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GERMANS (German : Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe
Central Europe
, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history . German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans.

The English term Germans
Germans
has historically referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
since the Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Before the collapse of communism and the reunification of Germany
Germany
in 1990, Germans
Germans
constituted the largest divided nation in Europe by far. Ever since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic- Protestant
Protestant
divide .

Of approximately 100 million native speakers of German in the world, roughly 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry mainly in the United States , Brazil
Brazil
(mainly in the South Region of the country), Argentina , Canada
Canada
, South Africa
South Africa
, the post-Soviet states (mainly in Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan ), and France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans
Germans
lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied (native speakers, single-ancestry ethnic Germans, partial German ancestry, etc.).

Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities (such as Austria
Austria
, Switzerland
Switzerland
, Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
and other historically-tied countries like Luxembourg
Luxembourg
) most often subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not also self-identify as ethnically German.

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 History

* 2.1 Origins * 2.2 Medieval period * 2.3 Early Modern period * 2.4 Twentieth century * 2.5 1945 to present

* 3 Language

* 3.1 Dialects * 3.2 Native speakers

* 4 Geographic distribution

* 5 Culture

* 5.1 Literature * 5.2 Philosophy * 5.3 Science * 5.4 Music * 5.5 Cinema * 5.6 Architecture
Architecture
* 5.7 Religion * 5.8 Sport * 5.9 Society

* 6 Identity

* 6.1 1871–1918 * 6.2 1918–1945 * 6.3 1945–1990 * 6.4 1990–present

* 7 See also * 8 Footnotes * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links

NAME

Further information: Names of Germany
Germany
Roman limes and modern boundaries.

The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc (from diot "people"), referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how commonly, if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German.

Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German , attested from the second half of the 12th century.

The Old French
Old French
term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni . It was loaned into Middle English
Middle English
as almains in the early 14th century. The word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic ("Dutch" and "German") dialects and their speakers.

While in most Romance languages
Romance languages
the Germans
Germans
have been named from the Alamanni (in what became Swabia ) (some, like standard Italian tedeschi, retain an older borrowing of the endonym ), the Old Norse
Old Norse
, Finnish, and Estonian names for the Germans
Germans
were taken from that of the Saxons
Saxons
. In Slavic languages
Slavic languages
, the Germans
Germans
were given the name of němьci (singular němьcь), originally with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak ".

The English term Germans
Germans
is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and later Tacitus
Tacitus
. It gradually replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming mostly obsolete by the early 18th century.

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Germany
Germany
, Germanic peoples , and Theodiscus

The Germans
Germans
are a Germanic people, who as an ethnicity emerged during the Middle Ages. Originally part of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War
Thirty Years War
. These states eventually formed into modern Germany
Germany
in the 19th century.

ORIGINS

Germanic Kingdoms in Europe c. 500 AD

The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe. The early Germans
Germans
originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans
Germans
was significantly increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time.

In the European Iron Age the area that is now Germany
Germany
was divided into the (Celtic ) La Tène horizon in Southern Germany
Germany
and the (Germanic ) Jastorf culture in Northern Germany
Germany
. By 55 BC, the Germans
Germans
had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, and had spread west into what is now Belgium
Belgium
and France.

Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine
Rhine
. Roman emperor Augustus
Augustus
in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
abandoning its plans to completely conquer Germania
Germania
. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, and although much of Germania
Germania
remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome deeply influenced the development of German society, especially the adoption of Christianity by the Germans
Germans
who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, and Roman, Germanic, and Christian traditions intermingled. The adoption of Christianity would later become a major influence in the development of a common German identity.

The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus
Tacitus
in his work Germania
Germania
around 100 AD. However an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist then, and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.

The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples; in the case of the populations settling in the territory of modern Germany, they encountered Celts to the south, and Balts
Balts
and Slavs
Slavs
towards the east. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria
Bavaria
. The arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns initially were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but later the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, and large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of Attila
Attila
. Attila
Attila
had both Hunnic and Germanic families and prominent Germanic chiefs amongst his close entourage in Europe. The Huns living in Germanic territories in Eastern Europe adopted an East Germanic language as their lingua franca . A major part of Attila's army were Germans, during the Huns' campaign against the Roman Empire. After Attila's unexpected death the Hunnic Empire collapsed with the Huns disappearing as a people in Europe – who either escaped into Asia, or otherwise blended in amongst Europeans.

The migration-period peoples who later coalesced into a "German" ethnicity were the Germanic tribes of the Saxons
Saxons
, Franci , Thuringii , Alamanni and Bavarii . These five tribes, sometimes with inclusion of the Frisians
Frisians
, are considered as the major groups to take part in the formation of the Germans. By the 9th century, the large tribes which lived on the territory of modern Germany
Germany
had been united under the rule of the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, known in German as Karl der Große. Much of what is now Eastern Germany
Germany
became Slavonic-speaking ( Sorbs and Veleti ), after these areas were vacated by Germanic tribes ( Vandals
Vandals
, Lombards
Lombards
, Burgundians and Suebi amongst others) which had migrated into the former areas of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
.

MEDIEVAL PERIOD

Main articles: Ostsiedlung and History of German settlement in Eastern Europe Further information: Kingdom of Germany
Germany
, Stem duchy , Medieval demography , and Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
Extent of Holy Roman Empire in 972 (red line) and 1035 (red dots) with Kingdom of Germany marked in blue

A German ethnicity emerged in the course of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, ultimately as a result of the formation of the Kingdom of Germany within East Francia and later the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, beginning in the 9th century. The process was gradual and lacked any clear definition, and the use of exonyms designating "the Germans" develops only during the High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. The title of rex teutonicum "King of the Germans
Germans
" is first used in the late 11th century, by the chancery of Pope Gregory VII , to describe the future Holy Roman Emperor of the German nation Henry IV . Natively, the term diutscher (German) was used for the people of Germany
Germany
beginning in the 12th century.

After Christianization , the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church and local rulers led German expansion and settlement in areas inhabited by Slavs
Slavs
and Balts, known as Ostsiedlung . During the wars waged in the Baltic by the Catholic German Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
; the lands inhabited by the ethnic group of the Old Prussians (the current reference to the people known then simply as the "Prussians"), were conquered by the Germans. The Old Prussians were an ethnic group related to the Latvian and Lithuanian Baltic peoples. The former German state of Prussia
Prussia
took its name from the Baltic Prussians, although it was led by Germans
Germans
who had assimilated the Old Prussians; the old Prussian
Prussian
language was extinct by the 17th or early 18th century. The Slavic people of the Teutonic-controlled Baltic were assimilated into German culture and eventually there were many intermarriages of Slavic and German families, including amongst the Prussia's aristocracy known as the Junkers . Prussian
Prussian
military strategist Karl von Clausewitz is a famous German whose surname is of Slavic origin. Massive German settlement led to the assimilation of Baltic ( Old Prussians ) and Slavic ( Wends ) populations, who were exhausted by previous warfare.

At the same time, naval innovations led to a German domination of trade in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and parts of Eastern Europe through the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
. Along the trade routes, Hanseatic trade stations became centers of the German culture. German town law
German town law
(Stadtrecht) was promoted by the presence of large, relatively wealthy German populations, their influence and political power. Thus people who would be considered "Germans", with a common culture, language, and worldview different from that of the surrounding rural peoples, colonized trading towns as far north of present-day Germany
Germany
as Bergen (in Norway
Norway
), Stockholm
Stockholm
(in Sweden
Sweden
), and Vyborg
Vyborg
(now in Russia). The Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
was not exclusively German in any ethnic sense: many towns who joined the league were outside the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and a number of them may only loosely be characterized as German. The Empire itself was not entirely German either. It had a multi-ethnic and multi-lingual structure, some of the smaller ethnicities and languages used at different times were Dutch, Italian, French, Czech and Polish.

By the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, large numbers of Jews
Jews
lived in the Holy Roman Empire and had assimilated into German culture, including many Jews who had previously assimilated into French culture and had spoken a mixed Judeo-French language. Upon assimilating into German culture, the Jewish German peoples incorporated major parts of the German language and elements of other European languages into a mixed language known as Yiddish
Yiddish
. However tolerance and assimilation of Jews
Jews
in German society suddenly ended during the Crusades
Crusades
with many Jews
Jews
being forcefully expelled from Germany
Germany
and Western Yiddish disappeared as a language in Germany
Germany
over the centuries, with German Jewish people fully adopting the German language.

EARLY MODERN PERIOD

The Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
after the Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
, 1648

From the late 15th century, the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
came to be known as the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
of the German nation . The Thirty Years\' War , a series of conflicts fought mainly in the territory of modern Germany, weakened the coherence of the Holy Roman Empire, leading to the emergence of different, smaller German states known as Kleinstaaterei in 18th-century Germany
Germany
.

The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
were the cause of the final dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, and ultimately the cause for the quest for a German nation state in 19th-century German nationalism . After the Congress of Vienna , Austria
Austria
and Prussia
Prussia
emerged as two competitors. Austria, trying to remain the dominant power in Central Europe, led the way in the terms of the Congress of Vienna. The Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
was essentially conservative, assuring that little would change in Europe and preventing Germany
Germany
from uniting. These terms came to a sudden halt following the Revolutions of 1848 and the Crimean War
Crimean War
in 1856, paving the way for German unification in the 1860s. By the 1820s, large numbers of Jewish German women had intermarried with Christian German men and had converted to Christianity. Jewish German Eduard Lasker was a prominent German nationalist figure who promoted the unification of Germany
Germany
in the mid-19th century. 18 January 1871: The proclamation of the German Empire
German Empire
in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles . Bismarck appears in white. The Grand Duke of Baden stands beside Wilhelm, leading the cheers. Crown Prince Friedrich, later Friedrich III , stands on his father's right.

German nationalism became the sole focus of the German Question
German Question
which was the question of how Germany
Germany
was going to be best unified into a nation-state. The idea of unifying all German-speakers into one state was known as the Großdeutsche Lösung ("Greater German solution") which was propagated mostly by the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and the German Austrians. The other option, the Kleindeutsche Lösung ("Lesser German solution") only advocated unifying the northern German states without Austria
Austria
and the German Austrians was supported predominantly in the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
. The idea of including the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
into a German nation-state was a problem because it included many non-German ethnic groups, as well as many of the areas it ruled had never been part of Germany
Germany
and did not want to become part of a German nation-state. In 1866, the feud between Austria
Austria
and Prussia
Prussia
finally came to a head. In the final battle of the German war (Battle of Königgrätz ) the Prussians successfully defeated the Austrians and succeeded in creating the North German Confederation
North German Confederation
.

In 1870, after France
France
attacked Prussia, Prussia
Prussia
and its new allies in Southern Germany
Germany
(among them Bavaria) were victorious in the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
. It created the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871 as a German nation-state , effectively excluding the multi-ethnic Austrian Habsburg monarchy
Habsburg monarchy
and Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
. Integrating the Austrian Germans nevertheless remained a strong desire for many people of Germany
Germany
and Austria, especially among the liberals, the social democrats and also the Catholics who were a minority within the Protestant
Protestant
Germany.

During the 19th century in the German territories, rapid population growth due to lower death rates, combined with poverty, spurred millions of Germans
Germans
to emigrate, chiefly to the United States. Today, roughly 17% of the United States' population (23% of the white population) is of mainly German ancestry.

TWENTIETH CENTURY

Further information: Volksdeutsche and Reichsdeutsche The German Empire
German Empire
of 1871–1918. By excluding the German-speaking part of the multinational Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
, this geographic construction represented the Kleindeutsche Lösung ("Lesser German solution")

. Nearly 100 million people around the world were of German ancestry in 1930

The dissolution of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire after World War I led to a strong desire of the population of the new Republic of German Austria
Austria
to be integrated into Germany
Germany
or Switzerland. This was, however, prevented by the Treaty of Saint Germain and the Treaty of Versailles . In 1930, three years before the Nazi
Nazi
era, there were roughly 94 million people all over the world claiming German ancestry, or about 4,5% of the world population at the time.

During the Third Reich , the Nazis , led by Austrian-born Adolf Hitler , attempted to unite all the people they claimed were "Germans" ( Volksdeutsche ) under the slogan Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer ("One People, One Empire, One Leader"). This policy began in 1938 with Hitler's foreign policy Heim ins Reich
Heim ins Reich
("back home to the Reich") which aimed to persuade all Germans
Germans
living outside of the Reich to return "home" either as individuals or regions to a Greater Germany. During the war, Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
who was issued with the policy of "strengthening of ethnic Germandom" created a Volksliste
Volksliste
("German People's List") which was used to classify all those living in the German occupied territories into different categories according to criteria by Himmler. The policy of uniting all Germans
Germans
included ethnic Germans
Germans
in eastern Europe, many of whom had emigrated more than one hundred fifty years before and developed separate cultures in their new lands. This idea was initially welcomed by many ethnic Germans
Germans
in Sudetenland , Austria, Poland
Poland
, Danzig and western Lithuania
Lithuania
, particularly the Germans
Germans
from Klaipeda
Klaipeda
(Memel). The Swiss resisted the idea. They had viewed themselves as a distinctly separate nation since the Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
of 1648.

After World War II, eastern European countries such as the Soviet Union , Poland
Poland
, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
, Hungary
Hungary
, Romania
Romania
and Yugoslavia expelled the Germans
Germans
from their territories. Many of those had inhabited these lands for centuries, developing a unique culture. Germans
Germans
were also forced to leave the former eastern territories of Germany
Germany
, which were annexed by Poland
Poland
( Silesia
Silesia
, Pomerania
Pomerania
, parts of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
and southern part of East Prussia
Prussia
) and the Soviet Union (northern part of East Prussia
Prussia
). Between 12 and 16,5 million ethnic Germans
Germans
and German citizens were expelled westwards to allied-occupied Germany
Germany
.

After World War II, Austrians increasingly saw themselves as a separate nation from the German nation. In 1966, 47% people in Austria viewed themselves as Austrians. In 1990, the number increased to 79%. Recent polls show that no more than 6% of the German-speaking Austrians consider themselves as "Germans". An Austrian identity was vastly emphasized along with the "first-victim of Nazism theory ." Today over 80 percent of the Austrians see themselves as an independent nation.

1945 TO PRESENT

Angela Merkel , Chancellor of Germany
Germany
since 2005

Between 1950 and 1987, about 1.4 million ethnic Germans
Germans
and their dependents, mostly from Poland
Poland
and Romania, arrived in Germany
Germany
under special provisions of right of return . With the collapse of the Iron Curtain since 1987, 3 million "Aussiedler" – ethnic Germans, mainly from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
– took advantage of Germany's law of return to leave the "land of their birth" for Germany.

Approximately 2 million, just from the territories of the former Soviet Union, have resettled in Germany
Germany
since the late 1980s. On the other hand, significant numbers of ethnic Germans
Germans
have moved from Germany
Germany
to other European countries, especially Switzerland
Switzerland
, the Netherlands
Netherlands
, Britain, Spain and Portugal
Portugal
.

In its State of World Population 2006 report, the United Nations Population Fund lists Germany
Germany
with hosting the third-highest percentage of the main international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 10 million of all 191 million migrants.

LANGUAGE

Main article: German language
German language

The native language of Germans
Germans
is German, a West Germanic language , related to and classified alongside English and Dutch , and sharing many similarities with the North Germanic and Scandinavian languages. Spoken by approximately 100 million native speakers , German is one of the world's major languages and the most widely spoken first language in the European Union
European Union
. German has been replaced by English as the dominant language of science-related Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureates during the second half of the 20th century. It was a lingua franca in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
.

DIALECTS

Main article: German dialects WEST GERMANIC LANGUAGES Dutch (Low Franconian, West Germanic) Low German
Low German
(West Germanic) Central German (High German, West Germanic) Upper German (High German, West Germanic) English (Anglo-Frisian, West Germanic) Frisian (Anglo-Frisian, West Germanic) NORTH GERMANIC LANGUAGES East Scandinavian West Scandinavian Line dividing the North and West Germanic languages
Germanic languages
German, a world language , remains an important second language in much of Central and Eastern Europe, and in the international scientific community German-speaking Europe

* High German

* Upper German

* Bavarians (ca. 10 million) form the Austro-Bavarian linguistic group, together with those Austrians who speak German and do not live in Vorarlberg
Vorarlberg
and the western Tyrol district of Reutte . Swabians (ca. 10 million) form the Alemannic group, together with the Alemannic Swiss , Liechtensteiners, Alsatians and Vorarlbergians .

* Central German dialect group (ca. 45 million)

* West Central German

* Central Franconian
Central Franconian
(Ripuarian , Kölsch ), forms a dialectal unity with Luxembourgish , Rhine
Rhine
Franconian (Hessian )

* East Central German

* Standard German , Thuringian , Upper Saxon , High Prussian , German Silesian

* Yiddish
Yiddish
, a High German language of Ashkenazi Jewish origin, spoken throughout the world. It developed as a fusion of German dialects with Hebrew , Slavic languages
Slavic languages
and traces of Romance languages .

* Low German
Low German
(ca. 3–10 million), forms a dialectal unity with Dutch Low Saxon

* Low Saxon , East Low German
Low German

NATIVE SPEAKERS

Global distribution of native speakers of the German language:

COUNTRY GERMAN-SPEAKING POPULATION (OUTSIDE GERMAN-SPEAKING COUNTRIES)

United States
United States
5,000,000

Brazil
Brazil
3,000,000

Russia
Russia
2,000,000

Poland
Poland
800,000

Argentina
Argentina
500,000

Canada
Canada
450,000 – 620,000

Italy
Italy
250,000

Hungary
Hungary
220,000

Australia
Australia
110,000

Mexico
Mexico
100,000 (Mennonites)

South Africa
South Africa
75,000 (German expatriate citizens)

Belgium
Belgium
66,000

Paraguay
Paraguay
56,000

Chile
Chile
40,000

New Zealand
New Zealand
36,000

Guatemala
Guatemala
35,000

Namibia
Namibia
30,000 (German expatriate citizens)

Denmark
Denmark
20,000

Romania
Romania
15,000

Venezuela
Venezuela
10,000

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

Main article: German diaspora German diaspora

People of German origin are found in various places around the globe. United States
United States
is home to approximately 50 million German Americans or one third of the German diaspora, making it the largest centre of German-descended people outside Germany. Brazil
Brazil
is the second largest with 5 million people claiming German ancestry. Other significant centres are Canada
Canada
, Argentina
Argentina
, South Africa
South Africa
and France
France
each accounting for at least 1 million. While the exact number of German-descended people is difficult to calculate, the available data makes it safe to claim the number is exceeding 100 million people.

CULTURE

This article CONTAINS TOO MANY PICTURES, CHARTS OR DIAGRAMS FOR ITS OVERALL LENGTH. Please help to improve this article in accordance with the Manual of Style on use of images . (June 2016)

Main article: Culture of Germany
Germany

LITERATURE

Main article: German literature Walk of Ideas , Berlin, a sculpture honoring Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
and some of Germany's most influential writers

German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach
Wolfram von Eschenbach
. The Nibelungenlied
Nibelungenlied
, whose author remains unknown, is also an important work of the epoch, as is the Thidrekssaga . The fairy tales collections collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.

Theologian Luther , who translated the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language. Among the most admired German poets and authors are Lessing , Goethe , Schiller , Kleist , Hoffmann , Brecht , Heine and Schmidt . Nine Germans
Germans
have won the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in literature : Theodor Mommsen , Paul von Heyse , Gerhart Hauptmann , Thomas Mann , Nelly Sachs , Hermann Hesse
Hermann Hesse
, Heinrich Böll , Günter Grass , and Herta Müller
Herta Müller
.

*

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing of the Enlightenment. *

Gerhart Hauptmann , a German dramatist and novelist who received the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature in 1912. *

Thomas Mann , a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature laureate. *

Günter Grass was a recipient of the 1999 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature. *

Herta Müller
Herta Müller
was born into a German minority in Romania. She is the recipient of the 2009 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature for her novel Atemschaukel.

PHILOSOPHY

Main article: German philosophy

Germany's influence on philosophy is historically significant and many notable German philosophers have helped shape Western philosophy since the Middle Ages. The rise of the modern natural sciences and the related decline of religion raised a series of questions, which recur throughout German philosophy, concerning the relationships between knowledge and faith, reason and emotion, and scientific, ethical, and artistic ways of seeing the world. German philosopher Immanuel Kant

German philosophers have helped shape western philosophy from as early as the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
( Albertus Magnus ). Later, Leibniz (17th century) and most importantly Kant played central roles in the history of philosophy . Kantianism inspired the work of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche
Nietzsche
as well as German idealism defended by Fichte and Hegel . Engels helped develop communist theory in the second half of the 19th century while Heidegger and Gadamer pursued the tradition of German philosophy in the 20th century. A number of German intellectuals were also influential in sociology , most notably Adorno , Habermas , Horkheimer , Luhmann , Simmel , Tönnies , and Weber . The University of Berlin founded in 1810 by linguist and philosopher Wilhelm von Humboldt served as an influential model for a number of modern western universities.

In the 21st century, Germany
Germany
has been an important country for the development of contemporary analytic philosophy in continental Europe, along with France, Austria, Switzerland
Switzerland
and the Scandinavian countries.

*

A statue of Albertus Magnus, a medieval German philosopher, now declared a Catholic saint. *

Arthur Schopenhauer, a German philosopher best known for his book, The World as Will and Representation. He has influenced many other thinkers through his work. *

Karl Marx's ideas played a significant role in the establishment of the social sciences and the development of the socialist movement. He published numerous books during his lifetime, the most notable being The Communist Manifesto and Capital. He is also considered one of the greatest economists of all time. *

Friedrich Engels
Friedrich Engels
was a social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of Marxist theory, alongside Karl Marx. He is the co-author of The Communist Manifesto. *

Max Weber was a sociologist, philosopher, and political economist who profoundly influenced social theory, social research, and the discipline of sociology itself. Weber is often cited, with Émile Durkheim and Karl Marx, as one of the three founding architects of sociology.

SCIENCE

Main articles: Science and technology in Germany
Germany
and German inventors and discoverers Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt

Germany
Germany
has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers, such as Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
, who is credited with the invention of movable type printing in Europe; Hans Geiger
Hans Geiger
, the creator of the Geiger counter
Geiger counter
; and Konrad Zuse , who built the first electronic computer. German inventors, engineers and industrialists such as Zeppelin , Daimler , Diesel , Otto , Wankel , Von Braun and Benz helped shape modern automotive and air transportation technology including the beginnings of space travel.

The work of David Hilbert , Max Planck
Max Planck
and Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
was crucial to the foundation of modern physics , which Werner Heisenberg and Erwin Schrödinger developed further. They were preceded by such key physicists as Hermann von Helmholtz
Hermann von Helmholtz
, Joseph von Fraunhofer , and Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit
Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit
, among others. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovered X-rays , an accomplishment that made him the first winner of the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physics
Physics
in 1901. The Walhalla temple for "laudable and distinguished Germans", features a number of scientists, and is located east of Regensburg
Regensburg
, in Bavaria
Bavaria
.

*

A statue commemorating Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
for his invention of the first movable type; printing press. *

The magnificent panorama of the metal interlinking in the bowels of the world's first computer created by Konrad Zuse. *

The Geiger counter, invented by Hans Geiger, is a type of particle detector that measures ionizing radiation. *

A print of one of the first X-rays by Wilhelm Röntgen (1845–1923) of the left hand of his wife Anna Bertha Ludwig. It was presented to Professor Ludwig Zehnder of the Physik Institut, University of Freiburg, on 1 January 1896. *

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit was a physicist, engineer, and glass blower who is best known for inventing the mercury thermometer (1714), and for developing a temperature scale now named after him.

MUSIC

Main article: Music of Germany
Germany
Portrait of Ludwig van Beethoven by Joseph Karl Stieler
Joseph Karl Stieler
, 1820

In the field of music, Germany
Germany
claims some of the most renowned classical composers of the world including Bach , Mozart
Mozart
and Beethoven , who marked the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western classical music. Other composers of the Austro -German tradition who achieved international fame include Brahms , Wagner , Haydn , Schubert , Händel , Schumann , Liszt , Mendelssohn Bartholdy , Johann Strauss II , Bruckner , Mahler , Telemann , Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss
, Schoenberg , Orff , and most recently, Henze , Lachenmann , and Stockhausen .

As of 2008 , Germany
Germany
is the fourth largest music market in the world and has exerted a strong influence on Dance and Rock music, and pioneered trance music . Artists such as Herbert Grönemeyer , Scorpions , Rammstein
Rammstein
, Nena
Nena
, Dieter Bohlen , Tokio Hotel
Tokio Hotel
and Modern Talking have enjoyed international fame. German musicians and, particularly, the pioneering bands Tangerine Dream and Kraftwerk
Kraftwerk
have also contributed to the development of electronic music . Germany hosts many large rock music festivals annually. The Rock am Ring festival is the largest music festival in Germany, and among the largest in the world. German artists also make up a large percentage of Industrial music
Industrial music
acts, which is called Neue Deutsche Härte
Neue Deutsche Härte
. Germany
Germany
hosts some of the largest Goth scenes and festivals in the entire world, with events like Wave-Gothic-Treffen and M\'era Luna Festival easily attracting up to 30,000 people. Amongst Germany's famous artists there are various Dutch entertainers, such as Johannes Heesters .

*

Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss
is considered a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. *

Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
greatly influenced the development of classical music; his Tristan und Isolde is sometimes described as marking the start of modern music. *

Scorpions, a rock band formed in 1965, now viewed as one of the best-selling acts in music history. *

Nena, a singer and actress, who brought Neue Deutsche Welle to international attention with her song 99 Luftballons. *

Modern Talking, a synthpop duo consisting of Thomas Anders and Dieter Bohlen, became one of the most successful German acts in the 1980s.

CINEMA

Main article: Cinema of Germany
Germany
Diane Krüger , 2008

German cinema dates back to the very early years of the medium with the work of Max Skladanowsky . It was particularly influential during the years of the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
with German expressionists such as Robert Wiene and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau
Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau
. The Nazi era produced mostly propaganda films although the work of Leni Riefenstahl still introduced new aesthetics in film. From the 1960s, New German Cinema directors such as Volker Schlöndorff , Werner Herzog , Wim Wenders , Rainer Werner Fassbinder placed West-German cinema back onto the international stage with their often provocative films, while the Deutsche Film-Aktiengesellschaft controlled film production in the GDR .

More recently, films such as Das Boot (1981), The Never Ending Story (1984) Run Lola Run
Run Lola Run
(1998), Das Experiment (2001), Good Bye Lenin! (2003), Gegen die Wand (Head-on) (2004) and Der Untergang (Downfall) (2004) have enjoyed international success. In 2002 the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film went to Caroline Link 's Nowhere in Africa , in 2007 to Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck 's The Lives of Others . The Berlin International Film Festival
Berlin International Film Festival
, held yearly since 1951, is one of the world's foremost film and cinema festivals.

*

A sign advertising the Berlin International Film Festival
Berlin International Film Festival
*

Leni Riefenstahl was widely noted for her aesthetics and innovations as a filmmaker *

A poster for The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari directed by Robert Wiene

ARCHITECTURE

Main article: German architecture
German architecture
Neuschwanstein Castle
Neuschwanstein Castle
in Bavaria
Bavaria

Architectural contributions from Germany
Germany
include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , important precursors of Romanesque . The region then produced significant works in styles such as the Gothic , Renaissance and Baroque .

The nation was particularly important in the early modern movement through the Deutscher Werkbund and the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
movement identified with Walter Gropius . The Nazis closed these movements and favoured a type of neo-classicism . Since World War II, further important modern and post-modern structures have been built, particularly since the reunification of Berlin.

*

Detlev-Rohwedder-Haus , the former Reichsluftfahrtministerium (now a Federal Ministry of Finance building) *

The market place at Dornstetten *

Cologne Cathedral
Cologne Cathedral
*

Frauenkirche, Dresden *

Bauhaus
Bauhaus

RELIGION

Portrait of Martin Luther

Roman Catholicism was the sole established religion in the Holy Roman Empire until the Reformation changed this drastically. In 1517, Martin Luther challenged the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as he saw it as a corruption of Christian faith. Through this, he altered the course of European and world history and established Protestantism. The Thirty Years\' War (1618–1648) was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history. The war was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most of the countries of Europe. The war was fought largely as a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire.

According to the latest nationwide census , Roman Catholics constituted 29.5% of the total population of Germany, followed by the Evangelical Protestants at 27.9%. Other Christian denominations, other religions, atheists or not specified constituted 42.6% of the population at the time. Among "others" are Protestants not included in Evangelical Church of Germany
Germany
, and other Christians such as the Restorationist New Apostolic Church . Protestantism was more common among the citizens of Germany. The North and East Germany
Germany
is predominantly Protestant, the South and West rather Catholic. Nowadays there is a non-religious majority in Hamburg and the East German states.

Historically, Germany
Germany
had a substantial Jewish minority . Only a few thousand people of Jewish origin remained in Germany
Germany
after the Holocaust , but the German Jewish community now has approximately 100,000 members, many from the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. Germany
Germany
also has a substantial Muslim minority, most of whom are immigrants from Turkey .

German theologians include Luther , Melanchthon , Schleiermacher , Feuerbach , and Rudolf Otto . Also Germany
Germany
brought up many mystics including Meister Eckhart
Meister Eckhart
, Rudolf Steiner , Jakob Boehme
Jakob Boehme
, and some popes (e.g. Benedict XVI ).

*

The Meister Eckhart
Meister Eckhart
portal of the Erfurt Church *

Pope
Pope
Benedict XVI and clergy of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
at mass in Freiburg
Freiburg
, Germany
Germany
*

Philip Melanchthon *

Religion in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
on the eve of the Thirty Years\' War *

Predominant religious group according to 2011 nationwide census. Catholics are dominant in the south and west, the Non-religious (incl. other religions and not specified) dominate in the east and the large cities, Protestants dominate in north, east, and central parts of Germany
Germany

SPORT

Main article: Sport in Germany
Germany
The Allianz Arena , one of the world's most modern football stadiums.

Sport forms an integral part of German life, as demonstrated by the fact that 27 million Germans
Germans
are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue such an activity individually. Football is by far the most popular sport, and the German Football Federation (Deutscher Fußballbund) with more than 6.3 million members is the largest athletic organisation in the country. It also attracts the greatest audience, with hundreds of thousands of spectators attending Bundesliga matches and millions more watching on television.

Other popular sports include handball , volleyball, basketball, ice hockey , and Winter sports
Winter sports
. Historically, German sportsmen have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games, ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count , combining East and West German medals. In the 2012 Summer Olympics , Germany
Germany
finished sixth overall, whereas in the 2010 Winter Olympics
2010 Winter Olympics
Germany
Germany
finished second.

There are also many Germans
Germans
in the American NBA . In 2011 , Dirk Nowitzki won his first NBA Championship with the Dallas Mavericks by upsetting the Miami Heat . He was also named that year's NBA Finals Most Valuable Player.

*

Berlin Marathon *

Olympiastadion Berlin *

Michael Schumacher
Michael Schumacher
has claimed 91 race victories and 7 championships in his F1 career. *

German national football team in 2011 *

Dirk Nowitzki (in green), Dallas Mavericks power forward, 2011 NBA Champion and Finals MVP

SOCIETY

Main article: List of Germans Cultural map of the world according to the World Values Survey , describing Germany
Germany
as high in "Rational-Secular Values" and average-high in "Self-Expression values".

Germany
Germany
is a modern, advanced society, shaped by a plurality of lifestyles and regional identities. The country has established a high level of gender equality , promotes disability rights , and is legally and socially tolerant towards homosexuals. Gays and lesbians can legally adopt their partner's biological children, and civil unions have been permitted since 2001. Former Foreign minister Guido Westerwelle and the former mayor of Berlin, Klaus Wowereit , are openly gay.

During the last decade of the 20th century, Germany
Germany
changed its attitude towards immigrants. Until the mid-1990s the opinion was widespread that Germany
Germany
is not a country of immigration, even though about 20% of the population were of non-German origin. Today the government and a majority of the German society are acknowledging that immigrants from diverse ethnocultural backgrounds are part of the German society and that controlled immigration should be initiated based on qualification standards.

Since the 2006 FIFA World Cup
2006 FIFA World Cup
, the internal and external evaluation of Germany's national image has changed. In the annual Nation Brands Index global survey, Germany
Germany
became significantly and repeatedly more highly ranked after the tournament. People in 20 different states assessed the country's reputation in terms of culture, politics, exports, its people and its attractiveness to tourists, immigrants and investments. Germany
Germany
has been named the world's second most valued nation among 50 countries in 2010. Another global opinion poll, for the BBC
BBC
, revealed that Germany
Germany
is recognised for the most positive influence in the world in 2010. A majority of 59% have a positive view of the country, while 14% have a negative view.

With an expenditure of €67 billion on international travel in 2008, Germans
Germans
spent more money on travel than any other country. The most visited destinations were Spain, Italy
Italy
and Austria.

*

German females in the German tracht national costumes of the time of Biedermeier
Biedermeier
*

A map of Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1400, reflecting the German society's regional diversity *

Boundary sign of Bautzen / Budyšin in German and Upper Sorbian language *

Rutenfest in Ravensburg
Ravensburg
, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, celebrating the folklore story of "The Seven Swabians " by the Brothers Grimm *

Actors from Germany
Germany
in film "Als der Tod ins Leben wuchs" of Sebastian Ed Erhenberg as Volga Germans

IDENTITY

Further information: Pan-Germanism , German question
German question
, and German nationalism Germania
Germania
, March 1848, exhibited in the St. Paul's Church, Frankfurt am Main Johann Gottfried Herder
Johann Gottfried Herder

The event of the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation and the politics that ensued has been cited as the origins of German identity that arose in response to the spread of a common German language
German language
and literature. Early German national culture was developed through literary and religious figures including Martin Luther , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller . The concept of a German nation was developed by German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder
Johann Gottfried Herder
. The popularity of German identity arose in the aftermath of the French Revolution
French Revolution
.

Persons who speak German as their first language, look German and whose families have lived in Germany
Germany
for generations are considered "most German", followed by categories of diminishing Germanness such as Aussiedler (people of German ancestry whose families have lived in Eastern Europe but who have returned to Germany), Restdeutsche (people living in lands that have historically belonged to Germany
Germany
but which is currently outside of Germany), Auswanderer (people whose families have emigrated from Germany
Germany
and who still speak German), German speakers in German-speaking nations such as Austrians , and finally people of German emigrant background who no longer speak German.

Pan-Germanism's origins began in the early 19th century following the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
. The wars launched a new movement that was born in France
France
itself during the French Revolution. Nationalism during the 19th century threatened the old aristocratic regimes. Many ethnic groups of Central and Eastern Europe had been divided for centuries, ruled over by the old Monarchies of the Romanovs and the Habsburgs . Germans, for the most part, had been a loose and disunited people since the Reformation when the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
was shattered into a patchwork of states. The new German nationalists, mostly young reformers such as Johann Tillmann of East Prussia
Prussia
, sought to unite all the German-speaking and ethnic-German (Volksdeutsche) people.

1871–1918

Further information: Unification of Germany
Germany
An ethno-linguistic map of Austria–Hungary, 1910

By the 1860s the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
and the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
were the two most powerful nations dominated by German-speaking elites. Both sought to expand their influence and territory. The Austrian Empire – like the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
– was a multi-ethnic state, but German-speaking people there did not have an absolute numerical majority; the creation of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was one result of the growing nationalism of other ethnicities especially the Hungarians
Hungarians
in Austrian territory. Prussia
Prussia
under Otto von Bismarck would eventually ride on the coat-tails of nationalism to unite all of modern-day Germany. Following several wars, most notably the German war in 1866 between the two most powerful German states, Austria
Austria
and Prussia, with the latter being victorious, the German Empire
German Empire
("Second Reich") was created in 1871 as "Little Germany" without Austria following the proclamation of Wilhelm I as head of a union of German-speaking states, while disregarding millions of its non-German subjects who desired self-determination from German rule.

The creation of the multi-ethnic Austria- Hungary
Hungary
empire created strong ethnic conflict between the different ethnicities of the empire. German nationalism in Austria
Austria
grew among all social circles of the empire, many wanted to be unified with the German Reich to form a Greater Germany
Germany
and wanted policies to be carried out to enforce their German ethnic identity rejecting any Austrian pan-ethnic identity. Many German Austrians felt annoyed that they were excluded from the German Empire
German Empire
since it included various non-German ethnic groups. Prominent Austrian pan- Germans
Germans
such as Georg Ritter von Schönerer created pan-German movements which demanded the annexation of all ethnic German territories. Members of such movements often wore blue cornflowers , known to be the favourite flower of German Emperor William I , in their buttonholes, along with cockades in the German national colours (black, red, and yellow). Both symbols were temporarily banned in Austrian schools. Populists such as the Viennese major Karl Lueger used anti-semitism and pan-Germanism for their own political purposes. Despite Bismarck's victory over Austria in 1866 which ultimately excluded Austria
Austria
and the German Austrians from the Reich, many Austrian pan- Germans
Germans
idolized him.

There was also a rejection of Roman Catholicism with the Away from Rome! movement calling for German speakers to identify with Lutheran or Old Catholic churches.

1918–1945

Further information: Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
and Third Reich Heim ins Reich

Following the defeat in World War I, influence of German-speaking elites over Central and Eastern Europe was greatly limited. At the Treaty of Versailles Germany
Germany
was substantially reduced in size. Austria- Hungary
Hungary
was split up. The former German-speaking areas of Austria- Hungary
Hungary
was reduced to a rump state called the "Republic of German- Austria
Austria
" (German: Deutschösterreich). On November 12, the National Assembly declared the rump state a republic and Social Democrat Karl Renner as provisional chancellor. On the same day, it drafted a provisional constitution which stated that "German-Austria is a democratic republic" (Article 1) and "German- Austria
Austria
is an integral part of the German reich" (Article 2) with the hope of joining Germany. The name "German-Austria" and union with Germany were forbidden by the Treaty of Saint-Germain and the Treaty of Versailles. German- Austria
Austria
lost the territories of the Sudetenland and German Bohemia to Czechoslovakia, South Tyrol to Italy, and southern Carinthia and Styria to Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and the rump state was renamed "Republic of Austria". With these changes, the era of the First Austrian Republic began. These events are sometimes considered to be a pre- Anschluss
Anschluss
attempt.

During the 1920s, the constitutions of both the First Austrian Republic and the Wiemar Republic included the goal of union between the two countries which was supported by all different political parties. In the early 1930s, before the Nazis seized power, popularity for union between Austria
Austria
and Germany
Germany
remained strong and the Austrian government looked at the possibility of a customs union with Germany in 1931 but this was stopped by French opposition. In 1933, after Austrian-born Hitler came to power, support for an Anschluss
Anschluss
grew. The Austrofascism
Austrofascism
era of Dollfuss /Schuschnigg between 1934-1938 accepted that Austrians were Germans
Germans
and that Austria
Austria
was a "German state" but was strongly opposed to Hitler's desire to annex Austria
Austria
to the Third Reich and wished for Austria
Austria
to remain independent.

The Heim ins Reich
Heim ins Reich
initiative (German: literally Home into the Reich, meaning Back to Reich, see Reich ) was a policy pursued by Nazi Germany
Germany
which attempted to convince people of German descent living outside of Germany
Germany
(such as Sudetenland ) that they should strive to bring these regions "home" into a greater Germany. This policy began in 1938 on 12 March when Hitler annexed Austria
Austria
to the Third Reich.

Volga Germans living in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
were interned in gulags or forcibly relocated during the Second World War .

1945–1990

Further information: German exodus from Central and Eastern Europe and Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–1950) The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 led to the reunification of East and West Germany.

World War II brought about the decline of Pan-Germanism , much as World War I had led to the demise of Pan-Slavism . The Germans
Germans
in Central and Eastern Europe were expelled, parts of Germany
Germany
itself were devastated, and the country was divided, firstly into Russian, French, American, and British zones and then into West Germany
Germany
and East Germany
Germany
.

Germany
Germany
suffered even larger territorial losses than it did in the First World War, with huge portions of eastern Germany
Germany
directly annexed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Poland
Poland
. The scale of the Germans' defeat was unprecedented. Nationalism and Pan-Germanism became almost taboo because they had been used so destructively by the Nazis. Indeed, the word "Volksdeutscher" in reference to ethnic Germans naturalized during WWII later developed into a mild epithet.

From the 1960s, Germany
Germany
also saw increasing immigration, especially from Turkey, under an official programme aimed at encouraging " Gastarbeiter " or guestworkers to the country to provide labour during the post-war economic boom years. Although it had been expected that such workers would return home, many settled in Germany, with their descendants becoming German citizens.

1990–PRESENT

Further information: German reunification
German reunification

However, German reunification
German reunification
in 1990 revived the old debates. The fear of nationalistic misuse of Pan-Germanism nevertheless remains strong. But the overwhelming majority of Germans
Germans
today are not chauvinistic in nationalism, but in 2006 and again in 2010, the German National Football Team won third place in the 2006 and 2010 FIFA World Cups , ignited a positive scene of German pride, enhanced by success in sport. Helmut Kohl
Helmut Kohl
played a principal role in the German reunification.

For decades after the Second World War, any national symbol or expression was a taboo. However, the Germans
Germans
are becoming increasingly patriotic. During a study in 2009, in which some 2,000 German citizens age 14 and upwards filled out a questionnaire, nearly 60% of those surveyed agreed with the sentiment "I'm proud to be German." And 78%, if free to choose their nation, would opt for German nationality with "near or absolute certainty". Another study in 2009, carried out by the Identity Foundation in Düsseldorf, showed that 73% of the Germans
Germans
were proud of their country, twice more than 8 years earlier. According to Eugen Buss, a sociology professor at the University of Hohenheim, there's an ongoing normalisation and more and more Germans
Germans
are becoming openly proud of their country.

In the midst of the European sovereign-debt crisis , Radek Sikorski , Poland's Foreign Minister, stated in November 2011, "I will probably be the first Polish foreign minister in history to say so, but here it is: I fear German power less than I am beginning to fear German inactivity. You have become Europe's indispensable nation." According to Jacob Heilbrunn, a senior editor at The National Interest , such a statement is unprecedented when taking into consideration Germany's history. "This was an extraordinary statement from a top official of a nation that was ravaged by Germany
Germany
during World War II. And it reflects a profound shift taking place throughout Germany
Germany
and Europe about Berlin's position at the center of the Continent." Heilbrunn believes that the adage, "what was good for Germany
Germany
was bad for the European Union" has been supplanted by a new mentality—what is in the interest of Germany
Germany
is also in the interest of its neighbors. The evolution in Germany's national identity stems from focusing less on its Nazi
Nazi
past and more on its Prussian
Prussian
history, which many Germans believe was betrayed—and not represented—by Nazism . The evolution is further precipitated by Germany's conspicuous position as Europe's strongest economy. Indeed, this German sphere of influence has been welcomed by the countries that border it, as demonstrated by Polish foreign minister Radek Sikorski 's effusive praise for his country's western neighbor. This shift in thinking is boosted by a newer generation of Germans
Germans
who see World War II as a distant memory.

SEE ALSO

* Ancient Germanic culture portal * Germany
Germany
portal * Austria
Austria
portal * Switzerland
Switzerland
portal * Luxembourg
Luxembourg
portal * Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
portal

* Die Deutschen (ZDF's documentary television series) * German eastward expansion * Names for the German language
German language
* Organised persecution of ethnic Germans * List of Alsatians and Lorrainians * List of Austrians * List of ancient Germanic peoples * List of Swiss people * List of terms used for Germans
List of terms used for Germans
* Ethnic groups in Europe
Ethnic groups in Europe
* Genetic history of Europe * Anti-German sentiment
Anti-German sentiment

FOOTNOTES

* ^ Above all Lutheranism , Calvinism
Calvinism
, and United Protestant ( Lutheran
Lutheran
further details: Prussian
Prussian
Union of churches * ^ Above all Lutheranism , Calvinism
Calvinism
, and United Protestant ( Lutheran
Lutheran
further details: Evangelical Church in Germany
Germany
* ^ Divided refers to relatively strong regionalism among the Germans
Germans
within the Federal Republic of Germany. The events of the 20th century also affected the nation. As a result, the German people remain divided in the 21st century, though the degree of division is one much diminished after two world wars, the Cold War, and the German reunification. * ^ In these countries, the number of people claiming German ancestry exceeds 1,000,000 and a significant percentage of the population claim German ancestry. For sources: see table in German diaspora main article . * ^ Here is used the estimate of the United Nations (2,07 billion people in the world, 1930), and all the populations from the map combined. 2,07 billion is taken as 100%, and 93,379,200 is taken as x. 2,700,000,000 - 100%, 93,379,200 - x. x=93,379,200*100%/2,070,000,000=4,5110724637681=4,5%

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C "Ethnic Groups of Europe: An Encyclopedia" by Jeffrey Cole (2011), p. 171; "Estimates of the total number of Germans
Germans
in the world range from 100 million to 150 million, depending on how German is defined, ..." * ^ Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge (14 December 2016). Migrationsbericht 2015 (PDF) (in German). Bundesministerium des Innern Referat Öffentlichkeitsarbeit. pp. 213–215. Retrieved 28 March 2017. * ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 20 December 2017. * ^ "Ich bin ein brasileiro: Finding a little piece of Germany
Germany
in Brazil
Brazil
- Al Jazeera America". Web.archive.org. 26 February 2016. Archived from the original on 26 February 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ "The German Times Online - German Roots - Gisele Bundchen". Web.archive.org. 2 April 2013. Archived from the original on 2 April 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ " Argentina
Argentina
Population 2017". World Population Review. 20 December 2017. Argentina
Argentina
has an estimated 2017 population of 44.27 million ... about 8% are descended from German immigrants * ^ http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/hlt-fst/imm/Table.cfm?Lang=E&T=31 sex, age, origin and generation, 1 January". Statline.cbs.nl. Retrieved 20 December 2017. * ^ "Country: Italy". Joshua Project. Retrieved 2017-02-10. * ^ "Bevölkerung zu Jahresbeginn seit 2002 nach detaillierter Staatsangehörigkeit" (PDF). Statistics Austria
Austria
(in German). 14 June 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016. * ^ "Przynależność narodowo-etniczna ludności – wyniki spisu ludności i mieszkań 2011" (PDF). Stat.gov.pl. Retrieved 20 December 2017. * ^ "2011. ÉVI NÉPSZÁMLÁLÁS : 3. Országos adatok" (PDF). Ksh.hu. Retrieved 20 December 2017. * ^ Kopp, Horst (20 December 2017). "Area Studies, Business and Culture: Results of the Bavarian Research Network Forarea". LIT Verlag Münster. Retrieved 20 December 2017 – via Google Books. * ^ Amt, Auswärtiges. "Federal Foreign Office - Uruguay". Auswärtiges Amt DE. Retrieved 20 December 2017. * ^ "Rumänien: Ethnischer Deutscher erhält Spitzenamt in Regierungspartei". Spiegel.de. 23 February 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2017 – via Spiegel Online. * ^ "Federal Foreign OfficeDominican Republic". Web.archive.org. 20 October 2006. Archived from the original on 20 October 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2017. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link ) * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017. * ^ " Germany
Germany
- The Lutheran
Lutheran
World Federation". Lutheranworld.org. Retrieved 29 March 2015. * ^ Luca, F.; Di Giacomo, F.; Benincasa, T.; et al. (2007). "Y-Chromosomal Variation in the Czech Republic". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 132: 132–139. doi :10.1002/ajpa.20500 . CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link ) * ^ Minahan, James (2000). One Europe, many nations: a historical dictionary of European national groups. Greenwood Publishing Group . p. 769. ISBN 0-313-30984-1 . Retrieved May 25, 2013. * ^ alongside the slightly earlier term Almayns; John of Trevisa 's 1387 translation of Ranulf Higdon 's Polychronicon has: Þe empere passede from þe Grees to þe Frenschemen and to þe Germans, þat beeþ Almayns. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Dutch was the adjective used in the sense "pertaining to Germans". Use of German as an adjective dates to ca. 1550. The adjective Dutch narrowed its sense to "of the Netherlands" during the 17th century. * ^ "Europe\'s Rising Regionalism" (PDF). Toponline.org. Retrieved 20 December 2017. * ^ " Germany
Germany
and German Minorities in Europe" (PDF). Stefanwolff.com. Retrieved 20 December 2017. * ^ "Germany". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs . Retrieved 15 December 2011. * ^ "German \'should be a working language of EU\', says Merkel\'s party". Telegraph.co.uk. 18 June 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2015. * ^ Ethnic Groups of Europe. Books.google.com. Retrieved 29 March 2015. * ^ e.g. Walther von der Vogelweide
Walther von der Vogelweide
. See Lexer , Mittelhochdeutsches Handwörterbuch (1872–1878), s.v. "Diutsche". The Middle High German Song of Roland (ca. 1170) has in diutisker erde (65.6) for "in the German realm, in Germany". The phrase in tütschem land, whence the modern Deutschland
Deutschland
, is attested in the late 15th century (e.g. Johann Geiler von Kaysersberg
Johann Geiler von Kaysersberg
, Ship of Fools , see Grimm, Deutsches Wörterbuch , s.v. "Deutsch"). * ^ OED, s.v. "Dutch, adj., n., and adv." * ^ Schulze, Hagen (1998). Germany: A New History. Harvard University Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-674-80688-3 . * ^ "German", The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Ed. T. F. Hoad. Oxford : Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
, 1996. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 March 2008.

* ^ See:

* Ozment, Steven (2005), A Mighty Fortress: A New History of the German People, Harper Collins, pp. 120–121, 161, 212, ISBN 0-06-093483-2 * Segarra, Eda (1977), A Social History of Germany, 1648–1914, Taylor & Francis, pp. 5, 15, 183, ISBN 0-416-77620-5 * Whaley, Joachim (2011), Germany
Germany
and the Holy Roman Empire: Volume II: The Peace of Westphalia
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bryce, Benjamin. To Belong in Buenos Aires: Germans, Argentines, and the Rise of a Pluralist Society. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2018.

* Kesselman, Mark (2009). European Politics in Transition. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-87078-4 . * Motyl, Alexander J. (2001). Encyclopedia of Nationalism, Volume II. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-227230-7 .

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