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The Gezer
Gezer
calendar is a small inscribed limestone tablet discovered in 1908 by Irish archaeologist R. A. Stewart Macalister
R. A. Stewart Macalister
in the ancient Canaanite city of Gezer, 20 miles west of Jerusalem. It is commonly dated to the 10th century BCE, although the excavation was unstratified[1] and its identification during the excavations was not in a "secure archaeological context", presenting uncertainty around the dating.[2] Scholars are divided as to whether the language is Phoenician or Hebrew and whether the script is Phoenician (or Proto-Canaanite) or paleo-Hebrew.[3][4][5][6][7][8]

Contents

1 Inscription 2 History 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External links

Inscription[edit] The calendar is inscribed on a limestone plaque and describes monthly or bi-monthly periods and attributes to each a duty such as harvest, planting, or tending specific crops. The inscription is in Phoenician or paleo-Hebrew script: . .

Which in equivalent square Hebrew letters is as follows:

ירחואספ ירחוז רע ירחולקש ירחעצדפשת ירחקצרשערמ ירחקצרוכל ירחוזמר ירחקצ

אבי (ה)‬

This corresponds to the following transliteration, with spaces added for word divisions:

yrḥw ’sp yrḥw z r‘ yrḥw lqš yrḥ ‘ṣd pšt yrḥ qṣr š‘rm yrḥ qṣrw kl yrḥw zmr yrḥ qṣ ’by (h)

The text has been translated as:

Two months gathering (September, October) Two months planting (November, December) Two months late sowing (January, February) One month cutting flax (March) One month reaping barley (April) One month reaping and measuring grain (May) Two months pruning (June, July) One month summer fruit (August)

Abij (ah)[9]

Scholars have speculated that the calendar could be a schoolboy's memory exercise, the text of a popular folk song or a children's song. Another possibility is something designed for the collection of taxes from farmers. The scribe of the calendar is probably "Abijah", which means "Yah (a shortened form of the Tetragrammaton) is my father". This name appears in the Bible for several individuals, including a king of Judah (1 Kings 14:31). History[edit] The calendar was discovered in 1908 by R.A.S. Macalister
R.A.S. Macalister
of the Palestine Exploration Fund
Palestine Exploration Fund
while excavating the ancient Canaanite city of Gezer, 20 miles west of Jerusalem. The Gezer
Gezer
calendar is currently displayed at the Museum of the Ancient Orient, a Turkish archaeology museum,[10][11] as is the Siloam inscription and other archaeological artifacts unearthed before World War I. A replica of the Gezer
Gezer
calendar is on display at the Israel Museum, Israel. See also[edit]

List of artifacts significant to the Bible List of ancient Near Eastern scribes List of languages by first written accounts Archaeology of Israel

References[edit]

^ Tappy, Ron E.; McCarter, P. Kyle; Lundberg, Marilyn J.; Zuckerman, Bruce (2006). "An abecedary of the mid-tenth century B.C.E. from the Judaean Shephelah". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 344: 41. JSTOR 25066976. ...compromised archaeological contexts (e.g. the unstratified Gezer
Gezer
calendar...  ^ Aaron Demsky (2007), Reading Northwest Semitic Inscriptions, Near Eastern Archaeology 70/2. Quote: "The first thing to consider when examining an ancient inscription is whether it was discovered in context or not. It is obvious that a document purchased on the antiquities market is suspect. If it was found in an archeological site, one should note whether it was found in its primary context, as with the inscription of King Achish from Ekron, or in secondary use, as with the Tel Dan inscription. Of course texts that were found in an archaeological site, but not in a secure archaeological context present certain problems of exact dating, as with the Gezer
Gezer
Calendar." ^ Smith, Mark S. (2002). The Early History of God: Yahweh and the other deities in ancient Israel. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8028-3972-5.  ^ The Calendar
Calendar
Tablet from Gezer, Adam L Bean, Emmanual School of Religion Archived March 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Is it “Tenable”?, Hershel Shanks, Biblical Archaeology Review Archived December 25, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Spelling in the Hebrew Bible: Dahood memorial lecture, By Francis I. Andersen, A. Dean Forbes, p56 ^ Pardee, Dennis. "A Brief Case for the Language of the 'Gezer Calendar' as Phoenician". Linguistic Studies in Phoenician, ed. Robert D. Holmstedt and Aaron Schade. Winona Lake: 43.  ^ Chris A. Rollston (2010). Writing and Literacy in the World of Ancient Israel: Epigraphic Evidence from the Iron Age. Society of Biblical Lit. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-1-58983-107-0.  ^ Coogan, Michael D. (2009). A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible in Its Context. Oxford University Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0199830114.  ^ Gezer
Gezer
calendar Archived 2012-11-01 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Istanbul Archaeological Museums, Artifacts Archived 2012-11-01 at the Wayback Machine.

Further reading[edit]

Albright, W.F. "The Gezer
Gezer
Calendar" in Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (BASOR). 1943. Volume 92:16–26. Original description of the find. Sivan, Daniel "The Gezer
Gezer
calendar and Northwest Semitic linguistics", Israel Exploration Journal 48,1-2 (1998) 101–105. An up-to-date linguistic analysis of this text. Dever, William G. “Gezer”. In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East vol. 2, Editor in Chief Eric M. Meyers, 396–400. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. Pardee, Dennis. “ Gezer
Gezer
Calendar”. In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East vol. 2, Editor in Chief Eric M. Meyers, 396–400. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Category: Gezer
Gezer
Calendar.

Details of the calendar including transcription and translation. Archived 4 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Another translation and a pictur

.