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Coordinates: 36°07′48″N 86°43′33″W / 36.1298758°N 86.7257458°W / 36.1298758; -86.7257458 Gibson
Gibson
Brands, Inc. (formerly Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
Corp.) is an American manufacturer of guitars, other musical instruments, and consumer and professional electronics now based in Nashville, Tennessee. The company was formerly known as Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
Corp. and was renamed Gibson
Gibson
Brands, Inc. on June 11, 2013.[3][4] Orville Gibson
Orville Gibson
founded the company in 1902 as the "Gibson Mandolin- Guitar
Guitar
Mfg. Co. Ltd." in Kalamazoo, Michigan, to make mandolin-family instruments.[1] Gibson
Gibson
invented archtop guitars by constructing the same type of carved, arched tops used on violins. By the 1930s, the company was also making flattop acoustic guitars, as well as one of the first commercially available hollow-body electric guitars, used and popularized by Charlie Christian. In 1944, Gibson was bought by Chicago Musical Instruments
Chicago Musical Instruments
(CMI), which was acquired in 1969 by Panama-based conglomerate Ecuadorian Company Limited (ECL), that changed its name in the same year to Norlin Corporation. Gibson
Gibson
sells guitars under a variety of brand names[5] and builds one of the world's most iconic guitars, the Gibson
Gibson
Les Paul. Many Gibson instruments are highly collectible. Gibson
Gibson
was at the forefront of innovation in acoustic guitars, especially in the big band era of the 1930s; the Gibson Super 400
Gibson Super 400
was widely imitated. In 1952, Gibson introduced its first solid-body electric guitar, the Les Paul, which became its most popular guitar to date— designed by Ted McCarty and Les Paul. Gibson
Gibson
was owned by the Norlin Corporation from 1969 to 1986. In 1986, the company was acquired by its present owners. Gibson
Gibson
is a privately held company that is owned by its chief executive officer Henry Juszkiewicz and its president David H. Berryman. In addition to guitars, Gibson
Gibson
offers consumer electronics through its subsidiaries Gibson
Gibson
Innovations (Philips brand), TEAC Corporation (Teac and Esoteric brands), Onkyo
Onkyo
Corporation ( Onkyo
Onkyo
and Pioneer brands), Cerwin Vega
Cerwin Vega
and Stanton,[6] as well as professional audio equipment from KRK Systems, pianos from their wholly owned subsidiary Baldwin Piano, and music software from Cakewalk.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Beginnings 1.2 Modernization 1.3 Recent history

1.3.1 FWS raids & Lacey Act violation

2 Instruments 3 Factories 4 See also 5 Footnotes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

History[edit] Beginnings[edit]

Orville Gibson, founder

Gibson
Gibson
line of Mandolin
Mandolin
orchestra instruments, early 1900s.

Harp guitar (c. 1912).

Orville Gibson
Orville Gibson
patented a single-piece mandolin design in 1898 that was more durable than other mandolins and could be manufactured in volume.[7] Orville Gibson
Orville Gibson
began to sell his instruments in 1894 out of a one-room workshop in Kalamazoo, Michigan. In 1902, the Gibson Mandolin- Guitar
Guitar
Mfg. Co. Ltd. was incorporated to market the instruments. Initially, the company produced only Orville Gibson's original designs.[8] Orville died in 1918 of endocarditis (inflammation of the inside lining of the heart chambers and valves).[7]

Gibson
Gibson
mandolin with Russian pickup in Glinka's museum (Moscow, Russia)

L-5 acoustic.

ES-150 (based on L-50)

ES-175 D (based on L-4)

Super 400 CES

The following year, the company hired designer Lloyd Loar to create newer instruments.[8] Loar designed the flagship L-5 archtop guitar and the Gibson
Gibson
F5 mandolin that was introduced in 1922, before leaving the company in 1924.[9] In 1936, Gibson
Gibson
introduced their first "Electric Spanish" model, the ES-150, followed by other electric instruments like steel guitars, banjos and mandolins. During World War II, instrument manufacturing at Gibson
Gibson
slowed due to shortages of wood and metal, and Gibson
Gibson
began manufacturing wood and metal parts for the military. Between 1942-1945, Gibson
Gibson
employed women to manufacture guitars. "Women produced nearly 25,000 guitars during World War II
World War II
yet Gibson
Gibson
denied ever building instruments over this period," according to a 2013 history of the company. Gibson
Gibson
folklore has also claimed its guitars were made by "seasoned craftsmen" who were "too old for war."[10][11]

1953 Les Paul
Les Paul
Goldtop

Les Paul
Les Paul
Custom

Les Paul
Les Paul
Standard

Les Paul
Les Paul
Junior

L-5 CES

Byrdland

ES-350T

ES-335T

Explorer

Flying V

non-reverse (left) & reverse Firebird

Gibson
Gibson
SG

In 1944 Gibson
Gibson
was purchased by Chicago Musical Instruments. The ES-175 was introduced in 1949. Gibson
Gibson
hired Ted McCarty in 1948, who became President in 1950. He led an expansion of the guitar line with new guitars such as the "Les Paul" guitar introduced in 1952 and designed by Les Paul, a popular musician in the 1950s and also a pioneer in music technology. The Les Paul
Les Paul
was offered in Custom, Standard, Special, and Junior models.[12] In the mid-50s, the Thinline series was produced, which included a line of thinner guitars like the Byrdland. The first Byrdlands were slim, custom built, L-5 models for guitarists Billy Byrd and Hank Garland. Later, a shorter neck was added. Other models such as the ES-350T and the ES-225T were introduced as less costly alternatives.[13] In 1958, Gibson
Gibson
introduced the ES-335T model. Similar in size to the hollow-body Thinlines, the ES-335
ES-335
family had a solid center, giving the string tone a longer sustain. In the 1950s, Gibson
Gibson
also produced the Tune-o-matic
Tune-o-matic
bridge system and its version of the humbucking pickup, the PAF ("Patent Applied For"), first released in 1957 and still sought after for its sound.[citation needed] In 1958, Gibson
Gibson
produced two new designs: the eccentrically shaped Explorer and Flying V. These "modernistic" guitars did not sell initially. It was only in the late 1960s and early 70s when the two guitars were reintroduced to the market that they sold well. The Firebird, in the early 60s, was a reprise of the modernistic idea, though less extreme. Modernization[edit] In the late 50s, McCarty knew that Gibson
Gibson
was seen as a traditional company and began an effort to create more modern guitars. In 1961 the body design of the Les Paul
Les Paul
was changed due to the demand for a double-cutaway body design.[14] The new body design then became known as the SG (for "solid guitar"), due to disapproval from Les Paul himself. The Les Paul
Les Paul
returned to the Gibson
Gibson
catalog in 1968. On December 22, 1969, the Gibson
Gibson
parent company Chicago Musical Instruments was taken over by the South American brewing conglomerate ECL. Gibson
Gibson
remained under the control of CMI until 1974 when it became a subsidiary of Norlin Musical Instruments. Norlin Musical Instruments was a member of Norlin Industries which was named for ECL president Norton Stevens and CMI president Arnold Berlin. This began an era characterized by corporate mismanagement and decreasing product quality.

Gibson
Gibson
left Kalamazoo
Kalamazoo
in 1984, then previous factory became Heritage Guitars

Gibson
Gibson
Showcase at Nashville

Gibson
Gibson
Factory at Memphis

Between 1974 and 1984 production of Gibson
Gibson
guitars was shifted from Kalamazoo
Kalamazoo
to Nashville, Tennessee. The Kalamazoo
Kalamazoo
plant kept going for a few years as a custom-instrument shop, but was closed in 1984; several Gibson
Gibson
employees led by plant manager Jim Duerloo established Heritage Guitars
Heritage Guitars
in the old factory, building versions of classic Gibson
Gibson
designs. The company (Gibson) was within three months of going out of business before it was bought by Henry E. Juszkiewicz, David H. Berryman, and Gary A. Zebrowski in January 1986.[15] New production plants were opened in Memphis, Tennessee, as well as Bozeman, Montana. The Memphis facility is used for semi-hollow and custom shop instruments, while the Bozeman facility is dedicated to acoustic instruments.[16] In 1977 Gibson
Gibson
sued Hoshino/Elger for copying the Gibson
Gibson
Les Paul.[17] In 2000, Gibson
Gibson
sued Fernandes Guitars
Fernandes Guitars
in a Tokyo court for allegedly copying Gibson
Gibson
designs. Gibson
Gibson
did not prevail.[18] Gibson
Gibson
also sued PRS Guitars
PRS Guitars
in 2005, to stop them from making their Singlecut model. The lawsuit against PRS was initially successful.[19] However, the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit reversed the lower court decision and ordered the dismissal of Gibson's suit against PRS.[20] Recent history[edit] Gibson
Gibson
purchased Garrison Guitars
Garrison Guitars
in 2007.[21] In mid 2009 Gibson reduced its work force to adjust for a decline in guitar industry sales in the United States.[22] Gibson
Gibson
filed a lawsuit November 18. 2010 in Federal court, the Central District of California, against WowWee USA and their Paper Jamz battery operated guitar toys charging trademark infringement.[23][24] The lawsuit claimed the Paper Jamz
Paper Jamz
toy guitars copied the looks of some of Gibson’s famous guitars, the Gibson
Gibson
Les Paul, the Gibson Flying V, the Gibson
Gibson
Explorer, and the Gibson
Gibson
SG. On December 21, 2010 Gibson
Gibson
was granted a request for an injunction against WowWee and retailers in the United States which were selling Paper Jamz
Paper Jamz
guitars: WalMart, Amazon (company), Big Lots
Big Lots
stores, Kmart
Kmart
Corporation, Target Corporation, Toys “R” Us, Walgreens, Brookstone, Best Buy, eBay, Toywiz.com, and Home Shopping Network
Home Shopping Network
(HSN)[25][26][27] The case was dismissed with prejudice (dismissed permanently) January 11, 2011 by Federal Judge R. Gary Klausner.[28][29] In 2011, Gibson
Gibson
acquired the Stanton Group, including Cerwin Vega, KRK Systems and Stanton DJ. Gibson
Gibson
then formed a new division, Gibson
Gibson
Pro Audio, which will deliver professional grade audio items, including headphones, loudspeakers and DJ equipment.[30] Gibson
Gibson
announced a partnership with the Japanese-based Onkyo Corporation in 2012. Onkyo, known for audio equipment and home theater systems, became part of the Gibson
Gibson
Pro Audio division.[31] In 2013, Gibson
Gibson
acquired a majority stake in TEAC Corporation. In 2014, Gibson
Gibson
acquired the consumer electronics business of Royal Philips. In October 2017 Gibson
Gibson
announced Gibson
Gibson
brands is set to relocate its Memphis operations to a smaller location and plans to sell the massive facility that it currently calls home. The Nashville-based guitar maker opened the Memphis facility 18 years ago, which currently occupies just a portion of a massive 127,620 square foot complex. According to the Memphis Daily News, Gibson
Gibson
plans to search for a new facility for its Memphis operations and will stay in the current spot for the next 18 to 24 months. The facility, which sits across from Fedex Forum along South B.B. King Boulevard, is expected to list for $17 million. Since its opening, the Gibson
Gibson
Memphis shop has mostly focused on building hollow and semi-hollowbody guitars, such as the famed ES series. Presumably, this shuffling of assets is meant to address Gibson's well-publicized financial troubles. Gibson
Gibson
issued a press release about the move, with CEO Henry Juszkiewicz stating: "We are extremely excited about this next phase of growth that we believe will benefit both our employees, and the Memphis community. I remember when our property had abandoned buildings, and Beale Street was in decline. It is with great pride that I can see the development of this area with a basketball arena, hotels, and a resurgent pride in the musical heritage of the great city of Memphis. We continue to love the Memphis community and hope to be a key contributor to its future when we move nearby to a more appropriate location for our manufacturing based business, allowing the world the benefit of our great American craftsmen." [32] FWS raids & Lacey Act violation[edit] Gibson's factories were raided in 2009 and 2011 by agents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
United States Fish and Wildlife Service
(FWS). In November 2009 authorities found illegally imported ebony wood from Madagascar.[33][34] A second raid was conducted in August 2011,[33] during which the FWS seized wood imports from India that had been mislabeled on the US Customs declaration.[35][36] Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
Corp. filed a motion in January 2011 to recover seized materials and overturn the charges, which was denied by the court.[37][38] The United States Department of Justice
United States Department of Justice
found emails from 2008 and 2009 in which Gibson
Gibson
employees discussed the "gray market" nature of the ebony wood available from a German wood dealer—who obtained it from a supplier in Madagascar—as well as plans to obtain the wood. It filed a civil proceeding in June 2011,[36][39][40] the first such case under the amended Lacey Act, which requires importing companies to purchase legally harvested wood and follow the environmental laws of the producing countries regardless of corruption or lack of enforcement.[40] Gibson
Gibson
argued in a statement the following day that authorities were "bullying Gibson
Gibson
without filing charges" and denied any wrongdoing.[35][41] Arguing against the federal regulations and claiming that the move threatened jobs, Republicans and tea party members spoke out against the raids and supported Juszkiewicz.[42] The case was settled on August 6, 2012, with Gibson
Gibson
admitting to violating the Lacey Act and agreeing to pay a fine of $300,000 in addition to a $50,000 community payment. Gibson
Gibson
also forfeited the wood seized in the raids, which was valued at roughly the same amount as the settlement.[43][44] However, in a subsequent statement Gibson maintained its innocence with Juszkiewicz claiming that " Gibson
Gibson
was inappropriately targeted" and that the government raids were "so outrageous and overreaching as to deserve further Congressional investigation." Juszkiewicz continued to state, "We felt compelled to settle as the costs of proving our case at trial would have cost millions of dollars and taken a very long time to resolve."[45] The case raised concerns for musicians who lack documentation of vintage instruments made of traditional, non-sustainable materials.[46][47] However, officials from the Justice Department and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service have stated that musicians who unknowingly possess instruments made from illegal wood would not be treated as criminals.[48] Gibson
Gibson
was able to reclaim some wood stock which was confiscated during the raids,[49] and produced a new series of guitar marketed to draw attention to the raids and seizures.[50] Instruments[edit] Further information: Gibson Guitar Corporation
Gibson Guitar Corporation
product list Gibson
Gibson
also owns and makes instruments under brands such as Epiphone,[51] Kramer,[52] Maestro,[53] Steinberger,[54] and Tobias,[55]—along with the ownership of historical brands such as Kalamazoo,[56][57] Dobro,[5] Slingerland,[58] Valley Arts,[58] and Baldwin[5] (including: Chickering,[58] Hamilton,[58] Wurlitzer[5][58]). Although it is well known for its guitars, Gibson's largest business is in fact electronics.[citation needed] Gibson
Gibson
offers consumer audio equipment devices through its subsidiaries Gibson
Gibson
Innovations (Philips brand), Onkyo
Onkyo
Corporation ( Onkyo
Onkyo
and Pioneer brands), TEAC Corporation (Teac and Esoteric brands), Cerwin Vega
Cerwin Vega
and Stanton,[6] as well as professional audio equipment from KRK Systems
KRK Systems
and TEAC Corporation/ TASCAM
TASCAM
and music software from Cakewalk.[58] Gibson
Gibson
makes authorized copies of its most successful guitar designs. They are less expensive than those bearing the Gibson
Gibson
name. A former competitor, Epiphone
Epiphone
was purchased by Gibson
Gibson
and now makes competitively priced Gibson
Gibson
models, such as the Les Paul
Les Paul
and SG, sold under the Epiphone
Epiphone
brand,[59] while continuing to make Epiphone-specific models like the Sheraton, Sorrento, and Casino. In Japan, Orville by Gibson
Orville by Gibson
once made Gibson
Gibson
designs sold in that country.[60] Gibson
Gibson
has sought legal action against those that make and sell guitars Gibson
Gibson
believes are too similar to their own. In 1977, Gibson
Gibson
introduced the serial numbering system in use until 2006.[61] An eight-digit number on the back shows the date when the instrument was produced, where it was produced, and its order of production that day (e.g., first instrument stamped that day, second, etc.).[62] As of 2006, the company used seven serial number systems,[61] making it difficult to identify guitars by their serial number alone.[61][62] and as of 1999 the company has used six distinct serial numbering systems.[62] An exception is the year 1994, Gibson's centennial year; many 1994 serial numbers start with "94", followed by a six-digit production number[citation needed]. The Gibson
Gibson
website provides a book to help with serial number deciphering.[62] In 2006, Gibson
Gibson
introduced a nine-digit serial number system replacing the eight-digit system used since 1977, but the sixth digit now represents a batch number.[61] In 2003,[63] Gibson
Gibson
debuted its Ethernet-based[64] audio protocol, MaGIC, which it developed in partnership with 3COM, Advanced Micro Devices, and Xilinx.[63] Replacing traditional analog hook-ups with a digital connection that would, "...satisfy the unique requirements of live audio performances," may have been the goal of this project.[64] This system may require a special pickup,[63] but cabling is provided by a standard Cat-5 ethernet cable.[63][64] The Gibson
Gibson
"self-tuning guitar", also known as a "robot model", an option on some newer Les Paul, SG, Flying V and Explorer instruments, will tune itself in little more than two seconds using robotics technology developed by Tronical GmbH.[65] Under the tradename Min-ETune, this device became standard on several models in 2014.[66]

Interior of Gibson, Inc. factory on Parsons Street. 1936

In 2013 Gibson
Gibson
introduced the Government Series of Les Paul, SG, Flying V, Explorer & ES-335
ES-335
guitars which were constructed solely of tonewood the US government seized but later returned to Gibson after the resolution of the company's Lacey Act violation in 2011. The guitars were finished in "government grey" and also featured decorations which intended to draw attention to the issue of government. A year later in 2014, Gibson
Gibson
released the Government Series II[67] of guitars, which were essentially the same as the first series, only finished in a new color: "government tan". Factories[edit] All Gibson-brand guitars are currently made at three facilities, depending on the type of guitar. Solid body electric guitars such as the Gibson
Gibson
Les Paul
Les Paul
and the Gibson SG
Gibson SG
are made in Nashville, Tennessee. Semi-acoustic guitars such as the Gibson ES Series
Gibson ES Series
are made in Memphis, Tennessee. Full acoustic guitars such as the Gibson
Gibson
J Series are made in Bozeman, Montana. The Nashville and Bozeman facilities are off-limits to visitors, but the Memphis facility gives regularly scheduled factory tours. All Gibson
Gibson
instruments are made in USA. Below are some of the facilities used to produce Gibson
Gibson
instruments, along with years of their operation:

Address Years of Operation Notes

114 So. Burdick, Kalamazoo, MI. 1896–1897 This was the "business location" of "O. H. Gibson, Manufacturer, Musical Instruments."[68]

104 East Main, Kalamazoo, MI 1899–1902 This was Orville Gibson’s residence, and he built instruments on the 2nd floor of this location.[68][69]

114 East Main, Kalamazoo, MI 1902–1906 The " Gibson
Gibson
Mandolin- Guitar
Guitar
Manufacturing Co, Ltd." was established in 1902.[68] This building, said to be infested with cockroaches, was probably the former Witmer Bakery.[70]

114 East Exchange Place, Kalamazoo, MI 1906–1911 Located quite close to the previous location, in Kalamazoo’s business district.[71]

521–523 East Harrison Court, Kalamazoo, MI 1911–1917 Located about .5 miles from previous location. The building was next to the Michigan Central Railroad, and stood for many decades, until it came down in the late 20th century.[72]

225 Parsons St, Kalamazoo, MI, 49007 1917–1984 Also located next to railroad tracks, this facility had major expansions in 1945, 1950, and 1960.[73] Various brands were produced there, including Gibson, Epiphone, (1957–1970)[74][75] and Kalamazoo. During the depression of the 1930s, children's toys were produced there, and during WW2 it produced materials to support the war effort in addition to producing guitars.[76] Between 1974 and 1984 Gibson
Gibson
moved its manufacturing out of this facility to Tennessee. Most of this move happened in 1974, leaving only acoustic and some semi-acoustic production for this plant.[77] In 1985, Heritage Guitars began production, renting part of this facility.[78]

641 Massman Drive, Nashville, TN, 37210 1984–present This is Gibson's facility for production of their main solid body models, such as the Les Paul
Les Paul
and the SG.

145 Lt. George W. Lee Av, Memphis, TN 38103 2000–present This is Gibson's facility for production of their semi-hollowbody electric guitars. This facility shares the same building as Gibson's Retail Shop and Beale Street "Showcase" location.[79]

1894 Orville Way, Bozeman, MT, 59715 1989[80]– present This facility is dedicated to acoustic guitar production.

See also[edit]

David Harvey (luthier) Jim Triggs (luthier) Lloyd Loar (luthier) List of Gibson
Gibson
players

Footnotes[edit]

^ a b " Gibson
Gibson
History". Gibson
Gibson
Corporate Press Kit. Gibson
Gibson
Guitar Corp. Retrieved 20 May 2012.  ^ Gisbon Brands at Gibson
Gibson
Press website, retrieved 10 Dec 2014 ^ " Gibson
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Brands, Inc.: Private Company Information". Bloomberg.  ^ "Drop the guitar Gibson
Gibson
rebrands" on BizJournals.com ^ a b c d Ayala Ben-Yehuda (9 April 2007). " Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
embraces China, Latin markets". Reuters.  ^ a b Gibson
Gibson
Pro Audio line, 10 Dec 2014 ^ a b "Orville H. Gibson, 1856—1918". Siminoff.net. Retrieved 2011-01-28.  ^ a b " Gibson
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Dusk Tiger". Gibson.com. 2008-06-24. Retrieved 2011-01-28.  ^ Wheeler, Tom. American Guitars. HarperCollins. 1992.pp 100—1 ISBN 978-0-06-273154-8 ^ Lister, Kat (2014-04-23). "The Forgotten Women of Kalamazoo". Feminist Times. Retrieved 2014-09-15.  ^ Thomas, John (2012). Kalamazoo
Kalamazoo
gals: a story of extraordinary women and Gibson's banner guitars of WWll. Franklin, TN: American History Press. ISBN 9780983082781.  ^ Hembree 2007, p. 74—85 ^ Duchossoir 1998, p. 55—62 ^ Hembree 2007, p. 110 ^ Hembree 2007, p. 306 ^ Gleick 1987 ^ Fjestad, Zachary (June 16, 2010). "Ibanez "Lawsuit Era" Les Paul Custom Copy". Premier Guitar.  ^ "Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property Vol 4 Iss 2" (PDF). Law.northwestern.edu. 2010-08-19. Retrieved 2012-05-09.  ^ Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
Corp. v. Paul Reed Smith Guitars, L.P., 325 F. Supp. 2d 841 (M.D. Tenn., 2004) ^ Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
Corp. v. Paul Reed Smith Guitars, LP, 423 F.3d 539 (6th Cir. 2005). ^ Garrison Guitars
Garrison Guitars
sold to Gibson
Gibson
thetelegram.com, July 4th, 2007 ^ Email, published by Walker Duncan (2009-03-23). "Sources: Gibson adds to layoff tally Make and Buy NashvillePost.com: Nashville Business News + Nashville Political News". NashvillePost.com. Retrieved 2011-01-28.  ^ " Gibson
Gibson
Sues Over Paper Jamz". Guitar
Guitar
News Daily, November 25, 2010. Retrieved February 1, 2018.  ^ Hachman, Mark. " Gibson
Gibson
Sues WowWee over Paper Jamz
Paper Jamz
Guitars". PC Magazine, November 27, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2018.  ^ " Gibson
Gibson
Granted Injunction Against Paper Jamz
Paper Jamz
Guitars". Premier Guitar, December 22, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2018.  ^ Hasselback, Drew. " Gibson
Gibson
obtains injunction against WowWee's Paper Jamz guitars". Financial Post, December 23, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2018.  ^ Biggs, John. " Gibson
Gibson
Forces WowWee to Pull Paper Jamz
Paper Jamz
Guitars". TechCrunch, December 28, 2010. Retrieved February 2, 2018.  ^ Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
Corp. v. WowWee USA, Inc. et al (Central District of California 2011) (“That this action is dismissed with prejudice without costs or attorneys fees; That the funds deposited by plaintiff to secure the preliminary injunction be returned to plaintiff.”). Text ^ Roberts, Katie. "Wowwee/ Gibson
Gibson
Guitars dispute settled". ToyNews, January 7, 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2018.  ^ " Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
increases high-tech lineup with purchase". Tennessean.com. 2011-12-06. Retrieved 2011-12-06.  ^ " Gibson
Gibson
Expands Pro Audio Division". Gibson.com. 2012-01-04. Retrieved 2012-02-09.  ^ . October 22, 2017 https://reverb.com/news/gibson-set-to-sell-memphis-guitar-factory. Retrieved 2017-10-22.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ a b Wadhwani, A.; Paine, A. (25 August 2011). " Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
raided but lips zipped". The Tennessean. Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2011.  ^ Lind, J.R. (29 December 2010). "Federal agent: Gibson
Gibson
wood investigation likely to result in indictments". NashvillePost.com. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011.  ^ a b " Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
Corp. responds to federal raid". Gibson
Gibson
Guitar Corp. 25 August 2011. Archived from the original on 12 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011.  ^ a b Trotter, J. (25 August 2011). "Endangered lemurs could be connected to Gibson
Gibson
raid". WMCTV.com. Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 26 August 2011.  ^ "Update: CEO's Outrage Gets Media Buzzing". Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
Corp. 26 August 2011. Archived from the original on 13 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011.  ^ " Gibson
Gibson
Guitars fails to squash illegal wood investigation". Sound & Fair. 19 January 2011. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011.  ^ "Gibson/Lacey Act Update". Home Furnishings Business. 6 July 2011. Archived from the original on 10 July 2011.  ^ a b "Endangered species trafficking: What did Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
know?". mongabay.com. 7 July 2011. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.  ^ Stern, Andrew (25 August 2011). " Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
to fight U.S. probe of its wood imports". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 January 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2011.  ^ Schelzig, E. (August 7, 2012). " Gibson Guitar Corporation
Gibson Guitar Corporation
admits to importing endangered wood". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 24 November 2014. Retrieved November 24, 2014.  ^ Black, R. (6 August 2012). " Gibson
Gibson
settles discord on timber". BBC News. Archived from the original on 7 August 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2012.  ^ Clarke, C.; Grant, A. (4 May 2011). "Are your wood products really certified?". wri.org. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 23 August 2011.  ^ " Gibson
Gibson
Comments on Department of Justice Settlement". Gibson
Gibson
Guitar Corporation. August 6, 2012. Archived from the original on 24 November 2014. Retrieved November 24, 2014.  ^ Felten, E. (26 August 2011). " Guitar
Guitar
frets: Environmental enforcement leaves musicians in fear". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2011.  ^ Simmons, L. (31 August 2011). "Raid highlights music manufacturers' environmental risks". bizmology.com. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011.  ^ Eilperin, J. (13 November 2011). " Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
ignites debate over environmental protections". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 16 November 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011.  ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/feb/2/gibson-launches-government-series-guitars-tonewood/ ^ Faughnder, Ryan (15 February 2014). " Gibson
Gibson
guitars made with government-seized wood are sold out". Los Angeles Times.  ^ "epiphone.com". Epiphone. Retrieved 2012-05-09.  ^ kramerguitars.com Kramer Official Site ^ Maestro by Gibson
Gibson
Gibson
Gibson
Official Site ^ steinberger.com Steinberger
Steinberger
Official Site ^ Tobias Gibson
Gibson
Official Site ^ Ken Achard (1996). The History and Development of the American Guitar. Bold Strummer. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-933224-18-6. Also during the mid to late thirties, Gibson
Gibson
produced a range of cello and flat top instruments under the Kalamazoo
Kalamazoo
name and at inexpensive prices.  ^ " Gibson
Gibson
Kalamazoo". January 2, 2009.  ^ a b c d e f " Gibson
Gibson
Brands Announces Intention to Acquire Cakewalk Inc". Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
Corporation. 23 September 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2015.  ^ " Epiphone
Epiphone
Les Paul
Les Paul
Standard". Epiphone.com.  ^ "Epiphone: A History — Epiphone
Epiphone
and Gibson". Epiphone.com.  ^ a b c d Gibson
Gibson
Serial Numbers: What a serial number can and can't tell you about your Gibson
Gibson
Gibson
Gibson
Official Site, 7.17.2007 ^ a b c d Blue Book of Electric Guitars. Sixth Edition: Gibson Serialization. Edited by S.P. Fjestad Gibson
Gibson
Official Site ^ a b c d The MaGIC of Gibson's Digital Guitars Maximum PC magazine, April 2003 ^ a b c This Is MaGIC Gibson
Gibson
Official Site ^ Yuri Kageyama (The Associated Press) (December 3, 2007). "World's first robot guitar takes care of the tuning". Seattle Times. Retrieved 2007-12-04.  ^ http://www2.gibson.com/Products/min-etune.aspx ^ http://www.guitarworld.com/gibson-guitars-announces-government-series-ii-les-paul ^ a b c Wheeler 1992, p. 95 ^ Carter 1994, p. 12 ^ Spann 2011, p. 1 ^ Spann 2011, pp. 1–2 ^ Spann 2011, p. 2 ^ Wheeler 1992, pp. 101, 151 ^ Wheeler 1992, p. 144 ^ Bonds 2004, p. 318 ^ Thomas 2012, p. 3 ^ Bonds 2004, p. 396 ^ Bonds 2004, p. 406 ^ " Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
Memphis Factory Tour Directions" (PDF). Retrieved March 24, 2014.  ^ Fjestad, S.P., Editor (2015) [1999]. "Blue Book of Electric Guitars" (PDF). Gibson
Gibson
Serialization (Sixth ed.). Blue Book Publications, Inc. Retrieved January 2, 2015. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

References[edit]

Achard, Ken (1989). The History and Development of the American Guitar. Westport, CT: Bold Strummer Ltd. ISBN 978-0-933-22418-6. 

Bacon, Tony (2002). 50 Years of the Gibson
Gibson
Les Paul. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-879-30711-0. 

Bacon, Tony (2009). The Les Paul
Les Paul
Guitar
Guitar
Book: A Complete History of Gibson
Gibson
Les Paul
Les Paul
Guitars. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-879-30951-0. 

Bacon, Tony (2011). Flying V, Explorer, Firebird: An Odd-shaped History of Gibson’s Weird Electric Guitars. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-1-617-13008-3. 

Bacon, Tony (2012). The History of the American Guitar: From 1833 to the Present Day. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-1-617-13033-5. 

Bacon, Tony (2014). Sunburst: How the Gibson
Gibson
Les Paul
Les Paul
Standard Became a Legendary Guitar. Montclair: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-1-617-13466-1. 

Bonds, Ray (2004). The Illustrated Directory of Gutiars. New York: Barnes and Noble. ISBN 978-0-760-76317-9. 

Carter, Walter (1994). Gibson
Gibson
Guitars: 100 Years of an American Icon. Los Angeles: General Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-881-64939-7. 

Carter, Walter (2007). Gibson
Gibson
Electric Guitar
Guitar
Book – Seventy Years of Classic Guitars. Backbeat Books: New York. ISBN 978-0-879-30895-7. 

Day, Paul; Carter, Walter; Hunter, Dave; Verheyen, Carl (2011). The Ultimate Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
Book. New York: Metro Books. ISBN 978-1-435-13756-1. 

Duchossoir, A. R. (1998). Gibson
Gibson
Electrics: The Classic Years. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-0-793-59210-4. 

Duchossoir, A. R. (2008). Guitar
Guitar
Identification: A Reference for Dating Guitars made by Fender, Gibson, Gretsch, and Martin (4th ed.). Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-1-423-42611-0. 

Duchossoir, A. R. (2009). Gibson
Gibson
Electric Steel Guitars: 1935-1967. Milwaukee, WI: Hal Leonard. ISBN 978-1-423-45702-2. 

Erlewine, Dan; Whitford, Eldon; Vinopal, David (2009). Gibson’s Fabulous Flat-top Guitars: An Illustrated History & Guide. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-879-30962-6. 

Fjestad, Zachary R.; Meiners, Larry (2007). Gibson
Gibson
Flying V. Minneapolis, MN: Blue Book Publications. ISBN 978-1-886-76872-7. 

Fox, Paul (2011). The Other Brands of Gibson. Anaheim Hills, CA: Centerstream Publications. ISBN 978-1-574-24271-3. 

Gleick, James (1987). Chaos: Making a New Science. New York: Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-81178-6. 

Gruhn, George; Carter, Walter (1993). Acoustic Guitars and Other Fretted Instruments: A Photographic History. San Francisco: GPI Books. ISBN 978-0-879-30240-5. 

Gruhn, George; Carter, Walter (2010a). Electric Guitars and Basses: A Photographic History. New York: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-879-30974-9. 

Gruhn, George; Carter, Walter (2010b). Gruhn’s Guide to Vintage Guitars: An Identification Guide for American Fretted Instruments. New York: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-879-30422-5. 

Hembree, George (2007). Gibson
Gibson
Guitars: Ted McCarty’s Golden Era 1948-1966. Austin, TX: GH Books. ISBN 978-1-423-41813-9. 

Ingram, Adrian (1997). The Gibson
Gibson
L5: Its History and its Players. Anaheim, CA: Centerstream Pub. ISBN 978-1-574-24047-4. 

Ingram, Adrian (2007). The Gibson
Gibson
175: Its History and its Players. Anaheim, CA: Centerstream Pub. ISBN 978-1-574-24223-2. 

Marx, Wallace (2009). Gibson
Gibson
Amplifiers
Amplifiers
1933-2008. Minneapolis, MN: Blue Book Publications. ISBN 978-1-886-76890-1. 

Spann, Joe (2011). Spann’s Guide to Gibson: 1902-1941. Anaheim Hills, CA: Centerstream Pub. ISBN 978-1-574-24267-6. 

Thomas, John (2012). Kalamazoo
Kalamazoo
Gals: A Story of Extraordinary Women & Gibson’s ‘Banner’ Guitars of WWII. Franklin, TN: American History Press. ISBN 978-0-983-08278-1. 

Wheeler, Tom (1992). American Guitars: An Illustrated History (rev. and updated ed.). New York: HarperPerennial. ISBN 978-0-062-73154-8. 

Further reading[edit]

Fox, Paul (2011). The Other Brands of Gibson. Centerstream Publishing. ISBN 978-1-57424-271-3. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
Corporation.

Official Gibson
Gibson
Brands, Inc. ( Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
Corporation) website Official Gibson
Gibson
Innovations website

v t e

Gibson
Gibson
Guitar
Guitar
Corporation

Established 1902 - Founder: Orville Gibson

Key figures

Orville Gibson Lloyd Loar Ted McCarty Seth Lover Les Paul Henry Juszkiewicz David Harvey

Guitars

Electric

Current

Gibson
Gibson
EDS-1275 ES Series Explorer Firebird Flying V L-4 L-5 Les Paul Moderne SG Super 400

Discontinued

Byrdland Blueshawk Citation Corvus Futura L6-S Little Lucille Marauder Nighthawk RD Sonex Spirit 335-S

Acoustic

Current

J Series Dove Hummingbird

Discontinued

Advanced Jumbo B Series Chet Atkins SST L Series LG Series L-1 Style U

Basses

Current

Les Paul
Les Paul
bass Thunderbird

Discontinued

EB-0 EB-1 EB-2 EB-3 Grabber G3 Ripper

Mandolins

F5 F5-G F5-L F9 Doyle Lawson Sam Bush

Amplifiers

Atlas Medalist Atlas IV Bass Amp Discoverer Duo Medalist EH-150 Explorer Falcon GA Series KEH Les Paul
Les Paul
Junior Medalist 4/10 Mercury Medalist Power Stealth Skylark Super Goldtone

Subsidiaries

Cakewalk Cerwin-Vega Epiphone Esoteric Integra Kramer Maestro Onkyo
Onkyo
(16.5%) Stanton Steinberger TEAC Corporation
TEAC Corporation
(TASCAM) (54.4%) Tobias

Brands

Chickering and Sons Dobro Original Orville Slingerland

W

.

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