Germans (German: Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to
Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and
history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority
of ethnic Germans.
The English term
Germans has historically referred to the
German-speaking population of the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire since the Late
Middle Ages. Before the collapse of communism and the
Germany in 1990,
Germans constituted the largest
divided nation in Europe by far.[note 3] Ever since the
outbreak of the
Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire,
German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant
Of approximately 100 million native speakers of German in the
world, roughly 80 million consider themselves
Germans. There are an additional 80 million
people of German ancestry mainly in the United States,
in the South Region of the country), Argentina, Canada, South Africa,
the post-Soviet states (mainly in
Russia and Kazakhstan), and France,
each accounting for at least 1 million.[note 4] Thus, the total number
Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million,
depending on the criteria applied (native speakers, single-ancestry
ethnic Germans, partial German ancestry, etc.).
Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities (such as
Liechtenstein and other historically-tied
countries like Luxembourg) most often subscribe to their own national
identities and may or may not also self-identify as ethnically
2.2 Medieval period
2.3 Early Modern period
2.4 Twentieth century
2.5 1945 to present
3.2 Native speakers
4 Geographic distribution
7 See also
11 External links
Further information: Names of Germany
Roman limes and modern boundaries.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old
High German word
diutisc (from diot "people"), referring to the Germanic "language of
the people". It is not clear how commonly, if at all, the word was
used as an ethnonym in Old High German.
Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in
Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th
Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It
was loaned into
Middle English as almains in the early 14th century.
The word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting
continental West Germanic ("Dutch" and "German") dialects and their
While in most
Romance languages the
Germans have been named from the
Alamanni (in what became Swabia) (some, like standard Italian
tedeschi, retain an older borrowing of the endonym), the Old Norse,
Finnish, and Estonian names for the
Germans were taken from that of
the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the
Germans were given the name of
němьci (singular němьcь), originally with a meaning "foreigner,
one who does not speak [Slavic]".
The English term
Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century,
based on the classical Latin term Germani used by
Julius Caesar and
later Tacitus. It gradually replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter
becoming mostly obsolete by the early 18th century.
Main articles: History of Germany, Germanic peoples, and Theodiscus
Germans are a Germanic people, who as an ethnicity emerged during
the Middle Ages. Originally part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300
independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace
of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War. These states
eventually formed into modern
Germany in the 19th century.
Germanic Kingdoms in Europe c. 500 AD
The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of
antiquity in central Europe. The early
Germans originated on the
North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd
century BC, the number of Germans[dubious – discuss] was
significantly increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe
and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these
Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have
writing systems at that time.
European Iron Age
European Iron Age the area that is now
Germany was divided into
the (Celtic) La Tène horizon in Southern
Germany and the (Germanic)
Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans[dubious –
discuss] had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or
otherwise driven out the
Celts who had lived there, and had spread
west into what is now
Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under
Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank
of the Rhine. Roman emperor
Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest
of the Germans[dubious – discuss], but the catastrophic Roman defeat
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire
abandoning its plans to completely conquer Germania. Germanic
peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, and although
Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome deeply
influenced the development of German society, especially the adoption
of Christianity by the
Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In
Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and
Roman peoples intermarried, and Roman, Germanic, and Christian
traditions intermingled. The adoption of Christianity would later
become a major influence in the development of a common German
The first major public figure to speak of a German[dubious –
discuss] people in general, was the Roman figure
Tacitus in his work
Germania around 100 AD. However an actual united German identity
and ethnicity did not exist then, and it would take centuries of
development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity
began to become a popular identity.
Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact
with other peoples; in the case of the populations settling in the
territory of modern Germany, they encountered
Celts to the south, and
Slavs towards the east. The
Limes Germanicus was breached in
AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local
Gallo-Roman populations in what is now
Swabia and Bavaria. The arrival
Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of
Eastern Europe, the
Huns initially were allies of the
Roman Empire who
fought against Germanic tribes, but later the
Huns cooperated with the
Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, and large numbers of
within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of Attila.
Attila had both
Hunnic and Germanic families and prominent Germanic chiefs amongst his
close entourage in Europe. The
Huns living in Germanic territories
in Eastern Europe adopted an East Germanic language as their lingua
franca. A major part of Attila's army were Germans, during the
Huns' campaign against the Roman Empire. After Attila's unexpected
death the Hunnic Empire collapsed with the
Huns disappearing as a
people in Europe – who either escaped into Asia or otherwise blended
in amongst Europeans.
The migration-period peoples who later coalesced into a "German"
ethnicity were the Germanic tribes of the Saxons, Franci, Thuringii,
Alamanni and Bavarii. These five tribes, sometimes with inclusion of
the Frisians, are considered as the major groups to take part in the
formation of the Germans. By the 9th century, the
large tribes which lived on the territory of modern
Germany had been
united under the rule of the Frankish king Charlemagne, known in
German as Karl der Große. Much of what is now Eastern
Germany became Slavonic-speaking (
Sorbs and Veleti), after these areas
were vacated by Germanic tribes (Vandals, Lombards,
Suebi amongst others) which had migrated into the former areas of the
Ostsiedlung and History of German settlement in Eastern
Further information: Kingdom of Germany, Stem duchy, Medieval
demography, and Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire in 972 (red line) and 1035 (red dots) with
Germany marked in blue
A German ethnicity emerged in the course of the Middle Ages,
ultimately as a result of the formation of the Kingdom of Germany
East Francia and later the Holy Roman Empire, beginning in the
9th century. The process was gradual and lacked any clear definition,
and the use of exonyms designating "the Germans" develops only during
the High Middle Ages. The title of rex teutonicum "King of the
Germans" is first used in the late 11th century, by the chancery of
Pope Gregory VII, to describe the future Holy Roman Emperor of the
German nation Henry IV. Natively, the term diutscher (German) was
used for the people of
Germany beginning in the 12th century.
After Christianization, the
Roman Catholic Church and local rulers led
German expansion and settlement in areas inhabited by
Slavs and Balts,
known as Ostsiedlung. During the wars waged in the Baltic by the
Catholic German Teutonic Knights; the lands inhabited by the ethnic
group of the
Old Prussians (the current reference to the people known
then simply as the "Prussians"), were conquered by the Germans. The
Old Prussians were an ethnic group related to the Latvian and
Lithuanian Baltic peoples. The former German state of
its name from the Baltic Prussians, although it was led by
had assimilated the Old Prussians; the old
Prussian language was
extinct by the 17th or early 18th century. The Slavic people of
the Teutonic-controlled Baltic were assimilated into German culture
and eventually there were many intermarriages of Slavic and German
families, including amongst the Prussia's aristocracy known as the
Prussian military strategist
Karl von Clausewitz
Karl von Clausewitz is a
famous German whose surname is of Slavic origin. Massive German
settlement led to the assimilation of Baltic (Old Prussians) and
Slavic (Wends) populations, who were exhausted by previous warfare.
At the same time, naval innovations led to a German domination of
trade in the
Baltic Sea and parts of Eastern Europe through the
Hanseatic League. Along the trade routes, Hanseatic trade stations
became centers of the German culture.
German town law
German town law (Stadtrecht) was
promoted by the presence of large, relatively wealthy German
populations, their influence and political power. Thus people who
would be considered "Germans", with a common culture, language, and
worldview different from that of the surrounding rural peoples,
colonized trading towns as far north of present-day
Germany as Bergen
Stockholm (in Sweden), and
Vyborg (now in Russia). The
Hanseatic League was not exclusively German in any ethnic sense: many
towns who joined the league were outside the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire and a
number of them may only loosely be characterized as German. The Empire
itself was not entirely German either. It had a multi-ethnic and
multi-lingual structure, some of the smaller ethnicities and languages
used at different times were Dutch, Italian, French, Czech and
By the Middle Ages, large numbers of
Jews lived in the Holy Roman
Empire and had assimilated into German culture, including many Jews
who had previously assimilated into French culture and had spoken a
mixed Judeo-French language. Upon assimilating into German
culture, the Jewish German peoples incorporated major parts of the
German language and elements of other European languages into a mixed
language known as Yiddish. However tolerance and assimilation of
Jews in German society suddenly ended during the
Crusades with many
Jews being forcefully expelled from
Germany and Western Yiddish
disappeared as a language in
Germany over the centuries, with German
Jewish people fully adopting the German language.
Early Modern period
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648
From the late 15th century, the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire came to be known as
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire of the German nation. The Thirty Years' War, a
series of conflicts fought mainly in the territory of modern Germany,
weakened the coherence of the Holy Roman Empire, leading to the
emergence of different, smaller German states known as Kleinstaaterei
in 18th-century Germany.
Napoleonic Wars were the cause of the final dissolution of the
Holy Roman Empire, and ultimately the cause for the quest for a German
nation state in 19th-century German nationalism. After the Congress of
Prussia emerged as two competitors. Austria,
trying to remain the dominant power in Central Europe, led the way in
the terms of the Congress of Vienna. The
Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna was
essentially conservative, assuring that little would change in Europe
Germany from uniting. These terms came to a sudden
halt following the Revolutions of 1848 and the
Crimean War in 1856,
paving the way for
German unification in the 1860s. By the 1820s,
large numbers of Jewish German women had intermarried with Christian
German men and had converted to Christianity. Jewish German Eduard
Lasker was a prominent German nationalist figure who promoted the
Germany in the mid-19th century.
18 January 1871: The proclamation of the
German Empire in the Hall of
Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles. Bismarck appears in white. The
Grand Duke of Baden stands beside Wilhelm, leading the cheers. Crown
Prince Friedrich, later Friedrich III, stands on his father's right.
German nationalism became the sole focus of the
German Question which
was the question of how
Germany was going to be best unified into a
nation-state. The idea of unifying all German-speakers into one state
was known as the Großdeutsche Lösung ("Greater German solution")
which was propagated mostly by the
Austrian Empire and the German
Austrians. The other option, the
Kleindeutsche Lösung ("Lesser German
solution") only advocated unifying the northern German states without
Austria and the German
Austrians was supported predominantly in the
Kingdom of Prussia. The idea of including the
Austrian Empire into
a German nation-state was a problem because it included many
non-German ethnic groups, as well as many of the areas it ruled had
never been part of
Germany and did not want to become part of a German
nation-state. In 1866, the feud between
Austria and Prussia
finally came to a head. In the final battle of the German war (Battle
of Königgrätz) the Prussians successfully defeated the
succeeded in creating the North German Confederation.
In 1870, after
France attacked Prussia,
Prussia and its new allies in
Germany (among them Bavaria) were victorious in the
Prussian War. It created the
German Empire in 1871 as a German
nation-state, effectively excluding the multi-ethnic Austrian Habsburg
monarchy and Liechtenstein. Integrating the Austrian Germans
nevertheless remained a strong desire for many people of
Austria, especially among the liberals, the social democrats and also
the Catholics who were a minority within the
During the 19th century in the German territories, rapid population
growth due to lower death rates, combined with poverty, spurred
Germans to emigrate, chiefly to the United States. Today,
roughly 17% of the United States' population (23% of the white
population) is of mainly German ancestry.
Volksdeutsche and Reichsdeutsche
German Empire of 1871–1918. By excluding the German-speaking
part of the multinational Austrian Empire, this geographic
construction represented the
Kleindeutsche Lösung ("Lesser German
Nearly 100 million people around the world were of German ancestry in
The dissolution of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire after World War I led
to a strong desire of the population of the new Republic of German
Austria to be integrated into
Germany or Switzerland. This was,
however, prevented by the Treaty of Saint Germain and the Treaty of
Versailles. In 1930, three years before the
Nazi era, there
were roughly 94 million people all over the world claiming German
ancestry, or about 4,5% of the world population at the
During the Third Reich, the Nazis, led by Austrian-born Adolf Hitler,
attempted to unite all the people they claimed were "Germans"
(Volksdeutsche) under the slogan Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer
("One People, One Empire, One Leader"). This policy began in 1938 with
Hitler's foreign policy
Heim ins Reich
Heim ins Reich ("back home to the Reich")
which aimed to persuade all
Germans living outside of the
return "home" either as individuals or regions to a Greater
Germany. During the war,
Heinrich Himmler who was issued with the
policy of "strengthening of ethnic Germandom" created a Volksliste
("German People's List") which was used to classify all those living
in the German occupied territories into different categories according
to criteria by Himmler. The policy of uniting all
Germans in eastern Europe, many of whom had emigrated more
than one hundred fifty years before and developed separate cultures in
their new lands. This idea was initially welcomed by many ethnic
Germans in Sudetenland, Austria, Poland, Danzig and western
Lithuania, particularly the
Klaipeda (Memel). The Swiss
resisted the idea. They had viewed themselves as a distinctly separate
nation since the
Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia of 1648.
After World War II, eastern European countries such as the Soviet
Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary,
Romania and Yugoslavia
Germans from their territories. Many of those had
inhabited these lands for centuries, developing a unique culture.
Germans were also forced to leave the former eastern territories of
Germany, which were annexed by
Poland (Silesia, Pomerania, parts of
Brandenburg and southern part of East Prussia) and the Soviet Union
(northern part of East Prussia). Between 12 and 16,5 million ethnic
Germans and German citizens were expelled westwards to allied-occupied
After World War II,
Austrians increasingly saw themselves as a
separate nation from the German nation. In 1966, 47% people in Austria
viewed themselves as Austrians. In 1990, the number increased to
79%. Recent polls show that no more than 6% of the German-speaking
Austrians consider themselves as "Germans". An Austrian identity
was vastly emphasized along with the "first-victim of Nazism
theory." Today over 80 percent of the
Austrians see themselves as
an independent nation.
1945 to present
Angela Merkel, Chancellor of
Germany since 2005
Between 1950 and 1987, about 1.4 million ethnic
Germans and their
dependents, mostly from
Poland and Romania, arrived in
special provisions of right of return. With the collapse of the Iron
Curtain since 1987, 3 million "Aussiedler" – ethnic Germans, mainly
from Eastern Europe and the former
Soviet Union – took advantage of
Germany's law of return to leave the "land of their birth" for
Approximately 2 million, just from the territories of the former
Soviet Union, have resettled in
Germany since the late 1980s. On
the other hand, significant numbers of ethnic
Germans have moved from
Germany to other European countries, especially Switzerland, the
Spain and Portugal.
In its State of World Population 2006 report, the United Nations
Population Fund lists
Germany with hosting the third-highest
percentage of the main international migrants worldwide, about 5% or
10 million of all 191 million migrants.
Main article: German language
The native language of
Germans is German, a West Germanic language,
related to and classified alongside English and Dutch, and sharing
many similarities with the North Germanic and Scandinavian languages.
Spoken by approximately 100 million native speakers, German is one
of the world's major languages and the most widely spoken first
language in the European Union. German has been replaced by English as
the dominant language of science-related
Nobel Prize laureates during
the second half of the 20th century. It was a lingua franca in the
Holy Roman Empire.
Main article: German dialects
West Germanic languages
Dutch (Low Franconian, West Germanic)
Low German (West Germanic)
Central German (High German, West Germanic)
Upper German (High German, West Germanic)
English (Anglo-Frisian, West Germanic)
Frisian (Anglo-Frisian, West Germanic)
North Germanic languages
Line dividing the North and West Germanic languages
German, a world language, remains an important second language in much
of Central and Eastern Europe, and in the international scientific
Bavarians (ca. 10 million) form the
Austro-Bavarian linguistic group,
together with those
Austrians who speak German and do not live in
Vorarlberg and the western Tyrol district of Reutte.
Swabians (ca. 10
million) form the Alemannic group, together with the Alemannic Swiss,
Liechtensteiners, Alsatians and Vorarlbergians.
Central German dialect group (ca. 45 million)
West Central German
Central Franconian (Ripuarian, Kölsch), forms a dialectal unity with
East Central German
Standard German, Thuringian, Upper Saxon, High Prussian, German
High German language of Ashkenazi Jewish origin, spoken
throughout the world. It developed as a fusion of
German dialects with
Slavic languages and traces of Romance languages.
Low German (ca. 3–10 million), forms a dialectal unity with
Dutch Low Saxon
Low Saxon, East Low German
Global distribution of native speakers of the German language:
German-speaking population (outside German-speaking countries)
450,000 – 620,000
75,000 (German expatriate citizens)
30,000 (German expatriate citizens)
Main article: German diaspora
People of German origin are found in various places around the globe.
United States is home to approximately 50 million
German Americans or
one third of the German diaspora, making it the largest centre of
German-descended people outside Germany.
Brazil is the second largest
with 5 million people claiming German ancestry. Other significant
centres are Canada, Argentina,
South Africa and
France each accounting
for at least 1 million. While the exact number of German-descended
people is difficult to calculate, the available data makes it safe to
claim the number is exceeding 100 million people.
This article contains too many pictures, charts or diagrams for its
overall length. Please help to improve this article by removing images
that are redundant to the topic or duplicate another image, in
accordance with the Manual of Style on use of images. (June 2016)
Main article: Culture of Germany
Main article: German literature
Walk of Ideas, Berlin, a sculpture honoring
Johannes Gutenberg and
some of Germany's most influential writers
German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages, with the most
notable authors of the period being
Walther von der Vogelweide
Walther von der Vogelweide and
Wolfram von Eschenbach. The Nibelungenlied, whose author remains
unknown, is also an important work of the epoch, as is the
Thidrekssaga. The fairy tales collections collected and published by
Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout
Theologian Luther, who translated the Bible into German, is widely
credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German"
language. Among the most admired German poets and authors are Lessing,
Goethe, Schiller, Kleist, Hoffmann, Brecht, Heine and Schmidt. Nine
Germans have won the
Nobel Prize in literature: Theodor Mommsen, Paul
von Heyse, Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Nelly Sachs, Hermann Hesse,
Heinrich Böll, Günter Grass, and Herta Müller.
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing of the Enlightenment.
Gerhart Hauptmann, a German dramatist and novelist who received the
Nobel Prize in Literature in 1912.
Thomas Mann, a German novelist, short story writer, social critic,
philanthropist, essayist, and 1929
Nobel Prize in Literature laureate.
Günter Grass was a recipient of the 1999
Nobel Prize in Literature.
Herta Müller was born into a German minority in Romania. She is the
recipient of the 2009
Nobel Prize in Literature for her novel
Main article: German philosophy
Germany's influence on philosophy is historically significant and many
notable German philosophers have helped shape
Western philosophy since
the Middle Ages. The rise of the modern natural sciences and the
related decline of religion raised a series of questions, which recur
throughout German philosophy, concerning the relationships between
knowledge and faith, reason and emotion, and scientific, ethical, and
artistic ways of seeing the world.
German philosopher Immanuel Kant
German philosophers have helped shape western philosophy from as early
Middle Ages (Albertus Magnus). Later, Leibniz (17th century)
and most importantly Kant played central roles in the history of
Kantianism inspired the work of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche
as well as
German idealism defended by Fichte and Hegel. Engels helped
develop communist theory in the second half of the 19th century while
Heidegger and Gadamer pursued the tradition of
German philosophy in
the 20th century. A number of German intellectuals were also
influential in sociology, most notably Adorno, Habermas, Horkheimer,
Luhmann, Simmel, Tönnies, and Weber. The University of Berlin founded
in 1810 by linguist and philosopher
Wilhelm von Humboldt
Wilhelm von Humboldt served as an
influential model for a number of modern western universities.
In the 21st century,
Germany has been an important country for the
development of contemporary analytic philosophy in continental Europe,
along with France, Austria,
Switzerland and the Scandinavian
A statue of Albertus Magnus, a medieval German philosopher, now
declared a Catholic saint.
Arthur Schopenhauer, a German philosopher best known for his book, The
World as Will and Representation. He has influenced many other
thinkers through his work.
Karl Marx's ideas played a significant role in the establishment of
the social sciences and the development of the socialist movement. He
published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being
The Communist Manifesto and Capital. He is also considered one of the
greatest economists of all time.
Friedrich Engels was a social scientist, author, political theorist,
philosopher, and father of Marxist theory, alongside Karl Marx. He is
the co-author of The Communist Manifesto.
Max Weber was a sociologist, philosopher, and political economist who
profoundly influenced social theory, social research, and the
discipline of sociology itself. Weber is often cited, with Émile
Durkheim and Karl Marx, as one of the three founding architects of
Main articles: Science and technology in
Germany and German inventors
Alexander von Humboldt
Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers, such
as Johannes Gutenberg, who is credited with the invention of movable
type printing in Europe; Hans Geiger, the creator of the Geiger
counter; and Konrad Zuse, who built the first electronic computer.
German inventors, engineers and industrialists such as Zeppelin,
Daimler, Diesel, Otto, Wankel, Von Braun and Benz helped shape modern
automotive and air transportation technology including the beginnings
of space travel.
The work of David Hilbert,
Max Planck and
Albert Einstein was crucial
to the foundation of modern physics, which
Werner Heisenberg and Erwin
Schrödinger developed further. They were preceded by such key
physicists as Hermann von Helmholtz, Joseph von Fraunhofer, and
Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, among others. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
discovered X-rays, an accomplishment that made him the first winner of
Nobel Prize in
Physics in 1901. The
Walhalla temple for
"laudable and distinguished Germans", features a number of scientists,
and is located east of Regensburg, in Bavaria.
A statue commemorating
Johannes Gutenberg for his invention of the
first movable type; printing press.
The magnificent panorama of the metal interlinking in the bowels of
the world's first computer created by Konrad Zuse.
The Geiger counter, invented by Hans Geiger, is a type of particle
detector that measures ionizing radiation.
A print of one of the first X-rays by Wilhelm Röntgen (1845–1923)
of the left hand of his wife Anna Bertha Ludwig. It was presented to
Professor Ludwig Zehnder of the Physik Institut, University of
Freiburg, on 1 January 1896.
Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit was a physicist, engineer, and glass blower
who is best known for inventing the mercury thermometer (1714), and
for developing a temperature scale now named after him.
Main article: Music of Germany
Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820
In the field of music,
Germany claims some of the most renowned
classical composers of the world including Bach,
Mozart and Beethoven,
who marked the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in
Western classical music. Other composers of the Austro-German
tradition who achieved international fame include Brahms, Wagner,
Haydn, Schubert, Händel, Schumann, Liszt, Mendelssohn Bartholdy,
Johann Strauss II, Bruckner, Mahler, Telemann, Richard Strauss,
Schoenberg, Orff, and most recently, Henze, Lachenmann, and
As of 2008[update],
Germany is the fourth largest music market in the
world and has exerted a strong influence on Dance and Rock music,
and pioneered trance music. Artists such as Herbert Grönemeyer,
Scorpions, Rammstein, Nena, Dieter Bohlen,
Tokio Hotel and Modern
Talking have enjoyed international fame. German musicians and,
particularly, the pioneering bands
Tangerine Dream and
also contributed to the development of electronic music. Germany
hosts many large rock music festivals annually. The Rock am Ring
festival is the largest music festival in Germany, and among the
largest in the world. German artists also make up a large percentage
Industrial music acts, which is called Neue Deutsche Härte.
Germany hosts some of the largest Goth scenes and festivals in the
entire world, with events like Wave-Gothic-Treffen and M'era Luna
Festival easily attracting up to 30,000 people. Amongst Germany's
famous artists there are various Dutch entertainers, such as Johannes
Richard Strauss is considered a leading German composer of the late
Romantic and early modern eras.
Richard Wagner greatly influenced the development of classical music;
his Tristan und Isolde is sometimes described as marking the start of
Scorpions, a rock band formed in 1965, now viewed as one of the
best-selling acts in music history.
Nena, a singer and actress, who brought Neue
Deutsche Welle to
international attention with her song 99 Luftballons.
Modern Talking, a synthpop duo consisting of Thomas Anders and Dieter
Bohlen, became one of the most successful German acts in the 1980s.
Main article: Cinema of Germany
Diane Krüger, 2008
German cinema dates back to the very early years of the medium with
the work of Max Skladanowsky. It was particularly influential during
the years of the
Weimar Republic with German expressionists such as
Robert Wiene and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. The
Nazi era produced
mostly propaganda films although the work of
Leni Riefenstahl still
introduced new aesthetics in film. From the 1960s, New German Cinema
directors such as Volker Schlöndorff, Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders,
Rainer Werner Fassbinder
Rainer Werner Fassbinder placed West-German cinema back onto the
international stage with their often provocative films, while the
Deutsche Film-Aktiengesellschaft controlled film production in the
More recently, films such as
Das Boot (1981), The Never Ending Story
Run Lola Run
Run Lola Run (1998),
Das Experiment (2001), Good Bye Lenin!
(2003), Gegen die Wand (Head-on) (2004) and
Der Untergang (Downfall)
(2004) have enjoyed international success. In 2002 the Academy Award
for Best Foreign Language Film went to Caroline Link's Nowhere in
Africa, in 2007 to Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck's The Lives of
Others. The Berlin International Film Festival, held yearly since
1951, is one of the world's foremost film and cinema festivals.
A sign advertising the Berlin International Film Festival
Leni Riefenstahl was widely noted for her aesthetics and innovations
as a filmmaker
A poster for
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari directed by Robert Wiene
Main article: German architecture
Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria
Architectural contributions from
Germany include the Carolingian and
Ottonian styles, important precursors of Romanesque. The region then
produced significant works in styles such as the Gothic, Renaissance
The nation was particularly important in the early modern movement
Deutscher Werkbund and the
Bauhaus movement identified
with Walter Gropius. The Nazis closed these movements and favoured a
type of neo-classicism. Since World War II, further important modern
and post-modern structures have been built, particularly since the
reunification of Berlin.
Detlev-Rohwedder-Haus, the former Reichsluftfahrtministerium (now a
Federal Ministry of Finance building)
The market place at Dornstetten
Portrait of Martin Luther
Roman Catholicism was the sole established religion in the Holy Roman
Empire until the Reformation changed this drastically. In 1517, Martin
Luther challenged the
Catholic Church as he saw it as a corruption of
Christian faith. Through this, he altered the course of European and
world history and established Protestantism. The Thirty Years'
War (1618–1648) was one of the most destructive conflicts in
European history. The war was fought primarily in what is now Germany,
and at various points involved most of the countries of Europe. The
war was fought largely as a religious conflict between Protestants and
Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire.
According to the latest nationwide census, Roman Catholics constituted
29.5% of the total population of Germany, followed by the Evangelical
Protestants at 27.9%. Other Christian denominations, other religions,
atheists or not specified constituted 42.6% of the population at the
time. Among "others" are Protestants not included in Evangelical
Church of Germany, and other Christians such as the
Apostolic Church. Protestantism was more common among the citizens of
Germany. The North and East
Germany is predominantly Protestant,
the South and West rather Catholic. Nowadays there is a non-religious
majority in Hamburg and the East German states.
Germany had a substantial Jewish minority. Only a few
thousand people of Jewish origin remained in
Germany after the
Holocaust, but the German Jewish community now has approximately
100,000 members, many from the former Soviet Union.
Germany also has a
substantial Muslim minority, most of whom are immigrants from Turkey.
German theologians include Luther, Melanchthon, Schleiermacher,
Feuerbach, and Rudolf Otto. Also
Germany brought up many mystics
including Meister Eckhart, Rudolf Steiner, Jakob Boehme, and some
popes (e.g. Benedict XVI).
Meister Eckhart portal of the Erfurt Church
Benedict XVI and clergy of the
Catholic Church at mass in
Religion in the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire on the eve of the Thirty Years' War
Predominant religious group according to 2011 nationwide census.
Catholics are dominant in the south and west, the Non-religious (incl.
other religions and not specified) dominate in the east and the large
cities, Protestants dominate in north, east, and central parts of
Main article: Sport in Germany
The Allianz Arena, one of the world's most modern football stadiums.
Sport forms an integral part of German life, as demonstrated by the
fact that 27 million
Germans are members of a sports club and an
additional twelve million pursue such an activity individually.
Football is by far the most popular sport, and the German Football
Federation (Deutscher Fußballbund) with more than 6.3 million
members is the largest athletic organisation in the country. It
also attracts the greatest audience, with hundreds of thousands of
Bundesliga matches and millions more watching on
Other popular sports include handball, volleyball, basketball, ice
hockey, and Winter sports. Historically, German sportsmen have
been successful contenders in the Olympic Games, ranking third in an
all-time Olympic Games medal count, combining East and West German
medals. In the 2012 Summer Olympics,
Germany finished sixth overall,
whereas in the
2010 Winter Olympics
2010 Winter Olympics
Germany finished second.
There are also many
Germans in the American NBA. In 2011, Dirk
Nowitzki won his first NBA Championship with the
Dallas Mavericks by
upsetting the Miami Heat. He was also named that year's NBA Finals
Most Valuable Player.
Michael Schumacher has claimed 91 race victories and 7 championships
in his F1 career.
German national football team in 2011
Dirk Nowitzki (in green),
Dallas Mavericks power forward, 2011 NBA
Champion and Finals MVP
Main article: List of Germans
Cultural map of the world according to the World Values Survey,
Germany as high in "Rational-Secular Values" and
average-high in "Self-Expression values".
Germany is a modern, advanced society, shaped by a plurality of
lifestyles and regional identities. The country has established a
high level of gender equality, promotes disability rights, and is
legally and socially tolerant towards homosexuals. Gays and lesbians
can legally adopt their partner's biological children, and civil
unions have been permitted since 2001. Former Foreign minister
Guido Westerwelle and the former mayor of Berlin, Klaus Wowereit, are
During the last decade of the 20th century,
Germany changed its
attitude towards immigrants. Until the mid-1990s the opinion was
Germany is not a country of immigration, even though
about 20% of the population were of non-German origin. Today the
government and a majority of the German society are acknowledging that
immigrants from diverse ethnocultural backgrounds are part of the
German society and that controlled immigration should be initiated
based on qualification standards.
Since the 2006 FIFA World Cup, the internal and external evaluation of
Germany's national image has changed. In the annual Nation Brands
Index global survey,
Germany became significantly and repeatedly more
highly ranked after the tournament. People in 20 different states
assessed the country's reputation in terms of culture, politics,
exports, its people and its attractiveness to tourists, immigrants and
Germany has been named the world's second most valued
nation among 50 countries in 2010. Another global opinion poll,
for the BBC, revealed that
Germany is recognised for the most positive
influence in the world in 2010. A majority of 59% have a positive view
of the country, while 14% have a negative view.
With an expenditure of €67 billion on international travel in
Germans spent more money on travel than any other country. The
most visited destinations were Spain,
Italy and Austria.
German females in the German tracht national costumes of the time of
A map of
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire in 1400, reflecting the German society's
Boundary sign of Bautzen / Budyšin in German and Upper Sorbian
Rutenfest in Ravensburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, celebrating the
folklore story of "The Seven Swabians" by the Brothers Grimm
Germany in film "Als der Tod ins Leben wuchs" of Sebastian
Ed Erhenberg as Volga Germans
Further information: Pan-Germanism, German question, and German
Germania, March 1848, exhibited in the St. Paul's Church, Frankfurt am
Johann Gottfried Herder
The event of the
Protestant Reformation and the politics that ensued
has been cited as the origins of German identity that arose in
response to the spread of a common
German language and literature.
Early German national culture was developed through literary and
religious figures including Martin Luther, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
and Friedrich Schiller. The concept of a German nation was
developed by German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder. The
popularity of German identity arose in the aftermath of the French
Persons who speak German as their first language, look German and
whose families have lived in
Germany for generations are considered
"most German", followed by categories of diminishing Germanness such
Aussiedler (people of German ancestry whose families have lived in
Eastern Europe but who have returned to Germany), Restdeutsche (people
living in lands that have historically belonged to
Germany but which
is currently outside of Germany), Auswanderer (people whose families
have emigrated from
Germany and who still speak German), German
speakers in German-speaking nations such as Austrians, and finally
people of German emigrant background who no longer speak German.
Pan-Germanism's origins began in the early 19th century following the
Napoleonic Wars. The wars launched a new movement that was born in
France itself during the French Revolution. Nationalism during the
19th century threatened the old aristocratic regimes. Many ethnic
groups of Central and Eastern Europe had been divided for centuries,
ruled over by the old Monarchies of the
Romanovs and the Habsburgs.
Germans, for the most part, had been a loose and disunited people
since the Reformation when the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire was shattered into a
patchwork of states. The new German nationalists, mostly young
reformers such as Johann Tillmann of East Prussia, sought to unite all
the German-speaking and ethnic-German (Volksdeutsche) people.
Further information: Unification of Germany
An ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910
By the 1860s the Kingdom of
Prussia and the
Austrian Empire were the
two most powerful nations dominated by German-speaking elites. Both
sought to expand their influence and territory. The Austrian Empire
– like the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire – was a multi-ethnic state, but
German-speaking people there did not have an absolute numerical
majority; the creation of the
Austro-Hungarian Empire was one result
of the growing nationalism of other ethnicities especially the
Hungarians in Austrian territory.
Prussia under Otto von Bismarck
would eventually ride on the coat-tails of nationalism to unite all of
modern-day Germany. Following several wars, most notably the German
war in 1866 between the two most powerful German states,
Prussia, with the latter being victorious, the
German Empire ("Second
Reich") was created in 1871 as "Little Germany" without Austria
following the proclamation of
Wilhelm I as head of a union of
German-speaking states, while disregarding millions of its non-German
subjects who desired self-determination from German rule.
The creation of the multi-ethnic Austria-
Hungary empire created strong
ethnic conflict between the different ethnicities of the empire.
German nationalism in
Austria grew among all social circles of the
empire, many wanted to be unified with the German
Reich to form a
Germany and wanted policies to be carried out to enforce their
German ethnic identity rejecting any Austrian pan-ethnic
identity. Many German
Austrians felt annoyed that they were
excluded from the
German Empire since it included various non-German
ethnic groups. Prominent Austrian pan-
Germans such as Georg
Ritter von Schönerer created pan-German movements which demanded the
annexation of all ethnic German territories. Members of such movements
often wore blue cornflowers, known to be the favourite flower of
German Emperor William I, in their buttonholes, along with cockades in
the German national colours (black, red, and yellow). Both
symbols were temporarily banned in Austrian schools. Populists
such as the Viennese major
Karl Lueger used anti-semitism and
pan-Germanism for their own political purposes. Despite
Bismarck's victory over
Austria in 1866 which ultimately excluded
Austria and the German
Austrians from the Reich, many Austrian
Germans idolized him.
There was also a rejection of Roman Catholicism with the Away from
Rome! movement calling for German speakers to identify with Lutheran
Old Catholic churches.
Weimar Republic and Third Reich
Heim ins Reich
Following the defeat in World War I, influence of German-speaking
elites over Central and Eastern Europe was greatly limited. At the
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
Germany was substantially reduced in size.
Hungary was split up. The former German-speaking areas of
Hungary was reduced to a rump state called the "Republic of
German-Austria" (German: Deutschösterreich). On November 12, the
National Assembly declared the rump state a republic and Social
Karl Renner as provisional chancellor. On the same day, it
drafted a provisional constitution which stated that "German-Austria
is a democratic republic" (Article 1) and "German-
Austria is an
integral part of the German reich" (Article 2) with the hope of
joining Germany. The name "German-Austria" and union with Germany
were forbidden by the
Treaty of Saint-Germain
Treaty of Saint-Germain and the Treaty of
Austria lost the territories of the
Sudetenland and German Bohemia to Czechoslovakia, South Tyrol to
Italy, and southern Carinthia and Styria to
Yugoslavia and the rump
state was renamed "Republic of Austria". With these changes, the era
First Austrian Republic
First Austrian Republic began. These events are sometimes
considered to be a pre-
During the 1920s, the constitutions of both the First Austrian
Republic and the
Wiemar Republic included the goal of union between
the two countries which was supported by all different political
parties. In the early 1930s, before the Nazis seized power, popularity
for union between
Germany remained strong and the Austrian
government looked at the possibility of a customs union with Germany
in 1931 but this was stopped by French opposition. In 1933, after
Austrian-born Hitler came to power, support for an
Anschluss grew. The
Austrofascism era of Dollfuss/Schuschnigg between 1934-1938 accepted
Germans and that
Austria was a "German state" but
was strongly opposed to Hitler's desire to annex
Austria to the Third
Reich and wished for
Austria to remain independent.
Heim ins Reich
Heim ins Reich initiative (German: literally Home into the Reich,
meaning Back to Reich, see Reich) was a policy pursued by
which attempted to convince people of German descent living outside of
Germany (such as Sudetenland) that they should strive to bring these
regions "home" into a greater Germany. This policy began in 1938 on 12
March when Hitler annexed
Austria to the Third Reich.
Volga Germans living in the
Soviet Union were interned in gulags or
forcibly relocated during the Second World War.
German exodus from Central and Eastern Europe
German exodus from Central and Eastern Europe and
Flight and expulsion of
The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 led to the reunification of East
and West Germany.
World War II brought about the decline of Pan-Germanism, much as World
War I had led to the demise of Pan-Slavism. The
Germans in Central and
Eastern Europe were expelled, parts of
Germany itself were devastated,
and the country was divided, firstly into Russian, French, American,
and British zones and then into West
Germany and East Germany.
Germany suffered even larger territorial losses than it did in the
First World War, with huge portions of eastern
annexed by the
Soviet Union and Poland. The scale of the Germans'
defeat was unprecedented. Nationalism and
Pan-Germanism became almost
taboo because they had been used so destructively by the Nazis.
Indeed, the word "Volksdeutscher" in reference to ethnic Germans
naturalized during WWII later developed into a mild epithet.
From the 1960s,
Germany also saw increasing immigration, especially
from Turkey, under an official programme aimed at encouraging
"Gastarbeiter" or guestworkers to the country to provide labour during
the post-war economic boom years. Although it had been expected that
such workers would return home, many settled in Germany, with their
descendants becoming German citizens.
Further information: German reunification
German reunification in 1990 revived the old debates. The
fear of nationalistic misuse of
Pan-Germanism nevertheless remains
strong. But the overwhelming majority of
Germans today are not
chauvinistic in nationalism, but in 2006 and again in 2010, the German
National Football Team won third place in the 2006 and 2010 FIFA World
Cups, ignited a positive scene of German pride, enhanced by success in
Helmut Kohl played a principal role in the German reunification.
For decades after the Second World War, any national symbol or
expression was a taboo. However, the
Germans are becoming
increasingly patriotic. During a study in 2009, in which
some 2,000 German citizens age 14 and upwards filled out a
questionnaire, nearly 60% of those surveyed agreed with the sentiment
"I'm proud to be German." And 78%, if free to choose their nation,
would opt for German nationality with "near or absolute
certainty". Another study in 2009, carried out by the Identity
Foundation in Düsseldorf, showed that 73% of the
Germans were proud
of their country, twice more than 8 years earlier. According to Eugen
Buss, a sociology professor at the University of Hohenheim, there's an
ongoing normalisation and more and more
Germans are becoming openly
proud of their country.
In the midst of the European sovereign-debt crisis, Radek Sikorski,
Poland's Foreign Minister, stated in November 2011, "I will probably
be the first Polish foreign minister in history to say so, but here it
is: I fear German power less than I am beginning to fear German
inactivity. You have become Europe's indispensable nation."
According to Jacob Heilbrunn, a senior editor at The National
Interest, such a statement is unprecedented when taking into
consideration Germany's history. "This was an extraordinary statement
from a top official of a nation that was ravaged by
World War II. And it reflects a profound shift taking place throughout
Germany and Europe about Berlin's position at the center of the
Continent." Heilbrunn believes that the adage, "what was good for
Germany was bad for the European Union" has been supplanted by a new
mentality—what is in the interest of
Germany is also in the interest
of its neighbors. The evolution in Germany's national identity stems
from focusing less on its
Nazi past and more on its
Germans believe was betrayed—and not represented—by
Nazism. The evolution is further precipitated by Germany's
conspicuous position as Europe's strongest economy. Indeed, this
German sphere of influence has been welcomed by the countries that
border it, as demonstrated by Polish foreign minister Radek Sikorski's
effusive praise for his country's western neighbor. This shift in
thinking is boosted by a newer generation of
Germans who see World War
II as a distant memory.
Ancient Germanic culture portal
Die Deutschen (ZDF's documentary television series)
German eastward expansion
Names for the German language
Organised persecution of ethnic Germans
List of Alsatians and Lorrainians
List of Austrians
List of ancient Germanic peoples
List of Swiss people
List of terms used for Germans
Ethnic groups in Europe
Genetic history of Europe
^ Above all Lutheranism, Calvinism, and United
& Reformed); further details:
Prussian Union of churches
^ Above all Lutheranism, Calvinism, and United
& Reformed); further details: Evangelical Church in Germany
^ Divided refers to relatively strong regionalism among the Germans
within the Federal Republic of Germany. The events of the 20th century
also affected the nation. As a result, the German people remain
divided in the 21st century, though the degree of division is one much
diminished after two world wars, the Cold War, and the German
^ In these countries, the number of people claiming German ancestry
exceeds 1,000,000 and a significant percentage of the population claim
German ancestry. For sources: see table in
German diaspora main
^ Here is used the estimate of the United Nations (2,07 billion people
in the world, 1930), and all the populations from the map combined.
2,07 billion is taken as 100%, and 93,379,200 is taken as x.
2,700,000,000 - 100%, 93,379,200 - x.
^ a b c "Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia" by Jeffrey Cole
(2011), p. 171; "Estimates of the total number of
Germans in the world
range from 100 million to 150 million, depending on how German is
^ Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge (14 December 2016).
Migrationsbericht 2015 [Migration Report 2015] (PDF) (in German).
Bundesministerium des Innern Referat Öffentlichkeitsarbeit.
pp. 213–215. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results".
Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
^ "Ich bin ein brasileiro: Finding a little piece of
Germany in Brazil
- Al Jazeera America". Web.archive.org. 26 February 2016. Archived
from the original on 26 February 2016. Retrieved 20 December
2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
^ "The German Times Online - German Roots - Gisele Bundchen".
Web.archive.org. 2 April 2013. Archived from the original on 2 April
2013. Retrieved 20 December 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url
status unknown (link)
Argentina Population 2017". World Population Review. 20 December
Argentina has an estimated 2017 population of 44.27 million ...
about 8% are descended from German immigrants
^ "Alemanes en Chile: entre el pasado colono y el presente
empresarial" (in Spanish). Deutsche Welle. 31 March 2011. Retrieved 22
December 2012. Spanish: Hoy, el perfil de los alemanes residentes
aquí es distinto y ya no tienen el peso numérico que alguna vez
alcanzaron. En los años 40 y 50 eran en
Chile el segundo mayor grupo
de extranjeros, representando el 13% (13.000 alemanes). Según el
último censo de 2002, en cambio, están en el octavo lugar: son sólo
5.500 personas, lo que equivale al 5% de los foráneos. Sin embargo,
la colonia formada por familias de origen alemán es activa y
numerosa. Según explica Karla Berndt, gerente de comunicaciones de la
Cámara Chileno-Alemana de Comercio (Camchal), los descendientes suman
500.000. Concentrados en el sur y centro del país, donde encuentran
un clima más afín, su red de instituciones es amplia. 'Hay
clínicas, clubes, una Liga Chileno-Alemana, compañías de bomberos y
un periódico semanal en alemán llamado Cóndor.
Chile es el lugar en
el que se concentra el mayor número de colegios alemanes, 24, lo que
es mucho para un país tan chico de sólo 16 millones de habitantes',
English: Today, the profile of the
Germans living here is different
and no longer have the numerical weight they once reached. In the
1940s and 1950s they were in Chile's second largest foreign group,
accounting for 13% (13,000 Germans). According to the last census in
2002, however, they are in eighth place: they are only 5,500 people,
equivalent to 3% of foreigners. However, the colony of families of
German origin is active and numerous. According to Karla Berndt,
communications manager for the German-Chilean Chamber of Commerce
(Camchal), descendants totaled 500,000. Concentrated in the south and
center of the country, where they find a more congenial climate, its
network of institutions is wide. 'There are clinics, clubs, a
Chilean-German League, fire companies and a German weekly newspaper
Chile is the place in which the largest number of
German schools, 24 which is a lot for such a small country of only 16
million people', says Berndt.
^ "CBS StatLine - Population; sex, age, origin and generation, 1
January". Statline.cbs.nl. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
^ "Country: Italy". Joshua Project. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
^ "Bevölkerung zu Jahresbeginn seit 2002 nach detaillierter
Staatsangehörigkeit" [Population at the beginning of the year since
2002 by detailed nationality] (PDF). Statistics
Austria (in German).
14 June 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
^ "Country: Kazakhstan". Joshua Project. Retrieved 12 March
^ "Przynależność narodowo-etniczna ludności – wyniki spisu
ludności i mieszkań 2011" (PDF). Stat.gov.pl. Retrieved 20 December
^ "2011. ÉVI NÉPSZÁMLÁLÁS : 3. Országos adatok" (PDF).
Ksh.hu. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
^ Kopp, Horst (20 December 2017). "Area Studies, Business and Culture:
Results of the Bavarian Research Network Forarea". LIT Verlag
Münster. Retrieved 20 December 2017 – via Google Books.
^ Amt, Auswärtiges. "Federal Foreign Office - Uruguay". Auswärtiges
Amt DE. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
^ "Rumänien: Ethnischer Deutscher erhält Spitzenamt in
Regierungspartei". Spiegel.de. 23 February 2013. Retrieved 20 December
2017 – via Spiegel Online.
^ Personer med innvandringsbakgrunn, etter innvandringskategori,
landbakgrunn og kjønn SSB, retrieved 13 July 2015
^ "Fakta om Norge". Utlandsjobb.nu. Utlandsjobb.nu. Retrieved
2016-12-23. 90 000 svenskar bor i Norge
^ "Federal Foreign OfficeDominican Republic". Web.archive.org. 20
October 2006. Archived from the original on 20 October 2006. Retrieved
20 December 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 October 2017.
Retrieved 11 October 2017.
Germany - The
Lutheran World Federation". Lutheranworld.org.
Retrieved 29 March 2015.
^ Luca, F.; Di Giacomo, F.; Benincasa, T.; et al. (2007).
"Y-Chromosomal Variation in the Czech Republic". American Journal of
Physical Anthropology. 132: 132–139.
doi:10.1002/ajpa.20500. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link)
^ Minahan, James (2000). One Europe, many nations: a historical
dictionary of European national groups. Greenwood Publishing Group.
p. 769. ISBN 0-313-30984-1. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
^ alongside the slightly earlier term Almayns; John of Trevisa's 1387
translation of Ranulf Higdon's Polychronicon has: Þe empere passede
from þe Grees to þe Frenschemen and to þe Germans, þat beeþ
Almayns. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Dutch was the adjective
used in the sense "pertaining to Germans". Use of German as an
adjective dates to ca. 1550. The adjective Dutch narrowed its sense to
"of the Netherlands" during the 17th century.
^ "Europe's Rising Regionalism" (PDF). Toponline.org. Retrieved 20
Germany and German Minorities in Europe" (PDF). Stefanwolff.com.
Retrieved 20 December 2017.
^ "Germany". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs.
Retrieved 15 December 2011.
^ "German 'should be a working language of EU', says Merkel's party".
Telegraph.co.uk. 18 June 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
^ Ethnic Groups of Europe. Books.google.com. Retrieved 29 March
^ e.g. Walther von der Vogelweide. See Lexer, Mittelhochdeutsches
Handwörterbuch (1872–1878), s.v. "Diutsche". The Middle High German
Song of Roland
Song of Roland (ca. 1170) has in diutisker erde (65.6) for "in the
German realm, in Germany". The phrase in tütschem land, whence the
modern Deutschland, is attested in the late 15th century (e.g. Johann
Geiler von Kaysersberg, Ship of Fools, see Grimm, Deutsches
Wörterbuch, s.v. "Deutsch").
^ OED, s.v.  "Dutch, adj., n., and adv."
^ Schulze, Hagen (1998). Germany: A New History. Harvard University
Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-674-80688-3.
^ "German", The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Ed. T.
F. Hoad. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. Oxford Reference
Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 March 2008.
Ozment, Steven (2005), A Mighty Fortress: A New History of the German
People, Harper Collins, pp. 120–121, 161, 212,
Segarra, Eda (1977), A Social History of Germany, 1648–1914, Taylor
& Francis, pp. 5, 15, 183, ISBN 0-416-77620-5
Whaley, Joachim (2011),
Germany and the Holy Roman Empire: Volume II:
Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia to the Dissolution of the Reich, 1648–1806,
Oxford History of Early Modern Europe, Oxford University Press,
^ a b c d World and Its Peoples. Marshall Cavendish, 2009. Pp. 311.
^ a b c Yehuda Cohen. The Germans: Absent Nationality and the
Holocaust. SUSSEX ACADEMIC PRESS, 2010. Pp. 27.
^ a b World and Its Peoples. Marshall Cavendish, 2009. Pp. 311–312.
^ Marvin Perry, Myrna Chase, Margaret Jacob, James R. Jacob, Theodore
H. Von Laue. Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society,
Volume I: To 1789. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Houghton Mifflin
Harcourt Publishing Company, 2009. Pp. 212.
^ a b Jeffrey E. Cole. Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia. Santa
Barbara, California, USA: ABC-CLIO, 2011. Pp. 172.
^ a b Motyl 2001, pp. 189.
^ a b A History of the Ostrogoths. Pp. 46.
^ Sinor, Denis. 1990. The Hun period. In D. Sinor, ed., The Cambridge
History of Early Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp.
^ Jane Penrose. Rome and Her Enemies: An Empire Created and Destroyed
by War The
Germans and the Romans. Cambridge, England, UK: Osprey
Publishing, 2008. Pp. 288.
^ Brian A. Pavlac. A Concise Survey of Western Civilization:
Supremacies and Diversities Throughout History. Rowman &
Littlefield, 2010. Pp. 102.
^ "HISTORY OF CHARLEMAGNE". Historyworld.net. Retrieved 29 March
Charlemagne Changed the World". LiveScience.com. Retrieved 29
^ SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg,
Germany (26 November 2012). "Wie Karl der
Große Aachen zur kaiserlichen Metropole ausbaute". SPIEGEL ONLINE.
Retrieved 7 January 2016. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
^ Schwanitz, Dietrich (2002). Bildung. Alles was man wissen muß (in
German). München: Wilhelm Goldmann Verlag.
^ Germany. Books.google.com. p. 18. Retrieved 29 March
^ Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, Klaus J. Mattheier. Soziolinguistik:
Ein Internationales Handbuch Zur Wissenschaft Von Sprache und
Gesellschaft. English translation edition. Walter de Gruyter, 2006.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica entry 'Old
^ a b G. J. Meyer. A World Undone: The Story of the Great War 1914 to
1918. Random House Digital, Inc., 2007. Pp. 179.
^ "Heiliges Römisches
Reich Deutscher Nation". Dhm.de. Retrieved 29
^ a b c Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, Klaus J. Mattheier.
Soziolinguistik: Ein Internationales Handbuch Zur Wissenschaft Von
Sprache und Gesellschaft. English translation edition. Walter de
Gruyter, 2006. Pp. 1925.
^ "Raffael Scheck's Web Page » Raffael Scheck's Home Page".
Colby.edu. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
^ Deborah Sadie Hertz. How
Jews Became Germans: The History of
Conversion and Assimilation in Berlin. Yale University, 2007. Pp. 193.
^ James F. Harris. A Study in the Theory and Practice of German
Liberalism: Eduard Lasker, 1829–1884. University Press of America,
1984. Pp. 17.
^ Dirk Verheyen (30 July 1999). The German Question: A Cultural,
Historical, and Geopolitical Exploration. Avalon Publishing.
p. 8. ISBN 978-0-8133-6878-8.
^ Imanuel Geiss (16 December 2013). The Question of German
Unification: 1806-1996. Routledge. p. 41.
Prussia War 1866". Onwar.com. 16 December 2000.
Retrieved 2 August 2012.
^ "American FactFinder - Search". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 20
^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results".
Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
^ "Regular Session 2009-2010 Senate Resolution 141 P.N. 1216".
Legis.state.pa.us. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
^ Ihre Meinung. "Als
Vorarlberg Schweizer Kanton werden wollte –
Vorarlberg – Aktuelle Nachrichten –
Vorarlberg Online". Vol.at.
Retrieved 28 September 2011.
Austria votes to merge with
Germany in a referendum".
Famousdaily.com. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
^ "Annexation of
Austria - Analysis of the Inter-War Period".
Socialexperts.weebly.com. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
^ Data from United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
Population Division. "The World at Six Billion," 1999. Archived 1
January 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Deutsche auf der Erde" (1930), map
^ Lynn H. Nicholas, Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi
Web. (2011) Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, p. 194
^ Richard Overy, The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, pp.
Nazi Concept of 'Volksdeutsche' and the Exacerbation of
Anti-Semitism in Eastern Europe, 1939–45". DeepDyve. 1 January 1994.
Retrieved 2 August 2012.
Sudeten Germans continue fight for right of return". Haaretz.com. 3
September 2003. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
^ Willian L. Shirer (1984). Twentieth Century Journey, Volume 2, The
Nightmare Years: 1930–1940. Boston, U.S.A.: Little, Brown &
Company. ISBN 0-316-78703-5 (v. 2).
Austria - AUSTRIAN NATIONAL IDENTITY". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved
29 March 2015.
^ . Development of the Austrian identity Archived 28 September 2007
at the Wayback Machine.
^ Peter Utgaard, Remembering and Forgetting Nazism, (New York:
Berghahn Books, 2003), 188–189. Frederick C. Engelmann, "The
Austro-German Relationship: One Language, One and One-Half Histories,
Two States", Unequal Partners, ed. Harald von Riekhoff and Hanspeter
Neuhold (San Francisco: Westview Press, 1993), 53–54.
^ Redaktion (13 March 2008). "Österreicher fühlen sich heute als
Nation – 1938 – derStandard.at " Wissenschaft". Derstandard.at.
Retrieved 28 September 2011.
^ "Fewer Ethnic
Germans Immigrating to Ancestral Homeland".
Migrationinformation.org. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
^ "External causes of death in a cohort of
Aussiedler from the former
Soviet Union, 1990–2002". Egms.de. Retrieved 28 September
^ United Nations Population Fund: State of World Population 2006
^ "Most Widely Spoken Languages". .ignatius.edu. 28 May 2011. Archived
from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 28 September
^ Graphics: English replacing German as language of Science Nobel
Prize winners. From J. Schmidhuber (2010), Evolution of National Nobel
Prize Shares in the 20th Century Archived 27 March 2014 at the Wayback
Machine. at arXiv:1009.2634v1
^ "Ethnologue: East Middle German". Retrieved 6 March 2011.
^ Introduction to Old
Yiddish literature, p. 72, Baumgarten and
Frakes, Oxford University Press, 2005
^ "Development of
Yiddish over the ages", jewishgen.org
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Bleek, Wilhelm (2003).
"Auslandsdeutsche". In Andersen, Uwe; Woyke, Wichard. Handwörterbuch
des politischen Systems der Bundesrepublik (in German) (5th ed.).
Opladen: Leske+Budrich. ISBN 9783810038654. Archived from the
original on 22 February 2009.
Canada 2006". 2.statcan.ca. 6 January 2010. Retrieved 15
^ Cascante, Manuel M. (8 August 2012). "Los menonitas dejan México".
ABC (in Spanish). Retrieved 19 February 2013. Los cien mil miembros de
esta comunidad anabaptista, establecida en Chihuahua desde 1922, se
plantean emigrar a la república rusa de Tartaristán, que se ofrece a
^ "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente
Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (PDF) (in Spanish). p. 188.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2013. Retrieved 12 June
^ "Deutsche Botschaft
Guatemala - Startseite". diplo.de. Retrieved 7
^ Searle, John. (1987). The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy,
^ Horst, Zuse."The Life and Work of Konrad Zuse". Archived from the
original on 18 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-18. Everyday
Practical Electronics (EPE) Online. Retrieved 2 January 2007
^ Automobile. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. Retrieved 2
^ The Zeppelin Archived 1 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. U.S.
Centennial of Flight Commission. Retrieved 2 January 2007
^ Roberts, J. M. The New Penguin History of the World, Penguin
History, 2002. Pg. 1014. ISBN 0-14-100723-0
^ The Alfred B.
Nobel Prize Winners, 1901–2003 Archived 10 February
2010 at the Wayback Machine. History Channel from The World Almanac
Book of Facts 2006. Retrieved 2 January 2007
^ Walhalla Ruhmes- und Ehrenhalle (in German), archived from the
original on 2 October 2007, retrieved 3 October 2007
^ Walhalla, official guide booklet. p. 3. Translated by Helen Stellner
and David Hiley, Bernhard Bosse Verlag Regensburg, 2002
^ "Germany's flailing music industry seeks new talent". Deutsche
Welle. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 28 March 2011.
BBC Radio 1 Documentary. Retrieved 2006, 10 December Archived 19
June 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
Die Welt (in Dutch). 17
April 2010. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 7
^ 2006 FIAPF accredited Festivals Directory, International Federation
of Film Producers Associations. Retrieved 11 December 2006.
^ Plass, Ewald M., What Luther Says: An Anthology, St. Louis:
Concordia Publishing House, 1959, 2:964.
^ Schiller, Frederick, History of the Thirty Years' War, p.1, Harper
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 May 2017.
Retrieved 24 August 2017.
^ "Kirchenmitgliederzahlen" (PDF). Ekd.de. 31 December 2004. Retrieved
20 December 2017. korrigierte Ausgabe
^ a b c
Germany Info: Culture & Life: Sports Archived 30 April
2011 at the Wayback Machine.
Germany Embassy in Washington DC.
Retrieved 28 December 2006
^ Society Archived 20 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. The German
Mission to the United States. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
Germany extends gay rights News24.com. Retrieved 25 November 2007.
Archived 12 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Weinthal, Benjamin (31 August 2006). "He's Gay, and That's Okay".
Gay City News. New York. Retrieved 3 September 2009. [dead link]
^ Heckmann, Friedrich (2003). The Integration of Immigrants in
European Societies: national differences and trends of convergence.
Stuttgart: Lucius & Lucius. pp. 51ff.
ISBN 978-3-8282-0181-1. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
Germany won the World Cup of Nation Branding. BrandOvation.
Retrieved 25 November 2007.
^ "2010 Anholt-
GfK Roper Nation Brands Index" (Press release). GfK. 12
October 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
^ "World warming to US under Obama,
BBC poll suggests". London: BBC
News. 19 April 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
BBC World Service Poll.
BBC News. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
Germans spend most on foreign trips: Industry group". The Economic
Times. New Delhi. 10 March 2009. Retrieved 15 March 2009.
^ Kesselman 2009, pp. 180.
^ Motyl 2001, pp. 189–190.
^ Forsythe, Diana. 1989. German identity and the problem of history.
History and ethnicity, p.146
^ "Das politische System in Österreich (The Political System in
Austria)" (PDF) (in German). Vienna: Austrian Federal Press Service.
2000. p. 24. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
^ Bauer, Kurt (2008). Nationalsozialismus: Ursprünge, Anfänge,
Aufstieg und Fall (in German). Böhlau Verlag. p. 41.
^ Giloi, Eva (2011). Monarchy, Myth, and Material Culture in Germany
1750–1950. Cambridge University Press. pp. 161–162.
^ Unowsky, Daniel L. (2005). The Pomp and Politics of Patriotism:
Imperial Celebrations in Habsburg Austria, 1848–1916. Purdue
University Press. p. 157.
^ Brigitte Hamann, Hitler's Vienna: A Dictator's Apprenticeship, p.
^ Suppan (2008). ′Germans′ in the Habsburg Empire. The
the East. pp. 171–172.
^ Mees, Bernard (2008). The Science of the Swastika. Central European
University Press. ISBN 978-963-9776-18-0.
^ Alfred D. Low, The
Anschluss Movement, 1918-1919, and the Paris
Peace Conference, pp. 135-138
^ Roderick Stackelberg, Hitler's Germany: Origins, Interpretations,
Legacies, pp. 161-162
^ "Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Powers and
Austria; Protocol, Declaration and
Special Declaration  ATS 3".
Austlii.edu.au. Retrieved 2011-06-15.
^ Mary Margaret Ball, Post-war German-Austrian Relations: The
Anschluss Movement, 1918-1936, pp. 18-19
^ William L. Patch, Heinrich Bruning and the Dissolution of the Weimar
Republic, pp. 120, 166, 190
^ Ryschka, Birgit (1 January 2008). "Constructing and Deconstructing
National Identity: Dramatic Discourse in Tom Murphy's The Patriot Game
and Felix Mitterer's In Der Löwengrube". Peter Lang – via Google
^ Fred C. Koch; Jacob Eichhorn (1978). The Volga Germans: In Russia
and the Americas, from 1763 to the Present. Penn State Press.
^ Teresa Rakowska-Harmstone (1984). Communism in Eastern Europe.
Manchester University Press ND. pp. 15–7.
^ At Home in a Foreign Country: German Turks Struggle to Find Their
Identity, Spiegel Online.
^ a b "Proud German?". The Economist. 24 March 2001.
^ a b "Are
Germans now proud to be the Germans?". Archived from the
original on 29 January 2013.
^ "National Identity – Where
Germans dare". Presseurop.eu. 15 May
2009. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
^ a b c d Heilbrunn, Jacob (November–December 2012). "All Roads Lead
to Berlin". The National Interest. Number 122: 41–47. Retrieved 25
Bryce, Benjamin. To Belong in Buenos Aires: Germans, Argentines, and
the Rise of a Pluralist Society. Stanford, California: Stanford
University Press, 2018.
Kesselman, Mark (2009). European Politics in Transition. Boston,
Massachusetts, USA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Motyl, Alexander J. (2001). Encyclopedia of Nationalism, Volume II.
Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-227230-7.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to People of Germany.
German, Austrian and Swiss inventors
Top 100 Germans
Germans – First arrivals
Banat (including Walser)
Italy (South Tyrol)
Central and Eastern
United Arab Emirates
Partitions of Poland
Flight and expulsion of
Germanic parent language
North Germanic languages
West Germanic languages
East Germanic languages
Nordic Bronze Age
Pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe
Roman Iron Age
in northern Europe
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Germanic Iron Age
Gothic War (376–382)
Society and culture
Migration Period art
Ancient Germanic law
Numbers in Norse mythology
Sacred trees and groves
Gothic and Vandal warfare
Viking Age arms and armour
Migration Period spear
Migration Period sword
Alemannic grave fields
List of ancient Germanic peoples
Portal:Ancient Germanic culture
Holy Roman Empire
Ostsiedlung (East Colonisation)
Confederation of the Rhine
North German Confederation
Unification of Germany
World War I
World War II
Flight and expulsions
Cities and towns
German states by GDP
Science and technology
Coat of arms