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The Info List - Gigantodax


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Gigantodax is a genus of 68 species of black flies distributed along the Andes
Andes
from Mexico
Mexico
to Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
in Argentina.[1][2][3] The taxonomy of the genus was revised in 1989 by an academic paper published in the bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History.[4] In 1997, researchers from the Universidad Nacional del Comahue in Rio Negro, Argentina
Argentina
collected larvae of G. marginalis and other fly species in Lanin National Park, Neuquén Province. After a close examination included chromosome mapping, they reported:

Females are not anthropophilic and can be found as well as in mountain creeks from sea level to 4,700 m of altitude (Wygodzinsky & Coscaron 1989). Gigantodax is a peculiar genus, showing the greatest diversity among the Prosimuliini genera, with synapomorphies in imago and preimaginal stages that help to differentiate species in this genus from other genera. The unusual morphology of the respiratory filaments in the pupal stage is useful in differentiating species.[1]

These South American researchers also analyzed G. marginalis, G. fulvescens, and G. chilensis and reported that Cnesia, another Prosimuliini genus, is sympatric with southern populations of Gigantodax and that both genera breed on both sides of the Andean range in Argentina
Argentina
and Chile
Chile
in subantarctic Patagonia. They also reported that Gigantodax species in this area are also sympatric with Simulium.[1] These genus was re-examined in 2007 by entomologits from the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
in Brazil who explained that in their paper:

...the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the 13 Southern Hemisphere genera of Simuliidae
Simuliidae
is proposed, through a cladistic approach. In order to investigate the position of those genera representatives of five Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
genera were also included in the analyses as outgroups. The study was based on a data matrix with 33 terminal taxa and 119 morphological characters of adult, pupa and larva. The phylogenetic analysis under equal weights resulted in four most parsimonious trees, with similar topologies and 349 steps...[5]

Species[edit]

Brophyi species-group

G. antarcticus (Bigot, 1888) G. awa Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. brophyi (Edwards, 1931) G. chilensis (Philippi, 1865) G. femineus (Edwards, 1931) G. flabellus Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. kuscheli Wygodzinsky, 1952 G. laevigatus Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. luispenai Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. marginalis (Edwards, 1931) G. multituberculatus Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. ortizi Wygodzinsky, 1974 G. osornorum Muñoz de Hoyos, Martínez, Mejía & Bueno, 1995 G. paramorum Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. patihuaycensis Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. rufidulus Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. trifidus Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. viannamartinsi Ramírez-Pérez, 1980 G. zumbahuae Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989

Cilicinus species-group

G. arrarteorum Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. basinflatus Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. cilicinus Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. clandestinus Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. destitutus Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. fulvescens (Blanchard, 1852) G. incomitatus Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. lazoi Takaoka, Hirai & Tada, 1988 G. mariobordai Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. pennipunctus Enderlein, 1934 G. shannoni (Edwards, 1931)

Cormonsi species-group

G. abalosi Wygodzinsky, 1958 G. brevis Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. cormonsi Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. gracilis Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. leonorum Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. misitu Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. praealtus Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. siberianus Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. vulcanius Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. wygodzinskyi Moncada, Muñoz de Hoyos & Bueno, 1981

Igniculus species-group

G. carmenae Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. igniculus Coscarón & Wygodzinsky, 1962

Minor species-group

G. araucanius (Edwards, 1931) G. bolivianus Enderlein, 1925 G. eremicus Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. minor Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989

Multifilis species-group

G. multifilis Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989

Wrighti species-group

G. adleri Moulton, 1996 G. aquamarensis (De León, 1945) G. bettyae Wygodzinsky, 1974 G. bierigi Vargas & Ramírez-Pérez, 1989 G. cervicornis Wygodzinsky, 1974 G. conviti Ramírez-Pérez, 1980 G. corniculatus Wygodzinsky, 1974 G. cypellus Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. dryadicaudicis Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. herreri Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. horcotiani Wygodzinsky, 1949 G. impossibilis Wygodzinsky, 1974 G. incapucara Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. nasutus Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. rufescens (Edwards, 1931) G. septenarius Wygodzinsky & Coscarón, 1989 G. willei Vargas & Ramírez-Pérez, 1989 G. wrighti (Vargas, Martínez Palacios & Díaz Nájera, 1944)

Unplaced

G. cuyano Coscarón, 1981 G. dryadibranchium Coscarón, 1981 G. pucara Coscarón, 1981

Literature cited[edit]

^ a b c [1] The Polytene Chromosomes of Cnesia dissimilis (Edwards) and Three Species
Species
of Gigantodax Enderlein (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Lanin National Park
Lanin National Park
(Argentina) by Cecilia L Coscaron Arias ^ [2] Clemson University Department of Entomology, Soils, & Plant Sciences ^ Peter H. Adler & Roger W. Crosskey (2009). "World Blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae): A Comprehensive Revision of the Taxonomic and Geographical Inventory": 109.  ^ Wygodzinsky, Pedro W.; Coscarón, Sixto (1989). "Revision of the black fly genus Gigantodax (Diptera, Simuliidae)" (PDF). American Museum of Natural History. 189: 1–289. Retrieved 6 August 2017.  ^ [3] Preliminary considerations on phylogeny of Simuliidae
Simuliidae
Genera from Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
(Insecta, Diptera)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q5560224 EoL: 54947 GBIF: 1645884 iNaturalist: 248062 ITIS:

.