAtlas.com,Jegar-sahadutha (Ramoth-gilead) 
Bible Dictionary, Galeed 
Bible Dictionary, "Gilead."
^ Richard Elliott Friedman, Who wrote the Bible?
^ Peake's commentary on the Bible
^ Peake's commentary on the Bible
^ Jewish Encyclopedia, Machir
^ 1 Chronicles 7:14
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