GERARD "GERRY" ADAMS (Irish : Gearóid Mac Ádhaimh; born 6 October
1948) is an Irish republican politician who is the president of the
Sinn Féin political party and a
Teachta Dála (TD; a member of the
Irish parliament) for Louth since the 2011 general election .
From 1983 to 1992 and from 1997 to 2011 , he was an abstentionist
Member of Parliament (MP) of the British Parliament for the Belfast
West constituency .
He has been the president of
Sinn Féin since 1983. Since that time
the party has become the third-largest party in the Republic of
Ireland , the second-largest political party in
Northern Ireland and
Irish nationalist party in that region. In 1984, Adams
was seriously wounded in an assassination attempt by several gunmen
Ulster Defence Association (UDA), including John Gregg .
From the late 1980s onwards, Adams was an important figure in the
Northern Ireland peace process , initially following contact by the
Social Democratic and Labour Party
Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) leader
John Hume and
then subsequently with the Irish and British governments.
Sinn Féin changed its traditional policy of
abstentionism towards the
Oireachtas , the parliament of the Republic
of Ireland , in 1986 and later took seats in the power-sharing
Northern Ireland Assembly . In 2005, the Provisional Irish Republican
Army (IRA) stated that its armed campaign was over and that it was
exclusively committed to democratic politics.
In 2014, he was held for four days by the Police Service of Northern
Ireland for questioning in connection with the abduction and murder of
Jean McConville in 1972. He was freed without charge and a file was
sent to the Public Prosecution Service , which later stated there was
insufficient evidence to charge him.
* 1 Family background and early life
* 2 Early political career
* 2.1 IRA allegations
* 3 Rise in
* 4 President of
* 4.1 Voice ban
* 5 Movement into mainstream politics
Sinn Féin in government
* 5.2 Political career in Republic
* 6 Election to
* 7 Controversies
* 7.1 Brother
* 7.2 2014 arrest
* 7.3 "Ballymurphy Nigger" tweet
* 8 Media portrayals
* 9 Published works
* 10 Bibliography
* 11 See also
* 12 References
* 13 External links
FAMILY BACKGROUND AND EARLY LIFE
Adams was born in
Belfast , Northern Ireland. His parents, Gerry
Adams, Sr. and Anne Hannaway, came from republican backgrounds. His
grandfather, also named Gerry Adams, had been a member of the Irish
Republican Brotherhood (IRB) during the
Irish War of Independence .
Two of Adams's uncles, Dominic and Patrick Adams, had been interned by
the governments in
Belfast and Dublin.
J. Bowyer Bell states in his
book, The Secret Army that Dominic Adams was a senior figure in the
IRA of the mid-1940s.
Gerry Adams Sr. joined the IRA at age sixteen.
In 1942, he participated in an IRA ambush on a Royal Ulster
Constabulary (RUC) patrol but was himself shot, arrested and sentenced
to eight years imprisonment.
Adams's maternal great-grandfather, Michael Hannaway, was also a
member of the IRB during its dynamiting campaign in England in the
1860s and 1870s. Michael's son, Billy, was election agent for Éamon
de Valera at the
Irish general election, 1918
Irish general election, 1918 in West
Adams attended St Finian's Primary School on the Falls Road , where
he was taught by La Salle brothers . Having passed the eleven-plus
exam in 1960, he attended St Mary\'s Christian Brothers Grammar School
. He left St Mary's with six
O-levels and became a barman . He was
increasingly involved in the Irish republican movement, joining Sinn
Fianna Éireann in 1964, after being radicalised by the
Divis Street riots during that year\'s general election campaign.
In 1971, Adams married Collette McArdle, with whom he has one son,
Gearoid (born 1973) who has played
Gaelic football for Antrim GAA
senior men's team and was its assistant manager in 2012.
EARLY POLITICAL CAREER
Adams wearing an Easter Lily .
In the late 1960s, a civil rights campaign developed in Northern
Ireland. Adams was an active supporter and joined the Northern Ireland
Civil Rights Association in 1967. However, the civil rights movement
was met with violence from loyalist counter-demonstrations and the
Royal Ulster Constabulary
Royal Ulster Constabulary . In August 1969,
Northern Ireland cities
Derry erupted in major rioting. British troops were
called in at the request of the Government of
Northern Ireland (see
Northern Ireland riots ).
Adams was active in rioting at this time and later became involved in
the republican movement. In August 1971, internment was reintroduced
Northern Ireland under the
Special Powers Act 1922 . Adams was
interned in March 1972, on HMS Maidstone , but on the Provisional IRA
's insistence was released in June to take part in secret, but
abortive talks in London. The IRA negotiated a short-lived truce with
the British government and an IRA delegation met with British Home
William Whitelaw at
Cheyne Walk in Chelsea. The delegation
Martin McGuinness ,
Sean Mac Stiofain (IRA Chief of
Staff), Daithi O\'Conaill ,
Seamus Twomey ,
Ivor Bell and Dublin
Myles Shevlin . Adams was re-arrested in July 1973 and
interned at the Long Kesh internment camp. After taking part in an
IRA-organised escape attempt, he was sentenced to a period of
imprisonment. During this time, he wrote articles in the paper An
Phoblacht under the by-line "Brownie", where he criticised the
strategy and policy of
Sinn Féin president
Ruairí Ó Brádaigh and
Billy McKee . He was also highly critical of a decision
taken by McKee to assassinate members of the rival
Official IRA , who
had been on ceasefire since 1972. After his release in 1976, Adams
was again arrested in 1978 for alleged IRA membership; the charges
were subsequently dismissed.
During the 1981 hunger strike , which saw the emergence of his party
as a political force, Adams played an important policy-making role. In
1983, he was elected president of
Sinn Féin and became the first Sinn
Féin MP elected to the British House of Commons since Phil Clarke and
Tom Mitchell in the mid-1950s. Following his election as MP for
Belfast West , the British government lifted a ban on his travelling
to Great Britain. In line with
Sinn Féin policy, he refused to take
his seat in the House of Commons.
Sinn Féin retains a policy of
abstentionism towards the Westminster Parliament, but since 2002, has
received allowances for staff and takes up offices in the House of
On 14 March 1984 in central Belfast, Adams was seriously wounded in
an assassination attempt when several
Ulster Defence Association (UDA)
gunmen fired about 20 shots into the car in which he was travelling.
He was hit in the neck, shoulder and arm. After the shooting, he was
rushed to the Royal Victoria Hospital , where he underwent surgery to
remove three bullets. John Gregg and his team were apprehended almost
immediately by a
British Army patrol that opened fire on them before
ramming their car. The attack had been known in advance by security
forces due to a tip-off from informants within Rathcoole; Adams and
his co-passengers had survived in part because Royal Ulster
Constabulary officers, acting on the informants' information, had
replaced much of the ammunition in the UDA's Rathcoole weapons dump
with low-velocity bullets. An
Ulster Defence Regiment
Ulster Defence Regiment NCO
subsequently received the Queen\'s Gallantry Medal for chasing and
arresting an assailant.
Adams has stated repeatedly that he has never been a member of the
Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA). However, authors such as Ed
Moloney , Peter Taylor ,
Mark Urban and historian
Richard English have
all named Adams as part of the IRA leadership since the 1970s.
Adams has denied Moloney's claims, calling them "libellous". At a
dinner for his
Fine Gael party on 29 September 2012,
Kenny accused Adams of having not only been a member of the IRA, but a
member of the
IRA Army Council , calling for Adams to "be absolutely
truthful about this" in response to Adams' calls for a truth and
reconciliation commission in Northern Ireland.
Former IRA member (and
Irish Government intelligence agent) Sean
O\'Callaghan has claimed he was at an IRA Revolutionary Council
meeting in 1983 which was also attended by Adams. O'Callaghan gave his
account in testimony to the High Court in Dublin. Former IRA members
Anthony McIntyre and Richard O\'Rawe have claimed Adams was a key
figure in the IRA. Adams said: "I'm very, very clear about my denial
of IRA membership but I don't disassociate myself from the IRA."
Former IRA member Peter Rogers has alleged that Adams and Martin
McGuinness ordered Rogers to transport explosives to Great Britain in
Sinn Féin said were untrue. (Rogers was jailed for
the 1980 killing of Detective Garda
Seamus Quaid in the Republic of
Ireland , and was later released under the terms of the Good Friday
Agreement .) Father Gerry Reynolds, who facilitated secret meetings
between SDLP leader
John Hume and Adams, has said that asking Adams
about his IRA membership is a "stupid question" as the IRA was a
secret society and the "raison d\'etre of the secret society is that
it is secret". Adams described Father Reynolds as a "champion of the
peace process" upon his death.
In 2003, using parliamentary privilege ,
Democratic Unionist Party MP
Iris Robinson claimed that Adams was involved in the IRA's 1978 La Mon
restaurant bombing . Adams denied the allegation and said the remarks
were made to deflect attention away from developments in the Stevens
Inquiry into collusion.
Belfast IRA commander
Brendan Hughes has named Adams as
ordering the murder and secret burial of
Jean McConville in 1972.
McConville was one of the 16 "Disappeared ", who were abducted and
killed during the Troubles . Former republican prisoner Evelyn Gilroy
, who was active in
Divis where McConville was abducted, says that
Adams was the only person in a position to order the murder. Among
the abductors of McConville was
Dolours Price , who has claimed that
she did so on the orders of Adams. Hughes and Price also claimed that
Adams was involved in approving IRA bomb attacks in London in the
early 1970s. Former Garda Detective Superintendent PJ Browne has
claimed that Adams was "the leader of the psychotic IRA unit in
Belfast in the early 1970s".
RISE IN SINN FéIN
Gerry Adams became joint vice-president of
Sinn Féin and a
key figure in directing a challenge to the
Sinn Féin leadership of
Ruairí Ó Brádaigh and joint vice-president Dáithí Ó
The 1975 IRA-British truce is often viewed as the event that began
the challenge to the original Provisional
Sinn Féin leadership, which
was dominated by southerners like Ó Brádaigh and Ó Conaill.
One of the reasons that the
Provisional IRA and Provisional Sinn
Féin were founded, in December 1969 and January 1970, respectively,
was that people like Ó Brádaigh, O'Connell and McKee opposed
participation in constitutional politics. The other reason was the
failure of the
Cathal Goulding leadership to provide for the defence
Irish nationalist areas during the 1969
Northern Ireland riots .
When, at the December 1969 IRA convention and the January 1970 Sinn
Féin Ard Fheis, the delegates voted to participate in the Dublin
Belfast (Stormont) and London (Westminster)
parliaments, the organisations split. Adams, who had joined the
republican movement in the early 1960s, sided with the Provisionals.
In Long Kesh in the mid-1970s, writing under the pseudonym "Brownie"
Republican News , Adams called for increased political activity
among republicans, especially at local level. The call resonated with
younger Northern people, many of whom had been active in the
Provisional IRA but few of whom had been active in Sinn Féin. In
1977, Adams and Danny Morrison drafted the address of Jimmy Drumm at
Wolfe Tone commemoration at
Bodenstown . The address was
viewed as watershed in that Drumm acknowledged that the war would be a
long one and that success depended on political activity that would
complement the IRA's armed campaign. For some, this wedding of
politics and armed struggle culminated in Danny Morrison's statement
at the 1981
Ard Fheis in which he asked "Who here really
believes we can win the war through the ballot box? But will anyone
here object if, with a ballot paper in one hand and the Armalite in
the other, we take power in Ireland?" For others, however, the call to
link political activity with armed struggle had already been defined
Sinn Féin policy and in the presidential addresses of Ruairí Ó
Brádaigh, but this had not resonated with young Northerners.
Gerry Adams at a
Even after the election of
Bobby Sands as MP for Fermanagh/South
Tyrone, a part of the mass mobilisation associated with the 1981 Irish
Hunger Strike by republican prisoners in the H blocks of the Maze
Prison (known as Long Kesh by republicans), Adams was cautious that
the level of political involvement by
Sinn Féin could lead to
Charles Haughey , the
Taoiseach of the
Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland , called an election for June 1981. At an Ard
Chomhairle meeting, Adams recommended that they contest only four
constituencies which were in border counties. Instead, H-Block/Armagh
candidates contested nine constituencies and elected two TDs. This,
along with the election of Sands, was a precursor to an electoral
breakthrough in elections in 1982 to the 1982 Northern Ireland
Assembly . Adams, Danny Morrison,
Martin McGuinness , Jim McAllister
Owen Carron were elected as abstentionists. The Social
Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) had announced before the election
that it would not take any seats and so its 14 elected representatives
also abstained from participating in the Assembly and it was a
failure. The 1982 election was followed by the 1983 Westminster
election , in which Sinn Féin's vote increased and
Gerry Adams was
elected, as an abstentionist, as MP for
Belfast West. It was in 1983
Ruairí Ó Brádaigh resigned as President of
Sinn Féin and was
succeeded by Gerry Adams.
PRESIDENT OF SINN FéIN
Many republicans had long claimed that the only legitimate Irish
state was the
Irish Republic declared in the Proclamation of the
Republic of 1916. In their view, the legitimate government was the IRA
Army Council , which had been vested with the authority of that
Republic in 1938 (prior to the
Second World War
Second World War ) by the last
remaining anti-Treaty deputies of the
Second Dáil . In his 2005
speech to the
Ard Fheis in Dublin, Adams explicitly
rejected this view. "But we refuse to criminalise those who break the
law in pursuit of legitimate political objectives. ...
Sinn Féin is
accused of recognising the Army Council of the IRA as the legitimate
government of this island. That is not the case. do not believe that
the Army Council is the government of Ireland. Such a government will
only exist when all the people of this island elect it. Does Sinn
Féin accept the institutions of this state as the legitimate
institutions of this state? Of course we do."
As a result of this non-recognition,
Sinn Féin had abstained from
taking any of the seats they won in the British or Irish parliaments.
At its 1986 Ard Fheis,
Sinn Féin delegates passed a resolution to
amend the rules and constitution that would allow its members to sit
in the Dublin parliament (
Leinster House ). At this, Ruairí Ó
Brádaigh led a small walkout, just as he and
Sean Mac Stiofain had
done sixteen years earlier with the creation of Provisional Sinn
Féin. This minority, which rejected dropping the policy of
abstentionism , now distinguishes itself from Provisional Sinn Féin
by using the name Republican
Sinn Féin (or
Sinn Féin Poblachtach),
and maintains that they are the true Sinn Féin.
Adams' leadership of
Sinn Féin was supported by a Northern-based
cadre that included people like Danny Morrison and
Martin McGuinness .
Over time, Adams and others pointed to republican electoral successes
in the early and mid-1980s, when hunger strikers
Bobby Sands and
Kieran Doherty were elected to the British House of Commons and Dáil
Éireann respectively, and they advocated that
Sinn Féin become
increasingly political and base its influence on electoral politics
rather than paramilitarism. The electoral effects of this strategy
were shown later by the election of Adams and McGuinness to the House
Adams's prominence as an Irish republican leader was increased by the
1988–94 British broadcasting voice restrictions
1988–94 British broadcasting voice restrictions , which were
imposed by British Prime Minister
Margaret Thatcher to "starve the
terrorist and the hijacker of the oxygen of publicity on which they
depend". Thatcher was moved to act after BBC interviews of Martin
McGuinness and Adams had been the focus of a row over an edition of
After Dark , a proposed
Channel 4 discussion programme which in the
event was never made. While the ban covered 11 Irish political
parties and paramilitary organisations, in practice it mostly affected
Sinn Féin, the most prominent of these.
A similar ban, known as Section 31 , had been law in the Republic of
Ireland since the 1970s. However, media outlets soon found ways around
the bans. In the UK, this was initially by the use of subtitles, but
later and more often by an actor reading words accompanied by video
footage of the banned person speaking. Actors who voiced Adams
Stephen Rea and
Paul Loughran . This loophole could not be
used in the Republic, as word-for-word broadcasts were not allowed.
Instead, the banned speaker's words were summarised by the newsreader,
over video of them speaking.
These bans were lampooned in cartoons and satirical TV shows, such as
Spitting Image , and in
The Day Today , and were criticised by freedom
of speech organisations and media personalities, including BBC
John Birt and BBC foreign editor John Simpson . The
Republic's ban was allowed to lapse in January 1994, and the British
ban was lifted by Prime Minister
John Major in September.
MOVEMENT INTO MAINSTREAM POLITICS
Sinn Féin continued its policy of refusing to sit in the Westminster
Parliament after Adams won the
Belfast West constituency. He lost his
Joe Hendron of the
Social Democratic and Labour Party
Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP)
in the 1992 general election , regaining it at the following 1997
election . Under Adams,
Sinn Féin moved away from being a political
voice of the
Provisional IRA to becoming a professionally organised
political party in both
Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.
John Hume , MP, identified the possibility that a
negotiated settlement might be possible and began secret talks with
Adams in 1988. These discussions led to unofficial contacts with the
Northern Ireland Office under the Secretary of State for
Northern Ireland ,
Peter Brooke , and with the government of the
Charles Haughey – although both governments
maintained in public that they would not negotiate with terrorists.
These talks provided the groundwork for what was later to be the
Belfast Agreement , preceded by the milestone Downing Street
Declaration and the
Joint Framework Document .
These negotiations led to the IRA ceasefire in August 1994. Taoiseach
Albert Reynolds , who had replaced Haughey and who had played a key
role in the Hume/Adams dialogue through his
Special Advisor Martin
Mansergh , regarded the ceasefire as permanent. However, the slow pace
of developments contributed in part to the (wider) political
difficulties of the British government of
John Major . His consequent
Ulster Unionist Party
Ulster Unionist Party votes in the House of Commons led to
him agreeing with the UUP demand to exclude
Sinn Féin from talks
until the IRA had decommissioned. Sinn Féin's exclusion led the IRA
to end its ceasefire and resume its campaign.
United Kingdom general election, 1997 , the new Labour
government had a majority in the House of Commons and was not reliant
on unionist votes. The subsequent dropping of the insistence led to
another IRA ceasefire, as part of the negotiations strategy, which saw
teams from the British and Irish governments, the UUP, the SDLP, Sinn
Féin and representatives of loyalist paramilitary organisations,
under the chairmanship of former United States Senator George Mitchell
, produce the
Belfast Agreement (also called the
Good Friday Agreement
as it was signed on
Good Friday , 1998). Under the Agreement,
structures were created reflecting the Irish and British identities of
the people of Ireland, creating a
British-Irish Council and a Northern
Ireland Legislative Assembly .
Articles 2 and 3 of the Republic\'s constitution , which claimed
sovereignty over all of Ireland, were reworded, and a power-sharing
Executive Committee was provided for. As part of their deal, Sinn
Féin agreed to abandon its abstentionist policy regarding a
"six-county parliament", as a result taking seats in the new Stormont
-based Assembly and running the education and health and social
services ministries in the power-sharing government.
SINN FéIN IN GOVERNMENT
On 15 August 1998, four months after the signing of the Good Friday
Real IRA exploded a car bomb in
County Tyrone ,
killing 31 people and injuring 220, from many communities. Breaking
with tradition, Adams said in reaction to the bombing "I am totally
horrified by this action. I condemn it without any equivocation
whatsoever." Prior to this, Adams had maintained a policy of refusing
to condemn IRA or their splinter groups' actions.
Opponents in Republican
Sinn Féin accused
Sinn Féin of "selling
out" by agreeing to participate in what it called "partitionist
assemblies" in the Republic and Northern Ireland. However, Adams
insisted that the
Belfast Agreement provided a mechanism to deliver a
united Ireland by non-violent and constitutional means.
Sinn Féin came to nominate its two ministers to the Northern
Ireland Executive , for tactical reasons the party, like the SDLP and
the DUP, chose not to include its leader among its ministers. When
later the SDLP chose a new leader, it selected one of its ministers,
Mark Durkan , who then opted to remain in the Committee.
Adams was re-elected to the
Northern Ireland Assembly on 8 March
2007, and on 26 March 2007, he met with DUP leader Ian Paisley
face-to-face for the first time. These talks led to the St Andrews
Agreement , which brought about the return of the power-sharing
Executive in Northern Ireland.
In January 2009, Adams attended the United States presidential
inauguration of Barack Obama as a guest of US Congressman Richard Neal
POLITICAL CAREER IN REPUBLIC
Gerry Adams with
Euclid Tsakalotos at the
Sinn Féin ardfheis in
On 6 May 2010, Adams was re-elected as MP for West Belfast, garnering
71.1% of the vote. In 2011 the Chancellor of the Exchequer appointed
Adams to the British title of Steward and Bailiff of the Manor of
Northstead to allow him to resign from the House of Commons and to
stand for election to
Dáil Éireann . Initially it was claimed by
David Cameron that Adams had accepted the title but Downing Street has
since apologised for this and Adams has publicly rejected the title
stating, "I have had no truck whatsoever with these antiquated and
quite bizarre aspects of the British parliamentary system".
Officially, Adams held the title between January and April 2011.
Adams remains the President of Sinn Féin. In 2011 he succeeded
Caoimhghín Ó Caoláin
Caoimhghín Ó Caoláin as
Sinn Féin parliamentary leader in Dáil
On 19 May 2015, while on an official royal trip to Ireland, Prince
Charles shook Adams' hand in what was described as a highly symbolic
gesture of reconciliation. The meeting, described as "historic", took
place in Galway.
ELECTION TO DáIL ÉIREANN
In 2010, Adams announced that he would be seeking election as a TD
(member of Irish Parliament) for the constituency of Louth at the 2011
Irish general election . He subsequently resigned his West Belfast
Assembly seat on 7 December 2010.
Following the announcement of the
Irish general election, 2011 ,
Adams wrote to the House of Commons to resign his seat. This was
treated as an application for the position of Crown Steward and
Bailiff of the Manor of Northstead , an office of profit under the
Crown, the traditional method of leaving Westminster as plain
resignation is not possible, and granted as such even though Adams had
not explicitly made the request.
He was elected to the Dáil, topping the Louth constituency poll with
15,072 (21.7%) first preference votes.
In October 2013 Liam Adams, Gerry Adams' brother, was found guilty of
ten offences, including rape and gross indecency committed against his
daughter, Áine Tyrell. When the allegations of abuse were first
made public in a 2009 UTV programme,
Gerry Adams subsequently alleged
that his deceased father,
Gerry Adams, Sr. , had subjected family
members to emotional , physical and sexual abuse . On 27 November
2013, Liam Adams was jailed for 16 years for raping and abusing his
Following the conviction of Liam Adams, the Attorney General of
Northern Ireland, John Larkin, has been asked to review a 2011
decision not to prosecute
Gerry Adams over an allegation that he
withheld information in connection with the case. The request for the
review has been made by Northern Ireland's Director of Public
Prosecutions, Barra McGrory. A statement from the DPP read: "The
Director of Public Prosecutions, Barra McGrory QC, recognises that
there has been considerable public interest surrounding the decision
not to prosecute Mr.
Gerry Adams in October 2011 in relation to an
allegation that he withheld information in connection with the Liam
Adams case. While the director has confidence in the evidential
decision taken by the PPS prior to his appointment, he has asked the
Attorney General to independently review the matter. The Attorney
General will be given full access to all materials that he considers
necessary to complete this review." In a statement issued in response,
Adams said "With hindsight there are things I could have done
differently, but I'm not on trial here. My brother was on trial. Áine
has been vindicated. There is a lot of healing that needs to be done."
On 30 April 2014, Adams was arrested by detectives from the Police
Northern Ireland (PSNI) Serious Crime Branch, under the
Terrorism Act 2000 , in connection with the murder of Jean McConville
in 1972. He had previously voluntarily arranged to be interviewed by
police regarding the matter, and maintained he had no involvement.
Sinn Féin politician
Alex Maskey claimed that the timing of
the arrest, "three weeks into an election", was evidence of a
"political agenda a negative agenda" by the PSNI. Jean
McConville’s family had campaigned for the arrest of Adams over the
murder. Jean McConville's son Michael said that his family did not
think the arrest of Adams would ever happen, but were "quite glad"
that the arrest took place. Adams was released without charge after
four days in custody and it was decided to send a file to the Public
Prosecution Service , which would decide if criminal charges should be
At a press conference after his release, Adams also criticised the
timing of his arrest, while reiterating Sinn Féin's support for the
PSNI and saying: "The IRA is gone. It is finished". Adams has denied
that he had any involvement in the murder or was ever a member of the
IRA, and has said the allegations against him came from "enemies of
the peace process". On 29 September 2015 the Public Prosecution
Service announced Adams would not face charges, due to insufficient
"BALLYMURPHY NIGGER" TWEET
On 1 May 2016, Adams sparked controversy by tweeting "Watching Django
Unchained -A Ballymurphy Nigger !" The tweet was not well received
and was deleted, with Adams apologising for the use of "nigger" the
next day at Sinn Féin’s Connolly House headquarter in Belfast.
Adams's use of the slur in the tweet was widely reported in Irish,
British and American media. Adams stood over the tweet stating "I
stand over the context and main point of my tweet, which were the
parallels between people in struggle. Like
African Americans , Irish
nationalists were denied basic rights. I have long been inspired by
Harriet Tubman ,
Frederick Douglass ,
Rosa Parks , Martin Luther King
Malcolm X , who stood up for themselves and for justice."
On 4 May 2016 Adams reiterated his apology for the use of "nigger"
but appeared to double down on the use by saying "The whole thing was
to make a political point, if I had left that word out would the tweet
have gotten any attention?". He also stated "I was paralleling the
experiences of the Irish, not just in recent times but through the
penal days when the Irish were sold as slaves, through the Cromwellian
period." and that 50,000 Irish were shipped as slaves to Barbados
between 1652 and 1659. The historical accuracy of these comments has
been questioned by historians and met with a backlash in the media.
Gerry Adams has been portrayed in a number of films, TV programmes,
* 1999 –
The Marching Season ; a spy fiction novel by Daniel Silva
* 2004 – film
Omagh with actor
Jonathan Ryan . The film is a
dramatisation of the 1998
Omagh bombing and its aftermath.
* 2010 – TV film Mo with actor John Lynch ; the story of Mo Mowlam
Good Friday Agreement .
* 2012 – The Cold Cold Ground, a crime novel by
Adrian McKinty .
Adams is interviewed by the book's main character after an associate
is found murdered.
* 2016 – film The Journey with actor
Ian Beattie .
* 2017 – film The Foreigner ; with actor
Pierce Brosnan playing a
former IRA leader who resembles Adams.
* Falls Memories, 1982
* The Politics of Irish Freedom, 1986
* A Pathway to Peace, 1988
* An Irish Voice: The Quest for Peace
* Cage Eleven, 1990, Brandon Books, ISBN 978-0-86322-114-9
* The Street and Other Stories, 1993, Brandon Books, ISBN
* Free Ireland: Towards a Lasting Peace, 1995
* Before the Dawn: An Autobiography, 1996, Brandon Books, ISBN
* Selected Writings
* Who Fears to Speak...?, 2001 (Original Edition 1991), Beyond the
Pale Publications, ISBN 978-1-900960-13-7
* An Irish Journal, 2001, Brandon Books, ISBN 978-0-86322-282-5
* Hope and History: Making Peace in Ireland, 2003, Brandon Books,
* A Farther Shore, 2005, Random House
* The New Ireland: A Vision For The Future, 2005, Brandon Books,
* An Irish Eye, 2007, Brandon Books, ISBN 978-0-86322-370-9
* My Little Book Of Tweets, 2016, Mercier Press, ISBN
* A Testimony to Courage – the Regimental History of the Ulster
Defence Regiment 1969 – 1992, John Potter, Pen -webkit-column-width:
30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
* ^ "World Politics Review Sinn Fein\'s Adams on \'Peace
Mission\' to Middle East". Worldpoliticsreview.com. Retrieved 16
August 2016. Travelling on his Irish passport, the West
intends to enter Israel as a tourist
* ^ "
Gerry Adams admits he was not always \'in tune\' with Jesus".
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Sinn Féin leader
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Sinn Féin not allowing facts derail good \'Irish slaves\'
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