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Coordinates: 7°49′N 1°03′W / 7.817°N 1.050°W / 7.817; -1.050

Republic
Republic
of Ghana

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto: "Freedom and Justice"

Anthem: 

God Bless Our Homeland Ghana[1]

Capital and largest city Accra 5°33′N 0°12′W / 5.550°N 0.200°W / 5.550; -0.200

Official languages English[2][3]

National languages

Asante Twi, Akuapem Twi, Bono, Dagaare, Dagbani, Dangme, Ewe, Ga, Gonja, Kasem, Fante, Nzema, Wasa, Talensi, Frafra, Hausa, Ghanaian Sign Language

Ethnic groups (2010[3][4])

47.5% Akans (11.5 mln) 16.6% Dagbani / Mole (4 mln) 13.9% Ewe (2.9 mln) 7.4% Ga-Adangbe (1.8 mln) 5.7% Gurma
Gurma
(0.7 mln) 5.0% Fulani (0.5 mln) 3.7% Guan / Gonja (0.3 mln) 2.5% Gurunsi (0.1 mln) 1.1% Bissa / Mande (0.1 mln) 1.6% Other (0.1 mln)

Demonym Ghanaian

Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic

• President

Nana Akufo-Addo

• Vice-President

Mahamudu Bawumia

Legislature Parliament

Independence from the United Kingdom

• Declared

6 March 1957

• Republic

1 July 1960

• Current constitution

28 April 1992

Area

• Total

239,567 km2 (92,497 sq mi) (80th)

• Water (%)

4.61 (11,000 km2 / 4,247 mi2)

Population

• 2014 estimate

27,043,093[5] (45th)

• 2010 census

24,200,000[6]

• Density

101.5/km2 (262.9/sq mi) (103rd)

GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate

• Total

$130.208 billion[7] (70th)

• Per capita

$4,604[7] (126th)

GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate

• Total

$45.464 billion[7] (69th)

• Per capita

$1,607[7] (126th)

Gini (2006) 42.8[8] medium

HDI (2015)  0.579[9] medium · 139th

Currency Ghana cedi
Ghana cedi
(GH₵) (GHS)

Time zone GMT
GMT
(UTC+0)

Drives on the right

Calling code +233

ISO 3166 code GH

Internet TLD .gh

Ghana
Ghana
(/ˈɡɑːnə/ ( listen)), officially the Republic
Republic
of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km², Ghana
Ghana
is bordered by the Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
in the west, Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
in the north, Togo
Togo
in the east and the Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
and Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the south. Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language.[10] The first permanent state in the territory of present-day Ghana
Ghana
dates back to the 11th century. Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti.[11] Beginning in the 15th century, numerous European powers contested the area for trading rights, with the British ultimately establishing control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast. It became independent of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on 6 March 1957.[12][13][14] A multicultural nation, Ghana
Ghana
has a population of approximately 29 million[15], spanning a variety of ethnic, linguistic and religious groups.[5] Five percent of the population practices traditional faiths, 67.2% adhere to Christianity
Christianity
and 23.6% are Muslim. Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical jungles. Ghana
Ghana
is a democratic country led by a president who is both head of state and head of the government.[16] Ghana's growing economic prosperity and democratic political system have made it a regional power in West Africa.[17] It is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Group of 24
Group of 24
(G24) and the Commonwealth of Nations.[18]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Medieval kingdoms 2.2 European contact (15th century) 2.3 Transition to independence 2.4 Operation Cold Chop and aftermath 2.5 21st century

3 Historical timeline 4 Geography

4.1 Climate 4.2 Rivers 4.3 Wildlife

5 Government

5.1 Foreign relations 5.2 Law enforcement and police

5.2.1 Ghanaian Drug War and The Narcotic
Narcotic
Control Board

5.3 Military

5.3.1 Weapons of mass destruction and tactical nuclear weapons

5.4 Administrative divisions 5.5 Human rights

6 Transportation 7 Economy

7.1 Key sectors 7.2 Manufacturing 7.3 Petroleum
Petroleum
and natural gas production 7.4 Industrial minerals mining 7.5 Real estate 7.6 Trade and exports 7.7 Electricity generation sector 7.8 Economic transparency

8 Science
Science
and technology

8.1 Space and satellite programmes 8.2 Cybernetics and cyberwarfare 8.3 Health and biotechnology

9 Education

9.1 Overview 9.2 Enrollment 9.3 Foreign students 9.4 Funding of education 9.5 Provision of educational material 9.6 Kindergarten
Kindergarten
and education structure 9.7 Elementary 9.8 High school 9.9 University

10 Demographics

10.1 Population 10.2 Legal immigration 10.3 Illegal immigration 10.4 Language 10.5 Religion 10.6 Fertility and reproductive health

11 Universal health care
Universal health care
and health care provision 12 Culture

12.1 Food and drink 12.2 Literature 12.3 Adinkra 12.4 Traditional clothing 12.5 Modern clothing 12.6 Music and dance 12.7 Film 12.8 Media 12.9 Sports 12.10 Cultural heritage and architecture

13 National symbols 14 Tourism 15 See also 16 References 17 Further reading 18 External links

Etymology[edit] The etymology of the word Ghana
Ghana
means "warrior king" and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire
Ghana Empire
in West Africa, but the empire was further north than the modern country of Ghana, in the region of Guinea.[19] History[edit] Main article: History of Ghana Medieval kingdoms[edit] Main articles: Kingdom of Ashanti
Kingdom of Ashanti
and Kingdom of Dagbon

16th – 17th century Akan Terracotta, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Ghana
Ghana
was already recognized as one of the great kingdoms in Bilad el- Sudan
Sudan
by the ninth century.[20] Ghana
Ghana
was inhabited in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Age of Discovery
Age of Discovery
by a number of ancient predominantly Akan kingdoms in the Southern and Central territories. This included the Ashanti Empire, the Akwamu, the Bonoman, the Denkyira, and the Mankessim Kingdom.[21] Although the area of present-day Ghana
Ghana
in West Africa
West Africa
has experienced many population movements, the Akans were firmly settled by the 5th century BC.[22][23] By the early 11th century, the Akans were firmly established in the Akan state called Bonoman, for which the Brong-Ahafo Region
Brong-Ahafo Region
is named.[22][24] From the 13th century, Akans emerged from what is believed to have been the Bonoman
Bonoman
area, to create several Akan states of Ghana, mainly based on gold trading.[25] These states included Bonoman
Bonoman
(Brong-Ahafo Region), Ashanti (Ashanti Region), Denkyira
Denkyira
(Central region), Mankessim Kingdom (Western region), and Akwamu
Akwamu
Eastern region.[22] By the 19th century, the territory of the southern part of Ghana
Ghana
was included in the Kingdom of Ashanti, one of the most influential states in sub-saharan Africa
Africa
prior to the onset of colonialism.[22]

An 1850 map showing the Akan Kingdom of Ashanti
Kingdom of Ashanti
within the Guinea region and surrounding regions in West Africa

The Kingdom of Ashanti
Kingdom of Ashanti
government operated first as a loose network, and eventually as a centralised kingdom with an advanced, highly specialised bureaucracy centred in the capital city of Kumasi.[22] Prior to Akan contact with Europeans, the Akan Ashanti people
Ashanti people
created an advanced economy based on principally gold and gold bar commodities then traded with the states of Africa.[22][26] The earliest known kingdoms to emerge in modern Ghana
Ghana
were the Mole-Dagbani states.[22] The Mole-Dagomba came on horseback from present-day Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
under a single leader, Naa Gbewaa.[27] With their advanced weapons and based on a central authority, they easily invaded and occupied the lands of the local people ruled by the Tendamba (land god priests), established themselves as the rulers over the locals, and made Gambaga
Gambaga
their capital.[28] The death of Naa Gbewaa caused civil war among his children, some of whom broke off and founded separate states including Dagbon, Mamprugu, Mossi, Nanumba and Wala.[29][30] European contact (15th century)[edit] Main article: Gold Coast
Coast
(region)

18th Century Ashanti kuduo. Gold dust and nuggets were kept in kuduo, as were other items of personal value and significance. As receptacles for their owners' kra, or life force, kuduo were prominent features of ceremonies designed to honor and protect that individual.

Akan trade with European states began after contact with Portuguese in the 15th century.[31] Early European contact by the Portuguese people, who came to the Gold Coast
Coast
region in the 15th century to trade and then established the Portuguese Gold Coast
Portuguese Gold Coast
(Costa do Ouro), focused on the extensive availability of gold.[32] The Portuguese built a trading lodge at a coastal settlement called Anomansah (the perpetual drink) which they renamed Elmina.[32] In 1481, King John II of Portugal
John II of Portugal
commissioned Diogo d'Azambuja
Diogo d'Azambuja
to build Elmina
Elmina
Castle, which was completed in three years.[32] By 1598, the Dutch had joined the Portuguese in the gold trade, establishing the Dutch Gold Coast
Dutch Gold Coast
(Nederlandse Bezittingen ter Kuste van Guinea) and building forts at Fort Komenda
Fort Komenda
and Kormantsi.[33] In 1617, the Dutch captured the Olnini Castle
Castle
from the Portuguese, and Axim
Axim
in 1642 ( Fort
Fort
St Anthony).[33] Other European traders had joined in gold trading by the mid-17th century, most notably the Swedes, establishing the Swedish Gold Coast (Svenska Guldkusten), and Denmark-Norway, establishing the Danish Gold Coast
Coast
(Danske Guldkyst or Dansk Guinea).[34] Portuguese merchants, impressed with the gold resources in the area, named it Costa do Ouro or Gold Coast.[34]

The first Anglo-Ashanti war, 1823–31

Kwame Nkrumah, first President of Ghana

More than thirty forts and castles were built by the Portuguese, Swedish, Dano-Norwegians, Dutch and German merchants; the latter Germans
Germans
establishing the German Gold Coast
Coast
(Brandenburger Gold Coast or Groß Friedrichsburg).[35] In 1874 Great Britain established control over some parts of the country, assigning these areas the status of British Gold Coast.[36] Many military engagements occurred between the British colonial powers and the various Akan nation-states and the Akan Kingdom of Ashanti
Kingdom of Ashanti
defeated the British a few times in the Anglo-Ashanti wars
Anglo-Ashanti wars
against the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that lasted for 100 years, but eventually lost with the War of the Golden Stool in the early 1900s.[37][38][39] Transition to independence[edit] See also: Dominion of Ghana

A postage stamp of Gold Coast
Coast
overprinted for Ghanaian independence in 1957

Play media

The commencing chronicles of Ghana
Ghana
on 6 March 1957 and Kwame Nkrumah establishment of Ghanaian Republicanism, including Ghanaian presidential election, 1960

In 1947, the newly formed United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) by The Big Six called for "self-government within the shortest possible time" following the Gold Coast
Coast
legislative election, 1946.[34][40] Kwame Nkrumah was the first Prime Minister of Ghana
Prime Minister of Ghana
and President of Ghana and formed the Convention People's Party
Convention People's Party
(CPP) with the motto "self-government now".[34] Nkrumah won a majority in the Gold Coast
Coast
legislative election, 1951 for the Gold Coast
Coast
Legislative Assembly in 1952. Nkrumah was appointed leader of the Gold Coast's government business.[34] The Gold Coast region declared independence from the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
on 6 March 1957 and established the nation of Ghana.[12][13][14] On 6 March 1957 at 12 a.m. Nkrumah declared Ghana's establishment and autonomy. On 1 July 1960, following the Ghanaian constitutional referendum, 1960 and Ghanaian presidential election, 1960
Ghanaian presidential election, 1960
Nkrumah declared Ghana
Ghana
as a republic as the first President of Ghana.[34] The flag of Ghana, consisting of the colours red, gold, green, and a black star, became the new flag in 1957 when Gold Coast
Coast
gained its name Ghana.[41] It was designed by Theodosia Salome Okoh; the red represents the blood that was shed towards independence, the gold represents the industrial minerals wealth of Ghana, the green symbolises the rich grasslands of Ghana, and the black star is the symbol of the Ghanaian people
Ghanaian people
and African emancipation.[42] Nkrumah was the first African head of state to promote the concept of Pan-Africanism, which he had been introduced to during his studies at Lincoln University, Pennsylvania in the United States, at the time when Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey
was becoming famous for his "Back to Africa Movement".[34] Nkrumah merged the teachings of Marcus Garvey, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the naturalised Ghanaian scholar W. E. B. Du Bois into the formation of 1960s Ghana.[34] Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, as he became known, played an instrumental part in the founding of the Non-Aligned Movement, and in establishing the Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
Ideological Institute to teach his ideologies of communism and socialism.[43] His life achievements were recognised by Ghanaians during his centenary birthday celebration, and the day was instituted as a public holiday in Ghana
Ghana
(Founder's Day).[44]

Operation Cold Chop and aftermath[edit] Main article: History of Ghana
History of Ghana
(1966–79) The government of Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
was subsequently overthrown by a coup by the Ghana Armed Forces
Ghana Armed Forces
codenamed "Operation Cold Chop." This occurred while Nkrumah was abroad with Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai
in the People's Republic
Republic
of China, on a fruitless mission to Hanoi
Hanoi
in Vietnam to help end the Vietnam War. The coup took place on 24 February 1966, led by Col. Emmanuel K. Kotoka. National Liberation Council (N.L.C.) formed and chaired by Lt. General Joseph A. Ankrah.[45] A series of alternating military and civilian governments, often affected by economic instabilities,[46] from 1966 to 1981 ended with the ascension to power of Flight Lieutenant
Flight Lieutenant
Jerry John Rawlings
Jerry John Rawlings
of the Provisional National Defence Council
Provisional National Defence Council
(PNDC) in 1981.[47] These changes resulted in the suspension of the Constitution of Ghana
Constitution of Ghana
in 1981, and the banning of political parties in Ghana.[48] The economy soon declined, so Rawlings negotiated a structural adjustment plan changing many old economic policies, and economic growth soon recovered during the mid–1980s.[48] A new Constitution of Ghana
Constitution of Ghana
restoring multi-party system politics was promulgated in Ghanaian presidential election, 1992; Rawlings was elected as president of Ghana
Ghana
then, and again in Ghanaian general election, 1996.[49]

21st century[edit]

Traditional chiefs in Ghana
Ghana
in 2015

Winning the 2000 Ghanaian elections, John Agyekum Kufuor
John Agyekum Kufuor
of the New Patriotic Party (NPP) was sworn into office as president of Ghana
Ghana
on 7 January 2001, and attained the presidency again in the 2004 Ghanaian elections, thus also serving two terms (the term limit) as president of Ghana
Ghana
and thus marking the first time under the fourth republic that power was transferred from one legitimately elected head of state and head of government to another.[49] Kufuor was succeeded to the presidency of the Republic
Republic
of Ghana
Ghana
by John Atta Mills
John Atta Mills
of the National Democratic Congress (NDC) following the Ghanaian presidential election, 2008. and John Atta Mills
John Atta Mills
was inaugurated as the third president of the fourth republic of Ghana
Ghana
and eleventh president of Ghana
Ghana
on 7 January 2009,[50] prior to John Atta Mills being succeeded as president of Ghana
Ghana
by then vice-president of Ghana
Ghana
John Dramani Mahama
John Dramani Mahama
on 24 July 2012.[51] Following the Ghanaian presidential election, 2012, John Dramani Mahama became President-elect and was inaugurated as the 4th President of the Fourth Republic
Republic
of Ghana
Ghana
and 7th President of Ghana
President of Ghana
on 7 January 2013, to serve one term of office of four-year term length as President of Ghana
President of Ghana
until 7 January 2017,[52] maintaining Ghana's status as a stable democracy.[49] As a result of the Ghanaian presidential election, 2016, Nana Akufo-Addo became President-elect and was inaugurated as the 5th President of the Fourth Republic
Republic
of Ghana
Ghana
and 8th President of Ghana on 7 January 2017, to serve one term of office of four-year term length as President of Ghana, until 7 January 2021.[53] Historical timeline[edit]

Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Ghana

Ghana
Ghana
map of Köppen climate classification.

Ghana
Ghana
is located on the Gulf of Guinea, only a few degrees north of the Equator, therefore giving it a warm climate.[54] Ghana
Ghana
spans an area of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), and has an Atlantic coastline that stretches 560 kilometres (350 miles) on the Gulf of Guinea
Guinea
in Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to its south.[54] It lies between latitudes 4°45'N and 11°N, and longitudes 1°15'E and 3°15'W. The Prime Meridian passes through Ghana, specifically through the industrial port town of Tema.[54] Ghana
Ghana
is geographically closer to the "centre" of the Earth
Earth
geographical coordinates than any other country; even though the notional centre, (0°, 0°) is located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 614 km (382 mi) off the south-east coast of Ghana
Ghana
on the Gulf of Guinea. Grasslands mixed with south coastal shrublands and forests dominate Ghana, with forest extending northward from the south-west coast of Ghana
Ghana
on the Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
in the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
320 kilometres (200 miles) and eastward for a maximum of about 270 kilometres (170 miles) with the Kingdom of Ashanti
Kingdom of Ashanti
or the southern part of Ghana
Ghana
being a primary location for mining of industrial minerals and timber.[54] Ghana
Ghana
encompasses plains, waterfalls, low hills, rivers, Lake Volta, the world's largest artificial lake, Dodi Island
Dodi Island
and Bobowasi Island on the south Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
coast of Ghana.[55] The northernmost part of Ghana
Ghana
is Pulmakong and the southernmost part of Ghana
Ghana
is Cape Three Points.[54]

Climate[edit] Main article: Climate
Climate
of Ghana The climate of Ghana
Ghana
is tropical and there are two main seasons: the wet season and the dry season.

Climate
Climate
data for Ghana

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 30.1 (86.2) 31.2 (88.2) 31.6 (88.9) 31.0 (87.8) 30.0 (86) 28.3 (82.9) 27.1 (80.8) 26.8 (80.2) 27.4 (81.3) 28.6 (83.5) 30.0 (86) 29.5 (85.1) 29.2 (84.6)

Average low °C (°F) 24.5 (76.1) 25.8 (78.4) 26.2 (79.2) 26.2 (79.2) 25.4 (77.7) 24.6 (76.3) 23.5 (74.3) 23.2 (73.8) 23.6 (74.5) 24.2 (75.6) 24.3 (75.7) 24.1 (75.4) 24.6 (76.3)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 13.6 (0.535) 40.3 (1.587) 88.2 (3.472) 115.7 (4.555) 160.7 (6.327) 210.4 (8.283) 121.3 (4.776) 88.9 (3.5) 133.0 (5.236) 128.1 (5.043) 56.5 (2.224) 24.6 (0.969) 1,184.1 (46.618)

Average rainy days 2 2 5 7 11 14 7 6 8 9 4 2 77

Average relative humidity (%) 79 77 77 80 82 85 85 83 82 83 80 79 85

Mean monthly sunshine hours 214 204 223 213 211 144 142 155 171 220 240 235 2,372

Source: weatherbase.com[56]

Rivers[edit] Main article: Rivers of Ghana Ghana
Ghana
has a vast river system with an array of tributaries.

Panorama and landscape view of Lake Volta
Lake Volta
in Volta Basin
Volta Basin
and Eastern Region of Ghana. Lake Volta
Lake Volta
by artificial surface area is the largest reservoir in the world. Lake Volta
Lake Volta
drains into the Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
on the Atlantic Ocean. Volta River
Volta River
has three main tributaries—the Black Volta, White Volta
White Volta
and Red Volta.

Wildlife[edit] Main articles: Wildlife of Ghana
Wildlife of Ghana
and National parks of Ghana Ghana
Ghana
has an array of wildlife that can be seen at zoos and national parks in Ghana, although populations have been drastically reduced by habitat loss and poaching. Government[edit] Main article: Government of Ghana Further information: Politics of Ghana

Parliament House of Ghana
Parliament House of Ghana
seat of the Government of Ghana, the Supreme Court of Ghana
Ghana
and Judiciary of Ghana
Judiciary of Ghana
buildings, Osu Castle
Osu Castle
is the defacto residence of presidency and The Flagstaff House
The Flagstaff House
is the official residence and presidential palace. First President of the Republic
Republic
of Ghana
Ghana
Nkrumah and Presidents of the 4th Republic
Republic
of Ghana Rawlings; Kufuor; Mills and Mahama.

Ghana
Ghana
is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy with a parliamentary multi-party system. Ghana
Ghana
alternated between civilian and military governments until January 1993, when the military government gave way to the Fourth Republic
Republic
of Ghana
Ghana
after presidential and parliamentary elections in late 1992. The 1992 constitution of Ghana
Ghana
divides powers among a Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the Ghana
Ghana
Armed Forces (President of Ghana), parliament (Parliament of Ghana), cabinet (Ministers of the Ghanaian Government), council of state (Ghanaian Council of State), and an independent judiciary (Judiciary of Ghana). The Government of Ghana
Government of Ghana
is elected by universal suffrage after every four years.[57] The Electoral Commission of Ghana announced that former Vice President of Ghana
Ghana
John Dramani Mahama
John Dramani Mahama
had won the Ghana
Ghana
presidential election, 2012 on 7 December 2012 and John Dramani Mahama
John Dramani Mahama
was sworn in, amidst announcement of electoral fraud, as the reigning President of Ghana
President of Ghana
on 7 January 2013 to serve a four-year term that expired on Saturday, 7 January 2017.[52] The 2012 Fragile States Index
Fragile States Index
indicated that Ghana
Ghana
is ranked the 67th least fragile state in the world and the 5th least fragile state in Africa
Africa
after Mauritius, 2nd Seychelles, 3rd Botswana, and 4th South Africa. Ghana
Ghana
ranked 112th out of 177 countries on the index.[58] Ghana
Ghana
ranked as the 64th least corrupt and politically corrupt country in the world out of all 174 countries ranked and Ghana
Ghana
ranked as the 5th least corrupt and politically corrupt country in Africa
Africa
out of 53 countries in the 2012 Transparency International Corruption
Corruption
Perception Index.[59][60] Ghana
Ghana
was ranked 7th in Africa
Africa
out of 53 countries in the 2012 Ibrahim Index of African Governance. The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African government, based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to its citizens.[61] Nkrumah was a Ghanaian nationalist leader who led the country from 1957 to 1966. Nkrumah’s political journey started when he entered Lincoln University in Pennsylvania in 1935. He graduated with master's degrees from Lincoln University and the University of Pennsylvania. He formed the Convention Peoples’ Party. The party initiated a “positive action” campaign involving non-violent protests, strikes and non-cooperation with the British authorities. Nkrumah was arrested and sentenced to one year imprisonment during this time. In the Gold Coast’s February 1951 general election, he was elected to Parliament and released from prison to become leader of government business. He became Prime Minister of the Gold Coast
Coast
in 1952s leadership was authoritarian but he improved the infrastructure of the country and his Africanisation policies created better career opportunities for Ghanaians. He was deposed in a coup in 1966. Foreign relations[edit] Main article: Foreign relations of Ghana

Kofi Annan, Ghanaian diplomat and United Nations Secretary-General 1997–2006

Since independence, Ghana
Ghana
has been devoted to ideals of nonalignment and is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement. Ghana
Ghana
favours international and regional political and economic co-operation, and is an active member of the United Nations and the African Union.[62] Ghana
Ghana
has a strong relationship with the United States. Three recent US presidents--Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama--made diplomatic trips to Ghana. Many Ghanaian diplomats and politicians hold positions in international organisations, including Ghanaian diplomat and former Secretary-General of the United Nations
Secretary-General of the United Nations
Kofi Annan, International Criminal Court Judge Akua Kuenyehia, and former President Jerry John Rawlings
Jerry John Rawlings
and former President John Agyekum Kuffour, who both served as diplomats of the United Nations.[57] In September 2010, Ghana's former President John Atta Mills
John Atta Mills
visited China on an official visit. Mills and China's former President Hu Jintao, marked the 50th anniversary of diplomatic ties between the two nations, at the Great Hall of the People
Great Hall of the People
on 20 September 2010.[63] China reciprocated with an official visit in November 2011, by the Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China, Zhou Tienong who visited Ghana
Ghana
and met with Ghana's President John Dramani Mahama.[64] The Islamic Republic
Republic
of Iran
Iran
and the 6th President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad met with the 12th President of Ghana, John Dramani Mahama on 16 April 2013 to hold discussions with President John Dramani Mahama on strengthening the Non-Aligned Movement
Non-Aligned Movement
and also co–chair a bilateral meeting between Ghana
Ghana
and Iran
Iran
at the Ghanaian presidential palace Flagstaff House.[65][66][67][68][69] The Government of Ghana reciprocated with an official state visit on 5 August 2013 by the Vice-President of Ghana, Kwesi Amissah-Arthur, who met with the Vice-President of Iran, Eshaq Jahangiri
Eshaq Jahangiri
on the basis of autarky and possible bilateral trade at the Islamic Republic
Republic
of Iran's presidential palace, Sa'dabad Palace.[70]

Fokker F28 Fellowship
Fokker F28 Fellowship
of the President of Ghana
President of Ghana
arrives on State visit at the Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Capital International Airport
in Beijing, People's Republic
Republic
of China

Diplomat Kofi Annan
Kofi Annan
meeting with Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
in Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.

Presidents John Kufuor
John Kufuor
of Ghana
Ghana
and Lula da Silva
Lula da Silva
of Brazil
Brazil
meet in Accra.

Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and Michelle Obama, along with Malia Obama and Sasha Obama, participate in State Arrival Ceremony
State Arrival Ceremony
at Kotoka International Airport.

Diplomatic missions of Ghana.

Law enforcement and police[edit] Further information: Law enforcement in Ghana

Police Motorcycle Highway Patrol
Highway Patrol
Unit of the Ghana
Ghana
Police Service.

Water Police Unit of the Ghana
Ghana
Police Service.

Militarized Police Unit of the Ghana Police Service
Ghana Police Service
in Mowag Piranhas and armoured fighting vehicles.

The Ghana Police Service
Ghana Police Service
(GPS) and the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) are the main law enforcement agencies of the Republic of Ghana, and are responsible for the detection of crime, maintenance of law and order and the maintenance of internal peace and security.[71] The Ghana Police Service
Ghana Police Service
has eleven specialised police units including a Militarized Police Rapid deployment force
Rapid deployment force
(RDF) and Marine Police Unit (MPU).[72][73] The Ghana Police Service
Ghana Police Service
operates in 12 divisions: ten covering the ten regions of Ghana, one assigned specifically to the seaport and industrial hub of Tema, and the twelfth being the Railways, Ports and Harbours Division.[73] The Ghana Police Service's Marine Police Unit and Division handles issues that arise from the country's offshore oil and gas industry.[73] The Ghana Prisons Service
Ghana Prisons Service
and the sub-division Borstal Institute for Juveniles administers incarceration in Ghana.[74] Ghana
Ghana
retains and exercises the death penalty for treason, corruption, robbery, piracy, drug trafficking, rape, and homicide.[75][76] 27 convicts (all men) were sentenced to death in Ghana
Ghana
in 2012 and the Ghana
Ghana
Prisons Service statistics of the total number of convicts sentenced to death in Ghana as at December 2012 was 162 men and 4 women,[75] with a total prison inmate population of 13,983 convicts as at 22 July 2013.[77] "The new sustainable development goals adopted by the United Nations call for the international community to come together to promote the rule of law; support equal access to justice for all; reduce corruption; and develop effective, accountable, and transparent institutions at all levels."[78]

Ghanaian Drug War and The Narcotic
Narcotic
Control Board[edit]

Ghana
Ghana
is among the sovereign states of West Africa
West Africa
used by drug cartels and drug traffickers (shown in orange).

Ghana
Ghana
is used as a key narcotics industry transshipment point by traffickers, usually from South America as well as some from other African nations.[79] " West Africa
West Africa
is completely weak in terms of border control and the big drug cartels from Colombia and Latin America have chosen Africa
Africa
as a way to reach Europe."[80] There is not a wide or popular knowledge about the narcotics industry and intercepted narcotics within Ghana
Ghana
itself, due to the industry's operations and involvement in the underground economy. The social context within which narcotic trafficking, storage, transportation, and repacking systems exist in Ghana
Ghana
and the state's location along the Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
within the Atlantic Ocean – only a few degrees north of the Equator – makes Ghana
Ghana
an attractive country for the narcotics business.[79][81] The Narcotic
Narcotic
Control Board (NACOB) has impounded container ships at the Sekondi Naval Base in the Takoradi
Takoradi
Harbour. These ships were carrying thousands of kilograms of cocaine, with a street value running into billions of Ghana
Ghana
cedis. However, drug seizures saw a decline in 2011.[79][81] Drug cartels are using new methods in narcotics production and narcotics exportation, to avoid Ghanaian security agencies.[79][81] Underdeveloped institutions, porous open borders, and the existence of established smuggling organisations contribute to Ghana's position in the narcotics industry.[79][81] John Atta Mills, president between 2009 and 2012, initiated ongoing efforts to reduce the role of airports in Ghana's drug trade.[79] Military[edit] Main article: Ghana
Ghana
Armed Forces

Ghana Air Force
Ghana Air Force
Special
Special
Forces Elite Light infantry
Light infantry
clears an area on a flight line before takeoff on Mil Mi-17
Mil Mi-17
Military Transport Helicopter.

Ghana Air Force
Ghana Air Force
Commando
Commando
Harbin Z-9EH Medium Multi-Purpose Military Utility Helicopter.

Turkish President
Turkish President
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
inspects Honor Guards mounted by the Ghana Air Force
Ghana Air Force
at the Flagstaff House the Presidential Palace of Ghana
Ghana
in Greater Accra
Accra
on 1 March 2016.

In 1957, the Ghana Armed Forces
Ghana Armed Forces
(GAF) consisted of its headquarters, support services, three battalions of infantry and a reconnaissance squadron with armoured vehicles.[82] Ghanaian Prime Minister and President Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
aimed at rapidly expanding the GAF to support the United States of Africa
United States of Africa
ambitions. Thus in 1961, 4th and 5th Battalions were established, and in 1964 6th Battalion was established, from a parachute airborne unit originally raised in 1963.[83] Today, Ghana
Ghana
is a regional power and regional hegemon.[17] In his book Shake Hands with the Devil, Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
commander Roméo Dallaire highly rated the GAF soldiers and military personnel.[82] The military operations and military doctrine of the GAF are conceptualised on the Constitution of Ghana, Ghana's Law on Armed Force Military Strategy, and Kofi Annan
Kofi Annan
International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC) agreements to which GAF is attestator.[84][85][86] GAF military operations are executed under the auspices and imperium of the Ministry of Defense (MoD) Minister for Defence.[84][87] Weapons of mass destruction and tactical nuclear weapons[edit] See also: Border Guard Unit
Border Guard Unit
and Bureau of National Investigations

Ghana Air Force
Ghana Air Force
Paratrooper
Paratrooper
Rapid Deployment Airborne Forces CASA C-295 Military Transport Aircraft at the Takoradi
Takoradi
Military Airbase.

Ghana
Ghana
adheres to a common credo ethos of the IAEA. The Ghana
Ghana
atomic agency currently holds no intent for the production of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Although Ghana
Ghana
has no military use of its nuclear assets, options for scientific research into modern nuclear propelled submarine and aircraft carrier ships, design and development of same technology and its transfer from partner OECD for its military use are imminent. Ghana
Ghana
currently has a prototype nuclear power plant and is open to nuclear investors for the development of high tech nuclear power plants for a West Africa
West Africa
Electric Power Pool project. Although fragments of anti-nuclear power groups might critique nuclear proliferation, Ghana
Ghana
remains a safe candidate nation in sub-Saharan Africa
Africa
to pioneer it. It is claimed that Ghana
Ghana
maintains several research reactors ready for the processing of highly enriched uranium (HEU)).[88] In an article titled "We're still vulnerable", renowned political scientist, bioterrorism and nuclear weapons specialist Graham T. Allison
Graham T. Allison
for the Boston Globe, speculates that Ghana's orphaned research reactor (at Kwabenya, Greater Accra) contains highly enriched uranium (HEU) sufficient to make a number of nuclear weapons.[89] Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Administrative divisions of Ghana

Ghana
Ghana
is divided into 10 administrative regions, sub-divided into 275 districts:[90][91][92]

Regions of Ghana Area (km2) Regional capitals

Ashanti Region 24,389 Kumasi

Ghana
Ghana
regional map

Ghana
Ghana
topography−topographic map

Ghana
Ghana
satellite image from outer space

Brong-Ahafo Region 39,557 Sunyani

Central Region 9,826 Cape Coast

Eastern Region 19,323 Koforidua

Greater Accra
Accra
Region 3,245 Accra

Northern Region 70,384 Tamale

Upper East Region 8,842 Bolgatanga

Upper West Region 18,476 Wa

Volta Region 20,570 Ho

Western Region 23,941 Sekondi-Takoradi

Human rights[edit] See also: LGBT rights in Ghana Homosexual acts are prohibited by law in Ghana.[93] Sometimes old women are accused of witchcraft, particularly in rural Ghana. Issues of witchcraft mainly remain as speculations based on superstitions within families. In some parts of northern Ghana, there exists what is called a witch camp. This is said to house a total of around 1,000 people accused of witchcraft.[94] The Ghanaian government has announced that it intends to close the camps.[94] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transport in Ghana Transport and modes of transport in Ghana
Ghana
is accomplished by road transport (bus-based mass transit system), railway, air transport (civil aviation) and water transport (ferry). Economy[edit] Main articles: Economy of Ghana, New media in Ghana, and Automobile manufacturing in Ghana Key sectors[edit]

Ghana
Ghana
Vision 2020 logo

Accra
Accra
market scene

Ghana
Ghana
is an average natural resource enriched country possessing industrial minerals, hydrocarbons and precious metals. It is an emerging designated digital economy with mixed economy hybridisation and an emerging market with 8.7% GDP growth in 2012. It has an economic plan target known as the " Ghana
Ghana
Vision 2020". This plan envisions Ghana
Ghana
as the first African country to become a developed country between 2020 and 2029 and a newly industrialised country between 2030 and 2039.[clarification needed] This excludes fellow Group of 24
Group of 24
member and Sub-Saharan African country South Africa, which is a newly industrialised country.[95] Ghana's economy also has ties to the Chinese yuan renminbi along with Ghana's vast gold reserves. In 2013, the Bank of Ghana
Bank of Ghana
began circulating the renminbi throughout Ghanaian state-owned banks and to the Ghana
Ghana
public as hard currency along with the national Ghana cedi
Ghana cedi
for second national trade currency.[96] The state-owned Volta River
Volta River
Authority and Ghana
Ghana
National Petroleum Corporation are the two major electricity producers.[97] The Akosombo Dam, built on the Volta River
Volta River
in 1965, along with Bui Dam, Kpong Dam, and several other hydroelectric dams provide hydropower.[98][99] In addition, the Government of Ghana
Government of Ghana
has sought to build the second nuclear power plant in Africa. The Ghana Stock Exchange
Ghana Stock Exchange
is the 5th largest on continental Africa
Africa
and 3rd largest in sub-saharan Africa
Africa
with a market capitalisation of GH¢ 57.2 billion or CN¥ 180.4 billion in 2012 with the South Africa
South Africa
JSE Limited as first.[100] The Ghana Stock Exchange
Ghana Stock Exchange
(GSE) was the 2nd best performing stock exchange in sub-saharan Africa
Africa
in 2013.[101] Ghana
Ghana
also produces high-quality cocoa,[102] is the 2nd largest producer of cocoa globally,[102][103] and is projected to become the world's largest producer of cocoa in 2015.[104] Ghana
Ghana
is classified as a middle income country.[7][105] Services account for 50% of GDP, followed by manufacturing (24.1%), extractive industries (5%), and taxes (20.9%).[97] Manufacturing[edit] The Ghana
Ghana
economy is an emerging digital-based mixed economy hybrid similarly to that of Taiwan
Taiwan
with an increasing primary manufacturing and exportation of digital technology goods along with assembling and exporting automobiles and ships, diverse resource rich exportation of industrial minerals, agricultural products primarily cocoa, petroleum and natural gas,[106] and industries such as information and communications technology primarily via Ghana's state digital technology corporation Rlg Communications
Rlg Communications
which manufactures tablet computers with smartphones and various consumer electronics.[97][107] Petroleum
Petroleum
and natural gas production[edit] Ghana
Ghana
produces and exports an abundance of hydrocarbons such as sweet crude oil and natural gas.[108][109] The 100% state-owned filling station company of Ghana, Ghana Oil Company
Ghana Oil Company
(GOIL) is the number 1 petroleum and gas filling station of Ghana
Ghana
and the 100% state-owned state oil company Ghana National Petroleum Corporation
Ghana National Petroleum Corporation
(GNPC) oversees hydrocarbon exploration and production of Ghana's entire petroleum and natural gas reserves. Ghana
Ghana
aims to further increase output of oil to 2.2 million barrels (350,000 m3) per day and gas to 34,000,000 cubic metres (1.2×10^9 cu ft) per day.[110] Ghana's Jubilee Oilfield which contains up to 3 billion barrels (480,000,000 m3) of sweet crude oil was discovered in 2007, among the many other offshore and inland oilfields in Ghana.[111] Ghana
Ghana
is believed to have up to 5 billion barrels (790,000,000 m3) to 7 billion barrels (1.1×109 m3) of petroleum in reserves,[112] which is the fifth largest in Africa
Africa
and the 21st to 25th largest proven reserves in the world. It also has up to 1.7×1011 cubic metres (6×10^12 cu ft) of natural gas in reserves,[113] which is the sixth largest in Africa
Africa
and the 49th largest natural gas proven reserves in the world. Oil and gas exploration
Oil and gas exploration
off Ghana's eastern coast on the Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
is ongoing, and the amount of both crude oil and natural gas continues to increase. The Government of Ghana
Government of Ghana
has drawn up plans to nationalise Ghana's entire petroleum and natural gas reserves to increase government revenue.[114] Industrial minerals mining[edit] Known for its industrial minerals, Ghana
Ghana
is the world's 7th largest producer of gold; producing over 102 metric tons of gold and the 10th largest producer of gold in the world in 2012; producing 89 metric tons of gold. Ghana
Ghana
is the 2nd largest producer of gold on the Africa continent behind South Africa.[115] Ghana
Ghana
has the 9th largest reserves of diamonds in the world, and is the 9th largest producer of diamonds in the world with Brazil
Brazil
having the 10th largest reserves of diamonds in the world and being the 10th largest producer of diamonds in the world.[116] Industrial minerals and exports from South Ghana
Ghana
are gold, silver, timber, diamonds, bauxite, and manganese; South Ghana
Ghana
also has a great deposit of barites; basalts; clays; dolomites; feldspars; granites; gravels; gypsums; iron ores; kaolins; laterites; limestones; magnesites; marbles; micas; phosphates; phosphorus; rocks; salts; sands; sandstones; silver; slates; talcs; and uranium that are yet to be fully exploited.[117] The Government of Ghana
Government of Ghana
has drawn up plans to nationalise Ghana's entire mining industry to increase government revenues.[118][119] Real estate[edit]

A villa in East Ridge

The real estate and housing market of Ghana
Ghana
has become an important and strategic economic sector, particularly in the urban centres of south Ghana
Ghana
such as Accra, Kumasi, Sekondi- Takoradi
Takoradi
and Tema.[120][121][122] Kumasi
Kumasi
is growing at a faster rate than Accra, and there is less competition in its real estate market.[120] The gross rental income tax of Ghana
Ghana
is withheld at 10%, capital gains are taxed at 15% with a 5% gift tax imposed on the transfer of properties and Ghana's real estate market is divided into 3 areas: public sector real estate development, emerging private sector real estate development, and private individuals.[120][121] The activities of these 3 groups are facilitated by the Ghanaian banks and the primary mortgage market which has demonstrated enormous growth potential.[121] Recent developments in the Ghanaian economy has given birth to a boom in the construction sector, including the housing and public housing sector generating and injecting billions of dollars annually into the Ghanaian economy.[120][121] The real estate market investment perspective and attraction comes from Ghana's tropical location and robust political stability.[120][121] An increasing number of the Ghanaian populace are investing in properties and the Ghana
Ghana
government is empowering the private sector in the real estate direction.[120][121] Trade and exports[edit]

Ghana
Ghana
Export Treemap by Product (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity[123]

■ 1st image: Container ships and Merchant
Merchant
ships being loaded and unloaded at Intermodal freight transport
Intermodal freight transport
of Tema
Tema
Harbour. ■ 2nd image: The Takoradi Harbour
Takoradi Harbour
seaport was established in 1928 and is Ghana's main export outlet. Ghana
Ghana
maintains one of the world's fastest growing and expanding shipping industry.

In July 2013, International Enterprise Singapore
International Enterprise Singapore
opened its 38th global office in Accra, to develop trade and investment on logistics, oil and gas, aviation, transportation and consumer sectors.[124] Singapore
Singapore
and Ghana
Ghana
also signed four bilateral agreements to promote public sector and private sector collaboration, as Ghana
Ghana
aims to predominantly shift its economic trade partnership to East Asia and Southeast Asia.[124] The economic centre is IE Singapore's second office in Africa, coming six months after opening in Johannesburg, South Africa
South Africa
in January 2013.[124] Ghana's labour force in 2008 totalled 11.5 million Ghanaian citizens.[125][126] Tema
Tema
Harbour is Africa's largest manmade harbour and Takoradi Harbour
Takoradi Harbour
along with Tema harbour in Ghana
Ghana
handles goods and exports for Ghana. They are also traffic junctions where goods are transhipped; the Tema
Tema
harbour handles the majority of the nation's export cargo and most of the country's chief exports is shipped from Takoradi
Takoradi
harbour.[127][128] The Takoradi
Takoradi
harbour and Tema
Tema
harbour are operated by the state-owned Ghana
Ghana
Ports and Harbours Authority.[127][128] Electricity generation sector[edit] Main article: Electricity sector in Ghana Shortages of electricity have led to dumsor[129] (persistent, irregular and unpredictable electric power outages), increasing the interest in renewables.[130] Ghana
Ghana
plans to become a major regional exporter of electrical power using oil from the Jubilee oil field.[131] Economic transparency[edit] According to Transparency International's Corruption
Corruption
Perception Index of 2013, out of 177 countries, Ghana
Ghana
ranked 63rd with Cuba
Cuba
and Saudi Arabia. Ghana
Ghana
had a score of 46 on a scale where a 0–9 score means highly corrupt, and a 90–100 score means very clean. This was based on perceived levels of public sector corruption.[132] Previously in 2012, the country ranked 64 and scored 45. Thus, Ghana's public sector scored lower in 2013 than in 2012, according to CPI's scores. Local reports have claimed that Ghana
Ghana
loses US$4.5 billion annually from nominal gross domestic product (Nominal GDP) growth as a result of economic corruption and economic crime by the incumbent National Democratic Congress (NDC) government of Ghana
Ghana
led by John Dramani Mahama.[133] It is also said Ghana
Ghana
has lost an additional US$2.5 billion from nominal gross domestic product (Nominal GDP) growth between the months of January 2013 to October 2013 through economic corrupt practices under the Mahama administration.[134] The incumbent president is however seen to be fighting corruption by some government members,[135] and a fellow politician of an opposition party,[136] after ordering investigations into scandals. Nonetheless others believe his actions are not sufficient in some cases.[137] John Addo Kufuor, son of former President John Agyekum Kufuor, and Kojo Annan, son of former Secretary-General of the United Nations
Secretary-General of the United Nations
Kofi Annan, have been named in association with the Panama Papers.[138] Science
Science
and technology[edit] Ghana
Ghana
was the first sub-Saharan African country to launch a cellular mobile network (1992). It was one of the first countries in Africa
Africa
to be connected to the internet and to introduce ADSL broadband services.[139] Space and satellite programmes[edit] The Ghana Space Science and Technology Centre
Ghana Space Science and Technology Centre
(GSSTC) and Ghana
Ghana
Space Agency (GhsA) oversee the space exploration and space programmes of Ghana. GSSTC and GhsA worked to have a national security observational satellite launched into orbit in 2015.[140][141] The first practical step in its endeavor was a CanSat
CanSat
launched on 15 May 2013, a space programme spearheaded by the All Nations University College (ANUC) in Koforidua. The CanSat
CanSat
was deployed 200 metres (660 feet) high from a helium-filled balloon and took some aerial images as well as temperature readings. As its next step in advancing space science and satellite technology in the sub-region, an amateur ground station has been designed and built by the university. It has successfully tracked and communicated with several amateur radio satellites in orbit including the International Space Station, receiving slow-scan TV images on 18 and 20 December 2014. The miniaturized earth observational satellite is to be launched into orbit in 2017.[142] Ghana's annual space exploration expenditure has been 1% of its gross domestic product (GDP), to support research in science and technology. In 2012 Ghana
Ghana
was elected to chair the Commission on Science
Science
and Technology
Technology
for Sustainable Development in the South (Comsats); Ghana has a joint effort in space exploration with South Africa's South African National Space Agency (SANSA).[140] Cybernetics and cyberwarfare[edit] See also: Sakawa

Ghana
Ghana
education system's implementation of information and communications technology at the University of Ghana

The use of computer technology for teaching and learning began to receive government of Ghana's attention from the late 1990s.[143] The information and communications technology in education policy of Ghana requires the use of information and communications technology for teaching and learning at all levels of the education of Ghana system.[143] The Ministry of Education (MOE) supports institutions in teaching of information and communications technology literacy.[143] Majority of secondary, and some basic schools of Ghana
Ghana
have computer laboratories.[143] Ghana's intention to become the information technology hub of West Africa
Africa
has led the government of Ghana
Ghana
to enact cyber crime legislation and enhance cyber security practices.[144] Acting on that goal, in 2008 Ghana
Ghana
passed the Electronic Communications Act and the Electronic Transactions Act, which established the legal framework for governing information technology.[144] In November 2011, the Deputy Minister for Communications and Technology
Technology
announced the development of a national cyber security strategy, aimed at combating cyber crime and securing critical infrastructure.[144] In June 2012, the National Information Technology Agency
National Information Technology Agency
(NITA) announced a national computer emergency response team "strategy" designed to co-ordinate government response to cyberattacks, both internal and external.[144] The agency also established computer emergency response teams for each municipal, metropolitan, and district assembly to improve co-ordination and information-sharing on cyberspace threats.[144] Ghana
Ghana
is ranked 2nd on continental Africa
Africa
and 7th globally in cyber warfare, cyberterrorism, cyber crime, and internet crime.[145] Health and biotechnology[edit] The Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine is an agency of the Ministry of Health that was set up in the 1970s for both R&D and as a practical resource (product production & distribution/provision) primarily in areas of biotechnology related to medicinal plants. This includes both herbal medicine and work on more advanced applications. It also has a secondary role as an educational resource for foreign students in health, biotechnology and related fields.

Education[edit] Main article: Education in Ghana Overview[edit] Ghanaian education system is divided in three parts: "Basic Education", secondary cycle and tertiary education. "Basic Education" lasts 11 years (ages 4‒15).[146] It is divided into Kindergarten
Kindergarten
(2 years), Primary School (2 module of 3 years) and Junior High (3 years). Junior High School (JHS) ends with the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE).[146][147] Once the BECE achieved, the pupil can pursue into secondary cycle.[148] Hence, the pupil has the choice between general education (assumed by Senior High School) and vocational education (assumed by technical Senior High School, Technical and Vocational Institutes, completed by a massive private and informal offer). Senior High School lasts three years and ends on the West African Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE). The WASSCE is needed to join a university bachelor's degree programme.[149] Polytechnics are opened to vocational students, from SHS or from TVI.[150] A Bachelor's degree usually lasts 4 years, can be followed by a 1- or 2-year master's degree, which can be concluded in 3 years by a Ph.D.[151] A polytechnic lasts 2 or 3 years.[150] Ghana
Ghana
also possesses numerous colleges of education.[152] The Ghanaian education system from Kindergarten
Kindergarten
up to an undergraduate degree level takes 20 years.[153] The academic year usually goes from August to May inclusive.[154] The school year in primary education lasts 40 weeks in Primary School and SHS, and 45 weeks in JHS.[155] Enrollment[edit]

Ratio of females to males in education system.

Females and males out of education system.

With over 95% of its children in school, Ghana
Ghana
currently has one of the highest school enrollment rates in all of Africa.[156][157] The ratio of females to males in the total education system was 0.98, in 2014.[158] Foreign students[edit] Ghana's education system annually attracts a large number of foreign students particularly in the university sector.[159] One noted product of the Ghana
Ghana
education system is Robert Mugabe
Robert Mugabe
who completed both his elementary school education and high school education at the prestigious Achimota School.[160] Funding of education[edit] The government largely funds basic education comprising public primary schools and public junior high schools. Senior high schools are highly subsidised by the government. At the higher education level, the government funds more than 80% of resources provided to public universities, polytechnics and teacher training colleges. Provision of educational material[edit] As part of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education, Fcube, the government supplies all basic education schools with all their textbooks and other educational supplies like exercise books. Senior high schools are also provided with all their textbook requirement by the government. Private schools acquire their educational material from private suppliers. Ghana
Ghana
has the largest bookshop in Africa, EPP Books Services located at the University of Ghana. Kindergarten
Kindergarten
and education structure[edit]

Education structure of Ghana

The female and male ages 15–24 years literacy rate in Ghana
Ghana
was 81% in 2010, with males at 82%,[161] and females at 80%.[162] Ghanaian children begin their education at the age of three or four starting from kindergarten (nursery school and preschool), then to elementary school (primary school), high school (junior high school and senior high school) and finally university. The average age at which a Ghanaian child enters primary school is 6 years.[156] Ghana
Ghana
has a free education 6-year primary school education system beginning at age six,[163] and, under the educational reforms implemented in 1988 and reformed in 2007, they pass on to a 3-year junior high school system. At the end of the third year of junior high, there is a mandatory "Basic Education Certificate Examination". Those continuing must complete the 4-year senior high school programme (which has been changed to three years) and take an admission exam to enter any university or tertiary programme. The Ghanaian education system from nursery school up to an undergraduate degree level takes 20 years.[153] In 2005, Ghana
Ghana
had 12,130 primary schools, 5,450 junior secondary schools, 503 senior secondary schools, 21 public training colleges, 18 technical institutions, two diploma-awarding institutions and 6 universities.[164][165] In 2010, there were relatively more females (53.0%) than males (40.5%) with primary school and JSS (junior secondary school) / JHS (junior high school) as their highest level of education.[3] Elementary[edit] The Ghanaian Ministry of Education and the Ghanaian National Accreditation Board provide free education at the elementary school (primary school) level, and most Ghanaians have relatively easy access to high school education (junior high school and senior high school).[163] These numbers can be contrasted with the single university and handful of secondary and primary schools that existed at the time of independence in 1957. Ghana's spending on education has varied between 28–40% of its annual budget in the past decade. All teaching is done in English, mostly by qualified Ghanaian educators.[153] The courses taught at the primary or basic school level include English, Ghanaian language and culture, mathematics, environmental studies, social studies, Mandarin and French as an OIF associated-member,[166] integrated or general science, pre-vocational skills and pre-technical skills, religious and moral education, and physical activities such as Ghanaian music and dance, and physical education.[153]

High school[edit] Further information: List of senior secondary schools in Ghana The senior high level school curriculum has core subjects and elective subjects of which students must take four the core subjects of English language, mathematics, integrated science (including science, agriculture and environmental studies) and social studies (economics, geography, history and government).[153] High school students also choose four elective subjects from five available programmes: agriculture programme, general programme (arts or science option), business programme, vocational programme and technical programme.[153] Apart from most primary and secondary schools which choose the Ghanaian system of schooling, there are also international schools such as the Takoradi
Takoradi
International School, Tema International School, Galaxy International School, The Roman Ridge School, Lincoln Community School, Faith Montessori School, American International School, Alpha Beta Christian College, Association International School, New Nation School, SOS Hermann Gmeiner International College, Vilac International School, Akosombo International School (which offers Cambridge O level certificate), North Legon Little Campus
Campus
and International Community School, which offer the International Baccalaureat, Advanced Level General Certificate of Education and the International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE).[164] University[edit] Further information: List of universities in Ghana

Front view of the University of Education, Winneba
University of Education, Winneba
(UEW) North Campus in Winneba

Ghanaian college students at the Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
University of Science and Technology
Technology
(KNUST) in Kumasi, February 2011

Main entrance to the University of Ghana's Balme Library in Accra

There are eight national public universities in Ghana: the University of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
University of Science
Science
and Technology, University of Cape Coast, University of Education, University for Development Studies, University of Mines and Technology, University of Professional Studies, Accra, University of Energy and Natural Resources, and University of Health and Allied Sciences.[167] Ghana
Ghana
has a growing number of accredited private universities including Lancaster University, Ghana, Ghana
Ghana
Technology
Technology
University College, Ashesi University College, Methodist University College Ghana, Central University College, Accra
Accra
Institute of Technology, Regent University College of Science
Science
and Technology, Valley View University, Catholic
Catholic
University College, Presbyterian university college, and Zenith University College.[168] The oldest university in Ghana, the University of Ghana, was founded in 1948. It had 29,754 students in 2008. Its programmes in the arts, humanities, business, and the social sciences, as well as medicine, are among the best in the country.[citation needed] Many universities—including Harvard University, Cornell University, and Oxford University—have special study-abroad programmes with Ghanaian schools and provide their students the opportunity to study abroad at Ghanaian universities. New York University
New York University
has a campus in Accra.[169] The University of Ghana
University of Ghana
has seen a shift of its traditionally best students to the Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
University of Science
Science
and Technology.[170] Since Ghana's independence, the country has been one of the most educational in sub-Saharan Africa. Former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan
Kofi Annan
has been chancellor of the University of Ghana since 2008.[170] Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
University of Science
Science
and Technology, the second university to be established in the country, is the premier university of science and technology in Ghana
Ghana
and West Africa.[153]

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Ghana Further information: Ghanaian people The vast majority of Ghana's population—98% percent— identify as Black Africans
Africans
despite the majority of the population having some type of mixed heritage.[171][172][173] Ghana
Ghana
is a multiethnic country.[3] The largest ethnic group is the Ashanti people. Ghana's territorial area within West Africa
West Africa
was unoccupied and uninhabited by humans until the 10th century BC.[174] By the 10th century AD. The Guans were the first settlers in Ghana
Ghana
long before the other tribes came. (Akans) had established Bonoman
Bonoman
(Brong Ahafo region) and were joined by the current settlers and inhabitants by the 16th century. In 2010, the population of Ghana
Ghana
was 67.2% Christian (24.3% Pentecostal, 18.4% Protestant, 13.1% Catholic
Catholic
and 11.4% other). Approximately 23.6% of the population of Ghana
Ghana
were Muslims,[16] (51% Sunni, 16% Ahmadiyya, and 8% Shia).[175][176] As of the year 2014, there are 375,000 registered legal skilled workers (permanent residents) or foreign workers/students (i.e. Ghana Card holders) inhabitants with an annually 1.5 million transited airport layovers. In its first post-colonial census in 1960, Ghana
Ghana
had a population of 6.7 million.[177] The median age of Ghanaian citizens is 30 years old and the average household size is 3.6 persons. The Government of Ghana
Government of Ghana
states that the official language of Ghana
Ghana
is English,[2] and is spoken by 67.1% of the inhabiting population of Ghana.[3] Population[edit] Main articles: Ghana Immigration Service
Ghana Immigration Service
and Ghanaian nationality law

Ghana Card
Ghana Card
(Ghanaian electronic ID Card) – obverse (with chip ).

Contemporary Ghanaian biometric passport (with chip )

Multiple citizenship with Ghanaian biometric passport identity document.

In 2010, the population was 24.2 million. The Ashanti Region
Ashanti Region
had the most, (Akan) (Ashanti) (4.7 million in Ashanti, 2.3 million in Brong-Ahafo, 2.2 million in Central, 2.6 million in Eastern, 2.3 million in Western, and 4 million in the seat of government in Greater Accra
Accra
geographically and legally part of Eastern then administered separately on 23 July 1982).[175] As of 2010[update], 4.1 million persons reside in the Dagbani territories or Kingdom of Dagbon
Kingdom of Dagbon
(2.4 million in Northern, 1 million in Upper East, and 0.7 million in Upper West).[175] As of 2010[update], 2.1 million persons reside in Ewe territory Volta.[175] Legal immigration[edit] Main article: Immigration to Ghana Due to the recent legal immigration of skilled workers who possess Ghana
Ghana
Cards, there is a small population of Chinese, Malaysian, Indian, Middle Eastern and European nationals. Illegal immigration[edit] Main article: Illegal immigration in Ghana In 2010, the Ghana Immigration Service
Ghana Immigration Service
reported a large number of economic migrants and Illegal immigrants inhabiting Ghana: 14.6% (or 3.1 million) of Ghana's 2010 population (predominantly Nigerians, Burkinabe citizens, Togolese citizens, and Malian citizens). In 1969, under the " Ghana
Ghana
Aliens Compliance Order" (GACO) enacted by the Prime Minister of Ghana
Ghana
Kofi Abrefa Busia;[178] Government of Ghana
Government of Ghana
with BGU (Border Guard Unit) deported over 3,000,000 aliens and illegal immigrants in three months as they made up 20% of the population at the time.[178][179] In 2013, there was a mass deportation of illegal miners, more than 4,000 of them Chinese nationals.[180][181] Language[edit] Main article: Languages of Ghana

Ashanti greeting phrases; "akɔaba" (welcome) and "ɛte sɛn" (how is it?) in Ashanti Twi

There are eleven languages that have the status of government-sponsored languages:

Ga, four are Akan ethnic languages (Asante Twi, Akuapem Twi, Mfantse and Nzema), two are Mole-Dagbani ethnic languages (Dagaare, Dagbanli and Hausa language). Ewe, Dangme, Gonja, and Kasem.[182][183]

English is the language of the state and widely used as a lingua franca. Since Ghana
Ghana
is surrounded by French-speaking countries, French widely taught in schools and universities, as well as a language used for commercial and international economic exchanges. Since 2006, Ghana
Ghana
is an associate member of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie[184], the global organisation that unites French-speaking countries (84 nations on 6 continents). In 2005, over 350 000 Ghanaian children studied French in schools. Since then, its status has progressively been updated to a mandatory language in every high school[185]. Ghana
Ghana
is also an active member of CEDEAO, the French-speaking international organisation uniting most West-African nations. Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Ghana

Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
religious holiday in Ghana

Religious affiliation in Ghana

Affiliation 2000 census[186] 2010 census[187]

Christian 68.8% 68.2%

Pentecostal/Charismatic 24.1% 24.3%

Protestant 18.6% 18.4%

Catholic 15.1% 13.1%

Other Christian 11% 11.4%

Muslim 15.9% 23.6%

Traditional 8.5% 5.2%

None 6.1% 5.3%

Other 0.7% 0.8%

Ghana
Ghana
is a largely Christian country, although a sizable Muslim minority exists. Traditional (indigenous) beliefs are also practiced. Fertility and reproductive health[edit] The fertility rate of Ghana
Ghana
declined from 3.99 (2000) to 3.28 (2010) with 2.78 in urban region and 3.94 in rural region.[188] As of 2010[update], the maternal mortality rate was 350 deaths/100,000 live births, and the infant mortality rate was 38.52 deaths/1,000 live births.[187] According to a 2013 UNICEF report,[189] 4% of women in Ghana
Ghana
have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM). The practice has been made illegal in the country.[190] Ghana
Ghana
is also the birth country of anti-FGM campaigner Efua Dorkenoo. Universal health care
Universal health care
and health care provision[edit] Main articles: NHIS and Health in Ghana Further information: Eye care in Ghana
Eye care in Ghana
and Optometry in Ghana Ghana
Ghana
has a universal health care system strictly designated for Ghanaian nationals, National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS).[191] Health care is very variable throughout Ghana
Ghana
and in 2012, over 12 million Ghanaian nationals were covered by the National Health Insurance Scheme (Ghana) (NHIS).[192] Urban centres are well served, and contain most of the hospitals, clinics, and pharmacies in Ghana. There are over 200 hospitals in Ghana
Ghana
and Ghana
Ghana
is a destination for medical tourism.[193] In 2013, life expectancy at birth had increased to an average of 66 years with males at 66 years and females at 67 years,[194] and in 2013 infant mortality decreased to 39 per 1,000 live births.[195] There was an estimation of 15 physicians and 93 nurses per 100,000 persons in 2010.[196] 5.2% of Ghana's GDP was spent on health in 2010,[197] and all Ghanaian citizens have the right to access primary health care.[198] As of 2012[update], the HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
prevalence was estimated at 1.40% among adults aged 15–49.[199]

Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Ghana

Hogbetsotso festival in the Volta region

Ghanaian culture is a diverse mixture of the practices and beliefs of many different Ghanaian ethnic groups. Food and drink[edit] Main article: Ghanaian cuisine Ghanaian cuisine
Ghanaian cuisine
and gastronomy is diverse, and includes an assortment of soups and stews with varied seafoods and most Ghanaian soups are prepared with vegetables, meat, poultry or fish.[200] Fish is important in the Ghanaian diet with tilapia, roasted and fried whitebait, smoked fish and crayfish all being common components of Ghanaian dishes.[200] Banku (Akple) is a common Ghanaian starchy food made from ground corn (maize),[200] and cornmeal based staples, dokonu (kenkey) and banku (akple) are usually accompanied by some form of fried fish (chinam) or grilled tilapia and a very spicy condiment made from raw red and green chillies, onions and tomatoes (pepper sauce).[200] Banku and tilapia is a combo served in most Ghanaian restaurants.[200] Fufu
Fufu
is the most common exported Ghanaian dish in that it is a delicacy across the African diaspora.[200] Literature[edit] The Ghanaian national literature radio programme and accompanying publication Voices of Ghana was one of the earliest on the African continent. The most prominent Ghanaian authors are novelists; J. E. Casely Hayford, Ayi Kwei Armah and Nii Ayikwei Parkes, who gained international acclaim with the books, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
Unbound (1911), The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born (1968) and Tail of the Blue Bird (2009), respectively.[201] In addition to novels, other literature arts such as Ghanaian theatre and poetry have also had a very good development and support at the national level with prominent Ghanaian playwrights and poets Joe de Graft and Efua Sutherland.[201] Adinkra[edit] Main article: Adinkra symbols

Adinkra symbols
Adinkra symbols
by Robert Sutherland Rattray

During the 13th century, Ghanaians developed their unique art of adinkra printing. Hand-printed and hand-embroidered adinkra clothes were made and used exclusively by the then Ghanaian royalty for devotional ceremonies. Each of the motifs that make up the corpus of adinkra symbolism has a name and meaning derived from a proverb, a historical event, human attitude, ethology, plant life-form, or shapes of inanimate and man-made objects. These are graphically rendered in stylised geometric shapes. The meanings of the motifs may be categorised into aesthetics, ethics, human relations, and concepts.[201] The Adinkra symbols
Adinkra symbols
have a decorative function as tattoos but also represent objects that encapsulate evocative messages that convey traditional wisdom, aspects of life or the environment. There are many different symbols with distinct meanings, often linked with proverbs. In the words of Anthony Appiah, they were one of the means in a pre-literate society for "supporting the transmission of a complex and nuanced body of practice and belief".[202] Traditional clothing[edit] Main article: Kente
Kente
cloth Along with the Adinkra cloth Ghanaians use many different cloth fabrics for their traditional attire.[203] The different ethnic groups have their own individual cloth. The most well known is the Kente cloth.[203] Kente
Kente
is a very important Ghanaian national costume and clothing and these cloths are used to make traditional and modern Ghanaian Kente
Kente
attire.[203] Different symbols and different colours mean different things.[203] Kente
Kente
is the most famous of all the Ghanaian cloths.[203] Kente
Kente
is a ceremonial cloth hand-woven on a horizontal treadle loom and strips measuring about 4 inches wide are sewn together into larger pieces of cloths.[203] Cloths come in various colours, sizes and designs and are worn during very important social and religious occasions.[203] In a cultural context, kente is more important than just a cloth and it is a visual representation of history and also a form of written language through weaving.[203] The term kente has its roots in the Akan word kɛntɛn which means a basket and the first kente weavers used raffia fibres to weave cloths that looked like kenten (a basket); and thus were referred to as kenten ntoma; meaning basket cloth.[203] The original Akan name of the cloth was nsaduaso or nwontoma, meaning "a cloth hand-woven on a loom"; however, "kente" is the most frequently used term today.[203]

Modern clothing[edit]

Contemporary Ghanaian men's fashion with Kente
Kente
and other traditional styles

Contemporary Ghanaian women's fashion with African print/Ankara and other fabrics

Contemporary Ghanaian fashion includes traditional and modern styles and fabrics and has made its way into the African and global fashion scene. The cloth known as African print fabric was created out of Dutch wax textiles, it is believed that in the late 1800s, Dutch ships on their way to Asia stocked with machine-made textiles that mimicked Indonesian Batik stopped at many West African ports on the way. The fabrics did not do well in Asia. However, in West Africa
West Africa
— mainly Ghana
Ghana
where there was an already established market for cloths and textiles — the client base grew and it was changed to include local and traditional designs, colours and patterns to cater to the taste of the new consumers.[204] Today outside of Africa
Africa
it is called "Ankara" and it has a client base well beyond Ghana
Ghana
and Africa
Africa
as a whole. It is very popular among Caribbean peoples and African Americans; celebrities such as Solange Knowles
Solange Knowles
and her sister Beyoncé
Beyoncé
have been seen wearing African print attire.[205] Many designers from countries in North America and Europe are now using African prints and it has gained a global interest.[206] British luxury fashion house Burberry created a collection around Ghanaian styles.[207] American musician Gwen Stefani
Gwen Stefani
has repeatedly incorporated African prints into her clothing line and can often be seen wearing it.[208] Internationally acclaimed Ghanaian-British designer Ozwald Boateng
Ozwald Boateng
introduced African print suits in his 2012 collection.[209] Music and dance[edit] Main articles: Music of Ghana, Azonto, and Kpanlogo

Play media

Traditional Adowa dance
Adowa dance
form and music performance.

The music of Ghana
Ghana
is diverse and varies between different ethnic groups and regions. Ghanaian music incorporates several distinct types of musical instruments such as the talking drum ensembles, Akan Drum, goje fiddle and koloko lute, court music, including the Akan Seperewa, the Akan atumpan, the Ga kpanlogo styles, and log xylophones used in asonko music.[210] The most well known genres to have come from Ghana are African jazz, which was created by Ghanaian artist Kofi Ghanaba,[211] and its earliest form of secular music, called highlife.[210] Highlife
Highlife
originated in the late 19th century and early 20th century and spread throughout West Africa.[210] In the 1990s a new genre of music was created by the youth incorporating the influences of highlife, Afro-reggae, dancehall and hiphop.[210] This hybrid was called hiplife.[210] Ghanaian artists such as "Afro Roots" singer, activist and songwriter Rocky Dawuni, R&B and soul singer Rhian Benson
Rhian Benson
and Sarkodie have had international success.[212][213] In December 2015, Rocky Dawuni
Rocky Dawuni
became the first Ghanaian musician to be nominated for a Grammy award in the Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album category for his 6th studio album titled Branches of The Same Tree[214] released 31 March 2015. Ghanaian dance is as diverse as its music, and there are traditional dances and different dances for different occasions.[215] The most known Ghanaian dances are those for celebrations. These dances include the Adowa, Kpanlogo, Azonto, Klama, and Bamaya.[215] Film[edit]

Popular actor of Ghanaian ancestry, Van Vicker, and international actors Boris Kodjoe
Boris Kodjoe
and Idris Elba

Ghana
Ghana
has a budding and thriving film industry. Ghana's film industry dates as far back as 1948 when the Gold Coast
Coast
Film Unit was set up in the Information Services Department.[216] Some internationally recognised films have come from Ghana. In 1970, I Told You So was one of the first Ghanaian films to receive international acknowledgement and received great reviews from The New York Times.[217] It was followed by the 1973 Ghanaian and Italian production The African Deal also known as "Contratto carnale" featuring Bahamian American actor Calvin Lockhart.[218] 1983's Kukurantumi: the Road to Accra, a Ghanaian and German production directed by King Ampaw, was written about by famous American film critic Vincent Canby.[219] In 1987, Cobra Verde, another Ghanaian and German production directed by Werner Herzog, received international acclamation and in 1988, Heritage Africa
Africa
won more than 12 film awards. In recent times there have been collaborations between Ghanaian and Nigerian crew and cast and a number of productions turned out. Many Ghanaian films are co-produced with Nollywood, the Nigerian film industry, and some are distributed by Nigerian marketers. Also, Nigerian filmmakers often feature Ghanaian actors and actresses in their movies and Ghanaian filmmakers feature Nigerian actors and actresses in theirs. Nadia Buari, Yvonne Nelson, Lydia Forson
Lydia Forson
and Jackie Appiah
Jackie Appiah
all popular Ghanaian actresses and Van Vicker
Van Vicker
and Majid Michel both popular Ghanaian actors, have starred in many Nigerian movies. As a result of these collaborations, Western viewers often confuse Ghanaian movies with Nollywood and count their sales as one; however, they are two independent industries that sometimes share Nollywood. In 2009, Unesco
Unesco
described Nollywood as the second-biggest film industry in the world after Bollywood.[220] Media[edit] Main article: Media of Ghana

Ghana
Ghana
mass media, news and information provided by television.

The media of Ghana
Ghana
are amongst the most free in Africa. Chapter 12 of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana
Constitution of Ghana
guarantees freedom of the press and independence of the media, while Chapter 2 prohibits censorship.[221] Post-independence, the government and media often had a tense relationship, with private outlets closed during the military governments and strict media laws that prevented criticism of government.[222] Press freedoms were restored in 1992, and after the election in 2000 of John Agyekum Kufuor
John Agyekum Kufuor
the tensions between the private media and government decreased. Kufuor supported press freedom and repealed a libel law, but maintained that the media had to act responsibly.[223] The Ghanaian media has been described as "one of the most unfettered" in Africa, operating with little restriction. The private press often carries criticism of government policy.[224] Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Ghana See also: Ghana
Ghana
at the Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
and Ghana
Ghana
at the Olympics

Black Stars, the Ghana
Ghana
national football team.

Association football (or soccer) is the most spectated sport in Ghana and the national men's football team is known as the Black Stars, with the under-20 team known as the Black Satellites.[225] Ghana
Ghana
has won the African Cup of Nations
African Cup of Nations
four times, the FIFA U-20 World Cup
FIFA U-20 World Cup
once, and has participated in three consecutive FIFA World Cups dating back to 2006.[225] In the 2010 FIFA World Cup, Ghana
Ghana
became the third African country to reach the quarter-final stage of the World Cup after Cameroon
Cameroon
in 1990 and Senegal
Senegal
in 2002.[226] Ghana
Ghana
national U-20 football team, known as the Black Satellites, is considered to be the feeder team for the Ghana
Ghana
national football team. Ghana
Ghana
is the first and only country on the Africa
Africa
continent to be crowned FIFA U-20 World Cup Champions,[225] and two-time runners up in 1993 and 2001. The Ghana
Ghana
national U-17 football team known as the Black Starlets are two-time FIFA U-17 World Cup
FIFA U-17 World Cup
champions in 1991 and 1995, two-time runners up in 1993 and 1997.[227]

Black Stars goal celebration; football is the most popular sport in Ghana

Ghanaian football teams Asante Kotoko SC
Asante Kotoko SC
and Accra
Accra
Hearts of Oak SC are the 5th and 9th best football teams on the Africa
Africa
continent and have won a total of five Africa
Africa
continental association football and Confederation of African Football
Confederation of African Football
trophies; Ghanaian football club Asante Kotoko SC
Asante Kotoko SC
has been crowned two-time CAF Champions League winners in 1970, 1983 and five-time CAF Champions League
CAF Champions League
runners up, and Ghanaian football club Accra
Accra
Hearts of Oak SC has been crowned 2000 CAF Champions League
CAF Champions League
winner and two-time CAF Champions League runners up, 2001 CAF Super Cup champions and 2004 CAF Confederation Cup champions.[228] The International Federation of Football History and Statistics crowned Asante Kotoko SC
Asante Kotoko SC
as the African club of the 20th century.[228] There are several club football teams in Ghana
Ghana
that play in the Ghana Premier League
Ghana Premier League
and Division One League, both administered by the Ghana
Ghana
Football Association.[229]

A view of the Obuasi
Obuasi
Golf Course

Ghanaian winter sports Olympic team at the opening ceremony of the 2010 Winter Olympics

Ghana
Ghana
competed in the Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
in 2010 for the first time. Ghana
Ghana
qualified for the 2010 Winter Olympics, scoring 137.5 International Ski Federation
International Ski Federation
points, within the qualifying range of 120–140 points.[230] Ghanaian skier, Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong, nicknamed "The Snow Leopard", became the first Ghanaian to take part in the Winter Olympics, at the 2010 Winter Olympics
Winter Olympics
held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada,[231] taking part in the slalom skiing.[232] Ghana
Ghana
finished 47th out of 102 participating nations, of whom 54 finished in the Alpine skiing slalom.[233][234] Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong broke on the international skiing circuit, being the second black African skier to do so.[235] Ghanaian athletes have won a total of four Olympics medals in thirteen appearances at the Summer Olympics, three in boxing, and a bronze medal in association football, and thus became the first country on the Africa
Africa
continent to win a medal at association football.[236] The country has also produced a number of world class boxers, including Azumah Nelson a three-time world champion and considered as Africa's greatest boxer,[237][238] Nana Yaw Konadu also a three-time world champion,[238] Ike Quartey,[238] and Joshua Clottey.[238] Ghana's women's football team won bronze at the Africa
Africa
Women Cup of Nations 2016 edition in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The team beat South Africa 1–0.[239]

Cultural heritage and architecture[edit] See also: Ghana's material cultural heritage
Ghana's material cultural heritage
and Ghanaian museums

Ghanaian postmodern architecture

There are two types of Ghanaian traditional construction: the series of adjacent buildings in an enclosure around a common are common and the traditional round huts with grass roof.[240] The round huts with grass roof architecture are situated in the northern regions of Ghana (Northern, Upper East and Upper West regions), while the series of adjacent buildings are in the southern regions of Ghana
Ghana
(Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra
Accra
and Western regions).[240] Ghanaian postmodern architecture and high-tech architecture buildings are predominant in the Ghanaian southern regions, while the Ghanaian heritage sites are most evident by the more than thirty forts and castles built in Ghana. Some of these forts are Fort
Fort
William and Fort Amsterdam. Ghana
Ghana
has museums that are situated inside castles, and two are situated inside a fort.[241] The Military Museum and the National Museum organise temporary exhibitions.[241] Ghana
Ghana
has museums that show a in-depth look at specific Ghanaian regions, there are a number of museums that provide insight into the traditions and history of their own geographical area in Ghana.[241] The Cape Coast
Cape Coast
Castle
Castle
Museum and St. Georges Castle
Castle
( Elmina
Elmina
Castle) Museum offer guided tours. The Museum of Science
Science
and Technology provides its visitors with a look into the domain of Ghanaian scientific development, through exhibits of objects of scientific and technological interest.[241] National symbols[edit]

The tawny eagle appears on the coat of arms of Ghana.

Flag of Ghana

The coat of arms depicts two animals: the tawny eagle (Aquila rapax, a very large bird that lives in the savannas and deserts[242]; 35% of Ghana's landmass is desert, 35% is forest, 30% is savanna) and the lion (Panthera leo, a big cat); a ceremonial sword, a heraldic castle on a heraldic sea, a cocoa tree and a mine shaft representing the industrial mineral wealth of Ghana, and a five-pointed black star rimmed with gold representing the mineral gold wealth of Ghana
Ghana
and the lodestar of the Ghanaian people.[243] It also has the legend Freedom and Justice.[243] The flag of Ghana
Ghana
consists of three horizontal bands (strips) of red (top), gold (middle) and green (bottom); the three bands are the same height and width; the middle band bears a five-pointed black star in the centre of the gold band, the colour red band stands for the blood spilled to achieve the nation's independence: gold stands for Ghana's industrial mineral wealth, and the color green symbolises the rich tropical rainforests and natural resources of Ghana.[41][243]

Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Ghana

Surfers surfing and big wave surfing at Busua Beach
Busua Beach
in Western region[244]

In 2011, 1,087,000 tourists visited Ghana.[245] Tourist arrivals to Ghana
Ghana
include South Americans, Asians, Europeans, and North Americans.[246] The attractions and major tourist destinations of Ghana
Ghana
include a warm, tropical climate year-round; diverse wildlife; exotic waterfalls such as Kintampo Waterfalls and the largest waterfall in west Africa, Wli Waterfalls; Ghana's coastal palm-lined sandy beaches; caves; mountains, rivers; meteorite impact crater and reservoirs and lakes such as Lake Bosumtwi
Lake Bosumtwi
or Bosumtwi meteorite crater and the largest man-made lake in the world by surface area, Lake Volta; dozens of castles and forts; UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites; nature reserves and national parks.[246] The World Economic Forum
World Economic Forum
statistics in 2010 showed that out of the world's favourite tourist destinations, Ghana
Ghana
was ranked 108th out of 139 countries.[247] The country had moved two places up from the 2009 rankings. In 2011, Forbes
Forbes
magazine, published that Ghana
Ghana
was ranked the eleventh most friendly country in the world. The assertion was based on a survey in 2010 of a cross-section of travellers. Of all the African countries that were included in the survey, Ghana
Ghana
ranked highest.[247] Tourism is the fourth highest earner of foreign exchange for the country.[247] In 2017, Ghana
Ghana
ranks as the 43rd–most peaceful country in the world.[248] To enter Ghana, it is necessary to have a visa authorised by the Government of Ghana. Travelers must apply for this visa at a Ghanaian embassy; this process can take approximately two weeks. By law, visitors entering Ghana
Ghana
must be able to produce a yellow fever vaccination certificate.[249]

Panorama view of Kakum National Park, located in the coastal environs of the Central region on the Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
and Atlantic Ocean, covers an area of 375 square kilometres (145 sq mi). Established in 1931 as a Game reserve and Nature reserve, it was gazetted as a national park only in 1992 after an initial survey of avifauna was conducted. The national park is covered with tropical rainforest.[250][251][252] Kakum National Park
Kakum National Park
is the only national park in Africa
Africa
with a canopy walkway, which is 350 metres (1,150 ft) long and connects seven canopy tree tops which provides access to the rainforests.[251][253]

Tourism Landmarks, National Border, Region and Terrestrial plain of the 4th Republic
Republic
of Ghana

Coastal Plain Accra, Apam, Cape Coast, Elmina, Kakum National Park, Kokrobite, Nzulezo, Sekondi-Takoradi, Ada Foah The Gulf of Guinea
Gulf of Guinea
coastal plain with the seat of government and capital city, several castles and forts and the best preserved rainforest in Ghana

Ashanti-Kwahu Koforidua, Kumasi, Obuasi, Sunyani Forested hills and the ancient Kingdom of Ashanti

Volta Basin Tamale massive and world's largest Lake Volta, the river system that feeds it and Ghana
Ghana
eastern border crossing

Northern Plains Wa, Bolgatanga, Mole National Park Savanna
Savanna
plains and north Ghana
Ghana
trade route and border crossing

Map of Ghana
Ghana
with national border, geographical regions and terrestrial plains colour-coded

Settlements

Accra Seat of Government and Capital City.

Bolgatanga Paga Crocodile Pond
Paga Crocodile Pond
location.

Cape Coast Cape Coast
Cape Coast
castle is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage site.

Elmina Coastal town with a quite harrowing fort Elmina
Elmina
Castle.

Koforidua Aburi Botanical Gardens
Aburi Botanical Gardens
location.

Kumasi Traditional centre of the Kingdom of Ashanti.

Obuasi The Earth's 9th largest gold mine location; and Mining town.

Sekondi-Takoradi Renowned surfing beaches such as Busua Beach,[244] and UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage sites.

Tamale Largest settlement in the Kingdom of Dagbon
Kingdom of Dagbon
and gateway to Mole National Park.

See also[edit]

Index of Ghana-related articles Outline of Ghana Coromantee

Ghana
Ghana
portal Africa
Africa
portal Geography portal

References[edit]

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Ghana
Embassy. Retrieved 8 January 2017. English is the official language of Ghana
Ghana
and is universally used in schools in addition to nine other local languages. The most widely spoken local languages are, Ga, Dagomba, Akan and Ewe.  ^ a b c d e " Ghana
Ghana
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Ghana
Statistical Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.  ^ Antoinette I. Mintah (2010). "2010 Provisional Census Results Out". 4 February 2011. Population Division, Ghana
Ghana
Government. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2011.  ^ a b c d e "Ghana". International Monetary Fund.  ^ "GINI index–World Bank". World Bank. Retrieved 15 December 2014.  ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.  ^ Jackson, John G. (2001) Introduction to African Civilizations, Citadel Press, p. 201, ISBN 0-8065-2189-9. ^ "Asante Kingdom". Afrika-Studiecentrum, Leiden. Retrieved 8 June 2014.  ^ a b Video: A New Nation: Gold Coast
Coast
becomes Ghana
Ghana
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Africa
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Ghana
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Etymology
of Ghana". Douglas Harper. Retrieved 12 May 2012.  ^ Levtzion, Nehemia (1973). Ancient Ghana
Ghana
and Mali. New York: Methuen & Co Ltd. p. 3. ISBN 0841904316.  ^ Title: Africa
Africa
a Voyage of Discovery with Basil Davidson, Language: English Type: Documentary Year: 1984 Length: 114 min. ^ a b c d e f g "Pre-Colonial Period". Ghanaweb.com. Retrieved 13 December 2010.  ^ "Pre-European Mining at Ashanti, Ghana" (PDF) (PDF). Pdmhs.com. October 1996. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 November 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2015.  ^ Tvedten, Ige; Hersoug, Bjørn (1992). Fishing for Development: Small Scale Fisheries in Africa. Nordic Africa
Africa
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Bono
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Further reading[edit]

Arhin, Kwame, The Life and Work of Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
( Africa
Africa
Research & Publications, 1995) Babatope, Ebenezer, The Ghana
Ghana
Revolution: From Nkrumah to Jerry Rawlings (Fourth Dimension Publishing, 1982) Birmingham, David, Kwame Nkrumah: Father Of African Nationalism (Ohio University Press, 1998) Boafo-Arthur, Kwame, Ghana: One Decade of the Liberal State (Zed Books Ltd, 2007) Briggs, Philip, Ghana
Ghana
(Bradt Travel Guide) (Bradt Travel Guides, 2010) Clark, Gracia, African Market Women: Seven Life Stories from Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2010) Davidson, Basil, Black Star: A View of the Life and Times of Kwame Nkrumah (James Currey, 2007) Falola, Toyin and Salm, Stephen J, Culture and Customs of Ghana (Greenwood, 2002) Grant, Richard, Globalizing City: The Urban and Economic Transformation of Accra, Ghana
Ghana
(Syracuse University Press, 2008) Hadjor, Kofi Buenor, Nkrumah and Ghana
Ghana
( Africa
Africa
Research & Publications, 2003) Hasty, Jennifer, The Press and Political Culture in Ghana
Ghana
(Indiana University Press, 2005) James, C.L.R., Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
and the Ghana
Ghana
Revolution (Allison & Busby, 1977) Kuada, John and Chachah Yao, Ghana. Understanding the People and their Culture (Woeli Publishing Services, 1999) Miescher, Stephan F, Making Men in Ghana
Ghana
(Indiana University Press, 2005) Milne, June, Kwame Nkrumah, A Biography (Panaf Books, 2006) Nkrumah, Kwame, Ghana : The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah (International Publishers, 1971) Utley, Ian, Ghana
Ghana
– Culture Smart!: the essential guide to customs & culture (Kuperard, 2009) Various, Ghana: An African Portrait Revisited (Peter E. Randall Publisher, 2007) Younge, Paschal Yao, Music and Dance Traditions of Ghana: History, Performance and Teaching (Mcfarland & Co Inc., 2011) Laura Burke; Armando García Schmidt (2013). Ghana: Staying on Track in a Challenging Environment. Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, Gütersloh. pp. 127–147. ISBN 978-3-86793-491-6. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutGhanaat's sister projects

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Founders

Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia) Sukarno (Indonesia) Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(India) Kwame Nkrumah
Kwame Nkrumah
(Ghana) Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt)

People

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Members of the Commonwealth of Nations

Sovereign states (Members)

Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Botswana Brunei Cameroon Canada Cyprus Dominica Fiji Ghana Grenada Guyana India Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Malawi Malaysia Malta Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Pakistan Papua New Guinea Rwanda St. Kitts and Nevis St. Lucia St. Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Swaziland Tanzania The Gambia Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom Vanuatu Zambia

Dependencies of Members

Australia

Ashmore and Cartier Islands Australian Antarctic Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Coral Sea Islands Heard Island and McDonald Islands Norfolk Island

New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue Ross Dependency Tokelau

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Montserrat Pitcairn Islands St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands

Source: Commonwealth Secretariat - Member States

 Geographic locale

Lat. and Long. 5°33′N 0°12′W / 5.550°N 0.200°W / 5.550; -0.200 (Accra) Lat. and Long. 6°40′N 1°37′W / 6.667°N 1.617°W / 6.667; -1.617 (Kumasi)

Places adjacent to Ghana

 Burkina Faso

 Ivory Coast

Ghana

 Togo

Atlantic Ocean Gulf of Guinea Lake Volta
Lake Volta
& Gulf of Guinea

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Countries and territories of Africa

Sovereign states

entirely/mostly in Africa

Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic
Republic
of the Congo Republic
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of the Congo Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
(Côte d'Ivoire) Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

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UK

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(Western Sahara)1

States with limited recognition

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland

1 Unclear sovereignty.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 159421741 LCCN: n80061117 GND: 4020949-0 BNF: cb11950750c (data) HDS:

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