Ghanaian English is a variety of English spoken in Ghana. English is the official language of Ghana, and is used as a lingua franca throughout the state.[1]


More than half of the population in Ghana uses English, and some use English exclusively.[1] Primary and secondary school classes are taught in English only.


The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant [ɕ] is the usual realization of /ʃ/ (as in ship and chicago) and Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate [tɕ] is usual realization of /tʃ/ (as in cheese and watching) and Voiced postalveolar affricate [dʑ] is usual realization /dʒ/ (as in general and jimmy or magic or george and jazz and edge) in Ghanaian English.[2]


  • Huber, Magnus (2004), "Ghanaian English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 842–865, ISBN 3-11-017532-0