The giant panda (
Ailuropoda melanoleuca, literally "black and white
cat-foot"; Chinese: 大熊猫; pinyin: dà xióng māo, literally "big
bear cat"), also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear
native to south central China. It is easily recognized by the
large, distinctive black patches around its eyes, over the ears, and
across its round body. The name "giant panda" is sometimes used to
distinguish it from the unrelated red panda. Though it belongs to the
order Carnivora, the giant panda's diet is over 99% bamboo. Giant
pandas in the wild will occasionally eat other grasses, wild tubers,
or even meat in the form of birds, rodents, or carrion. In captivity,
they may receive honey, eggs, fish, yams, shrub leaves, oranges, or
bananas along with specially prepared food.
The giant panda lives in a few mountain ranges in central China,
mainly in Sichuan, but also in neighbouring
Shaanxi and Gansu. As a
result of farming, deforestation, and other development, the giant
panda has been driven out of the lowland areas where it once lived.
The giant panda is a conservation reliant vulnerable species.
A 2007 report showed 239 pandas living in captivity inside
another 27 outside the country. As of December 2014, 49 giant
pandas lived in captivity outside China, living in 18 zoos in 13
different countries. Wild population estimates vary; one estimate
shows that there are about 1,590 individuals living in the wild,
while a 2006 study via
DNA analysis estimated that this figure could
be as high as 2,000 to 3,000. Some reports also show that the
number of giant pandas in the wild is on the rise. In March 2015,
Mongabay stated that the wild giant panda population had increased by
268, or 16.8%, to 1,864. In 2016, the
IUCN reclassified the
species from "endangered" to "vulnerable".
While the dragon has often served as China's national symbol,
internationally the giant panda appears at least as commonly.[citation
needed] As such, it is becoming widely used within
international contexts, for example since 1982 issuing gold panda
bullion coins or as one of the five
Fuwa mascots of the Beijing
5 Uses and human interaction
5.1 Early references
5.2 Western discovery
5.3 Panda diplomacy
5.6 In zoos
5.7 Population chart
5.8 Reference in medicine
5.9 In cryptozoology
6 See also
8 External links
For many decades, the precise taxonomic classification of the giant
panda was under debate because it shares characteristics with both
bears and raccoons. However, molecular studies indicate the giant
panda is a true bear, part of the family Ursidae. These studies
show it differentiated early (about 19 million years ago) from the
main ursine stock; since it is the most basal member of the group, it
is equidistant from all other extant ursids. The giant panda
has been referred to as a living fossil.
Despite the shared name, habitat type, and diet, as well as a unique
enlarged bone called the pseudo thumb (which helps them grip the
bamboo shoots they eat) the giant panda and red panda are only
The word panda was borrowed into English from French, but no
conclusive explanation of the origin of the French word panda has been
found. The closest candidate is the Nepali word ponya, possibly
referring to the adapted wrist bone of the red panda, which is native
to Nepal. The Western world originally applied this name to the red
panda. Until 1901, when it was erroneously stated to be related to the
red panda, the giant panda was known as "black and white cat-footed
animal" (Ailuropus melanoleucus).
In many older encyclopedic sources, the name "panda" or "common panda"
originally referred to the lesser-known red panda, thus
necessitating the inclusion of "giant" and "lesser/red" prefixes in
front of the names. Even in 2013, the
Encyclopædia Britannica still
used "giant panda" or "panda bear" for the bear, and simply
"panda" for the Ailuridae, despite the popular usage of the word
Since the earliest collection of Chinese writings, the Chinese
language has given the bear 20 different names, such as huāxióng
(花熊 "spotted bear") and zhúxióng (竹熊 "bamboo bear"). The
most popular names in
China today is dàxióngmāo (大熊貓
literally "giant bear cat"), or simply xióngmāo (熊貓 "bear cat").
The name xióngmāo (熊貓 "bear cat") was originally used to
describe the red panda (Ailurus fulgens), but since giant panda was
thought to be closely related to red panda, dàxióngmāo (大熊貓)
was named relatively.
In Taiwan, another popular name for panda is the inverted
dàmāoxióng (大貓熊 "giant cat bear"), though many encyclopediae
and dictionaries in
Taiwan still use the "bear cat" form as the
correct name. Some linguists argue, in this construction, "bear"
instead of "cat" is the base noun, making this name more grammatically
and logically correct, which may have led to the popular choice
despite official writings. This name did not gain its popularity
until 1988, when a private zoo in
Tainan painted a sun bear black and
white and created the
Tainan fake panda incident.
Qinling panda has a light-brown and white pattern
Two subspecies of giant panda have been recognized on the basis of
distinct cranial measurements, color patterns, and population
The nominate subspecies
Ailuropoda melanoleuca consists of most extant
populations of panda. These animals are principally found in Sichuan
and display the typical stark black and white contrasting colors.
The Qinling panda, A. m. qinlingensis is restricted to the Qinling
Shaanxi at elevations of 1,300–3,000 m. The
typical black and white pattern of
Sichuan giant pandas is replaced
with a dark brown versus light brown pattern. The skull of A. m.
qinlingensis is smaller than its relatives, and it has larger molars.
A detailed study of the giant panda's genetic history from 2012
confirms that the separation of the Qinlin population occurred about
300,000 years ago, and reveals that the non-Qinlin population further
diverged into two groups, named the
Minshan and the
Qionglai-Daxiangling-Xiaoxiangling-Liangshan group respectively, about
2,800 years ago.
The skull of giant panda at the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History
The skeleton (left) and stuffed (right) of "Tong Tong", once bred in
Ueno Zoo at the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo
The giant panda has luxuriant black-and-white fur. Adults measure
around 1.2 to 1.9 m (4 to 6 ft) long, including a tail of
about 10–15 cm (3.9–5.9 in), and 60 to 90 cm (2.0
to 3.0 ft) tall at the shoulder. Males can weigh up to
160 kg (350 lb). Females (generally 10–20% smaller
than males) can weigh as little as 70 kg (150 lb), but
can also weigh up to 125 kg (276 lb). Average
adult weight is 100 to 115 kg (220 to 254 lb).
The giant panda has a body shape typical of bears. It has black fur on
its ears, eye patches, muzzle, legs, arms and shoulders. The rest of
the animal's coat is white. Although scientists do not know why these
unusual bears are black and white, speculation suggests that the bold
coloring provides effective camouflage in their shade-dappled snowy
and rocky habitat. The giant panda's thick, wooly coat keeps it
warm in the cool forests of its habitat. The panda's skull shape
is typical of durophagous carnivorans. It has evolved from previous
ancestors to exhibit larger molars with increased complexity and
expanded temporal fossa. A 110.45 kg (243.5 lb)
giant panda has a 3D canine teeth bite force of 2603.47 newtons and
bite force quotient of 292. Another study had a
117.5 kg (259 lb) giant panda bite of 1298.9 newtons (BFQ
151.4) at canine teeth and 1815.9 newtons (BFQ 141.8) at carnassial
Bones of the left forelimb
The giant panda's paw has a "thumb" and five fingers; the "thumb" –
actually a modified sesamoid bone – helps it to hold bamboo while
Stephen Jay Gould
Stephen Jay Gould discusses this feature in his book of
essays on evolution and biology, The Panda's Thumb.
The giant panda's tail, measuring 10 to 15 cm (4 to 6 in),
is the second-longest in the bear family. (The longest belongs to the
The giant panda typically lives around 20 years in the wild and up to
30 years in captivity. A female named Jia Jia was the oldest giant
panda ever in captivity, born in 1978 and died at an age of 38 on 16
Toxoplasma gondii (arrow) in macrophages in the lung of a giant
A seven-year-old female named Jin Yi died in 2014 in a zoo in
Zhengzhou, China, after showing symptoms of gastroenteritis and
respiratory disease. It was found that the cause of death was
toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by
Toxoplasma gondii and infecting
most warm-blooded animals, including humans.
The giant panda genome was sequenced in 2009 using Illumina dye
sequencing. Its genome contains 20 pairs of autosomes and one
pair of sex chromosomes.
Pandas eating bamboo.
Panda eating, standing, playing
Despite its taxonomic classification as a carnivoran, the giant
panda's diet is primarily herbivorous, consisting almost exclusively
of bamboo. However, the giant panda still has the digestive system
of a carnivore, as well as carnivore-specific genes, and thus
derives little energy and little protein from consumption of bamboo.
Its ability to digest cellulose is ascribed to the microbes in its
gut. Pandas are born with sterile intestines, and require
bacteria obtained from their mother's feces to digest vegetation.
The giant panda is a "highly specialized" animal with "unique
adaptations", and has lived in bamboo forests for millions of
years. The average giant panda eats as much as 9 to 14 kg (20
to 30 lb) of bamboo shoots a day to compensate for the limited
energy content of its diet. Ingestion of such a large quantity of
material is possible because of the rapid passage of large amounts of
indigestible plant material through the short, straight digestive
tract. It is also noted, however, that such rapid passage of
digesta limits the potential of microbial digestion in the
gastrointestinal tract, limiting alternative forms of digestion.
Given this voluminous diet, the giant panda defecates up to 40 times a
day. The limited energy input imposed on it by its diet has
affected the panda's behavior. The giant panda tends to limit its
social interactions and avoids steeply sloping terrain to limit its
Two of the panda's most distinctive features, its large size and round
face, are adaptations to its bamboo diet. Anthropologist Russell
Ciochon observed: "[much] like the vegetarian gorilla, the low body
surface area to body volume [of the giant panda] is indicative of a
lower metabolic rate. This lower metabolic rate and a more sedentary
lifestyle allows the giant panda to subsist on nutrient poor resources
such as bamboo." Similarly, the giant panda's round face is the
result of powerful jaw muscles, which attach from the top of the head
to the jaw. Large molars crush and grind fibrous plant material.
The morphological characteristics of extinct relatives of the giant
panda suggest that while the ancient giant panda was omnivorous 7
million years ago (mya), it only became herbivorous some 2-2.4 mya
with the emergence of A. microta.
Genome sequencing of the
giant panda suggests that the dietary switch could have initiated from
the loss of the sole T1R1/T1R3 umami taste receptor, resulting from
two frameshift mutations within the T1R1 exons. Umami taste
corresponds to high levels of glutamate as found in meat, and may have
thus altered the food choice of the giant panda. Although the
pseudogenization of the umami taste receptor in
with the dietary switch to herbivory, it is likely a result of, and
not the reason for, the dietary change. The mutation time
for the T1R1 gene in the giant panda is estimated to 4.2 mya while
fossil evidence indicates bamboo consumption in the giant panda
species at least 7 mya, signifying that although complete
herbivory occurred around 2 mya, the dietary switch was initiated
prior to T1R1 loss-of-function.
Pandas eat any of 25 bamboo species in the wild, such as Fargesia
dracocephala and Fargesia rufa. Only a few bamboo species are
widespread at the high altitudes pandas now inhabit.
contain the highest protein levels; stems have less.
Because of the synchronous flowering, death, and regeneration of all
bamboo within a species, the giant panda must have at least two
different species available in its range to avoid starvation. While
primarily herbivorous, the giant panda still retains decidedly ursine
teeth, and will eat meat, fish, and eggs when available. In captivity,
zoos typically maintain the giant panda's bamboo diet, though some
will provide specially formulated biscuits or other dietary
Pandas will travel between different habitats if they need to, so they
can get the nutrients that they need and to balance their diet for
reproduction. For six years, scientists studied six pandas tagged with
GPS collars at the Foping Reserve in the Qinling Mountains. They took
note of their foraging and mating habits, and analysed samples of
their food and feces. The pandas would move from the valleys into the
Qinling Mountains and would only return to the valleys in autumn.
During the summer months bamboo shoots rich in protein are only
available at higher altitudes which causes low calcium rates in the
pandas and during breeding season the pandas would trek back down to
eat bamboo leaves rich in calcium.
Although adult giant pandas have few natural predators other than
humans, young cubs are vulnerable to attacks by snow leopards,
yellow-throated martens, eagles, feral dogs, and the Asian black
bear. Sub-adults weighing up to 50 kg (110 lb) may be
vulnerable to predation by leopards.
The giant panda is a terrestrial animal and primarily spends its life
roaming and feeding in the bamboo forests of the
Qinling Mountains and
in the hilly province of Sichuan. Giant pandas are generally
solitary. Each adult has a defined territory and a female is not
tolerant of other females in her range. Social encounters occur
primarily during the brief breeding season in which pandas in
proximity to one another will gather. After mating, the male
leaves the female alone to raise the cub.
Pandas were thought to fall into the crepuscular category, those who
are active twice a day, at dawn and dusk; however, Jindong Zhang found
that pandas may belong to a category all of their own, with activity
peaks in the morning, afternoon and midnight. Due to their sheer size,
pandas do not need to fear predators like other herbivores. They can
therefore be active at any time of the day.
Pandas communicate through vocalization and scent marking such as
clawing trees or spraying urine. They are able to climb and take
shelter in hollow trees or rock crevices, but do not establish
permanent dens. For this reason, pandas do not hibernate, which is
similar to other subtropical mammals, and will instead move to
elevations with warmer temperatures. Pandas rely primarily on
spatial memory rather than visual memory.
Though the panda is often assumed to be docile, it has been known to
attack humans, presumably out of irritation rather than
A giant panda cub. At birth, the giant panda typically weighs 100 to
200 grams (3 1⁄2 to 7 oz) and measures 15 to 17
centimeters (6 to 7 in) long.
Initially, the primary method of breeding giant pandas in captivity
was by artificial insemination, as they seemed to lose their interest
in mating once they were captured. This led some scientists to try
extreme methods, such as showing them videos of giant pandas
mating and giving the males sildenafil (commonly known as
"Viagra"). Only recently have researchers started having success
with captive breeding programs, and they have now determined giant
pandas have comparable breeding to some populations of the American
black bear, a thriving bear species. The normal reproductive rate is
considered to be one young every two years.
Panda Research and Breeding Center in Chengdu.
Giant pandas reach sexual maturity between the ages of four and eight,
and may be reproductive until age 20. The mating season is between
March and May, when a female goes into estrus, which lasts for two or
three days and only occurs once a year. When mating, the female is
in a crouching, head-down position as the male mounts her from behind.
Copulation time is short, ranging from 30 seconds to five minutes, but
the male may mount her repeatedly to ensure successful fertilization.
The gestation period ranges from 95 to 160 days.
Giant pandas give birth to twins in about half of pregnancies. If
twins are born, usually only one survives in the wild. The mother will
select the stronger of the cubs, and the weaker will die. The mother
is thought to be unable to produce enough milk for two cubs, since she
does not store fat. The father has no part in helping raise the
When the cub is first born, it is pink, blind, and toothless,
weighing only 90 to 130 grams (3.2 to 4.6 ounces), or about
1/800th of the mother's weight, proportionally the smallest baby
of any placental mammal. It nurses from its mother's breast six to
14 times a day for up to 30 minutes at a time. For three to four
hours, the mother may leave the den to feed, which leaves the cub
defenseless. One to two weeks after birth, the cub's skin turns gray
where its hair will eventually become black. A slight pink color may
appear on cub's fur, as a result of a chemical reaction between the
fur and its mother's saliva. A month after birth, the color pattern of
the cub's fur is fully developed. Its fur is very soft and coarsens
with age. The cub begins to crawl at 75 to 80 days; mothers play
with their cubs by rolling and wrestling with them. The cubs can eat
small quantities of bamboo after six months, though mother's milk
remains the primary food source for most of the first year. Giant
panda cubs weigh 45 kg (100 pounds) at one year, and live
with their mothers until they are 18 months to two years old. The
interval between births in the wild is generally two years.
In July 2009, Chinese scientists confirmed the birth of the first cub
to be successfully conceived through artificial insemination using
frozen sperm. The cub was born at 07:41 on 23 July that year in
Sichuan as the third cub of You You, an 11-year-old. The
technique for freezing the sperm in liquid nitrogen was first
developed in 1980 and the first birth was hailed as a solution to the
problem of lessening giant panda semen availability, which had led to
inbreeding. Panda semen, which can be frozen for decades,
could be shared between different zoos to save the species. It
is expected that zoos in destinations such as San Diego in the United
Mexico City will now be able to provide their own semen to
inseminate more giant pandas. In August 2014, a rare birth of
panda triplets was announced in China; it was the fourth of such
births ever reported.
Attempts have also been made to reproduce giant pandas by
interspecific pregnancy by implanting cloned panda embryos into the
uterus of an animal of another species. This has resulted in panda
fetuses, but no live births.
Uses and human interaction
In the past, pandas were thought to be rare and noble creatures –
Empress Dowager Bo
Empress Dowager Bo was buried with a panda skull in her vault. The
Emperor Taizong of Tang
Emperor Taizong of Tang is said to have given Japan two
pandas and a sheet of panda skin as a sign of goodwill. Unlike many
other animals in Ancient China, pandas were rarely thought to have
medical uses. The few known uses include the
Sichuan tribal peoples'
use of panda urine to melt accidentally swallowed needles, and the use
of panda pelts to control menses as described in the Qin Dynasty
The creature named mo (貘) mentioned in some ancient books has been
interpreted as giant panda. The dictionary
Shuowen Jiezi (Eastern
Han Dynasty) says that the mo, from Shu (Sichuan), is bear-like, but
yellow-and-black, although the older
Erya describes mo simply as a
"white leopard". The interpretation of the legendary fierce
creature pixiu (貔貅) as referring to the giant panda is also
During the reign of the
Yongle Emperor (early 15th century), his
Kaifeng sent him a captured zouyu (騶虞), and another
zouyu was sighted in Shandong.
Zouyu is a legendary "righteous"
animal, which, similarly to a qilin, only appears during the rule of a
benevolent and sincere monarch. It is said to be fierce as a tiger,
but gentle and strictly vegetarian, and described in some books as a
white tiger with black spots. Puzzled about the real zoological
identity of the creature captured during the Yongle era, J.J.L.
Duyvendak exclaims, "Can it possibly have been a Pandah?"
The comparative obscurity of the giant panda throughout most of
China's history is illustrated by the fact that, despite there being a
number of depictions of bears in
Chinese art starting from its most
ancient times, and the bamboo being one of the favorite subjects for
Chinese painters, there are no known pre-20th-century artistic
representations of giant pandas.
The West first learned of the giant panda on 11 March 1869, when the
French missionary Armand David received a skin from a hunter. The
first Westerner known to have seen a living giant panda is the German
zoologist Hugo Weigold, who purchased a cub in 1916. Kermit and
Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., became the first Westerners to shoot a panda,
on an expedition funded by the
Field Museum of Natural History
Field Museum of Natural History in the
1920s. In 1936,
Ruth Harkness became the first Westerner to bring back
a live giant panda, a cub named Su Lin which went to live at the
Brookfield Zoo in Chicago. In 1938, five giant pandas were sent to
London. Activities such as these were halted because of
wars; in subsequent decades, the West knew little of giant pandas.
Adult male giant panda
Main article: Panda diplomacy
Gifts of giant pandas to American and Japanese zoos formed an
important part of the diplomacy of the People's Republic of China
(PRC) in the 1970s, as it marked some of the first cultural exchanges
between the PRC and the West. This practice has been termed "panda
By 1984, however, pandas were no longer given as gifts. Instead, the
PRC began to offer pandas to other nations only on 10-year loans,
under terms including a fee of up to US$1,000,000 per year and a
provision that any cubs born during the loan are the property of the
PRC. Since 1998, because of a WWF lawsuit, the United States Fish and
Wildlife Service only allows a US zoo to import a panda if the zoo can
ensure the PRC will channel more than half of its loan fee into
conservation efforts for the giant panda and its habitat.
In May 2005, the PRC offered a breeding pair to Taiwan. The issue
became embroiled in cross-Strait relations – both over the
underlying symbolism, and over technical issues such as whether the
transfer would be considered "domestic" or "international", or whether
any true conservation purpose would be served by the exchange. A
contest in 2006 to name the pandas was held in the mainland, resulting
in the politically charged names
Tuan Tuan and Yuan Yuan
Tuan Tuan and Yuan Yuan (from
tuanyuan, meaning "reunion", i.e. "reunification"). PRC's offer was
initially rejected by Chen Shui-bian, then President of Taiwan.
Ma Ying-jeou assumed the presidency in 2008, the offer
was accepted, and the pandas arrived in December of that year.
Microbes in panda waste are being investigated for their use in
creating biofuels from bamboo and other plant materials.
The giant panda is a vulnerable species, threatened by continued
habitat loss and habitat fragmentation, and by a very low
birthrate, both in the wild and in captivity. Its range is
currently confined to a small portion on the western edge of its
historical range, which stretched through southern and eastern China,
northern Myanmar, and northern Vietnam.
The giant panda has been a target of poaching by locals since ancient
times and by foreigners since it was introduced to the West. Starting
in the 1930s, foreigners were unable to poach giant pandas in China
because of the
Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War, but
pandas remained a source of soft furs for the locals. The population
China after 1949 created stress on the pandas' habitat, and
the subsequent famines led to the increased hunting of wildlife,
including pandas. During the Cultural Revolution, all studies and
conservation activities on the pandas were stopped. After the Chinese
economic reform, demand for panda skins from Hong Kong and Japan led
to illegal poaching for the black market, acts generally ignored by
the local officials at the time.
Closeup of a seven-month-old panda cub
Wolong National Nature Reserve
Wolong National Nature Reserve was set up by the PRC
government in 1958 to save the declining panda population, few
advances in the conservation of pandas were made, owing to
inexperience and insufficient knowledge of ecology. Many believed the
best way to save the pandas was to cage them. As a result, pandas were
caged at any sign of decline, and suffered from terrible conditions.
Because of pollution and destruction of their natural habitat, along
with segregation caused by caging, reproduction of wild pandas was
severely limited. In the 1990s, however, several laws (including gun
control and the removal of resident humans from the reserves) helped
their chances of survival. With these renewed efforts and improved
conservation methods, wild pandas have started to increase in numbers
in some areas, though they still are classified as a rare species.
In 2006, scientists reported that the number of pandas living in the
wild may have been underestimated at about 1,000. Previous population
surveys had used conventional methods to estimate the size of the wild
panda population, but using a new method that analyzes
DNA from panda
droppings, scientists believe the wild population may be as large as
3,000. In 2006, there were 40 panda reserves in China, compared to
just 13 reserves in 1998. As the species has been reclassified to
"vulnerable" since 2016, the conservation efforts are thought to be
working. Furthermore, in response to this reclassification, the State
Forestry Administration of
China announced that they would not
accordingly lower the conservation level for panda, and would instead
reinforce the conservation efforts.
The giant panda is among the world's most adored and protected rare
animals, and is one of the few in the world whose natural inhabitant
status was able to gain a UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site designation. The
Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries, located in the southwest province of
Sichuan and covering seven natural reserves, were inscribed onto the
World Heritage List in 2006.
Not all conservationists agree that the money spent on conserving
pandas is well spent.
Chris Packham has argued that the breeding of
pandas in captivity is "pointless" because "there is not enough
habitat left to sustain them". Packham argues that the money
spent on pandas would be better spent elsewhere, and has said he
would "eat the last panda if I could have all the money we have spent
on panda conservation put back on the table for me to do more sensible
things with", though he has apologized for upsetting people who
like pandas. He points out, "The panda is possibly one of the
grossest wastes of conservation money in the last half century."
However, a 2015 paper found that the giant panda can serve as an
umbrella species as the preservation of their habitat also helps other
endemic species in China, including 70% of the country's forest birds,
70% of mammals and 31% of amphibians.
In 2012, Earthwatch Institute, a global nonprofit that teams
volunteers with scientists to conduct important environmental
research, launched a program called "On the Trail of Giant Panda".
This program, based in the Wolong National Nature Reserve, allows
volunteers to work up close with pandas cared for in captivity, and
help them adapt to life in the wild, so that they may breed, and live
longer and healthier lives.
Main article: Giant pandas around the world
Main article: List of giant pandas
See also: Category:Individual giant pandas.
Pandas have been kept in zoos as early as the
Western Han Dynasty
Western Han Dynasty in
China, where the writer
Sima Xiangru noted that the panda was the most
treasured animal in the emperor's garden of exotic animals in the
Chang'an (present Xi'an). Not until the 1950s were pandas
again recorded to have been exhibited in China's zoos.
Chi Chi at the London
Zoo became very popular. This influenced the
World Wildlife Fund
World Wildlife Fund to use a panda as its symbol.
A 2006 New York Times article outlined the economics of keeping
pandas, which costs five times more than that of the next most
expensive animal, an elephant. American zoos generally pay the Chinese
government $1 million a year in fees, as part of a typical
ten-year contract. San Diego's contract with
China was to expire in
2008, but got a five-year extension at about half of the previous
yearly cost. The last contract, with the Memphis
Zoo in Memphis,
Tennessee, ended in 2013.
Reference in medicine
Face of the Giant Panda Sign
Face of the Giant Panda Sign is an
MRI sign in patients with
Wilson's disease, named for the midbrain's resemblance to a giant
Cryptozoologists use Giant Pandas as an example of an animal recently
discovered by science. For example, Guy Edwards writes, "The Giant
Panda was once as mythical and elusive as Bigfoot." He adds that
there are " many animals that symbolize the search for
Bigfoot is not
Skeptical cryptozoologist Joe Nickell, notes that since Giant Pandas
were known to local people, they qualify as cryptids. However,
unlike Bigfoot, pandas specimens were quickly obtained after Armand
David learned of them. Also, fossil evidence shows that pandas were
once widespread, including the two million year old skull of
List of giant pandas
Pygmy giant panda
Wildlife of China
List of endangered and protected species of China
^ a b c Swaisgood, R.; Wang, D.; Wei, F. (2016). "Ailuropoda
IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016:
e.T712A45033386. Retrieved 5 September 2016. CS1 maint: Uses
authors parameter (link)
^ David, Armand (1869). "Voyage en Chine". Bulletin des Nouvelles
Archives du Muséum. 5: 13. Ursus melanoleucus
^ Like the English "giant", the term dà ("large") is technically
prefixed to the name "panda" in Chinese, but is not generally in
^ Scheff, Duncan (2002). Giant Pandas. Animals of the rain forest
(illustrated ed.). Heinemann-Raintree Library. p. 7.
^ a b Lindburg, Donald G.; Baragona, Karen (2004). Giant Pandas:
Biology and Conservation. University of California Press.
^ Quote: "
Bamboo forms 99 percent of a panda's diet", "more than 99
percent of their diet is bamboo": p. 63 of Lumpkin & Seidensticker
2007 (as seen in the 2002 edition).
^ "Giant Panda". Discovery Communications, LLC. Archived from the
original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
^ "Giant Pandas". National Zoological Park. Retrieved 7 November
^ Scheff, Duncan (2002). Giant Pandas. Animals of the rain forest
(illustrated ed.). Heinemann-Raintree Library. p. 8.
^ a b c "Global Species Programme – Giant panda". World
Wildlife Fund. 14 November 2007. Archived from the original on 4 July
2008. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
^ a b "Four out of six great apes one step away from extinction –
IUCN Red List". 4 September 2016.
^ a b "Number of pandas successfully bred in
China down from last
year". Xinhua. 8 November 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
^ "Panda Zoos Around The World". www.GiantPandaZoo.com. Archived from
the original on 2 January 2016.
^ a b Briggs, Helen (20 June 2006). "Hope for future of giant panda".
BBC News. Retrieved 14 February 2007.
^ a b Warren, Lynne (July 2006). "Pandas, Inc". National Geographic.
Retrieved 10 April 2008.
Giant panda population rises by nearly 17 percent". Mongabay
^ a b c d "Giant Panda".
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2010.
Retrieved 9 August 2010.
^ O'Brien, Nash, Wildt, Bush & Benveniste, A molecular solution to
the riddle of the giant panda's phylogeny, Nature Page 317, and pages
140 – 144 (12 September 1985)
^ a b Krause, J.; Unger, T.; Noçon, A.; Malaspinas, A.; Kolokotronis,
S.; Stiller, M.; Soibelzon, L.; Spriggs, H.; Dear, P. H.; Briggs, A.
W.; Bray, S. C. E.; O'Brien, S. J.; Rabeder, G.; Matheus, P.; Cooper,
A.; Slatkin, M.; Pääbo, S.; Hofreiter, M. (2008). "Mitochondrial
genomes reveal an explosive radiation of extinct and extant bears near
the Miocene-Pliocene boundary". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 8 (220):
220. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-220. PMC 2518930 .
^ Yu, Li; Li, Yi-Wei; Ryder, Oliver A.; Zhang, Ya-Ping (2007).
"Analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences increases
phylogenetic resolution of bears (Ursidae), a mammalian family that
experienced rapid speciation". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7 (198): 198.
^ "Behind the News – Panda Granny". Australian Broadcasting
Corporation. 12 June 2007. Archived from the original on 4 May 2008.
Retrieved 22 July 2008.
^ Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. panda n. 1.
^ New York Zoological Society (1987).
Animal Kingdom, Volumes 90–91.
Animal Info – Red Panda".
^ "giant panda (mammal) -- Encyclopedia Britannica". Britannica.com.
Archived from the original on 2013-05-15. Retrieved 2017-01-23.
^ "panda (mammal, Ailurus species) -- Encyclopedia Britannica".
Britannica.com. Archived from the original on 2013-05-15. Retrieved
^ a b c "Discussion about the Chinese name for giant panda (in
^ "Government Information Office will now use dàxióngmāo as the
proper name (in Chinese)". 聯合報. 1990-08-09.
^ ""bear cat" or "cat bear" (in Chinese)". 聯合報.
^ a b Wan, Wu & Fang 2005.
^ Hammond, Paula (2010). The Atlas of Endangered Animals: Wildlife
Under Threat Around the World. Marshall Cavendish. p. 58.
^ Shancen Zhao; Pingping Zheng; Shanshan Dong; Xiangjiang Zhan; Qi Wu
(16 December 2012). "Whole-genome sequencing of giant pandas provides
insights into demographic history and local adaptation". Nature
Genetics. 45 (1): 67–71. doi:10.1038/ng.2494. PMID 23242367.
Retrieved 17 December 2012.
^ "Scientists Discover Evidence of Giant Panda's Population History
and Local Adaptation". 16 December 2012. Retrieved 17 December
^ a b Giant Panda, Arkive
^ "Physical Description". Giant Panda Species Survival Plan. Archived
from the original on 4 December 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
^ Boitani, Luigi, Simon & Schuster's Guide to Mammals. Simon &
Schuster/Touchstone Books (1984), ISBN 978-0-671-42805-1
^ a b Brown, Gary (1996). Great
Bear Almanac. p. 340.
^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24
September 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2016. (2011).
^  (2011).
^ a b Dudley, Karen (1997). Giant Pandas. Untamed world (illustrated
ed.). Weigl Educational Publishers. p. 9.
^ Ellis, Richard (2004). No turning back: the life and death of animal
species (illustrated ed.). HarperCollins. p. 315.
^ Figueirido, Borja; Zhijie Jack Tseng, Alberto Mart ́ın-Serra (July
2013). "Skull shape evolution in durophagous carnivorans". Evolution;
international journal of organic evolution. 67 (7): 1975–93.
doi:10.1111/evo.12059. PMID 23815654.
^ Stephen Wroe. "Bite forces and evolutionary adaptations to feeding
ecology in carnivores (Ecology)". academia.edu.
^ Morris, Paul; Susan F. Morris. "The Panda's Thumb". Athro Limited.
Retrieved 7 August 2010.
^ a b c d Earth's Changing Environment. Learn & Explore.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 49.
^ "'Oldest' panda in captivity Jia Jia dies at the age of 38". BBC.
2016-10-16. Retrieved 2016-10-16.
^ a b Ma, Hongyu; Wang, Zedong; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Caiwu; Wei, Feng;
Liu, Quan (2015). "Fatal
Toxoplasma gondii infection in the giant
panda". Parasite. 22: 30. doi:10.1051/parasite/2015030.
ISSN 1776-1042. PMC 4626621 . PMID 26514595.
^ Li, R.; Fan, W.; Tian, G.; Zhu, H.; He, L.; Cai, J.; Huang, Q.; Cai,
Q.; Li, B.; Bai, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, W.; Li, J.; Wei, F.;
Li, H.; Jian, M.; Li, J.; Zhang, Z.; Nielsen, R.; Li, D.; Gu, W.;
Yang, Z.; Xuan, Z.; Ryder, O. A.; Leung, F. C. C.; Zhou, Y.; Cao, J.;
Sun, X.; Fu, Y. (2009). "The sequence and de novo assembly of the
giant panda genome". Nature. 463 (7279): 311–317.
doi:10.1038/nature08696. PMC 3951497 .
^ "(...)indicating that the panda probably has all the necessary
components for a carnivorous digestive system." Ruiqiang Li; Tian,
Geng; Zhu, Hongmei; He, Lin; Cai, Jing; Huang, Quanfei; Cai, Qingle;
Li, Bo; Bai, Yinqi; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Yaping; Wang, Wen; Li, Jun;
Wei, Fuwen; Li, Heng; Jian, Min; Li, Jianwen; Zhang, Zhaolei; Nielsen,
Rasmus; Li, Dawei; Gu, Wanjun; Yang, Zhentao; Xuan, Zhaoling; Ryder,
Oliver A.; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; Zhou, Yan; Cao, Jianjun; Sun,
Xiao; et al. (2010). "The sequence and de novo assembly of the giant
panda genome". Nature. 463 (21): 311–317.
PMC 3951497 . PMID 20010809. CS1 maint: Explicit use
of et al. (link)
^ "We did not find any homologues of digestive cellulase genes,
including endoglucanase, exoglucanase and beta-glucosidase, indicating
that the bamboo diet of the panda is unlikely to be dictated by its
own genetic composition, and may instead be more dependent on its gut
microbiome." Ruiqiang Li; Tian, Geng; Zhu, Hongmei; He, Lin; Cai,
Jing; Huang, Quanfei; Cai, Qingle; Li, Bo; Bai, Yinqi; Zhang, Zhihe;
Zhang, Yaping; Wang, Wen; Li, Jun; Wei, Fuwen; Li, Heng; Jian, Min;
Li, Jianwen; Zhang, Zhaolei; Nielsen, Rasmus; Li, Dawei; Gu, Wanjun;
Yang, Zhentao; Xuan, Zhaoling; Ryder, Oliver A.; Leung, Frederick
Chi-Ching; Zhou, Yan; Cao, Jianjun; Sun, Xiao; et al. (2010). "The
sequence and de novo assembly of the giant panda genome". Nature. 463
(21): 311–317. Bibcode:2010Natur.463..311L. doi:10.1038/nature08696.
PMC 3951497 . PMID 20010809. CS1 maint: Explicit use
of et al. (link)
^ Zhu, L.; Wu, Q., Dai, J., Zhang, S., Wei, F.; Dai, J.; Zhang, S.;
Wei, F. (17 October 2011). "Evidence of cellulose metabolism by the
giant panda gut microbiome". Proceedings of the National Academy of
Sciences. 108 (43): 17714–17719. Bibcode:2011PNAS..10817714Z.
doi:10.1073/pnas.1017956108. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors
^ "BBC Nature — Dung eater videos, news and facts". Bbc.co.uk.
^ a b c "Giant Panda Facts". nationalzoo.si.edu. National Zoological
Park. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
^ a b Dierenfeld, E. S.; Hintz, H. F.; Robertson, J. B.; Van Soest, P.
J.; Oftedal, O. T. (1982). "Utilization of bamboo by the giant panda".
Journal of Nutrition. 112 (4): 636–641. PMID 6279804.
^ Finley, T. G.; Sikes, Robert S.; Parsons, Jennifer L.; Rude, Brian
J.; Bissell, Heidi A.; Ouellette, John R. (2011). "Energy
digestibility of giant pandas on bamboo-only and on supplemented
Zoo Biology. 30 (2): 121–133. doi:10.1002/zoo.20340.
^ "Panda tests bring population hope". BBC. 20 June 2006. Retrieved 28
^ a b c Ciochon, Russell L.; Eaves-Johnson, K. Lindsay (20 July 2007).
"Bamboozled! The Curious Natural History of the Giant Panda Family".
Scitizen. Archived from the original on 21 July 2007. Retrieved 22
^ a b Jin, C; Ciochon, R. L.; Dong, W; Hunt Jr, R. M.; Liu, J; Jaeger,
M; Zhu, Q (2007). "The first skull of the earliest giant panda".
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States
of America. 104 (26): 10932–10937. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10410932J.
doi:10.1073/pnas.0704198104. PMC 1904166 .
^ a b c Zhao, S; Zheng, P; Dong, S; Zhan, X; Wu, Q; Guo, X; Hu, Y; He,
W; Zhang, S; Fan, W; Zhu, L; Li, D; Zhang, X; Chen, Q; Zhang, H;
Zhang, Z; Jin, X; Zhang, J; Yang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wei, F (2013).
"Whole-genome sequencing of giant pandas provides insights into
demographic history and local adaptation". Nature Genetics. 45 (1):
67–71. doi:10.1038/ng.2494. PMID 23242367.
^ a b Li, R; Fan, W; Tian, G; Zhu, H; He, L; Cai, J; Huang, Q; Cai, Q;
Li, B; Bai, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Y; Wang, W; Li, J; Wei, F; Li, H;
Jian, M; Li, J; Zhang, Z; Nielsen, R; Li, D; Gu, W; Yang, Z; Xuan, Z;
Ryder, O. A.; Leung, F. C.; Zhou, Y; Cao, J; Sun, X; et al. (2010).
"The sequence and de novo assembly of the giant panda genome". Nature.
463 (7279): 311–317. doi:10.1038/nature08696. PMC 3951497 .
^ a b Jin, K; Xue, Chenyi; Wu, Xiaoli; Qian, Jinyi; Zhu, Yong; Yang,
Zhen; Yonezawa, Takahiro; Crabbe, M. James C.; Cao, Ying; Hasegawa,
Masami; Zhong, Yang; Zheng, Yufang (2011). "Why does the giant panda
eat bamboo? A comparative analysis of appetite-reward-related genes
among mammals". PLoS ONE. 6 (7): 22602. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...622602J.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022602. PMC 3144909 .
^ Li, De-Zhu; Guo, Zhenhua; Stapleton, Chris (2007). "Fargesia
dracocephala". In Wu, Z. Y.; Raven, P.H.; Hong, D.Y. Flora of China.
22. Beijing: Science Press; St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden
Press. p. 93.
^ Li, De-Zhu; Guo, Zhenhua; Stapleton, Chris (2007). "Fargesia rufa".
In Wu, Z. Y.; Raven, P.H.; Hong, D.Y. Flora of China. 22. Beijing:
Science Press; St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
^ Dolberg, Frands (1 August 1992). "Progress in the utilization of
urea-ammonia treated crop residues: biological and socio-economic
aspects of animal production and application of the technology on
small farms". University of Arhus. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
^ Lumpkin & Seidensticker 2007, pp. 63–64 (page numbers as
per the 2002 edition)
^ "Pandas roam to find better bamboo". Australian Geographic. 25 July
2014. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
^ "Predator of giant panda". WWF.
^ Schaller, G.B., Jinchu, H., Wenshi, P., and Jing, Z. (1985). The
giant pandas of Wolong. Chicago and London: University of Chicago
Press. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ a b "Panda behavior & habitat". World Wildlife Federation China.
Archived from the original on 7 June 2008. Retrieved 16 June
^ "Giant Panda". National Zoological Park. Retrieved 17 July
^ Dudley, Karen (1997). Giant Pandas. Untamed world (illustrated ed.).
Weigl Educational Publishers. p. 23.
^ Pandas Live by a Different Rhythm published on 08/07/2015 by
Michigan State Univ.
^ Paul Massicot (13 February 2007). "
Animal Info – Giant Panda".
Animal Info. Retrieved 17 June 2008.
^ Deborah Smith Bailey (January 2004). "Understanding the giant
panda". American Psychological Association.
^ "Teenager hospitalized after panda attack in Chinese zoo". Fox
News/Associated Press. 23 October 2007.
^ "Panda attacks man in Chinese zoo". BBC News. 22 November
Giant panda in
China bites third victim".
CNN News. 10 January
Animal Info – Giant Panda". Retrieved 29 May 2009.
^ "National Zoo's Giant Panda Undergoes Artificial Insemination". NBC.
Associated Press. 19 March 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
^ Prapanya, Narunart (25 January 2006). "'Panda porn' to encourage
mating". Time Warner. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
^ "Pandas unexcited by Viagra". BBC News. BBC. 9 September 2002.
Retrieved 13 April 2008.
^ "Giant Panda Reproduction" (PDF). National Zoological Park. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
^ a b Kleiman, Devra G. "Giant Panda Reproduction". Archived from the
original on 7 August 2008. Retrieved 14 April 2008.
^ Ruane, Michael E.; Koh, Elizabeth; Weil, Martin (23 August 2015).
"National Zoo's giant panda Mei Xiang gives birth to two cubs hours
apart". Washington Post. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
^ "Panda Facts". Pandas International. Archived from the original on
24 September 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2015.
^ Dudley, Karen (1997). Giant Pandas. Untamed world (illustrated ed.).
Weigl Educational Publishers. p. 26.
^ Guinness World Records 2013, Page 050, Hardcover Edition.
^ "Panda Update: September Cub Exam". Discovery Communications, LLC. 4
May 2006. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
^ a b c "Baby panda born from frozen sperm". BBC. 25 July 2009.
Retrieved 26 July 2009.
^ a b "World's 1st giant panda born from frozen sperm in SW China".
Xinhua News Agency. 24 July 2009. Archived from the original on 26
December 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
^ a b "First panda cub born using frozen sperm". The Irish Times. 25
July 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
^ a b Tran, Tini (24 July 2009). "
China announces first panda from
frozen sperm". USA TODAY. Retrieved 24 January 2011.
^ "Rare panda triplets born in China". cbc.ca. 12 August 2014.
^ Chen, D. Y.; Wen, D. C.; Zhang, Y. P.; Sun, Q. Y.; Han, Z. M.; Liu,
Z. H.; Shi, P.; Li, J. S.; Xiangyu, J. G.; Lian, L.; Kou, Z. H.; Wu,
Y. Q.; Chen, Y. C.; Wang, P. Y.; Zhang, H. M. (2002). "Interspecies
implantation and mitochondria fate of panda-rabbit cloned embryos".
Biology of Reproduction. 67 (2): 637–642.
doi:10.1095/biolreprod67.2.637. PMID 12135908.
^ a b Schaller 1993, p. 61
^ Shuowen Jiezi, Chapter 10, radical 豸:
"貘：似熊而黃黑色，出蜀中" ("Mo: like bear, but
yellow-and-black, comes from Shu").
^ Erya, Chapter "釋獸" ("About animals"): "貘，白豹" (Mo, white
China Giant Panda Museum: Historical Records in Ancient China.
Supposed Chinese historical terminology appears in the Chinese version
of this article, 我国古代的历史记载 Archived 6 July 2012 at
the Wayback Machine.
^ Duyvendak, J.J.L. (1939). "The True Dates of the Chinese Maritime
Expeditions in the Early Fifteenth Century The True Dates of the
Chinese Maritime Expeditions in the Early Fifteenth Century". T'oung
Pao, Second Series. 34 (5): 402. JSTOR 4527170
^ Watson, DA. "The Panda Lady:
Ruth Harkness (Part 1)". Female
explorers. Retrieved 1 February 2007.
^ "Giant Pandas Through Singapore. Rare Animals from Wilds of China.
Will be First to Reach Europe in Captivity". Straits Times. 27
November 1938. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
^ Austin, A. B. (8 January 1939). "How Giant Pandas Arrived in
London". Straits Times. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
^ China's Panda Politics. Newsweek. 15 October 2007. Retrieved 23 May
2008. Archived 10 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
China sends panda peace offering. The Guardian. 28 December 2008.
^ "Panda Poop Might
Help Turn Plants Into Fuel".
News.nationalgeographic.com. 2013-09-10. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
^ Li, Renqiang; Xu, Ming; Wong, Michelle Hang Gi (February 2015).
"Climate change threatens giant panda protection in the 21st century".
Biological Conservation. 182: 93–101.
^ The Panda is still endangered species, and the conservation efforts
still need to be reinforced State Forestry Administration of the
People's Republic of
China (in Chinese)
^ Pandas gain world heritage status BBC News
^ Panda sanctuaries now World Heritage sites United Press
^ a b Chris Packham: 'Giant pandas should be allowed to die out'.
Telegraph.co.uk. 22 September 2009.
^ a b Beyond cute and cuddly. The Australian. 10 November 2007.
^ "TV Packham says sorry for 'ditch pandas' blast". Daily Mirror. UK.
23 September 2009. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
^ Pimm, Stuart L.; Li, Binbin V. (2015). "China's endemic vertebrates
sheltering under the protective umbrella of the giant panda".
Conservation Biology. 30 (2): 329–339. doi:10.1111/cobi.12618.
^ "Earthwatch: On the Trail of Giant Panda".
^ Schaller pg.62.
^ "Giant Panda: Overview". World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved 26 October
^ a b Goodman, Brenda (12 February 2006). "Eats Shoots, Leaves and
Much of Zoos' Budgets". The New York Times. Atlanta. Retrieved 9
Zoo negotiates lower price to rent bears from China".
SignOnSanDiego.com. 13 December 2008.
Animal Info – Giant Panda". www.animalinfo.org. Retrieved
^ a b "China's panda population increases by 17 per cent, major census
finds". Retrieved 2015-09-02.
^ Brooks, Melody. "Summary – Giant Panda (
Fact Sheet, 2001 – ResearchGuides at International Environment
Library Consortium". ielc.libguides.com. Retrieved 2015-09-02.
^ "How many are left in the wild?". wwf.panda.org. Retrieved
^ a b "Panda Census 2013 Wild Panda Population Increases to 1,864
Pandas International". www.pandasinternational.org. Retrieved
^ a b Edwards, Guy. "Panda discovered in 1927 was once as elusive as
Bigfoot Lunch Club. Archived from
the original on 11 March 2018. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
^ Nickell, Joe (January 2018). "The Giant Panda: Discovered in the
Land of Myth".
Skeptical Inquirer. 42 (1): 12-14.
^ "Remains Of Earliest Giant Panda Discovered". ScienceDaily.
ScienceDaily. June 19, 2007. Archived from the original on 11 March
2018. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
AFP (via Discovery Channel) (2006, 20 June). Panda Numbers Exceed
Associated Press (via CNN) (2006). Article link.
Catton, Chris (1990). Pandas. Christopher Helm.
Friends of the National
Zoo (2006). Panda Cam: A Nation Watches Tai
Shan the Panda Cub Grow. New York: Fireside Books.
Goodman, Brenda (2006, 12 February). Pandas Eat Up Much of Zoos'
Budgets. The New York Times.
Lumpkin, Susan; Seidensticker, John (2007). Giant Pandas. London:
Collins. ISBN 0-06-120578-8. (An earlier edition is
available as The Smithsonian Book of Giant Pandas, Smithsonian
Institution Press, 2002, ISBN 1-58834-013-9.)
Panda Facts At a Glance (N.d.). www.wwfchina.org. WWF China.
Ryder, Joanne (2001). Little panda: The World Welcomes Hua Mei at the
San Diego Zoo. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Schaller, George B. (1993). The Last Panda. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-73628-8. (There are also several
Wan, Qiu-Hong; Wu, Hua; Fang, Sheng-Guo (2005). "A New
Giant Panda (
Ailuropoda melanoleuca) from Shaanxi, China". Journal of
Mammalogy. 86 (2): 397–402. doi:10.1644/BRB-226.1.
Warren, Lynne (July 2006). "Panda, Inc." National Geographic. (About
Mei Xiang, Tai Shan and the Wolong Panda Research Facility in Chengdu
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Giant panda (category)
Wikispecies has information related to
Giant panda news, and video clips from BBC programmes past
Panda Pioneer: the release of the first captive-bred panda 'Xiang
Xiang' in 2006
WWF – environmental conservation organization
Pandas International – panda conservation group
Zoo Live Panda Cams – Baby Panda Tai Shan and mother Mei
NPR News 2007/08/20 – Panda Romance Stems From Bamboo
View the panda genome on Ensembl.
Texts and pictures of the Panda exhibition at the Museum für
African palm civet
African palm civet (N. binotata)
Marsh mongoose (A. paludinosus)
Bushy-tailed mongoose (B. crassicauda)
Jackson's mongoose (B. jacksoni)
Black-footed mongoose (B. nigripes)
Alexander's kusimanse (C. alexandri)
Angolan kusimanse (C. ansorgei)
Common kusimanse (C. obscurus)
Flat-headed kusimanse (C. platycephalus)
Yellow mongoose (C. penicillata)
Pousargues's mongoose (D. dybowskii)
Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose (G. flavescens)
Black mongoose (G. nigrata)
Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose (G. ochracea)
Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose (G. pulverulenta)
Slender mongoose (G. sanguinea)
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose (H. hirtula)
Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose (H. parvula)
Short-tailed mongoose (H. brachyurus)
Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose (H. edwardsii)
Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose (H. fuscus)
Egyptian mongoose (H. ichneumon)
Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose (H. javanicus)
Long-nosed mongoose (H. naso)
Collared mongoose (H. semitorquatus)
Ruddy mongoose (H. smithii)
Crab-eating mongoose (H. urva)
Stripe-necked mongoose (H. vitticollis)
White-tailed mongoose (I. albicauda)
Liberian mongoose (L. kuhni)
Gambian mongoose (M. gambianus)
Banded mongoose (M. mungo)
Selous' mongoose (P. selousi)
Meller's mongoose (R. melleri)
Meerkat (S. suricatta)
Spotted hyena (C. crocuta)
Brown hyena (H. brunnea)
Striped hyena (H. hyaena)
Aardwolf (P. cristatus)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Small family listed below
Cheetah (A. jubatus)
Caracal (C. caracal)
African golden cat
African golden cat (C. aurata)
Bay cat (C. badia)
Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat (C. temminckii)
European wildcat (F. silvestris)
African wildcat (F. lybica)
Jungle cat (F. chaus)
Black-footed cat (F. nigripes)
Sand cat (F. margarita)
Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti)
Domestic cat (F. catus)
Ocelot (L. pardalis)
Margay (L. wiedii)
Pampas cat (L. colocola)
Geoffroy's cat (L. geoffroyi)
Kodkod (L. guigna)
Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat (L. jacobita)
Oncilla (L. tigrinus)
Southern tigrina (L. guttulus)
Serval (L. serval)
Canadian lynx (L. canadensis)
Eurasian lynx (L. lynx)
Iberian lynx (L. pardinus)
Bobcat (L. rufus)
Pallas's cat (O. manul)
Marbled cat (P. marmorata)
Fishing cat (P. viverrinus)
Leopard cat (P. bengalensis)
Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis)
Flat-headed cat (P. planiceps)
Rusty-spotted cat (P. rubiginosus)
Cougar (P. concolor)
Jaguarundi (H. yagouaroundi)
Lion (P. leo)
Jaguar (P. onca)
Leopard (P. pardus)
Tiger (P. tigris)
Snow leopard (P. uncia)
Clouded leopard (N. nebulosa)
Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard (N. diardi)
Viverridae (includes Civets)
Binturong (A. binturong)
Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet (A. trivirgata)
Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet (M. musschenbroekii)
Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet (P. larvata)
Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus)
Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)
Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni)
Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)
Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet (C. owstoni)
Otter civet (C. bennettii)
Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet (D. hosei)
Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet (H. derbyanus)
Banded linsang (P. linsang)
Spotted linsang (P. pardicolor)
African civet (C. civetta)
Abyssinian genet (G. abyssinica)
Angolan genet (G. angolensis)
Bourlon's genet (G. bourloni)
Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet (G. cristata)
Common genet (G. genetta)
Johnston's genet (G. johnstoni)
Rusty-spotted genet (G. maculata)
Pardine genet (G. pardina)
Aquatic genet (G. piscivora)
King genet (G. poensis)
Servaline genet (G. servalina)
Haussa genet (G. thierryi)
Cape genet (G. tigrina)
Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet (G. victoriae)
African linsang (P. richardsonii)
Leighton's linsang (P. leightoni)
Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet (V. civettina)
Large-spotted civet (V. megaspila)
Malayan civet (V. tangalunga)
Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet (V. zibetha)
Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet (V. indica)
Fossa (C. ferox)
Eastern falanouc (E. goudotii)
Western falanouc (E. major)
Malagasy civet (F. fossana)
Ring-tailed mongoose (G. elegans)
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose (G. fasciata)
Grandidier's mongoose (G. grandidieri)
Narrow-striped mongoose (M. decemlineata)
Brown-tailed mongoose (S. concolor)
Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)
Caniformia (cont. below)
Giant panda (A. melanoleuca)
Sun bear (H. malayanus)
Sloth bear (M. ursinus)
Spectacled bear (T. ornatus)
American black bear
American black bear (U. americanus)
Brown bear (U. arctos)
Polar bear (U. maritimus)
Asian black bear
Asian black bear (U. thibetanus)
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk (C. chinga)
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk (C. humboldtii)
American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk (C. leuconotus)
Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk (C. semistriatus)
Hooded skunk (M. macroura)
Striped skunk (M. mephitis)
Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger (M. javanensis)
Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger (M. marchei)
Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk (S. angustifrons)
Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk (S. gracilis)
Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk (S. putorius)
Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk (S. pygmaea)
Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo (B. alleni)
Northern olingo (B. gabbii)
Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo (B. medius)
Olinguito (B. neblina)
Ring-tailed cat (B. astutus)
Cacomistle (B. sumichrasti)
White-nosed coati (N. narica)
South American coati
South American coati (N. nasua)
Western mountain coati (N. olivacea)
Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)
Kinkajou (P. flavus)
Crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivorus)
Raccoon (P. lotor)
Cozumel raccoon (P. pygmaeus)
Red panda (A. fulgens)
Caniformia (cont. above)
(includes fur seals
and sea lions)
South American fur seal
South American fur seal (A. australis)
Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri)
Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal (A. galapagoensis)
Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella)
Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal (A. philippii)
Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal (A. pusillus)
Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal (A. townsendi)
Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal (A. tropicalis)
Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal (C. ursinus)
Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion (E. jubatus)
Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion (N. cinerea)
South American sea lion
South American sea lion (O. flavescens)
New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion (P. hookeri)
California sea lion
California sea lion (Z. californianus)
Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion (Z. wollebaeki)
Walrus (O. rosmarus)
Hooded seal (C. cristata)
Bearded seal (E. barbatus)
Gray seal (H. grypus)
Ribbon seal (H. fasciata)
Leopard seal (H. leptonyx)
Weddell seal (L. weddellii)
Crabeater seal (L. carcinophagus)
Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal (M. angustirostris)
Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal (M. leonina)
Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal (M. monachus)
Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal (M. schauinslandi)
Ross seal (O. rossi)
Harp seal (P. groenlandicus)
Spotted seal (P. largha)
Harbor seal (P. vitulina)
Caspian seal (P. caspica)
Ringed seal (P. hispida)
Baikal seal (P. sibirica)
Large family listed below
Large family listed below
Canidae (includes dogs)
Short-eared dog (A. microtis)
Side-striped jackal (C. adustus)
African golden wolf
African golden wolf (C. anthus)
Golden jackal (C. aureus)
Coyote (C. latrans)
Gray wolf (C. lupus)
Black-backed jackal (C. mesomelas)
Red wolf (C. rufus)
Ethiopian wolf (C. simensis)
Crab-eating fox (C. thous)
Maned wolf (C. brachyurus)
Dhole (C. alpinus)
Culpeo (L. culpaeus)
Darwin's fox (L. fulvipes)
South American gray fox
South American gray fox (L. griseus)
Pampas fox (L. gymnocercus)
Sechuran fox (L. sechurae)
Hoary fox (L. vetulus)
African wild dog
African wild dog (L. pictus)
Raccoon dog (N. procyonoides)
Bat-eared fox (O. megalotis)
Bush dog (S. venaticus)
Gray fox (U. cinereoargenteus)
Island fox (U. littoralis)
Bengal fox (V. bengalensis)
Blanford's fox (V. cana)
Cape fox (V. chama)
Corsac fox (V. corsac)
Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox (V. ferrilata)
Arctic fox (V. lagopus)
Kit fox (V. macrotis)
Pale fox (V. pallida)
Rüppell's fox (V. rueppelli)
Swift fox (V. velox)
Red fox (V. vulpes)
Fennec fox (V. zerda)
African clawless otter
African clawless otter (A. capensis)
Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter (A. cinerea)
Sea otter (E. lutris)
Spotted-necked otter (H. maculicollis)
North American river otter
North American river otter (L. canadensis)
Marine otter (L. felina)
Neotropical otter (L. longicaudis)
Southern river otter
Southern river otter (L. provocax)
Eurasian otter (L. lutra)
Hairy-nosed otter (L. sumatrana)
Smooth-coated otter (L. perspicillata)
Giant otter (P. brasiliensis)
Hog badger (A. collaris)
Tayra (E. barbara)
Lesser grison (G. cuja)
Greater grison (G. vittata)
Wolverine (G. gulo)
Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat (I. libyca)
Striped polecat (I. striatus)
Patagonian weasel (L. patagonicus)
American marten (M. americana)
Yellow-throated marten (M. flavigula)
Beech marten (M. foina)
Nilgiri marten (M. gwatkinsii)
European pine marten
European pine marten (M. martes)
Japanese marten (M. melampus)
Sable (M. zibellina)
Fisher (P. pennanti)
Japanese badger (M. anakuma)
Asian badger (M. leucurus)
European badger (M. meles)
Honey badger (M. capensis)
Bornean ferret-badger (M. everetti)
Chinese ferret-badger (M. moschata)
Javan ferret-badger (M. orientalis)
Burmese ferret-badger (M. personata)
(Weasels and Ferrets)
Amazon weasel (M. africana)
Mountain weasel (M. altaica)
Stoat (M. erminea)
Steppe polecat (M. eversmannii)
Colombian weasel (M. felipei)
Long-tailed weasel (M. frenata)
Japanese weasel (M. itatsi)
Yellow-bellied weasel (M. kathiah)
European mink (M. lutreola)
Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel (M. lutreolina)
Black-footed ferret (M. nigripes)
Least weasel (M. nivalis)
Malayan weasel (M. nudipes)
European polecat (M. putorius)
Siberian weasel (M. sibirica)
Back-striped weasel (M. strigidorsa)
Egyptian weasel (M. subpalmata)
American mink (N. vison)
African striped weasel
African striped weasel (P. albinucha)
American badger (T. taxus)
Marbled polecat (V. peregusna)