HOME
The Info List - Ghazan





Mahmud Ghazan
Ghazan
(1271– 11 May 1304) (Mongolian: Газан хаан, sometimes referred to as Casanus by Westerners[2]) was the seventh ruler of the Mongol Empire's Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
division in modern-day Iran from 1295 to 1304. He was the son of Arghun
Arghun
and Quthluq Khatun, continuing a long line of rulers who were direct descendants of Genghis Khan. Considered the most prominent of the Ilkhans, he is best known for making a political conversion to Islam
Islam
in 1295 when he took the throne, marking a turning point for the dominant religion of Mongols in West Asia (Iran, Iraq, Anatolia
Anatolia
and Trans-Caucassia). His principal wife was Kököchin, a Mongol princess (originally betrothed to Ghazan's father Arghun
Arghun
before his death) sent by his Khagan
Khagan
Kublai Khan. Military conflicts during Ghazan's reign included war with the Egyptian Mamluks
Mamluks
for control of Syria, and battles with the Turko-Mongol Chagatai Khanate. Ghazan
Ghazan
also pursued diplomatic contacts with Europe, continuing his predecessors' unsuccessful attempts at forming a Franco-Mongol alliance. A man of high culture, Ghazan
Ghazan
spoke multiple languages, had many hobbies, and reformed many elements of the Ilkhanate, especially in the matter of standardizing currency and fiscal policy.

Contents

1 Childhood 2 Reign

2.1 Conversion to Islam 2.2 Relationship with other Mongol khanates 2.3 Mamluk-Ilkhanid War 2.4 Reform

3 Family 4 Notes 5 References

Childhood[edit] At the time of Ghazan's birth, the leader of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
was Abaqa Khan, his grandfather. Ghazan's father Arghun
Arghun
was viceroy (crown prince) in Khorasan for Abaqa. Ghazan
Ghazan
was the eldest son of Arghun, and Qutlugh of the Dorben
Dorben
clan, though he was raised in the Ordo (nomadic palace-tent) of his grandfather Abaqa's favorite wife, Buluqhan Khatun, who herself was childless.[3]

Ghazan
Ghazan
as a child, in the arms of his father Arghun, standing next to Arghun's father Abaqa, mounted on a horse

Ghazan
Ghazan
was raised Buddhist,[4] as was his brother Oljeitu. The Mongols were traditionally tolerant of multiple religions, and during Ghazan's youth, he was educated by a Chinese monk, who taught him Buddhism, as well as the Mongolian and Uighur scripts.[5] After the overthrow of Tekuder in 1284, Ghazan's father Arghun
Arghun
was enthroned as Ilkhan, the 11-year-old Ghazan
Ghazan
became Viceroy, and he moved to the capital of Khorasan with the others of Bulughan's Ordo.

Ghazan
Ghazan
and his wife at court

In 1289, conflict with other Mongols ensued when a revolt was led against Arghun
Arghun
by Nawruz, a young noble of the Oirat clan, whose father had been governor of Persia before the arrival of Hulagu. When Nawruz was defeated, he fled the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
and joined the alliance of Kaidu, another descendant of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
who was the ruler of both the House of Ögedei
House of Ögedei
and the neighboring Chagatai Khanate. Ghazan spent the next ten years defending the frontier of the Ilkhanate against incursions by the Chagatai Mongols of Central Asia. When his father, Arghun, died in 1291, Ghazan
Ghazan
was prevented from pursuing his claim of leadership in the capital because he was engaged both with Nawruz's raids, and dealing with rebellion and famine in Khorasan and Nishapur. Taghachar, an army commander who had served the previous three generations of Ilkhan, was probably behind the death of Arghun, and supported Ghazan's uncle Gaykhatu
Gaykhatu
as the new Ilkhan.[6] Ghazan
Ghazan
was loyal to his uncle, though he refused to follow Gaykhatu's lead in introducing paper currency to his province, explaining that the weather of Khorasan was too humid to handle paper.[7] In 1294/1295, Ghazan
Ghazan
forced Nawruz to surrender at Nishapur,[8] and Nawruz then became one of Ghazan's lieutenants. During Gaykhatu's reign, Ghazan's principal wife during his lifetime became Kökechin, who had been brought from the Yuan Dynasty
Yuan Dynasty
from the east in a caravan which had attendance of Marco Polo
Marco Polo
among hundreds of others. She had originally been betrothed to Ghazan's father, the Ilkhan Arghun, but since he had died during her months-long journey from the capital, she instead married Ghazan, his son.[9] Reign[edit] Conversion to Islam[edit]

Ghazan
Ghazan
mounted a horse.

Ghazan
Ghazan
studying the Quran.

In 1295, Taghachar and his conspirators, who had been behind the death of Arghun, had his successor Gaykhatu
Gaykhatu
killed as well. They then placed the controllable Baydu, a cousin of Ghazan, on the throne. Baydu
Baydu
was primarily a figurehead, allowing the conspirators to divide the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
among themselves. Within a few months, Ghazan
Ghazan
challenged Baydu
Baydu
for the throne, having him executed on October 5, 1295. Ghazan was assisted in this by his earlier enemy, the prominent Muslim Mongol emir Nawruz. Ghazan
Ghazan
converted to Islam, on June 16, 1295,[10] at the hands of Ibrahim ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Mu’ayyid ibn Hamaweyh al-Khurasani al-Juwayni[11] as a condition for Nawruz's military support.[12] Another who assisted Ghazan
Ghazan
was Taghachar, but Ghazan deemed him unreliable, exiled him to Anatolia, and later had him discreetly murdered. As part of his conversion to Islam, Ghazan
Ghazan
changed his first name to the Arab Mahmud, and Islam
Islam
gained popularity within Mongol territories. Privately, Ghazan
Ghazan
still practiced Mongol Shamanism and worshipped Tengri, honoring his ancestors' worship of heaven as a kind of proto-Islamic monotheism.[13] He showed tolerance for multiple religions, encouraged the original archaic Mongol culture to flourish, tolerated the Shiites, and respected the religions of his Georgian and Armenian client kings. Ghazan
Ghazan
therefore continued his forefather's approach toward religious tolerance. When Ghazan
Ghazan
learned that some Buddhist
Buddhist
monks feigned conversion to Islam
Islam
due to their temples being earlier destroyed, he granted permission to all who wished to return to Tibet
Tibet
where they could freely follow their faith and be among other Buddhists.[14] The Mongol Yassa code remained in place and Mongol Shamans remained politically influential throughout the reign of both Ghazan
Ghazan
and his brother and successor Oljeitu, but ancient Mongol traditions eventually went into decline after Oljeitu's demise.[15] Other religious upheaval in the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
during Ghazan's reign was instigated by Nawruz, who issued a formal edict in opposition to other religions in the Ilkhanate. Nawruz loyalists persecuted Buddhists and Christians to such an extent that Iranian Buddhism
Buddhism
never recovered,[16] the Christian cathedral in the Mongol capital of Maragha
Maragha
was looted, and churches in Tabriz
Tabriz
and Hamadan
Hamadan
were destroyed. Ghazan
Ghazan
put a stop to these exactions by issuing an edict exempting the Christians from the jizya (tax on non-Muslims),[17] and re-established the Christian Patriarch Mar Yaballaha III
Mar Yaballaha III
in 1296. In May 1297, Ghazan arrested the Nawrūz partisans for treason, and then later that year marched against Nawrūz himself, who at the time was the commander of the army of Khorassan. Ghazan's forces were victorious at a battle near Nishapur. Nawrūz took refuge at the court of the Malik (king) of Herat
Herat
in northern Afghanistan, but the Malik betrayed him and delivered Nawruz to Ghazan, who had Nawruz executed immediately on August 13.[18] Ghazan
Ghazan
thereafter attempted to control the situation,[19] and in 1298 nominated a Jewish convert to Islam
Islam
Rashid-al-Din Hamadani
Rashid-al-Din Hamadani
as prime minister, a post which Rashid held for the next 20 years, until 1318.[18] Ghazan
Ghazan
also commissioned Rashid-al-Din to produce a history of the Mongols and their dynasty, the Jami' al-tawarikh
Jami' al-tawarikh
"Compendium of Chronicles" or Universal History. Over several years of expansion, the work grew to cover the entire history of the world since the time of Adam, and was completed during the reign of Ghazan's successor, Oljeitu. Many copies were made, a few of which survive to the modern day. Relationship with other Mongol khanates[edit]

Seal of Mahmud Ghazan, over the last two lines of his 1302 letter to Pope Boniface VIII. The seal was given to Ghazan
Ghazan
by the sixth Great Khan (Emperor ChengZong of Yuan). It is in Chinese script: "王府定國理民之寶", which means "Seal certifying the authority of his Royal Highness to establish a country and govern its people". Vatican Archives.[20]

Ghazan
Ghazan
eased the troubles with the Golden Horde, but the Ögedeids
Ögedeids
and Chagataids
Chagataids
in Central Asia continued to pose a serious threat to both the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
and his overlord and ally the Great Khan
Great Khan
in China. When Ghazan
Ghazan
was crowned, the Chagatayid Khan
Chagatayid Khan
Duwa
Duwa
invaded Khorasan in 1295. Ghazan
Ghazan
sent two of his relatives against the army of Chagatai Khanate but they deserted. When the traitors were captured and executed, some other notable Mongol nobles began to leave his side. Baltu of the Jalayir
Jalayir
and Sulemish of the Oirat revolted against the Ilkhan's rule in Turkey in 1296 and 1299. Sulemish welcomed the Egyptian Mamluks
Mamluks
to Anatolia, which postponed Ghazan's plan to invade Syria, though two Mongol rebels were defeated by Ghazan. A large group of the Oirats fled Syria, defeating the contingent sent by Ghazan
Ghazan
in 1296. Along with those rebellions, invasions of the Neguderis of the Chagatai Khanate caused difficulties to Ghazan's military operations in Syria. Ghazan
Ghazan
maintained strong ties with the Great Khan
Great Khan
of the Yuan and the Golden Horde. In 1296 Temür Khan, the successor of the Kublai Khan, dispatched a military commander Baiju
Baiju
to Mongol Persia.[21] Five years later Ghazan
Ghazan
sent his Mongolian and Persian retainers to collect income from Hulagu's holdings in China. While there, they presented tribute to Temür and were involved in cultural exchanges across Mongol Eurasia.[22] Ghazan
Ghazan
also called upon other Mongol Khans to unite their will under the Temür Khan, in which he was supported by Kaidu's enemy Bayan Khan of the White Horde. Ghazan's court had Chinese physicians present.[23] Mamluk-Ilkhanid War[edit] Main article: Mongol invasions into Syria

Mongol operations in the Levant, 1299–1300

Ghazan
Ghazan
was one of a long line of Mongol leaders who engaged in diplomatic communications with the Europeans and Crusaders in attempts to form a Franco-Mongol alliance
Franco-Mongol alliance
against their common enemy, primarily the Egyptian Mamluks. He already had the use of forces from Christian vassal countries such as Cilician Armenia
Cilician Armenia
and Georgia. The plan was to coordinate actions between Ghazan's forces, the Christian military orders, and the aristocracy of Cyprus to defeat the Egyptians, after which Jerusalem would be returned to the Europeans.[24] Many Europeans are known to have worked for Ghazan, such as Isol the Pisan or Buscarello de Ghizolfi, often in high positions. Hundreds of such Western adventurers entered into the service of Mongol rulers.[25] According to historian Peter Jackson, the 14th century saw such a vogue of Mongol things in the West that many new-born children in Italy were named after Mongol rulers, including Ghazan: names such as Can Grande ("Great Khan"), Alaone (Hulagu, Ghazan's great-grandfather), Argone (Arghun, Ghazan's father) or Cassano (Ghazan) were recorded with a high frequency.[26] In October 1299, Ghazan
Ghazan
marched with his forces towards Syria
Syria
and invited the Christians to join him.[27] His army took the city of Aleppo, and was there joined by his vassal King Hethum II
Hethum II
of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, whose forces included some Templars and Hospitallers, and who participated in the rest of the offensive.[28] The Mongols and their allies defeated the Mamluks
Mamluks
in the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar, on December 23 or 24, 1299.[29] One group of Mongols then split off from Ghazan's army and pursued the retreating Mamluk
Mamluk
troops as far as Gaza,[30] pushing them back to Egypt. The bulk of Ghazan's forces proceeded to Damascus, which surrendered somewhere between December 30, 1299, and January 6, 1300, though its Citadel resisted.[29][31][32] Most of Ghazan's forces then retreated in February, probably because their horses needed fodder. He promised to return in the winter of 1300–1301 to attack Egypt.[33][34] About 10,000 horsemen under the Mongol general Mulay
Mulay
were left to briefly rule Syria, before they too retreated.[35] Ghazan
Ghazan
was indeed feared and despised by the Mamluks, who sent a delegation of leading scholars and imams including Ibn Taymiyya, north from Damascus
Damascus
to al-Nabk, where Ghazan
Ghazan
was encamped, in January 1300, in order to persuade Ghazan
Ghazan
to stop his attack on Damascus. Ibn Taymiyya also may have met Ghazan
Ghazan
in Damascus
Damascus
in August 1301.[36] On one of these occasions, it is reported that not one of the scholars dared to say anything to Ghazan
Ghazan
except Ibn Taymiyyah
Ibn Taymiyyah
who said: "You claim that you are Muslim and you have with you Mu'adhdhins, Muftis, Imams and Shaykhs but you invaded us and reached our country for what? Although your father and your grandfather, Hulagu
Hulagu
were non-believers, they did not attack us and they kept their promise. But you promised and broke your promise." It is reported on the Mu'jamus Shuyuukh, Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani said that Mongol leader who was apostate when he struggled against Mamluks and he converted to Christianity and built the Nestorian Cathedral to dedicated himself. He prefer to ally with Crusade Nations and he had chosen to attack Mamluks
Mamluks
army and slaughtered them. The Mongol leader none other than was Ghazan
Ghazan
Khan. In July 1300, the Crusaders formed a small fleet of sixteen galleys with some smaller vessels to raid the coast, and Ghazan's ambassador traveled with them.[37][38] The Crusader forces also attempted to establish a base at the small island of Ruad, from which raids were launched on Tartus
Tartus
while awaiting Ghazan's forces. However, the Mongol army was delayed, and the Crusader forces retreated to Cyprus, leaving a garrison on Ruad which was besieged and captured by Mamluks
Mamluks
by 1303 (see Siege of Ruad).

Ghazan
Ghazan
ordering the King of Armenia Hethum II
Hethum II
to accompany Kutlushka on the 1303 attack on Damascus.[39]

In February 1301, the Mongols advanced again with a force of 60,000, but could do little else than engage in some raids around Syria. Ghazan's general Kutlushah
Kutlushah
stationed 20,000 horsemen in the Jordan Valley to protect Damascus, where a Mongol governor was stationed.[40] But again, they were soon forced to withdraw. Plans for combined operations with the Crusaders were again made for the following winter offensive, and in late 1301, Ghazan
Ghazan
asked Pope Boniface VIII
Boniface VIII
to send troops, priests, and peasants, in order to make the Holy Land a Frank state again.[40] But again, Ghazan
Ghazan
did not appear with his own troops. He wrote again to the Pope in 1302, and his ambassadors also visited the court of Charles II of Anjou, who on April 27, 1303 sent Gualterius de Lavendel
Gualterius de Lavendel
as his own ambassador back to Ghazan's court.[41] In 1303, Ghazan
Ghazan
sent another letter to Edward I
Edward I
via Buscarello de Ghizolfi, reiterating his great-grandfather Hulagu
Hulagu
Khan's promise that the Mongols would give Jerusalem to the Franks in exchange for help against the Mamluks.[42] The Mongols, along with their Armenian vassals, had mustered a force of about 80,000 to repel the raiders of the Chagatai Khanate, which was under the leadership of Qutlugh Khwaja.[43] After their success there, they advanced again towards Syria. However, Ghazan's forces were utterly defeated by the Mamluks just south of Damascus
Damascus
at the decisive Battle of Marj al-Saffar in April 1303.[44] It was to be the last major Mongol invasion of Syria.[45] Reform[edit]

Gold coin under Ghazan, Shiraz, Iran, AH 700, AD 1301.

Ghazan
Ghazan
was a man of high culture, with many hobbies including linguistics, agro-techniques, painting, and chemistry. According to the Byzantine
Byzantine
historian Pachymeres
Pachymeres
(1242–1310): "No one surpassed him, in making saddles, bridles, spurs, greaves and helmets; he could hammer, stitch and polish, and in such occupations employed the hours of his leisure from war."[46] Ghazan
Ghazan
spoke numerous languages, including Chinese, Arabic, and "Frank" (probably Latin), as well as his own native language Mongolian.[47] In addition to his religious deep impact on Persia, Ghazan
Ghazan
had unified measures, coinage and weights in the Ilkhanate. He ordered a new census in Persia to define the Dynasty's fiscal policy. He began to reuse wilderness, non-producing and abandoned lands to raise crops, strongly supporting the use and introduction of Eastern Asian crops in Persia, and improved the Yam system. He constructed hostels, hospitals, schools, and posts. Envoys from the court received a per diem stipend, and those of the nobility traveled at their own expense. Ghazan
Ghazan
ordered only envoys bearing urgent military intelligence to use the staffed postal relay service. Mongol soldiers were given iqtas by the Ilkhanid court, where they were allowed to gather revenue provided by a piece of land. Ghazan
Ghazan
reformed the issuance of jarliqs (edicts), creating set forms and graded seals, ordering that all jarliqs be kept on file at court. Jarliqs older than 30 years were to be cancelled, along with old paizas (Mongol seals of authority). He fashioned new paizas into two ranks, which contained the names of the bearers on them to prevent them from being transferred. Old paizas were also to be turned in at the end of the official's term.

Double silver dirham of Ghazan.[48] Obv: Legend in Arabic: لاإله إلا الله محمد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم/ ضرب تبريز/ في سنة سبع ...ر Lā ilāha illa llāha Muḥammadun rasūlu llāhi ṣalla llāhu ʽalayhi wa-sallam / ḍuriba Tabrīz / fī sanati sabʽin ...: "There is no God but Allah, Muhammad
Muhammad
is His Prophet, Peace be upon him/ Minted in Tabriz
Tabriz
in the year ...7" Rev: Legend in Mongolian script
Mongolian script
(except for " Ghazan
Ghazan
Mahmud" in Arabic): Tengri-yin Küchündür. Ghazan
Ghazan
Mahmud. Ghasanu Deledkegülügsen: "By the strength of the Heaven/ Ghazan
Ghazan
Mahmud/ Coin struck for Ghazan". Tabriz
Tabriz
mint. 4.0 gr (0.26 g). Silver.

In fiscal policy, Ghazan
Ghazan
introduced a unified bi-metallic currency including Ghazani dinars, and reformed purchasing procedures, replacing the traditional Mongol policy on craftsmen in the Ilkhanate, such as organizing purchases of raw materials and payment to artisans. He also opted to purchase most weapons on the open market. On coins, Ghazan
Ghazan
omitted the name of the Great Khan, instead inscribing his own name upon his coins in Iran
Iran
and Anatolia. In Georgia, he minted coins with the traditional Mongolian formula "Struck by the Ilkhan Ghazan
Ghazan
in the name of Khagan" because he wanted to secure his claim on the Caucasus
Caucasus
with the help of the Great Khans of the Yuan Dynasty.[49] He also continued to use the Great Khan's Chinese seal which declared him to be a wang (prince) below the Great Khan.[50] His reforms also extended to the military, as several new guard units, mostly Mongols, were created by Ghazan
Ghazan
for his army center. However, he restricted new guards' political significance. Seeing Mongol commoners selling their children into slavery as damaging to both the manpower and the prestige of the Mongol army, Ghazan
Ghazan
budgeted funds to redeem Mongol slave boys, and made his minister Bolad (the ambassador of the Great Khan
Great Khan
Kublai) commander of a military unit of redeemed Mongol slaves. Ghazan
Ghazan
died on May 10, 1304. In his final illness, as he had no surviving son, he nominated his brother Oljeitu
Oljeitu
as his successor.

Family[edit]

Consorts

Ghazan
Ghazan
had eight consorts:

Kunjushkab Khatun, daughter of Shadai Kurkan and Oraudaq Khatun; Yedi Kurtika Khatun, daughter of Menku Timur Kurkan and Tuglugh Shah Khatun; Bulughan Khatun Khurasani, daughter of Amir Tasu and Mengli Tekin Khatun, daughter of Arghun
Arghun
Aqa; Eshil Khatun, daughter of Tugh Timur Amir Tuman, son of Noqai Yarghuchi; Kököchin
Kököchin
Khatun, a lady from Mongolia and relative of Bulughan Khatun; Dondi Khatun, daughter of Aq Buqa Jalayir, widow of Gaykhatu
Gaykhatu
Khan; Bulughan Khatun Muazzama, daughter of Otman, son of Abatai Noyan, widow of Gaykhatu
Gaykhatu
Khan and previously that of Arghun
Arghun
Khan; Keramun Khatun, daughter of Qutlugh Timur;

Son

Ghazan
Ghazan
had two sons:

A still born son (born 1291) - with Bulughan Khatun Khurasani; Alju (22 February 1298 - 20 August 1300) - with Bulughan Khatun Muazzama;

Daughter

Ghazan
Ghazan
had one daughter:

Uljay Qutlugh Khatun - with Bulughan Khatun Muazzama, married firstly to Bistam, son of Öljaitü
Öljaitü
Khan, married secondly to Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan, son of Öljaitü
Öljaitü
Khan;

Notes[edit]

^ Fragner, Bert G. (2013). "Ilkhanid rule and its contributions to Iranian political culture". In Komaroff, Linda. Beyond the legacy of Genghis Khan. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Brill. p. 73. ISBN 978-90-474-1857-3. Retrieved 6 April 2017. When Ghazan
Ghazan
Khan embraced Islam
Islam
and proclaimed himself "pādishāh-i Īrān wa Islām" at the end of the thirteenth century (...)  ^ Schein, p. 806 ^ Rashid al-Din – Universal history ^ " Ghazan
Ghazan
had been baptized and raised a Christian"Richard Foltz, Religions of the Silk Road, Palgrave Macmillan, 2nd edition, 2010, p. 120 ISBN 978-0-230-62125-1 ^ Charles Melville, "Padshah-i Islam: the conversion of Sultan Mahmud Ghazan
Ghazan
Khan,p.159-177" ^ Rashid al Din – Ibid, p.I,d.III ^ René Grousset The Empire of Steppes ^ Jackson, p.170 ^ Marco Polo, Giovanni Battista Baldelli Boni, Hugh Murray, Société de géographie (France)-The Travels of Marco Polo ^ A. S. Atiya. The Crusade in the Later Middle Ages. p. 256.  ^ Tadhkirat Al-huffaz of Al-Dhahabi ^ Amir Nawruz was a Muslim, and offered the support of a Muslim army if Ghazan
Ghazan
would promise to embrace Islam
Islam
in the event of his victory over Baidu" Foltz, p.128 ^ Christopher P. Atwood Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, p.199 ^ "The Preaching of Islam". google.com.  ^ Amitai, see Section VI–Ghazan, Islam
Islam
and Mongol Tradition–Pg 9 and Section VII–Sufis and Shamans, Pg 34. ^ Roux, p.430 ^ Foltz, p.129 ^ a b Roux, p.432 ^ Jackson, p.177 ^ Michaud, Yahia (Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies) (2002). Ibn Taymiyya, Textes Spirituels I-XVI", Chap. XI ^ Yuan Chueh Chingjung chu-shih chi, ch.34. p.22 ^ Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia by Thomas T. Allsen, p.34 ^ J. A. Boyle (1968). J. A. Boyle, ed. The Cambridge History of Iran (reprint, reissue, illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 417. ISBN 0-521-06936-X. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ "The Trial of the Templars", Malcolm Barber, 2nd edition, page 22: "The aim was to link up with Ghazan, the Mongol Il-Khan of Persia, who had invited the Cypriots to participate in joint operations against the Mamluks". ^ Roux, p.410 ^ Peter Jackson, The Mongols and the West, p.315 ^ Demurger, p.143 ^ Demurger, p.142 (French edition) "He was soon joined by King Hethum, whose forces seem to have included Hospitallers and Templars from the kingdom of Armenia, who participated to the rest of the campaign." ^ a b Demurger, p. 142 ^ Demurger, p.142 "The Mongols pursued the retreating troops towards the south, but stopped at the level of Gaza" ^ Runciman, p.439 ^ "Adh-Dhababi's Record of the Destruction of Damascus
Damascus
by the Mongols in 1299–1301", Note 18, p.359 ^ Demurger, p.146 ^ Schein, 1979, p. 810 ^ Demurger (p.146, French edition): "After the Mamluk
Mamluk
forces retreated south to Egypt, the main Mongol forces retreated north in February, Ghazan
Ghazan
leaving his general Mulay
Mulay
to rule in Syria". ^ Aigle, Denise. "The Mongol Invasions of Bilād al-Shām by Ghāzān Khān and Ibn Taymīyah's Three "Anti-Mongol" Fatwas" (PDF). Mamluk Studies Review. University of Chicago. Retrieved 23 February 2017.  ^ Demurger, p. 147 ^ Schein, 1979, p. 811 ^ In "Le Royaume Armenien de Cilicie", p.74-75 ^ a b Jean Richard, p.481 ^ Schein, p.813 ^ Encyclopædia Iranica article ^ Demurger, "Jacques de Molay", p.158 ^ Demurger, p. 158 ^ Nicolle, p. 80 ^ "Maḥmūd Ghāzān." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009 ^ " Ghazan
Ghazan
was a man of high culture. Besides his mother tongue Mongolian, he more or less spoke Arabic, Persian, Indian, Tibetan, Chinese, and "Frank", probably Latin." in Histoire de l'Empire Mongol, Jean-Paul Roux, p.432 ^ For numismatic information: Coins of Ghazan
Ghazan
Archived 2008-02-01 at the Wayback Machine., Ilkhanid coin reading Archived 2008-02-01 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia by Thomas T. Allsen, p.33 ^ Mostaert and Cleaves Trois documents, p. 483

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ghazan.

Adh-Dhababi, Record of the Destruction of Damascus
Damascus
by the Mongols in 1299–1301 Translated by Joseph Somogyi. From: Ignace Goldziher Memorial Volume, Part 1, Online (English translation). Amitai, Reuven (1987). "Mongol Raids into Palestine (AD 1260 and 1300)". JRAS: 236–255.  Barber, Malcolm (2001). The Trial of the Templars (2nd ed.). University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-67236-8.  Encyclopædia Iranica, Article on Franco-Persian relations Foltz, Richard, Religions of the Silk Road, Palgrave Macmillan, 2nd edition, 2010 ISBN 978-0-230-62125-1 Demurger, Alain (2007). Jacques de Molay (in French). Editions Payot&Rivages. ISBN 2-228-90235-7.  Jackson, Peter (2005). The Mongols and the West: 1221–1410. Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-36896-5.  Michaud, Yahia (Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies) (2002). Ibn Taymiyya, Textes Spirituels I-XVI (PDF) (in French). "Le Musulman", Oxford-Le Chebec.  Nicolle, David (2001). The Crusades. Essential Histories. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-179-4.  Richard, Jean (1996). Histoire des Croisades. Fayard. ISBN 2-213-59787-1.  Runciman, Steven (1987 (first published in 1952–1954)). A history of the Crusades
Crusades
3. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-013705-7.  Check date values in: date= (help) Schein, Sylvia (October 1979). "Gesta Dei per Mongolos 1300. The Genesis of a Non-Event". The English Historical Review. 94 (373): 805–819. doi:10.1093/ehr/XCIV.CCCLXXIII.805. JSTOR 565554.  Roux, Jean-Paul (1993). Histoire de l'Empire Mongol (in French). Fayard. ISBN 2-213-03164-9. 

Regnal titles

Preceded by Baydu Ilkhanid Dynasty 1295–1304 Succeeded by Öljeitü

v t e

Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
(1206–1368)

Terminology

Titles

Khagan Khan Khatun Khanum Jinong Khong Tayiji Noyan Tarkhan

Political Military

Jarlig Örtöö Orda Pax Mongolica Yassa Kurultai Paiza / Gerege Manghit / Mangudai Tümen Kheshig

Politics Organization Life

Topics

Administrative divisions and vassals Banner (Bunchuk) Invasions and conquests Destructiveness Imperial Seal Military tactics and organization Organization under Genghis Khan Religion Society and economy

House of Borjigin House of Ögedei Mongol Armenia Byzantine–Mongol alliance Franco-Mongol alliance List of Mongol and Tatar raids against Rus' Mongol and Tatar states in Europe

Khanates

Yuan dynasty Chagatai Khanate

House of Ögedei

Golden Horde

Wings

Ilkhanate

Major cities

Almalik Avarga Azov
Azov
(Azaq) Bukhara Bolghar Karakorum Dadu Majar Maragheh Qarshi Samarkand Sarai Batu/Berke Saray-Jük Shangdu
Shangdu
(Xanadu) Soltaniyeh Tabriz Ukek Xacitarxan

Campaigns Battles

Asia

Central

Siberia (1207) Qara Khitai (1216–18) Khwarezmia (1218–1221)

East

Western Xia (1205 / 1207 / 1209–10 / 1225–27) Northern China and Manchuria (1211–34) Southern China (1235–79) Kingdom of Dali (1253–56) Tibet
Tibet
(1236 / 1240 / 1252) Korea (1231–60) Japan (1274 / 1281) Sakhalin (1264–1308)

Southeast

Burma (1277 / 1283 / 1287) Java (1293) Vietnam (1257 / 1284–88) Burma (1300–02)

South

India (1221–1327)

Europe

Georgia (1220–22 / 1226–31 / 1237–64) Chechnya (1237–1300s) Volga Bulgaria (1229–36) Rus' (1223 / 1236–40) Poland and Bohemia (1240–41) Hungary (1241-42) Serbia (1242) Bulgaria (1242) Latin
Latin
Empire (1242) Lithuania (1258-59) Poland (1259–60) Thrace (1264-65) Hungary (1285–86) Poland (1287–88) Serbia (1291) Poland (1340-1341)

Middle East

Anatolia
Anatolia
(1241–43) Iraq (1258) Syria
Syria
(1260–1323) Palestine (1260 / 1301)

Civil wars

Division of the Mongol Empire Toluid Civil War
Toluid Civil War
(1260–64) Berke– Hulagu
Hulagu
war (1262) Kaidu–Kublai war
Kaidu–Kublai war
(1268–1301) Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war
Esen Buqa–Ayurbarwada war
(1314–1318)

People

Great Khans

Genghis Khan Tolui
Tolui
(regent) Ögedei Khan Töregene Khatun (regent) Güyük Khan Oghul Qaimish (regent) Möngke Khan Kublai Khan (Khagans of the Yuan)

Khans

Jochi Batu Khan Sartaq Khan Orda Khan Berke Toqta Öz Beg Khan Chagatai Khan Duwa Kebek Hulagu Abaqa Arghun Ghazan

Military

Subutai Jebe Muqali Negudar Bo'orchu Guo Kan Borokhula Jelme Chilaun Khubilai Aju Bayan Kadan Boroldai Nogai Khan

Timeline of the Mongol Empire

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 14641452 LCCN: nr93015810 ISNI: 0000 0001 1040 4832 GND: 143370960 SELIBR: 215236 SUDO

.