Ghazni (Persian: غزنی; Pashto: غزني) is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in eastern Afghanistan. The province contains 19 districts, encompassing over a thousand villages and roughly 1.3 million people, making it the 5th most populous province. The city of Ghazni serves as the capital. It lies on the important Kabul–Kandahar Highway, and has historically functioned as an important trade center. The Ghazni Airport is located next to the city of Ghazni and provides limited domestic flights to Afghanistan's capital, Kabul.
Recent geologic surveys have indicated Ghazni may have one of the world's richest deposits of lithium. Gold and copper were also found in the Zarkashan Mine of Ghazni province with an estimated value of US$30 billion. Whilst lithium deposits valued at around US$60 billion, were discovered in four eastern and western provinces of Afghanistan, together with other newly (2010) discovered mineral deposits, the total value estimate of US$3 trillion is based on a survey of 30 percent of the country's land mass.
Governor Musa Khan Akbarzada stated that key development projects would be launched in southern Ghazni in 2012 ahead of the Asian capital of the Islamic civilization for 2013. The projects include the construction of a proposed Islamic cultural centre, a mosque, a covered bazaar, a gymnasium, a guesthouse, an airport, a five-star hotel and two 27 story-buildings and others. More than 2,000 people would find work opportunities on the $30 million projects; $10 million would be provided by the central government, $7 million by the Polish provincial reconstruction team (PRT) and $3 million by the US. A 40-kilometre road would be asphalted by the end of the 2012.
Ghazni province is to be connected to the national electrical distribution system via North-east Power System (NEPS). The construction of transmission line would begin from east Chimtala to Ghazni using high voltage transmission network (2 x 220kV transmission lines and power substations). The project is to be implemented by USFOR-A and USAID costing $101 million. However the Asian Development Bank agreed to complete the transmission line from Chimtala to Dast-i-Barchi; hence reducing Project scope to begin from Dast-i-Barchi instead of Chimtala. The implemention of this project was delayed due to USACE being unable to award a contract because bids received for the project were more than double estimated costs, due largely to security concerns resulting from the risks associated with implementing firm-fixed-price contracts in a kinetic environment, poor cost estimates, and unrealistic periods of performance. USACE is re-procuring both projects and plans to award contracts in June or July 2012, which will delay the project's execution schedules between 6 and 15 months. Furthermore, the delays in transferring funds contributed to delays in project execution. This line is a key part of a planned NEPS to SEPS connection to transport power to Kandaharto replace the expensive diesel-fueled power plants
The Kabul–Kandahar Highway runs through the province.
The Ghazni Airport began operations in April 2012 but does not have any commercial flights as of August, 2018. Residents in neighbouring provinces, such as Logar, Paktika, Maidan Shahr and Zabul, would also benefit from the airport.