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The Ghaznavid dynasty (Persian: غزنویان‎ ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate[10] Muslim
Muslim
dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin,[11] at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana
Transoxiana
and the northwest Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
from 977 to 1186.[12][13][14] The dynasty was founded by Sabuktigin
Sabuktigin
upon his succession to rule of the region of Ghazna
Ghazna
after the death of his father-in-law, Alp Tigin, who was a breakaway ex-general of the Samanid Empire
Empire
from Balkh, north of the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
in Greater Khorasan.[15] Although the dynasty was of Central Asian
Central Asian
Turkic origin, it was thoroughly Persianised in terms of language, culture, literature and habits[16][17][18][19] and hence is regarded by some as a "Persian dynasty".[20] Sabuktigin's son, Mahmud of Ghazni, declared independence from the Samanid Empire[21] and expanded the Ghaznavid Empire
Empire
to the Amu Darya, the Indus River
Indus River
and the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
in the East and to Rey and Hamadan
Hamadan
in the west. Under the reign of Mas'ud I, the Ghaznavid dynasty began losing control over its western territories to the Seljuq dynasty
Seljuq dynasty
after the Battle of Dandanaqan, resulting in a restriction of its holdings to modern-day Afghanistan, Punjab, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Balochistan.[22][23] In 1151, Sultan
Sultan
Bahram Shah lost Ghazni
Ghazni
to the Ghurid king Ala al-Din Husayn.

Contents

1 Rise to power 2 Domination

2.1 Sabuktigin 2.2 Mahmud son of Sabuktigin

3 Decline

3.1 Twin sons of Mahmud 3.2 Ibrahim 3.3 Masud 3.4 Sultan
Sultan
Bahram Shah

4 Military and tactics 5 State and culture 6 Legacy 7 List of rulers 8 Family tree of the Ghaznavid sultans 9 See also 10 Footnotes 11 Further reading 12 External links

Rise to power Two military families arose from the Turkic slave-guards of the Samanid Empire, the Simjurids and Ghaznavids, who ultimately proved disastrous to the Samanids. The Simjurids received an appanage in the Kohistan region of eastern Khorasan. The Samanid generals Alp Tigin and Abu al-Hasan Simjuri competed for the governorship of Khorasan and control of the Samanid Empire
Empire
by placing on the throne emirs they could dominate after the death of Abd al-Malik I in 961. His death created a succession crisis between his brothers. A court party instigated by men of the scribal class — civilian ministers rather than Turkic generals — rejected the candidacy of Alp Tigin
Alp Tigin
for the Samanid throne. Mansur I
Mansur I
was installed instead, and Alp Tigin prudently retired to south of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush, where he captured Ghazna and became the ruler of the city as a Samanid authority.[24] The Simjurids enjoyed control of Khorasan south of the Amu Darya
Amu Darya
but were hard-pressed by a third great Iranian dynasty, the Buyid dynasty, and were unable to survive the collapse of the Samanids
Samanids
and the subsequent rise of the Ghaznavids. The struggles of the Turkic slave generals for mastery of the throne with the help of shifting allegiance from the court's ministerial leaders both demonstrated and accelerated the Samanid decline. Samanid weakness attracted into Transoxiana
Transoxiana
the Karluks, a Turkic people who had recently converted to Islam. They occupied Bukhara
Bukhara
in 992, establishing in Transoxania the Kara-Khanid Khanate.[citation needed] After Alp Tigin's death in 963, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim, followed by his slave Sabuktigin, took the throne. Sabuktigin's son Mahmud of Ghazni made an agreement with the Kara-Khanid Khanate
Kara-Khanid Khanate
whereby the Amu Darya was recognised as their mutual boundary.[citation needed] Domination Sabuktigin Main article: Sabuktigin Sabuktigin, son-in-law of Alp Tigin
Alp Tigin
and founder of the Ghaznavid Empire, began expanding it by capturing Samanid and Kabul Shahi territories, including most of what is now Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and part of Pakistan. The 16th century Persian historian, Firishta, records Sabuktigin's genealogy as descended from the Sasanian emperors: "Subooktu-geen, the son of Jookan, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Ferooz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia." However, modern historians believe this was an attempt to connect himself with the history of old Persia.[25] After the death of Sabuktigin, his son Ismail claimed the throne for a temporary period, but he was defeated and captured by Mahmud in 998 at the Battle of Ghazni. Mahmud son of Sabuktigin Main article: Mahmud of Ghazni In 997, Mahmud, another son of Sebuktigin, succeeded the throne,[26] and Ghazni
Ghazni
and the Ghaznavid dynasty have become perpetually associated with him. He completed the conquest of the Samanid and Shahi
Shahi
territories, including the Ismaili
Ismaili
Kingdom of Multan, Sindh, as well as some Buwayhid territory. By all accounts, the rule of Mahmud was the golden age and height of the Ghaznavid Empire. Mahmud carried out seventeen expeditions through northern India
India
to establish his control and set up tributary states, and his raids also resulted in the looting of a great deal of plunder. He established his authority from the borders of Ray to Samarkand, from the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
to the Yamuna. During Mahmud's reign (997–1030), the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
settled 4,000 Turkmen families near Farana in Khorasan. By 1027, due to the Turkmen raiding neighbouring settlements, the governor of Tus, Abu l'Alarith Arslan Jadhib, led military strikes against them. The Turkmen were defeated and scattered to neighbouring lands.[27] Although, as late as 1033, Ghaznavid governor Tash Farrash executed fifty Turkmen chiefs for raids into Khorasan.[28] The wealth brought back from the Mahmud's Indian expeditions to Ghazni was enormous, and contemporary historians (e.g. Abolfazl Beyhaghi, Ferdowsi) give glowing descriptions of the magnificence of the capital and of the conqueror's munificent support of literature. Mahmud died in 1030. Decline Twin sons of Mahmud Mahmud left the empire to his son Mohammed, who was mild, affectionate and soft. His brother, Mas'ud, asked for three provinces that he had won by his sword, but his brother did not consent. Mas'ud had to fight his brother, and he became king, blinding and imprisoning Mohammed as punishment. Mas'ud was unable to preserve the empire and following a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Dandanaqan
Battle of Dandanaqan
in 1040, he lost all the Ghaznavid lands in Iran
Iran
and Central Asia to the Seljuks, plunging the realm into a "time of troubles".[15][29] His last act was to collect all his treasures from his forts in hope of assembling an army and ruling from India, but his own forces plundered the wealth and he proclaimed his blind brother as king again. The two brothers now exchanged positions: Mohammed was elevated from prison to the throne, while Mas'ud was consigned to a dungeon after a reign of ten years and was assassinated in 1040. Mas'ud's son, Madood, was governor of Balkh, and in 1040, after hearing of his father's death, he came to Ghazni
Ghazni
to claim his kingdom. He fought with the sons of the blind Mohammed and was victorious. However, the empire soon disintegrated and most kings did not submit to Madood. In a span of nine years, four more kings claimed the throne of Ghazni. Ibrahim In 1058, Mas'ud's son Ibrahim, a great calligrapher who wrote the Koran with his own pen, became king. Ibrahim re-established a truncated empire on a firmer basis by arriving at a peace agreement with the Seljuks and a restoration of cultural and political linkages.[29] Under Ibrahim and his successors the empire enjoyed a period of sustained tranquility. Shorn of its western land, it was increasingly sustained by riches accrued from raids across Northern India, where it faced stiff resistance from Indian rulers such as the Paramara
Paramara
of Malwa
Malwa
and the Gahadvala
Gahadvala
of Kannauj.[29] He ruled until 1098. Masud Masud III became king for sixteen years, with no major event in his lifetime. Signs of weakness in the state became apparent when he died in 1115, with internal strife between his sons ending with the ascension of Sultan
Sultan
Bahram Shah as a Seljuk vassal.[29] Bahram shah defeated his brother Arslan for the throne at the Battle of Ghazni
Ghazni
in 1117. Sultan
Sultan
Bahram Shah

Coinage of Mas'ud I of Ghazni, derived from Shahi
Shahi
designs, with the name of Mas'ud in Arabic.

Sultan
Sultan
Bahram Shah was the last Ghaznavid King, ruling Ghazni, the first and main Ghaznavid capital, for thirty five years. In 1148 he was defeated in Ghazni
Ghazni
by Sayf al-Din Suri, but he recaptured the capital the next year. Ala al-Din Husayn, a Ghorid
Ghorid
King, conquered the city in 1151, for the revenge of his brother Kutubbuddin's death, who was son-in-law of the king but was publicly punished and killed for a minor offence. Ala al-Din Husayn
Ala al-Din Husayn
then razed the city and burned it for 7 days, after which he became known as "Jahānsuz" (World Burner). Ghazni
Ghazni
was restored to the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
by the intervention of the Seljuks, who came to the aid of Bahram.[29] Ghaznavid struggles with the Ghurids continued in subsequent years as they nibbled away at Ghaznavid territory, and Ghazni
Ghazni
and Zabulistan
Zabulistan
was lost to a group of Oghuz Turks
Oghuz Turks
before captured by the Ghurids.[29] Ghaznavid power in northwestern India
India
continued until the Ghurid conquest of Lahore
Lahore
from Khusrau Malik in 1186.[29] Military and tactics The core of the Ghaznavid army was primarily made up of Turks,[30] as well as thousands of native Afghans who were trained and assembled from the area south of the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
in what is now Afghanistan.[31][32] During the rule of Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud, a new, larger military training center was established in Bost (now Lashkar Gah). This area was known for blacksmiths where war weapons were made. After capturing and conquering the Punjab region, the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
began to employ Hindus in their army.[33][34] Like the other dynasties that rose out of the remains of the Abbasid Caliphate, the Ghaznavid administrative traditions and military practice came from the Abbasids. The Arabian horses, at least in the earliest campaign were still substansial in Ghaznavid military incursions especially in dashing raids deep into hostile territory. As evidenced there is a record about '6000 Arab horse' were sent against king Anandapala in 1008 AD and the existence of this Arabian cavalry persist until 1118 under Ghaznavid governor in Lahore.[35] There were, however, unique changes adopted that met the demands of the geographic situation of the Ghaznavid dynasty. Due to their access to the Indus-Ganges plains, the Ghaznavids, during the 11th and 12th centuries, developed the first Muslim
Muslim
army to use war elephants in battle. The elephants were protected by armour plating on their fronts. The use of these elephants in other regions that the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
fought in, particularly in Central Asia, to which the elephant was a foreign weapon.[36][clarification needed] State and culture See also: List of Ghaznavid Viziers

Ghaznavid era art: Free-blown, wheel-cut carafes. First half of 11th century. Excavated at Teppe Madraseh, Nishapur, Iran. New York Metropolitan Museum of Art.

According to Clifford Edmund Bosworth:

The Ghaznavid sultans were ethnically Turkish, but the sources, all in Arabic or Persian, do not allow us to estimate the persistence of Turkish practices and ways of thought amongst them. Yet given the fact that the essential basis of the Ghaznavids’ military support always remained their Turkish soldiery, there must always have been a need to stay attuned to their troops’ needs and aspirations; also, there are indications of the persistence of some Turkish literary culture under the early Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
(Köprülüzade, pp. 56–57). The sources do make it clear, however, that the sultans’ exercise of political power and the administrative apparatus which gave it shape came very speedily to be within the Perso-Islamic tradition of statecraft and monarchical rule, with the ruler as a distant figure, buttressed by divine favor, ruling over a mass of traders, artisans, peasants, etc., whose prime duty was obedience in all respects but above all in the payment of taxes. The fact that the personnel of the bureaucracy which directed the day-to-day running of the state, and which raised the revenue to support the sultans’ life-style and to finance the professional army, were Persians who carried on the administrative traditions of the Samanids, only strengthened this conception of secular power.

Persianisation of the state apparatus was accompanied by the Persianisation of high culture at the Ghaznavid court... The level of literary creativity was just as high under Ebrāhīm and his successors up to Bahrāmšāh, with such poets as Abu’l-Faraj Rūnī, Sanāʾī, ʿOṯmān Moḵtārī, Masʿūd-e Saʿd-e Salmān, and Sayyed Ḥasan Ḡaznavī (Rypka, Hist. Iran. Lit., pp. 196–97; Bosworth, Later Ghaznavids, pp. 75–77, 107–10). We know from the biographical dictionaries of poets (taḏkera-ye šoʿarā) that the court in Lahore
Lahore
of Ḵosrow Malek had an array of fine poets, none of whose dīvāns has unfortunately survived, and the translator into elegant Persian prose of Ebn Moqaffaʿ’s Kalīla wa Demna, namely Abu’l-Maʿālī Naṣr-Allāh b. Moḥammad, served the sultan for a while as his chief secretary (Bosworth, Later Ghaznavids, pp. 127–28). The Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
thus present the phenomenon of a dynasty of Turkish slave origin which became culturally Persianised to a perceptibly higher degree than other contemporary dynasties of Turkish origin such as Saljuqs and Qarakhanids.[37]

Persian literary culture enjoyed a renaissance under the Ghaznavids during the 11th century.[38][39][40] The Ghaznavid court was so renowned for its support of Persian literature
Persian literature
that the poet Farrukhi traveled from his home province to work for them.[41] The poet Unsuri's short collection of poetry was dedicated to Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud and his brothers Nasr and Yaqub.[42] Another poet of the Ghaznavid court, Manuchehri, wrote numerous poems to the merits and advantages of drinking wine.[43] Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud, modelling the Samanid Bukhara
Bukhara
as a cultural center, made Ghazni
Ghazni
into a center of learning, inviting Ferdowsi
Ferdowsi
and al-Biruni. He even attempted to persuade Avicenna, but was refused.[44] Mahmud preferred that his fame and glory be publicized in Persian and hundreds of poets assembled at his court.[45] He brought whole libraries from Rayy and Isfahan to Ghazni
Ghazni
and even demanded that the Khwarizmshah court send its men of learning to Ghazni.[46] Due to his invasion of Rayy and Isfahan, Persian literary production was inaugurated in Azerbaijan and Iraq.[47] The Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
continued to develop historical writing in Persian that had been initiated by their predecessors, the Samanid Empire.[48] The historian Abu'l-Fadl Bayhaqi's Tarikh-e Beyhaqi, written in the latter half of the 11th century, is an example.[49] Although the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
were of Turkic origin and their military leaders were generally of the same stock, as a result of the original involvement of Sebuktigin
Sebuktigin
and Mahmud of Ghazni
Ghazni
in Samanid affairs and in the Samanid cultural environment, the dynasty became thoroughly Persianized, so that in practice one cannot consider their rule over Iran
Iran
one of foreign domination. They also copied their administrative system from the Samanids.[50] In terms of cultural championship and the support of Persian poets, they were more Persian than their ethnically-Iranian rivals, the Buyid dynasty, whose support of Arabic letters in preference to Persian is well known.[51] Historian Bosworth explains: "In fact with the adoption of Persian administrative and cultural ways the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
threw off their original Turkish steppe background and became largely integrated with the Perso-Islamic tradition."[52] As a result, Ghazni
Ghazni
developed into a great centre of Arabic learning.[53] With Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud's invasions of North India, Persian culture was established at Lahore, which later produced the famous poet, Masud Sa'd Salman.[54] Lahore, under the Ghaznavid rule in the 11th century, attracted Persian scholars from Khorasan, India
India
and Central Asia and became a major Persian cultural centre.[55][56] It was also during Mahmud's reign that Ghaznavid coinage began to have bilingual legends consisting of Arabic and Devanagari script.[57] The Persian culture, established by the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
in Ghazna
Ghazna
and Eastern Afghanistan, survived the Ghurid invasion in the 12th century and endured until the invasion of the Mongols.[58] Legacy At its height, the Ghaznavid empire grew to cover large parts of present-day Iran, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, all of Afghanistan, Pakistan
Pakistan
and large parts of northwest India. The Ghaznavid rulers are generally credited with spreading Islam into the Indian subcontinent. In addition to the wealth accumulated through raiding Indian cities, and exacting tribute from Indian rajas, the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
also benefited from their position as an intermediary along the trade routes between China and the Mediterranean. They were, however, unable to hold power for long and by 1040 the Seljuks had taken over their Persian domains and a century later the Ghurids took over their remaining sub-continental lands. The Nasher Khans, are said to be the descendants of the Ghaznavid dynasty.[citation needed] List of rulers

# Laqab Personal Name Reign Succession right Notes

1 Nasir-ud-din ?‬ Sabuktigin 977–997

2 No title Ismail 997–998 son of Sabuktigin

3 Yamin ad-Dawlah یمین الدولہ ابو لقاسم‬ Right-hand man of the state Mahmud 998–1030 first son of Sabuktigin

4 Jalal ad-Dawlah جلال الدولہ‬ Dignity of the state Muhammad 1030 1st reign second son of Mahmud

5 Shihab ad-Dawlah شھاب الدولہ‬ Star of the State Masud I 1030–1041 first son of Mahmud Was overthrown, imprisoned and executed, following the battle of Dandanaqan

— Jalal ad-Dawlah جلال الدولہ‬ Dignity of the state Muhammad 1041 2nd reign second son of Mahmud Raised to the throne following the removal of Masud I.

6 Shihab ad-Dawlah شھاب الدولہ‬ Star of the State Mawdud 1041–1048 son of Masud I Defeated Muhammad at the battle of Nangrahar and gained the throne.[59]

7 ? ?‬ Masud II 1048 son of Mawdud

8 Baha ad-Dawlah بھاء الدولہ ‬ ? Ali 1048–1049 son of Masud I

9 Izz ad-Dawlah عز الدولہ‬ ? Abd al-Rashid 1049–1052 fifth son of Mahmud

10 Qiwam ad-Dawlah ?‬ ? Toghrul 1052–1053 Turkish mamluk general Usurped the Ghaznavid throne after massacring Abd al-Rashid and eleven other Ghaznavid princes.[60]

11 Jamal ad-Dawlah جمال الدولہ‬ Beauty of the state Farrukh-Zad 1053–1059 son of Masud I

12 Zahir ad-Dawlah ظھیر الدولہ‬ ? Ibrahim 1059–1099 son of Masud I

13 Ala ad-Dawlah علاء الدولہ‬ ? Masud III 1099–1115 son of Ibrahim

14 Kamal ad-Dawlah کمال الدولہ‬ ? Shirzad 1115–1116 son of Masud III Murdered by his younger brother Arslan ibn Mas'ud.[61]

15 Sultan
Sultan
ad-Dawlah سلطان الدولہ‬ Sultan
Sultan
of the state Arslan-Shah 1116–1117 son of Masud III Took the throne from his older brother Shirzad, but faced a rebellion from his other brother Bahram Shah, who was supported by the sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire, Ahmad Sanjar.[62]

16 Yamin ad-Dawlah یمین الدولہ ‬ Right-hand man of the state Bahram Shah 1117–1157 son of Masud III Under Bahram-Shah, the Ghaznavid empire became a tributary of the Great Seljuq empire. Bahram was assisted by Ahmad Sanjar, sultan of the Great Seljuq empire, in securing his throne.[63]

17 Muizz ad-Dawlah معزالدولہ ‬ ? Khusrau-Shah 1157–1160 son of Bahram-Shah

18 Taj ad-Dawlah تاج الدولہ‬ Crown of the state Khusrau Malik 1160–1186 son of Khusrau-Shah

Family tree of the Ghaznavid sultans

v t e

Ghaznavid sultans family tree

 

 

 

 

 

Qara Bajkam

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sabuktigin (r. 977-997) Emir
Emir
of Ghazna

 

Bughrachuq (died 998) Governor of Herat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mahmud (r. 998-1030) Sultan
Sultan
of Ghazna

 

Nasr (997- ?) Governor of Bust

 

Ismail (r. 997-998) Emir
Emir
of Ghazna

 

Yusuf

 

Hurra-yi Kalji Princess married Mamunid ruler Ma'mun II.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Muhammad (r. 1030, 1041) Sultan
Sultan
of Ghazna

 

Mas'ud I (r. 1030-1041) Sultan
Sultan
of Ghazna

 

Abd al-Rashid (r. 1049-1052) Sultan
Sultan
of Ghazna

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

'Abd al-Rahman

 

Ahmad

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maw'dud (r. 1041-1048) Sultan
Sultan
of Ghazna

 

Ali (r. 1048-1049) Sultan
Sultan
of Ghazna

 

Farrukh-Zad (r. 1053-1059) Sultan
Sultan
of Ghazna

 

Ibrahim (r. 1059-1099) Sultan
Sultan
of Ghazna

 

Majdud

 

Mardan-shah

 

Izad-yar

 

Sa'id

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mas'ud II (r. 1048) Sultan
Sultan
of Ghazna

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mas'ud III (r. 1099-1115) Sultan
Sultan
of Ghazna

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shir-Zad (r. 1115-1116) Sultan
Sultan
of Ghazna

 

Arslan-Shah (r. 1116-1117) Sultan
Sultan
of Ghazna

 

Bahram-Shah (r. 1117-1157) Sultan
Sultan
of Ghazna

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Khusrau-Shah (r. 1157-1160) Sultan
Sultan
of Ghazna

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Khusrau Malik (r. 1160-1186) Sultan
Sultan
of Ghazna

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notes:

http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ghaznavids Table 1. Genealogical chart of the Ghaznavid rulers. C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids:994-1040, Edinburgh University Press, 1963.

See also

List of battles involving the Ghaznavid Empire History of Afghanistan List of Sunni Muslim
Muslim
dynasties

Footnotes

^ "Lahore" Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Homa Katouzian, "Iranian history and politics", Published by Routledge, 2003. pg 128: "Indeed, since the formation of the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
state in the tenth century until the fall of Qajars at the beginning of the twentieth century, most parts of the Iranian cultural regions were ruled by Turkic-speaking dynasties most of the time. At the same time, the official language was Persian, the court literature was in Persian, and most of the chancellors, ministers, and mandarins were Persian speakers of the highest learning and ability" ^ "Persian Prose Literature." World Eras. 2002. HighBeam Research. (3 September 2012);"Princes, although they were often tutored in Arabic and religious subjects, frequently did not feel as comfortable with the Arabic language
Arabic language
and preferred literature in Persian, which was either their mother tongue—as in the case of dynasties such as the Saffarids (861–1003), Samanids
Samanids
(873–1005), and Buyids (945–1055)—or was a preferred lingua franca for them—as with the later Turkish dynasties such as the Ghaznawids (977–1187) and Saljuks (1037–1194)". [1] ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids:994–1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 134. ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of world-systems research. 12 (2): 223. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 16 September 2016.  ^ Rein Taagepera
Rein Taagepera
(September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 496. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. Retrieved 16 September 2016.  ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364.  ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280.  ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162.  ^ Böwering, Gerhard; Crone, Patricia; Mirza, Mahan (January 1, 2012). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. pp. 410–411.  ^ Islamic Central Asia: an anthology of historical sources, Ed. Scott Cameron Levi and Ron Sela, (Indiana University Press, 2010), 83;The Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
were a dynasty of Turkic slave-soldiers..., "Ghaznavid Dynasty" Encyclopædia BritannicaJonathan M. Bloom, Sheila Blair, The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture, Oxford University Press, 2009, Vol.2, p.163, Online Edition, "Turkish dominated mamluk regiments...dynasty of mamluk origin (the GHAZNAVID line) carved out an empire..." ^ C.E. Bosworth: The Ghaznavids. Edinburgh, 1963 ^ C.E. Bosworth, "Ghaznavids" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition 2006 ^ C.E. Bosworth, "Ghaznavids", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition; Brill, Leiden; 2006/2007 ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, "Ghaznavid Dynasty", Online Edition 2007 ^ David Christian: A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia; Blackwell Publishing, 1998; pg. 370: "Though Turkic in origin […] Alp Tegin, Sebuk Tegin and Mahmud were all thoroughly Persianized". ^ J. Meri (Hg.), Medieval
Medieval
Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, "Ghaznavids", London u.a. 2006, p. 294: "The Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
inherited Samanid administrative, political, and cultural traditions and laid the foundations for a Persianate state in northern India. ..." ^ Sydney Nettleton Fisher and William Ochsenwald, The Middle East: a history: Volume 1, (McGraw-Hill, 1997); "Forced to flee from the Samanid domain, he captured Ghaznah and in 961 established the famed Persianate Sunnite Ghaznavid empire of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the Punjab in India". ^ Meisami, Julie Scott, Persian historiography to the end of the twelfth century, (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), 143. Nizam al-Mulk also attempted to organise the Saljuq administration according to the Persianate Ghaznavid model.. ^ B. Spuler, "The Disintegration of the Caliphate
Caliphate
in the East", in the Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. IA: The Central islamic Lands from Pre-Islamic Times to the First World War, ed. by P.M. Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970). pg 147: One of the effects of the renaissance of the Persian spirit evoked by this work was that the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
were also Persianized and thereby became a Persian dynasty. ^ The early Ghaznavids, C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 4, ed. C. E. Bosworth, (Cambridge University Press, 1975), p. 170 ^ Truths and Lies: Irony and Intrigue in the Tārīkh-i Bayhaqī, Soheila Amirsoleimani, Iranian Studies, Vol. 32, No. 2, The Uses of Guile: Literary and Historical Moments (Spring, 1999), 243. ^ Ghaznawids, B. Spuler, The Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol II, Ed. B. Lewis, C. Pellat and J. Schacht, (Brill, 1991), 1051. ^ Encyclopædia Iranica, "Ghaznavids", by C. Edmund Bosworth. December 15, 2001. Accessed July 3, 2012. ^ The Development of Persian Culture under the Early Ghaznavids, C. E. Bosworth, Iran, Vol. 6, (1968), 40. ^ John Clark Marshman. The history of India
India
... to the accession of the Mogul dynasty, page 94 ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids:994–1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 224. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids:994–1040, 225. ^ a b c d e f g Encyclopedia Iranica, "Ghaznavids", Edmund Bosworth, Online Edition 2007 ^ Andre Wink, Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World, Vol.2, (Brill, 2002), 114.  – via  Questia (subscription required) ^ Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. 2. BRILL. p. 151. ISBN 90-04-08265-4. Retrieved 24 September 2010.  ^ " Afghan and Afghanistan". Abdul Hai Habibi. alamahabibi.com. 1969. Retrieved 2012-07-01.  ^ Military Transition in Early Modern Asia ^ Military Manpower, Armies and Warfare in South Asia ^ Wink, André (2002). Al-Hind: The Slavic Kings and the Islamic conquest, 11th-13th centuries (illustrated, reprint ed.). BRILL. p. 428. ISBN 978-0-391-04174-5. Retrieved 22 June 2016.  ^ Lewis, Bernard. The World of Islam. London: Thames and Hudson. p. 205. ISBN 0-500-27624-2.  ^ C.E. Bosworth, "Ghaznavids" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition 2012. ^ The Development of Persian Culture under the Early Ghaznavids, C.E. Bosworth, Iran, Vol. 6, (1968), 44. ^ Jocelyn Sharlet, Patronage and Poetry in the Islamic World: Social Mobility and Status in the Medieval
Medieval
Middle East and Central Asia, (Tauris Academic Studies, 2011), 46. ^ Ghaznavids, E.K. Rowson, Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature, Vol.1, Ed. Julie Scott Meisami and Paul Starkey, (Routledge, 1998), 251. ^ Jocelyn Sharlet, Patronage and Poetry in the Islamic World: Social Mobility and Status in the Medieval
Medieval
Middle East and Central Asia, 27. ^ Jocelyn Sharlet, Patronage and Poetry in the Islamic World: Social Mobility and Status in the Medieval
Medieval
Middle East and Central Asia, 52. ^ The Theme of Wine-Drinking and the Concept of the Beloved in Early Persian Poetry, E. Yarshater, Studia Islamica, No. 13 (1960), 44. ^ Brian Spooner and William L. Hanaway, Literacy in the Persianate World: Writing and the Social Order, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012), 284. ^ Hail to Heydarbaba: A Comparative View of Popular Turkish & Classical Persian Poetical Languages, Hamid Notghi and Gholam-Reza Sabri-Tabrizi, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 21, No. 2 (1994), 244. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids:994–1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 132. ^ The Institution of Persian Literature and the Genealogy
Genealogy
of Bahar's "Stylistics", Wali Ahmadi, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 31, No. 2 (Nov. 2004), 146. ^ The Past in Service of the Present: Two Views of History in Medieval Persia, J. S. Meisami, Poetics Today, Vol. 14, No. 2, Cultural Processes in Muslim
Muslim
and Arab Societies: Medieval
Medieval
and Early Modern Periods (Summer, 1993), 247. ^ The Development of a Literary Canon in Medieval
Medieval
Persian Chronicles: The Triumph of Etiquette, E. A. Poliakova, Iranian Studies, Vol. 17, No. 2/3 (Spring – Summer, 1984), 241. ^ The Development of Persian Culture under the Early Ghaznavids, C.E. Bosworth, Iran, Vol. 6, (1968), 36. ^ Encyclopedia Iranica, Iran, EHSAN YARSHATER, Online Edition 2008, ([2]) ^ Clifford Edmund Bosworth, The new Islamic dynasties: a chronological and genealogical manual, Edition: 2, Published by Edinburgh University Press, 2004, ISBN 0-7486-2137-7, p. 297 ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
994–1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 134. ^ Ghaznavids, Homyra Ziad, Medieval
Medieval
Islamic Civilization, Ed. Josef W. Meri, (Routledge, 2006), 294. ^ Muzaffar Alam, Françoise Delvoye Nalini and Marc Gaborieau, The making of Indo-Persian Culture: Indian and French Studies, (Manohar Publishers & Distributors, 2000), 24. ^ Brian Spooner and William L. Hanaway, Literacy in the Persianate World: Writing and the Social Order, 284. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
994-1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 44. ^ The Development of Persian Culture under the Early Ghaznavids, C.E. Bosworth, Iran, Vol. 6, (1968), 39. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Later Ghaznavids, 22–24. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Later Ghaznavids, (Columbia University Press, 1977), 45. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Later Ghaznavids, 90. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Later Ghaznavids, 93–95. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 297.

Further reading

Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1963) The Ghaznavids: Their Empire
Empire
in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Eastern Iran
Iran
994–1040 Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, OCLC 3601436 Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1977) The Later Ghaznavids: Splendour and Decay, The Dynasty in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Northern India
India
1040–1186 Columbia University Press, New York, ISBN 0-231-04428-3 Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1998), "THE GHAZNAVIDS", in Asimov, M.S.; Bosworth, C.E., History of Civilisations of Central Asia (PDF), UNESCO Publishing, ISBN 978-92-3-103467-1  M. Ismail Marcinkowski (2003) Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India
India
and Early Ottoman Turkey Pustaka Nasional, Singapore, ISBN 9971-77-488-7

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ghaznavid Empire.

Coins of Ghaznavid Rulers Mahmud of Ghazna
Ghazna
Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth Edition) Mahmud Encyclopædia Britannica (Online Edition) Ghaznavid Dynasty Encyclopædia Britannica (Online Edition) Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
and Ghurids Encyclopædia Britannica (Online Edition) Mahmud Ghaznavi's 17 invasions of India The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Periodby Sir H. M. Elliot; Edited by John Dowson; London Trubner Company 1867–1877 Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Periodpublished by London Trubner Company 1867–1877. (Online Copy: – Online version posted by: The Packard Humanities Institute; Persian Texts in translation) Afghan secrets revealed on Google Earth  Ethé, Karl Hermann (1911). "Persia". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 21 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 187–252. 

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