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The German Emperor
German Emperor
(German: Deutscher Kaiser) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire. A specifically chosen term, it was used from the proclamation of the empire on 18 January 1871 to the official abdication of Wilhelm II on 28 November 1918.[1] The Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
is sometimes also called "German Emperor" when the historical context is clear, as derived from the Holy Roman Empire's official name of " Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
of the German Nation" from 1512. Following the revolution of 1918, the function of head of state was succeeded by the President
President
of the Reich (German: Reichspräsident), beginning with Friedrich Ebert.

Contents

1 German Empire
German Empire
(1848/1849) 2 Creation 3 Full titles

3.1 William I 3.2 Frederick III 3.3 William II

4 German Emperors (1871–1918) 5 See also 6 References

6.1 Bibliography

7 External links

German Empire
German Empire
(1848/1849)[edit] In the wake of the revolutions of 1848 and during the German Empire (1848/1849), King
King
Frederick William IV of Prussia
Frederick William IV of Prussia
was offered the title "Emperor of the Germans" (German: Kaiser der Deutschen) by the Frankfurt Parliament
Frankfurt Parliament
in 1849, but declined it as "not the Parliament's to give". Frederick William believed that only the German princes had the right to make such an offer, in accordance with the traditions of the Holy Roman Empire. Creation[edit]

William I is proclaimed German Emperor
German Emperor
in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles, France (painting by Anton von Werner)

The title was carefully chosen by Otto von Bismarck, Minister President
President
of Prussia and Chancellor of the North German Confederation, after discussion which continued until the proclamation of King William I of Prussia as emperor at the Palace of Versailles
Palace of Versailles
during the Siege of Paris. William accepted this title grudgingly, having preferred "Emperor of Germany" (German: Kaiser von Deutschland); however, that would have signaled a territorial sovereignty unacceptable to the South German monarchs, as well as a claim to lands outside his reign (Austria, Switzerland, Luxembourg, etc.).[2][3] "Emperor of the Germans", as had been proposed at the Frankfurt Parliament in 1849, was ruled out by William as he considered himself a king who ruled by divine right and chosen "By the Grace of God", not by the people in a popular monarchy.[4] By this ceremony, the North German Confederation
North German Confederation
(German: Norddeutscher Bund) was transformed into the German Empire
German Empire
(German: Deutsches Kaiserreich). This empire was a federal monarchy; the emperor was head of state and president of the federated monarchs (the kings of Bavaria, Württemberg, Saxony, the grand dukes of Baden, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Hesse, among others, as well as the principalities, duchies and of the free cities of Hamburg, Lübeck and Bremen).[5][6][7] Under the imperial constitution, the empire was a confederation of states under the permanent presidency of Prussia. The King
King
of Prussia was named in the constitution as the " President
President
of the Confederation." Thus, the imperial crown was directly tied to the Prussian crown—something Wilhelm II discovered in the aftermath of World War I. He erroneously believed that he ruled the empire in personal union with Prussia. With the war's end, he conceded that he could not remain emperor, but initially thought he could at least retain his Prussian crown.[8] Full titles[edit] The German Emperors had an extensive list of titles and claims that reflected the geographic expanse and diversity of the lands ruled by the House of Hohenzollern. William I[edit] His Imperial and Royal Majesty William I, By the Grace of God, German Emperor and King
King
of Prussia; Margrave
Margrave
of Brandenburg, Burgrave
Burgrave
of Nuremberg, Count
Count
of Hohenzollern; sovereign and supreme Duke
Duke
of Silesia
Silesia
and of the County of Glatz; Grand Duke
Duke
of the Lower Rhine and of Posen; Duke
Duke
of Saxony, of Westphalia, of Angria, of Pomerania, Lunenburg, Holstein
Holstein
and Schleswig, of Magdeburg, of Bremen, of Guelders, Cleves, Jülich
Jülich
and Berg, Duke
Duke
of the Wends
Wends
and the Kassubes, of Crossen, Lauenburg
Lauenburg
and Mecklenburg; Landgrave
Landgrave
of Hesse and Thuringia; Margrave
Margrave
of Upper and Lower Lusatia; Prince of Orange; Prince of Rügen, of East Friesland, of Paderborn
Paderborn
and Pyrmont, of Halberstadt, Münster, Minden, Osnabrück, Hildesheim, of Verden, Cammin, Fulda, Nassau and Moers; Princely Count
Princely Count
of Henneberg; Count
Count
of Mark, of Ravensberg, of Hohenstein, Tecklenburg
Tecklenburg
and Lingen, of Mansfeld, Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
and Veringen; Lord
Lord
of Frankfurt.[9][10] Frederick III[edit] His Imperial and Royal Majesty Frederick III, By the Grace of God, German Emperor
German Emperor
and King
King
of Prussia, Margrave
Margrave
of Brandenburg, Burgrave of Nuremberg, Count
Count
of Hohenzollern, Duke
Duke
of Silesia
Silesia
and of the County of Glatz, Grand Duke
Duke
of the Lower Rhine and of Posen, Duke
Duke
of Saxony, of Angria, of Westphalia, of Pomerania
Pomerania
and of Lunenburg, Duke
Duke
of Schleswig, of Holstein
Holstein
and of Crossen, Duke
Duke
of Magdeburg, of Bremen, of Guelderland and of Jülich, Cleves and Berg, Duke
Duke
of the Wends
Wends
and the Kashubians, of Lauenburg
Lauenburg
and of Mecklenburg, Landgrave
Landgrave
of Hesse and in Thuringia, Margrave
Margrave
of Upper and Lower Lusatia, Prince of Orange, of Rugen, of East Friesland, of Paderborn
Paderborn
and of Pyrmont, Prince of Halberstadt, of Münster, of Minden, of Osnabrück, of Hildesheim, of Verden, of Kammin, of Fulda, of Nassau and of Moers, Princely Count
Princely Count
of Henneberg, Count
Count
of the Mark, of Ravensberg, of Hohenstein, of Tecklenburg
Tecklenburg
and of Lingen, Count
Count
of Mansfeld, of Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
and of Veringen, Lord
Lord
of Frankfurt.[11] William II[edit] His Imperial and Royal Majesty William II, By the Grace of God, German Emperor and King
King
of Prussia, Margrave
Margrave
of Brandenburg, Burgrave
Burgrave
of Nuremberg, Count
Count
of Hohenzollern, Duke
Duke
of Silesia
Silesia
and of the County of Glatz, Grand Duke
Duke
of the Lower Rhine and of Posen, Duke
Duke
of Saxony, of Angria, of Westphalia, of Pomerania
Pomerania
and of Lunenburg, Duke
Duke
of Schleswig, of Holstein
Holstein
and of Crossen, Duke
Duke
of Magdeburg, of Bremen, of Guelderland and of Jülich, Cleves and Berg, Duke
Duke
of the Wends
Wends
and the Kashubians, of Lauenburg
Lauenburg
and of Mecklenburg, Landgrave
Landgrave
of Hesse and in Thuringia, Margrave
Margrave
of Upper and Lower Lusatia, Prince of Orange, of Rugen, of East Friesland, of Paderborn
Paderborn
and of Pyrmont, Prince of Halberstadt, of Münster, of Minden, of Osnabrück, of Hildesheim, of Verden, of Kammin, of Fulda, of Nassau and of Moers, Princely Count
Princely Count
of Henneberg, Count
Count
of the Mark, of Ravensberg, of Hohenstein, of Tecklenburg
Tecklenburg
and of Lingen, Count
Count
of Mansfeld, of Sigmaringen
Sigmaringen
and of Veringen, Lord
Lord
of Frankfurt.[12] German Emperors (1871–1918)[edit]

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Wilhelm I

the Great [13]

(1797-03-22)22 March 1797 – 9 March 1888(1888-03-09) (aged 90) 18 January 1871 9 March 1888 Held the Chairmanship of the Confederation (Präsidium des Bundes) as primus inter pares in the North German Confederation
North German Confederation
since 1867. Hohenzollern

Friedrich III [14] (1831-10-18)18 October 1831 – 15 June 1888(1888-06-15) (aged 56) 9 March 1888 15 June 1888 Son of Wilhelm I Hohenzollern

Wilhelm II (1859-01-27)27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941(1941-06-04) (aged 82) 15 June 1888 28 November 1918 (abdicated) Grandson of Wilhelm I Son of Friedrich III Hohenzollern

See also[edit]

Crown of Wilhelm II German State Crown History of Germany Holy Roman Emperor List of German monarchs List of monarchs of Prussia Family tree of the German monarchs Year of the Three Emperors

References[edit]

^ Statement of Abdication
Abdication
of William II ^ William Dawson (14 July 2017). History of the German Empire. Merkaba Press. p. 355.  ^ Ernst Rudolf Huber: Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte seit 1789. Band III: Bismarck und das Reich. 3rd edition, W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1988, p. 750-753. ^ Heinrich August Winkler (2006). Germany: 1789-1933. Oxford University Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-19-926597-8.  ^ Karl Kroeschell: Deutsche Rechtsgeschichte, Bd. 3: Seit 1650, 5. Aufl., Böhlau/UTB, Köln/Weimar/Wien 2008, S. 235. ^ Michael Kotulla: Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte: Vom Alten Reich bis Weimar (1495–1934), 2008, Rn. 2042. ^ Klaus Stern: Das Staatsrecht der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Band V: Die geschichtlichen Grundlagen des deutschen Staatsrechts. Die Verfassungsentwicklung vom Alten Deutschen Reich zur wiedervereinigten Bundesrepublik Deutschland. C.H. Beck, München 2000, ISBN 978-3-406-07021-1, Rn. 128. ^ Wilhelm II (1922). The Kaiser's Memoirs. Translated by Thomas R. Ybarra. Harper & Brothers Publishers. pp. 285–91.  ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20071222124050/http://regiments.org/biography/royals/1859wilG.htm ^ Rudolf Graf v. Stillfried: Die Titel und Wappen des preußischen Königshauses. Berlin 1875. ^ "Titles of Frederick III". Archived from the original on 14 March 2007. Retrieved 15 October 2007.  ^ "Titles of William II". Archived from the original on 14 March 2007. Retrieved 15 October 2007.  ^ Hull 2004, p. 31. ^ Enumerated as successor of Frederick II who was King
King
of Prussia 1740–1786 but not German Emperor.

Bibliography[edit]

Hull, Isabel V. (2004), The Entourage of Kaiser Wilhelm II, 1888–1918 . Horne, Charles F. (2009), Source Records of the Great War, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 1104855534 

External links[edit]

House of Hohenzollern

v t e

Monarchs of Germany

East Francia
East Francia
within the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
(843–911)

Louis the German Carloman Louis the Younger Charles the Fat Arnulf Louis the Child

East Francia
East Francia
(911–962)

Conrad I Henry I Arnulf Otto I

Kingdom of Germany
Germany
within the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
(962–1806)

Otto I Otto II Otto III Henry II Conrad II Henry III Henry IV Rudolf Hermann Conrad (III) Henry V Lothair II Conrad III Henry (VI) Frederick I Henry VI Philip Otto IV Frederick II Henry (VII) Conrad IV Henry (VIII) William Richard Alfonso Rudolf I Adolf Albert I Henry VII Louis IV Frederick (III) Günther Charles IV Wenceslaus Rupert Jobst Sigismund Albert II Frederick III Maximilian I Charles V Ferdinand I Maximilian II Rudolf II Matthias Ferdinand II Ferdinand III Ferdinand IV Leopold I Joseph I Charles VI Charles VII Francis I Joseph II Leopold II Francis II

Confederation of the Rhine
Confederation of the Rhine
(1806–1813)

Napoleon
Napoleon
I

German Confederation
German Confederation
(1815–1848)

Francis I Ferdinand I

German Empire
German Empire
(1848/1849)

Archduke John of Austria
Archduke John of Austria
(Imperial Regent)

German Confederation
German Confederation
(1850–1866)

Franz Joseph I

North German Confederation
North German Confederation
(1867–1871)

William I

German Empire
German Empire
(1871–1918)

William I Freder

.