Germanicia Caesarea
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Marash (Armenian: Մարաշ), officially Kahramanmaraş () and historically Germanicea (Greek: Γερμανίκεια), is a city in the
Mediterranean Region In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (; also known as the Mediterranean Region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have mostly a Mediterranean climate, with mild to cool, rainy winters and wa ...
of
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Türkiye ( tr, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti, links=no ), is a transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolia, Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a East Thrace, small portion on th ...
and the administrative center of Kahramanmaraş Province. Before 1973, Kahramanmaraş was officially named Maraş, and later, it attained the prefix "kahraman" (meaning "hero" in Turkish) to commemorate Battle of Marash. The city lies on a plain at the foot of the Ahir Dağı (Ahir Mountain).The region is best known for its distinctive ice cream, and its production of salep, a powder made from dried
orchid Orchids are plants that belong to the Family (biology), family Orchidaceae (), a diverse and widespread group of flowering plants with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant. Along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two largest fam ...
tubers. Kahramanmaraş Airport has flights to
İstanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or numerical digit, digits or both, s ...
and
Ankara Ankara ( , ; ), historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the list of national capitals, capital of Turkey. Located in the Central Anatolia Region, central part of Anatolia, the city has a population of 5.1 million in its urban center ...
.


History


Early history

In the early
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humanity. It was preceded by the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic) and the Bronze Age (Chalcolithic). The concept has been mostly appl ...
(late 11th century BC to ca. 711 BC), Maraş was the capital city of the Syro-Hittite state Gurgum (
Hieroglyphic Luwian Hieroglyphic Luwian (''luwili'') is a variant of the Luwian language, recorded in official and royal Seal (device), seals and a small number of monumental inscriptions. It is written in a hieroglyphic script known as Anatolian hieroglyphs. A deci ...
Kurkuma). It was known as "the Kurkumaean city" to its
Luwian The Luwians were a group of Anatolian peoples who lived in central, western, and southern Anatolia, in present-day Turkey, during the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. They spoke the Luwian language, an Indo-European language of the Anatolian language ...
inhabitants and as Marqas to the
Assyria Assyria (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform: , romanized: ''māt Aššur''; syc, ܐܬܘܪ, ʾāthor) was a major ancient Mesopotamia, Mesopotamian civilization which existed as a city-state from the 21st century BC to the 14th century BC, then to a terr ...
ns. In 711 BC, the land of Gurgum was annexed as an
Assyria Assyria (Neo-Assyrian cuneiform: , romanized: ''māt Aššur''; syc, ܐܬܘܪ, ʾāthor) was a major ancient Mesopotamia, Mesopotamian civilization which existed as a city-state from the 21st century BC to the 14th century BC, then to a terr ...
n province and renamed Marqas after its capital. Maraş was called Germanicia Caesarea ( grc, Γερμανίκεια, Germanikeia) in the time of the
Roman Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter ...
and
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...
empires, probably after
Germanicus Germanicus Julius Caesar (24 May 15 BC – 10 October AD 19) was an ancient Roman general, known for his campaigns in Germania. The son of Nero Claudius Drusus and Antonia the Younger, Germanicus was born into an influential branch of the Patric ...
Julius Caesar rather than the German people. According to a 2010 ''
Cumhuriyet ''Cumhuriyet'' (; English: "Republic") is the oldest quality press, up-market Turkish language, Turkish daily newspaper. It has been described as "the most important independent public interest newspaper in contemporary Turkey". The newspaper was ...
'' article, the first ruins of Germanicia have already been unearthed in the Dulkadiroğulları quarters of the city.


Late Antiquity and Medieval Period

During the Byzantine Empire, Germanikeia was seat of an
eparch Eparchy ( gr, ἐπαρχία, la, eparchía / ''overlordship'') is an Ecclesiology, ecclesiastical unit in Eastern Christianity, that is equivalent to a diocese in Western Christianity. Eparchy is governed by an ''eparch'', who is a bishop. De ...
and one of the city's eparch participated in the
First Council of Nicea The First Council of Nicaea (; grc, Νίκαια ) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Turkey) by the Roman emperor, Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, Constantine I in AD 325. This ecu ...
. The city was lost to the Arabs in the 7th century and during the rule of
al-Mansur Abū Jaʿfar ʿAbd Allāh ibn Muḥammad al-Manṣūr (; ar, أبو جعفر عبد الله بن محمد المنصور‎; 95 Anno hegirae, AH – 158 AH/714 Common Era, CE – 6 October 775 CE) usually known simply as by his laqab Al-Man ...
the whole Christian population of the Germanikeia valley was deported and resettled at
Ramla Ramla or Ramle ( he, רַמְלָה, ''Ramlā''; ar, الرملة, ''ar-Ramleh'') is a city in the Central District (Israel), Central District of Israel. Today, Ramle is one of Israel's mixed cities, with both a significant Jewish and Arab po ...
in Palestine. After the fall of the Armenian kingdoms in the 11th century the city became an important stronghold for the exiled
Armenians Armenians ( hy, հայեր, ''Romanization of Armenian, hayer'' ) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian highlands of Western Asia. Armenians constitute the main population of Armenia and the ''de facto'' independent Republic of Artsakh ...
and the city became the capital of the short-lived principality of Philaretos Brachamios that at times included
Antioch Antioch on the Orontes (; grc-gre, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου, ''Antiókheia hē epì Oróntou'', Koine Greek phonology#Learned pronunciation, 4th century BC until early Roman period, Learned ; also Syrian Antioch) grc-koi ...
and
Edessa Edessa (; grc, Ἔδεσσα, Édessa) was an ancient city (''polis'') in Upper Mesopotamia, founded during the Hellenistic period by King Seleucus I Nicator (), founder of the Seleucid Empire. It later became capital of the Kingdom of Osroene ...
. After Philaretos' death, another Armenian general named Tatoul took over the city and hosted the exhausted army of the
First Crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wars, or Crusades, initiated, supported and at times directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The objective was the recovery of the Holy Land from Muslim conqu ...
for four days before it moved on to the
Siege of Antioch The siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098, on the crusaders' way to Jerusalem through Syria (region), Syria. Two sieges took place in succession. The first siege, by the crusaders against the city held by the Sel ...
. According to the Chronicle of
Matthew of Edessa Matthew of Edessa (, Matevos Uṛhayetsi; late 11th century – 1144) was an Armenians, Armenian historian in the 12th century from the city of Edessa, Mesopotamia, Edessa (, ''Uṛha''). Matthew was the superior abbot of Karmir Vank' (Red Con ...
, Germanikeia was destroyed by an earthquake and 10,000 people were killed, which is probably an exaggeration. In 1100, the city was captured by the Danishmends, followed by the
Seljuks The Seljuk dynasty, or Seljukids ( ; fa, سلجوقیان ''Saljuqian'', alternatively spelled as Seljuqs or Saljuqs), also known as Seljuk Turks, Seljuk Turkomans "The defeat in August 1071 of the Byzantine emperor Romanos Diogenes by the Turk ...
in 1103. In 1107, Crusaders led by Tancred retook it with aid from Toros I of Little Armenia. In 1135, the Danishmends besieged Germanikeia unsuccessfully, but captured it the next year. However, the Crusaders retook it in 1137.
Kaykhusraw I Kaykhusraw I ( 1ca, كَیخُسرو or Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Kaykhusraw ibn Kilij Arslān; fa, غياث الدين كيخسرو بن قلج ارسلان), the eleventh and youngest son of Kilij Arslan II, was Sultanate of Rum, Seljuk Sultan of Rûm. ...
, Sultan of Rum captured Marash in 1208. Seljuk rule lasted to 1258, when Marash was captured by the
Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia ( Middle Armenian: , '), also known as Cilician Armenia ( hy, Կիլիկեան Հայաստան, '), Lesser Armenia, Little Armenia or New Armenia, and formerly known as the Armenian Principality of Cilicia ( hy ...
, following the war with the
Ilkhanate The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate ( fa, ایل خانان, ''Ilxānān''), known to the Mongols as ''Hülegü Ulus'' (, ''Qulug-un Ulus''), was a khanate established from the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. The Ilkhanid realm, ...
. Served by an
Armenian Apostolic Church , native_name_lang = hy , icon = Armenian Apostolic Church logo.svg , icon_width = 100px , icon_alt = , image = Էջմիածնի_Մայր_Տաճար.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , a ...
Archbishop, it became for a very short period of time, the seat of the Catholicossate of the Great House of Cilicia. Marash was captured by
Al-Ashraf Khalil Al-Ashraf Salāh ad-Dīn Khalil ibn Qalawūn ( ar, الملك الأشرف صلاح الدين خليل بن قلاوون; c. 1260s – 14 December 1293) was the eighth Bahri dynasty, Bahri Mamluk Sultanate, Mamluk sultan, succeeding his father ...
, Mamluk Sultan, in 1292. It was recaptured by
Hethum II Hethum II ( hy, Հեթում Բ; 1266– November 17, 1307), also known by several other romanizations, was king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, ruling from 1289 to 1293, 1295 to 1296 and 1299 to 1303, while Armenia was a subject state of the M ...
, King of Cilician Armenia, in 1299. Marash was finally taken by the Mamluks in 1304. Marash was ruled by Dulkadirs as vassals of the Mamluks from 1337–1515 before being annexed to the Ottoman Empire. In the early days of Ottoman rule (1525–6) there were 1,557 adult males (total population 7,500); at this time all the inhabitants were Muslims, but later a substantial number of non-Muslims migrated to the city, mainly in the 19th century.


Modern period

During Ottoman rule, the city was initially the centre of Eyalet of Dulkadir (also called Eyalet of Zûlkâdiriyye) and then an administrative centre of a
sanjak Sanjaks (liwāʾ) (plural form: alwiyāʾ) * Armenian language, Armenian: նահանգ (''nahang''; meaning "province") * Bulgarian language, Bulgarian: окръг (''okrǔg''; meaning "county", "province", or "region") * el, Διοίκησι ...
in the Vilayet of Aleppo. After the
First World War World War I (28 July 1914 11 November 1918), often abbreviated as WWI, was List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll, one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. Belligerents included much of Europe, the Russian Empire, ...
, Marash was controlled by British troops between 22 February 1919 and 30 October 1919, then by French troops, after the
Armistice of Mudros Concluded on 30 October 1918 and taking effect at noon the next day, the Armistice of Mudros ( tr, Mondros Mütarekesi) ended hostilities in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I, Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Alli ...
. It was taken over by the
Turkish National Movement The Turkish National Movement ( tr, Türk Ulusal Hareketi) encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries that resulted in the creation and shaping of the modern Republic of Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiy ...
after the Battle of Marash on 13 February 1920. Afterward a massacre of Armenian civilians took place. Roving Turkish bands threw
kerosene Kerosene, paraffin, or lamp oil is a combustibility, combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum. It is widely used as a fuel in Aviation fuel, aviation as well as households. Its name derives from el, κηρός (''keros' ...
-doused rags on Armenian homes and laid a constant barrage upon the American relief hospital. The Armenians themselves, as in previous times of trouble, sought refuge in their churches and schools. Women and children found momentary shelter in Marash's six
Armenian Apostolic , native_name_lang = hy , icon = Armenian Apostolic Church logo.svg , icon_width = 100px , icon_alt = , image = Էջմիածնի_Մայր_Տաճար.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , a ...
and three
Armenian Evangelical The Armenian Evangelical Church ( hy, Հայաստանեայց Աւետարանական Եկեղեցի) was established on July 1, 1846, by thirty-seven men and three women in Constantinople. History In the 19th century there was an intellectua ...
churches, and in the city's sole
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptized Catholics worldwide . It is among the world's oldest and largest international institutions, and has played a ...
cathedral. All the churches, and eventually the entire Armenian districts, were set alight. When the 2,000 Armenians who had taken shelter in the Catholic cathedral attempted to leave, they were shot.Hovannisian, Richard G. (1971). ''The Republic of Armenia: The first year, 1918-1919''. University of California Press, p. 41. Early reports put the number of Armenians dead at no less than 16,000, although this was later revised down to 5,000–12,000. In 1973, Marash's name was changed to Kahramanmaraş when the Turkish government added "Kahraman" to the name, in reference to the resistance to the French occupation after the First World War. ''Kahraman'' means "heroic" or “brave” in Turkish. In December 1978, the Maraş Massacre of
leftist Left-wing politics describes the range of Ideology#Political%20ideologies, political ideologies that support and seek to achieve social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy. Left-wing politics typically in ...
Alevis Alevism or Anatolian Alevism (; tr, Alevilik, ''Anadolu Aleviliği'' or ''Kızılbaşlık''; ; az, Ələvilik) is a local Islamic tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical Alevi Islamic (Batin (Islam), ''bāṭenī'') teachings of Haji Be ...
took place in the city. A
Turkish nationalist Turkish nationalism ( tr, Türk milliyetçiliği) is a political ideology that promotes and glorifies the Turkish people, as either a Turkey#Demographics, national, Turkish people, ethnic, or Turkish language, linguistic group. The term "ultrana ...
group, the
Grey Wolves The wolf (''Canis lupus''; : wolves), also known as the gray wolf or grey wolf, is a large canine native to Eurasia Eurasia (, ) is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. Primarily in the Norther ...
, incited the violence that left more than 100 dead. The incident was important in the Turkish government's decision to declare martial law, and the eventual military coup in 1980.


Demographics

In 1913, the town was home to 45 thousand Turks and 30 thousand Armenians, while other ethnic groups had very small representation. The population of the province (which includes the city) was 1,112,634 as of 2017.see Demographics of Turkey#Census


Climate

Kahramanmaraş has a
Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate (also called a dry summer temperate climate ''Cs'') is a temperate climate sub-type, generally characterized by warm, dry summers and mild, fairly wet winters; these weather conditions are typically experienced in the ...
( Köppen: ''Csa'', Trewartha: ''Cs''). Summers are very hot and dry with a daytime average of 35 °C (95 °F) but temperatures can reach 40 °C (104 °F) quite easily. The highest recorded temperature is 45.2 °C (113.3 °F) on 30 July 2007. Winters are cool and wet with daytime temperatures typically in the 5-10 °C (40-50 °F) range. The coldest temperature recorded is -9.6 °C (14.7 °F) on 6 February 1997.


Industry

Several internationally known ice cream companies, like MADO, Yaşar Pastanesi,
EDO Edo ( ja, , , "bay-entrance" or "estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between ...
and Ferah Pastanesi, started their business in Kahramanmaraş, and thousands of people visit the city because of its ice cream (
dondurma Dondurma is the common word in Turkish for all kinds of ice cream that is often used to refer to Turkish mastic ice cream Ice cream is a sweetened frozen food typically eaten as a snack or dessert. It may be made from milk or cream and ...
in Turkish).


Sports

At elevation, the nearby Yedikuyular Ski Resort offers winter sports activities.


Notable natives

* Leo III - Byzantine emperor (717 - June 18, 741) *
Nestorius Nestorius (; in grc, Νεστόριος; 386 – 451) was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, Archbishop of Constantinople from 10 April 428 to August 431. A Christian theologian, several of his teachings in the fields of Christo ...
- 5th century
religious Religion is usually defined as a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, sacred site, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecie ...
leader * Gülbahar Hatun - consort of Sultan Bayezid II and the mother of Sultan Selim I of the Ottoman Empire * Veysi Kaynak - Turkish politician from the Justice and Development Party (AKP) who currently serves as a Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey * Mahir Ünal - Turkish politician and academic from the Justice and Development Party (AKP) who served as the Minister of Culture and Tourism * Ben Bagdikian - Armenian-American journalist, news media critic and commentator *
Emine Hatun Emine Hatun ( ota, امینہ خاتون) was a consort of Sultan Mehmed I of the Ottoman Empire. Early life Emine Hatun was born as a Dulkadirid princess, the daughter of Șaban Suli Bey, third ruler of the Beylik of Dulkadir (reign 1386–13 ...
- principal consort of Sultan Mehmed I of the Ottoman Empire * Serdar Bilgili - Turkish businessman * Soner Sarikabadayi - Turkish singer * Necip Fazıl Kısakürek - Turkish poet and writer * Hasibe Eren - Turkish actor * Şeref Eroğlu - European and World champion and Olympic medalist wrestler * George E. White - American missionary and witness to the Armenian Genocide * Necmettin Hacıeminoğlu, Turkish writer


See also

* Anatolian Tigers * Cilicia War *
Domuztepe Domuztepe (meaning ''Pig Hill'' in Turkish language, Turkish) was a large, Late Neolithic settlement in south east Turkey, occupied at least as early as c.6,200BC and abandoned c.5,450BC. The site is located to the south of Kahramanmaraş. Coveri ...
* Dulkadiroğlu, Kahramanmaraş * Onikişubat * Kahramanmaraş Sütçüimam University (KSU)


References


External links


Kahramanmaraş Sütçüimam UniversityKahramanmaraş Official Government WebsiteKahramanmaraş Town Office Website
{{DEFAULTSORT:Kahramanmaras Populated places in Kahramanmaraş Province Recipients of the Medal of Independence with Red Ribbon (Turkey) Districts of Kahramanmaraş Province Aleppo vilayet Crusade places Roman sites in Turkey