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The German Confederation
Confederation
(German: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.[1] Most historians have judged the Confederation
Confederation
to have been weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to the creation of a German nation-state.[2] The Confederation
Confederation
collapsed due to the rivalry between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire, warfare in the several European revolutions of 1848, the 1848–1849 German revolution, and the inability of the multiple members to compromise. In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists were a failed attempt to establish a unified German state with a progressive liberal constitution under the Frankfurt Convention. Talks between the German states failed in 1848, and the Confederation
Confederation
briefly dissolved, but was re-established shortly after, in 1850.[3] The Confederation
Confederation
fell apart after the Prussian victory in the Seven Weeks' War over Austria
Austria
in 1866. The dispute over which had the inherent right to rule German lands ended in favour of Prussia, leading to the creation of the North German Confederation
Confederation
under Prussian leadership in 1867. A number of South German states remained independent until they joined the North German Confederation, which was renamed and proclaimed as the "German Empire" in 1871 for the now unified Germany
Germany
with the Prussian king as emperor (Kaiser) after the victory over French Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
in the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
of 1870.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Background 1.2 Establishment 1.3 Dissolution and Empire

2 Members 3 Armed forces 4 Ethnic composition 5 Situation in history 6 Impact of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and the Napoleonic invasions 7 Romanticism, nationalism, and liberalism in the Vormärz
Vormärz
era

7.1 High culture

8 Population

8.1 Demographic transition 8.2 Nobility 8.3 Peasantry 8.4 Rapidly growing cities

9 Zollverein: economic integration 10 The Revolutions of 1848 11 Bismarck and the Wars of Unification 12 Territorial legacy 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Further reading

History[edit] Background[edit] Further information: Napoleonic Wars The War of the Third Coalition
War of the Third Coalition
lasted from about 1803 to 1806. Following defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz
Battle of Austerlitz
by the French under Napoleon
Napoleon
in December 1805, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated, and the Empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806. The resulting Treaty of Pressburg established the Confederation
Confederation
of the Rhine in July 1806, joining together sixteen of France's allies among the German states (including Bavaria and Württemberg). After the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt of October 1806 in the War of the Fourth Coalition, various other German states, including Saxony
Saxony
and Westphalia, also joined the Confederation. Only Austria, Prussia, Danish Holstein, Swedish Pomerania, and the French-occupied Principality of Erfurt stayed outside the Confederation
Confederation
of the Rhine. These nations would later join in the War of the Sixth Coalition
War of the Sixth Coalition
from 1812 to 1814. Establishment[edit] The German Confederation
Confederation
was created by the 9th Act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition.[4] The Confederation
Confederation
was formally created by a second treaty, the Final Act of the Ministerial Conference to Complete and Consolidate the Organization of the German Confederation. This treaty was not concluded and signed by the parties until 15 May 1820. States joined the German Confederation
Confederation
by becoming parties to the second treaty. The states designated for inclusion in the Confederation
Confederation
in the 1815 treaty were:[4]

Anhalt-Bernburg
Anhalt-Bernburg
(inherited by the Duke of Anhalt-Dessau, 1863) Anhalt-Dessau Anhalt-Köthen
Anhalt-Köthen
(inherited by the Duke of Anhalt-Dessau, 1847/53) Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(including Crown of Bohemia
Bohemia
– Bohemia, Moravia and Austrian Silesia
Austrian Silesia
– and Austrian lands – Austria, Carinthia, Carniola, the Littoral, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, and Vorarlberg) Baden Bavaria Brunswick Hanover Electorate of Hesse
Electorate of Hesse
(also known as Hesse-Kassel) Grand Duchy of Hesse
Grand Duchy of Hesse
(also known as Hesse-Darmstadt) Hohenzollern-Hechingen
Hohenzollern-Hechingen
(became part of Prussia in 1850) Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
(became part of Prussia in 1850) Holstein
Holstein
and Lauenburg, held by Denmark Holstein-Oldenburg Liechtenstein Lippe-Detmold Luxembourg, held by the Netherlands Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Nassau Prussia Reuss, elder line Reuss, younger line Saxony Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Coburg
Saxe-Coburg
(ruler became Duke of Saxe-Coburg
Saxe-Coburg
and Gotha 1826) Saxe-Gotha (partitioned 1826) Saxe-Hildburghausen
Saxe-Hildburghausen
(ruler became Duke of Saxe-Altenburg, 1826) Saxe-Meiningen Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Waldeck Württemberg

When the 1820 treaty was concluded, the following states were also included:[4]

Hesse-Homburg
Hesse-Homburg
(inherited by the grand-duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, 1866) Lübeck Frankfurt Bremen Hamburg

In 1839, as compensation for the loss of the province of Luxemburg to Belgium, the Duchy of Limburg (held by the Netherlands) was created and it was a member of the German Confederation
Confederation
until its dissolution in 1866. The city of Maastricht was not included in the Confederation. Dissolution and Empire[edit] The German Confederation
Confederation
ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
and its allies on the other. In the Prague peace treaty, on 23 August 1866, Austria
Austria
had to accept that the Confederation
Confederation
was considered to be dissolved.[5] The following day, the remaining member states confirmed the dissolution. The treaty allowed Prussia to create a new Bundesverhältnis (a new kind of federation) in the North of Germany. The South German states were proposed to create a South German Confederation
Confederation
but this did not come into existence. Prussia and its allies created the North German Confederation
Confederation
in 1867. Because of French intervention it had to exclude, besides Austria, the South German states Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden, and Hesse-Darmstadt. During November 1870, the four southern states joined the North German Confederation
Confederation
by treaty.[6] The North German Confederation
Confederation
Reichstag and Bundesrat accepted to rename the North German Confederation
Confederation
as the German Empire
German Empire
and give the title of German Emperor
German Emperor
to the King of Prussia.[7] The new constitution of the state, the Constitution
Constitution
of the German Confederation, introduced the new name (in spite of its title) and title on 1 January 1871.[8] Members[edit] See also: List of states of the German Confederation

The monarchs of the member states of the German Confederation
Confederation
meet at Frankfurt in 1863

The Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
were the largest and by far the most powerful members of the Confederation. Large parts of both countries were not included in the Confederation, because they had not been part of the former Holy Roman Empire, nor had the greater parts of their armed forces been incorporated in the federal army. Austria
Austria
and Prussia each had one vote in the Federal Assembly. Six other major states had one vote each in the Federal Assembly: the Kingdom of Bavaria, the Kingdom of Saxony, the Kingdom of Württemberg, the Electorate of Hesse, the Grand Duchy of Baden, and the Grand Duchy of Hesse. Three member states were ruled by foreign monarchs: the King of Denmark
Denmark
as Duke of Holstein; the King of the Netherlands
Netherlands
as Grand Duke of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and Duke of Limburg; and the King of Great Britain (until 1837) as King of Hanover
King of Hanover
were members of the German Confederation. Each of them had a vote in the Federal Assembly. The four free cities of Bremen, Frankfurt, Hamburg, and Lübeck shared one vote in the Federal Assembly. The 23 other minor states[which?] shared five votes in the Federal Assembly.

Armed forces[edit] The strength of the mobilized German Federal Army was projected to total 303,484 men in 1835, with the individual states providing the following figures:

State Area [km²] Population Matriculation class[A 1] (proportion of total [%]) Annual expenditures (in Austrian Gulden) in thousands

Austrian Empire[A 2] 197,573[A 3] 10,086,900[A 3] 0 31.44 0 9,432

Kingdom of Prussia[A 4] 185,496[A 3] 09,957,000[A 3] 0 26.52 0 7,956

Kingdom of Bavaria 076,258 04,120,000 0 11.8 0 3,540

Kingdom of Württemberg 019,504 01,547,400 0 4.63 0 1,389

Kingdom of Saxony 014,993 01,480,000 0 3.98 0 1,194

Kingdom of Hannover 038,452 01,549,000 0 4.33 0 1,299

Grand Duchy of Baden 015,269 01,175,000 0 3.31 0 993

Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt 007,680 00720,000 0 2.05 0 615

Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 013,304 00455,000 0 1.19 0 357

Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz 002,929 00085,000 0 0.24 0 72

Grand Duchy of Oldenburg 006,420 00250,000 0 0.73 0 219

Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar 003,593 00233,814 0 0.67 0 201

Grand Duchy of Luxemburg (with Limburg) 002,586 00259,500 0 0.40 0 120

Electoral Hesse 009,581 00629,000 0 1.88 0 564

Duchy of Anhalt-Dessau 000840 00057,629 0 0.19 0 57

Duchy of Anhalt-Cöthen[A 5] 000727 00036,000 0 0.10 0 30

Duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg[A 6] 000780 00043,325 0 0.12 0 36

Duchy of Brunswick 003,690 00245,783 0 0.69 0 20

Duchy of Holstein
Duchy of Holstein
and Saxe-Lauenburg[A 7] 009,580 00450.000 0 0.12 0 35

Duchy of Nassau 004,700 00360,000 0 1.00 0 300

Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg 001.287 00114,048 0 0.33 0 99

Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha[A 8] 002,688 00156,639 0 0.37 0 111

Duchy of Saxe-Hildburghausen[A 9] 000000 00000000 00 0 0

Duchy of Sachsen-Meiningen 002,293 00136,000 0 0.38 0 114

Principality of Hohenzollern-Hechingen 000236 00017,000 0 0.05 0 15

Principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 000906 00042,341 0 1.40 0 420

Principality of Lippe-Detmold 001,133 00077,500 0 0.23 0 69

Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe 000536 00023,128 0 0.07 0 21

Principality of Liechtenstein 000159 00005,800 0 0.02 0 6

Principality of Reuß elder line 000316 00024,500 0 0.07 0 21

Principality of Reuß younger line 000826 00059,000 0 0.17 0 51

Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 000940 00060,000 0 0.18 0 54

Principality of Waldeck 001,121 00056,000 0 0.17 0 51

Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 000862 00051,767 0 0.15 0 45

Landgraviate of Hessen-Homburg[A 10] 000275 00023,000 0 0.07 0 21

Free City of Lübeck 000298 00045,600 0 0.13 0 39

Free City of Hamburg 000410 00154,000 0 0.43 0 129

Free City of Bremen 000256 00052,000 0 0.16 0 48

Free City of Frankfurt 000101 00054,000 0 0.16 0 48

Notes

^ the matriculation class determined the percentage of expenditures. ^ without Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia (but with Auschwitz and Zator), Dalmatia, Slavonia, Croatia
Croatia
and upper Italian lands apart from Trieste. ^ a b c d federal share. ^ without East Prussia, West Prussia, and Posen. ^ merged with Anhalt-Dessau
Anhalt-Dessau
in 1847. ^ merged with Anhalt-Dessau
Anhalt-Dessau
in 1863. ^ troops of Holstein
Holstein
and Lauenburg were attached to the Danish army until 1864, as the King of Denmark
Denmark
was also Duke of both lands. ^ in 1825 Gotha passed to Saxe-Coburg. ^ in 1826 Saxe-Hildburghausen
Saxe-Hildburghausen
was partitioned between Saxe-Coburg
Saxe-Coburg
and Saxe-Meiningen. ^ merged with Grand Ducal Hesse in 1863.

Ethnic composition[edit] Despite its name and intention, the German Confederation
Confederation
was not entirely populated by Germans; many people of other ethnic groups lived within its borders:

French-speaking Walloons lived in western Luxembourg
Luxembourg
prior to its division in 1839; the Duchy of Limburg (a member between 1839 and 1866) was populated solely by Dutchmen; Italians and Slovenians
Slovenians
lived in south and southeast Austria; most of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown
Lands of the Bohemian Crown
were inhabited by Czechs; Silesia
Silesia
had a Polish minority, while Sorbs
Sorbs
were present in the parts of Saxony
Saxony
and Brandenburg
Brandenburg
formerly known as Lusatia.

Situation in history[edit] Between 1806 and 1815, Napoleon
Napoleon
organized the German states, aside from Prussia and Austrian, into the Confederation
Confederation
of the Rhine, but this collapsed after his defeats in 1812 to 1815. The German Confederation
Confederation
had roughly the same boundaries as the Empire at the time of the French Revolution
French Revolution
(less what is now Belgium). It also kept intact most of Confederation's reconstituted member states and their boundaries. The member states, drastically reduced to 39 from more than 300 (see Kleinstaaterei) under the Holy Roman Empire, were recognized as fully sovereign. The members pledged themselves to mutual defense, and joint maintenance of the fortresses at Mainz, the city of Luxembourg, Rastatt, Ulm, and Landau. The only organ of the Confederation
Confederation
was the Federal Assembly (officially Bundesversammlung, often called Bundestag), which consisted of the delegates of the states' governments. There was no head of state, but the Austrian delegate presided over the Assembly (according to the Bundesakte). Austria
Austria
did not have extra powers, but consequently the Austrian delegate was called Präsidialgesandther and Austria
Austria
the Präsidialmacht (presiding power). The Assembly met in Frankfurt. The Confederation
Confederation
was enabled to accept and deploy ambassadors. It allowed ambassadors of the European powers to the Assembly, but rarely deployed ambassadors itself. During the revolution of 1848/49 the Federal Assembly was inactive. It transferred its powers to the Provisorische Zentralgewalt, the revolutionary German Central Government of the Frankfurt National Assembly. After crushing the revolution and illegally disbanding the National Assembly, the Prussian King failed to create a German nation state by himself. The Federal Assembly was revived in 1850 on Austrian initiative, but only fully reinstalled in the Summer of 1851. Rivalry between Prussia and Austria
Austria
grew more and more, especially after 1859. The Confederation
Confederation
was dissolved in 1866 after the Austro-Prussian War, and was succeeded in 1866 by the Prussian-dominated North German Confederation. Unlike the German Confederation, the North German Confederation
Confederation
was in fact a true state. Its territory comprised the parts of the German Confederation north of the river Main, plus Prussia's eastern territories and the Duchy of Schleswig, but excluded Austria
Austria
and the other southern German states. Prussia's influence was widened by the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
resulting in the proclamation of the German Empire
German Empire
at Versailles on 18 January 1871, which united the North German Federation with the southern German states. All the constituent states of the former German Confederation
Confederation
became part of the Kaiserreich in 1871, except Austria, Luxembourg, the Duchy of Limburg, and Liechtenstein. Impact of the French Revolution
French Revolution
and the Napoleonic invasions[edit]

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Austrian chancellor Klemens von Metternich
Klemens von Metternich
dominated the German Confederation
Confederation
from 1815 until 1848

The late 18th century was a period of political, economic, intellectual, and cultural reforms, the Enlightenment (represented by figures such as Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire, and Adam Smith), but also involving early Romanticism, and climaxing with the French Revolution, where freedom of the individual and nation was asserted against privilege and custom. Representing a great variety of types and theories, they were largely a response to the disintegration of previous cultural patterns, coupled with new patterns of production, specifically the rise of industrial capitalism. However, the defeat of Napoleon
Napoleon
enabled conservative and reactionary regimes such as those of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Austrian Empire, and Tsarist Russia to survive, laying the groundwork for the Congress of Vienna and the alliance that strove to oppose radical demands for change ushered in by the French Revolution. The Great Powers at the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
in 1815 aimed to restore Europe (as far as possible) to its pre-war conditions by combating both liberalism and nationalism and by creating barriers around France. With Austria's position on the continent now intact and ostensibly secure under its reactionary premier Klemens von Metternich, the Habsburg
Habsburg
empire would serve as a barrier to contain the emergence of Italian and German nation-states as well, in addition to containing France. But this reactionary balance of power, aimed at blocking German and Italian nationalism on the continent, was precarious. After Napoleon's final defeat in 1815, the surviving member states of the defunct Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
joined to form the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund)—a rather loose organization, especially because the two great rivals, the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and the Kingdom of Prussia, each feared domination by the other. In Prussia the Hohenzollern
Hohenzollern
rulers forged a centralized state. By the time of the Napoleonic Wars, Prussia was a socially and institutionally backward state, grounded in the virtues of its established military aristocracy (the Junkers), stratified by rigid hierarchical lines. After 1815, Prussia's defeats by Napoleonic France highlighted the need for administrative, economic, and social reforms to improve the efficiency of the bureaucracy and encourage practical merit-based education. Inspired by the Napoleonic organization of German and Italian principalities, the reforms of Karl August von Hardenberg and Count Stein were conservative, enacted to preserve aristocratic privilege while modernizing institutions. Outside Prussia, industrialization progressed slowly, and was held back because of political disunity, conflicts of interest between the nobility and merchants, and the continued existence of the guild system, which discouraged competition and innovation. While this kept the middle class at bay, affording the old order a measure of stability not seen in France, Prussia's vulnerability to Napoleon's military proved to many among the old order that a fragile, divided, and traditionalist Germany
Germany
would be easy prey for its cohesive and industrializing neighbor. The reforms laid the foundation for Prussia's future military might by professionalizing the military and decreeing universal military conscription. In order to industrialize Prussia, working within the framework provided by the old aristocratic institutions, land reforms were enacted to break the monopoly of the Junkers on land ownership, thereby also abolishing, among other things, the feudal practice of serfdom. Romanticism, nationalism, and liberalism in the Vormärz
Vormärz
era[edit] Although the forces unleashed by the French Revolution
French Revolution
were seemingly under control after the Vienna Congress, the conflict between conservative forces and liberal nationalists was only deferred at best. The era until the failed 1848 revolution, in which these tensions built up, is commonly referred to as Vormärz
Vormärz
("pre-March"), in reference to the outbreak of riots in March 1848. This conflict pitted the forces of the old order against those inspired by the French Revolution
French Revolution
and the Rights of Man. The sociological breakdown of the competition was, roughly, one side engaged mostly in commerce, trade, and industry, and the other side associated with landowning aristocracy or military aristocracy (the Junkers) in Prussia, the Habsburg
Habsburg
monarchy in Austria, and the conservative notables of the small princely states and city-states in Germany. Meanwhile, demands for change from below had been fomenting since the influence of the French Revolution. Throughout the German Confederation, Austrian influence was paramount, drawing the ire of the nationalist movements. Metternich considered nationalism, especially the nationalist youth movement, the most pressing danger: German nationalism might not only repudiate Austrian dominance of the Confederation, but also stimulate nationalist sentiment within the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
itself. In a multi-national polyglot state in which Slavs and Magyars outnumbered the Germans, the prospects of Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Polish, Serb, or Croatian sentiment along with middle class liberalism was certainly horrifying. Figures like August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben, Ludwig Uhland, Georg Herwegh, Heinrich Heine, Georg Büchner, Ludwig Börne, and Bettina von Arnim
Bettina von Arnim
rose in the Vormärz
Vormärz
era. Father Friedrich Jahn's gymnastic associations exposed middle class German youth to nationalist and democratic ideas, which took the form of the nationalistic and liberal democratic college fraternities known as the Burschenschaften. The Wartburg Festival in 1817 celebrated Martin Luther as a proto-German nationalist, linking Lutheranism to German nationalism, and helping arouse religious sentiments for the cause of German nationhood. The festival culminated in the burning of several books and other items that symbolized reactionary attitudes. One item was a book by August von Kotzebue. In 1819, Kotzebue was accused of spying for Russia, and then murdered by a theological student, Karl Ludwig Sand, who was executed for the crime. Sand belonged to a militant nationalist faction of the Burschenschaften. Metternich used the murder as a pretext to issue the Carlsbad Decrees
Carlsbad Decrees
of 1819, which dissolved the Burschenschaften, cracked down on the liberal press, and seriously restricted academic freedom.[9] High culture[edit]

The University of Berlin
Berlin
in 1850

German artists and intellectuals, heavily influenced by the French Revolution, turned to Romanticism. At the universities, high-powered professors developed international reputations, especially in the humanities led by history and philology, which brought a new historical perspective to the study of political history, theology, philosophy, language, and literature. With Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) in philosophy, Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834) in theology and Leopold von Ranke
Leopold von Ranke
(1795–1886) in history, the University of Berlin, founded in 1810, became the world's leading university. Von Ranke, for example, professionalized history and set the world standard for historiography. By the 1830s, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology had emerged with world class science, led by Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
(1769–1859) in natural science and Carl Friedrich Gauss
Carl Friedrich Gauss
(1777–1855) in mathematics. Young intellectuals often turned to politics, but their support for the failed Revolution of 1848 forced many into exile.[10] Population[edit] Demographic transition[edit] The population of the German Confederation
Confederation
(excluding Austria) grew 60% from 1815 to 1865, from 21,000,000 to 34,000,000.[11] The era saw the demographic transition take place in Germany. It was a transition from high birth rates and high death rates to low birth and death rates as the country developed from a pre-industrial to a modernized agriculture and supported a fast-growing industrialized urban economic system. In previous centuries, the shortage of land meant that not everyone could marry, and marriages took place after age 25. The high birthrate was offset by a very high rate of infant mortality, plus periodic epidemics and harvest failures. After 1815, increased agricultural productivity met a larger food supply, and a decline in famines, epidemics, and malnutrition. This allowed couples to marry earlier, and have more children. Arranged marriages became uncommon as young people were now allowed to choose their own marriage partners, subject to a veto by the parents. The upper and middle classes began to practice birth control, and a little later so too did the peasants.[12] The population in 1800 was heavily rural,[13] with only 8% of the people living in communities of 5,000 to 100,000 and another 2% living in cities of more than 100,000. Nobility[edit] In a heavily agrarian society, land ownership played a central role. Germany's nobles, especially those in the East called Junkers, dominated not only the localities, but also the Prussian court, and especially the Prussian army. Increasingly after 1815, a centralized Prussian government based in Berlin
Berlin
took over the powers of the nobles, which in terms of control over the peasantry had been almost absolute. They retained control of the judicial system on their estates until 1848, as well as control of hunting and game laws. They paid no land tax until 1861 and kept their police authority until 1872, and controlled church affairs into the early 20th century. To help the nobility avoid indebtedness, Berlin
Berlin
set up a credit institution to provide capital loans in 1809, and extended the loan network to peasants in 1849. When the German Empire
German Empire
was established in 1871, the nobility controlled the army and the Navy, the bureaucracy, and the royal court; they generally set governmental policies.[14][15] Peasantry[edit] Peasants continued to center their lives in the village, where they were members of a corporate body and helped manage community resources and monitor community life. In the East, they were serfs who were bound prominently to parcels of land. In most of Germany, farming was handled by tenant farmers who paid rents and obligatory services to the landlord, who was typically a nobleman.[16] Peasant leaders supervised the fields and ditches and grazing rights, maintained public order and morals, and supported a village court which handled minor offenses. Inside the family the patriarch made all the decisions, and tried to arrange advantageous marriages for his children. Much of the villages' communal life centered around church services and holy days. In Prussia, the peasants drew lots to choose conscripts required by the army. The noblemen handled external relationships and politics for the villages under their control, and were not typically involved in daily activities or decisions.[17][18] Rapidly growing cities[edit] After 1815, the urban population grew rapidly, due primarily to the influx of young people from the rural areas. Berlin
Berlin
grew from 172,000 people in 1800, to 826,000 in 1870; Hamburg
Hamburg
grew from 130,000 to 290,000; Munich
Munich
from 40,000 to 269,000; Breslau (now Wrocław) from 60,000 to 208,000; Dresden
Dresden
from 60,000 to 177,000; Königsberg
Königsberg
(now Kaliningrad) from 55,000 to 112,000. Offsetting this growth, there was extensive emigration, especially to the United States. Emigration totaled 480,000 in the 1840s, 1,200,000 in the 1850s, and 780,000 in the 1860s.[19] Zollverein: economic integration[edit]

Zollverein
Zollverein
and German Unification

Further efforts to improve the confederation began in 1834 with the establishment of a customs union, the Zollverein. In 1834, the Prussian regime sought to stimulate wider trade advantages and industrialism by decree—a logical continuation of the program of Stein and Hardenberg less than two decades earlier. Historians have seen three Prussian goals: as a political tool to eliminate Austrian influence in Germany; as a way to improve the economies; and to strengthen Germany
Germany
against potential French aggression while reducing the economic independence of smaller states.[20] Inadvertently, these reforms sparked the unification movement and augmented a middle class demanding further political rights, but at the time backwardness and Prussia's fears of its stronger neighbors were greater concerns. The customs union opened up a common market, ended tariffs between states, and standardized weights, measures, and currencies within member states (excluding Austria), forming the basis of a proto-national economy.[21] By 1842 the Zollverein
Zollverein
included most German states. Within the next twenty years the output of German furnaces increased fourfold. Coal production grew rapidly as well. In turn, German industry (especially the works established by the Krupp
Krupp
family) introduced the steel gun, cast-steel axle, and a breech-loading rifle, exemplifying Germany's successful application of technology to weaponry. Germany's security was greatly enhanced, leaving the Prussian state and the landowning aristocracy secure from outside threat. German manufacturers also produced heavily for the civilian sector. No longer would Britain supply half of Germany's needs for manufactured goods, as it did beforehand.[22] However, by developing a strong industrial base, the Prussian state strengthened the middle class and thus the nationalist movement. Economic integration, especially increased national consciousness among the German states, made political unity a far likelier scenario. Germany
Germany
finally began exhibiting all the features of a proto-nation. The crucial factor enabling Prussia's conservative regime to survive the Vormärz
Vormärz
era was a rough coalition between leading sectors of the landed upper class and the emerging commercial and manufacturing interests. Marx and Engels, in their analysis of the abortive 1848 Revolutions, defined such a coalition: "a commercial and industrial class which is too weak and dependent to take power and rule in its own right and which therefore throws itself into the arms of the landed aristocracy and the royal bureaucracy, exchanging the right to rule for the right to make money."[23] Even if the commercial and industrial element is weak, it must be strong enough (or soon become strong enough) to become worthy of co-optation, and the French Revolution terrified enough perceptive elements of Prussia's Junkers for the state to be sufficiently accommodating. While relative stability was maintained until 1848, with enough bourgeois elements still content to exchange the "right to rule for the right to make money", the landed upper class found its economic base sinking. While the Zollverein
Zollverein
brought economic progress and helped to keep the bourgeoisie at bay for a while, it increased the ranks of the middle class swiftly—the very social base for the nationalism and liberalism that the Prussian state sought to stem. The Zollverein
Zollverein
was a move toward economic integration, modern industrial capitalism, and the victory of centralism over localism, quickly bringing to an end the era of guilds in the small German princely states. This led to the 1844 revolt of the Silesian Weavers, who saw their livelihood destroyed by the flood of new manufactures. The Zollverein
Zollverein
also weakened Austrian domination of the Confederation as economic unity increased the desire for political unity and nationalism. The Revolutions of 1848[edit] Main article: Revolutions of 1848 in the German states

War Ensign of the Reichsflotte

Naval Jack of the Reichsflotte

News of the 1848 Revolution in Paris quickly reached discontented bourgeois liberals, republicans and more radical working-men. The first revolutionary uprisings in Germany
Germany
began in the state of Baden in March 1848. Within a few days, there were revolutionary uprisings in other states including Austria, and finally in Prussia. On 15 March 1848, the subjects of Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia vented their long-repressed political aspirations in violent rioting in Berlin, while barricades were erected in the streets of Paris. King Louis-Philippe of France
Louis-Philippe of France
fled to Great Britain. Friedrich Wilhelm gave in to the popular fury, and promised a constitution, a parliament, and support for German unification, safeguarding his own rule and regime.[24][25] On 18 May, the Frankfurt Parliament
Frankfurt Parliament
(Frankfurt Assembly) opened its first session, with delegates from various German states. It was immediately divided between those favoring a kleindeutsche (small German) or grossdeutsche (greater German) solution. The former favored offering the imperial crown to Prussia. The latter favored the Habsburg
Habsburg
crown in Vienna, which would integrate Austria
Austria
proper and Bohemia
Bohemia
(but not Hungary) into the new Germany. From May to December, the Assembly eloquently debated academic topics while conservatives swiftly moved against the reformers. As in Austria and Russia, this middle-class assertion increased authoritarian and reactionary sentiments among the landed upper class, whose economic position was declining. They turned to political levers to preserve their rule. As the Prussian army proved loyal, and the peasants were uninterested, Friedrich Wilhelm regained his confidence. The Assembly issued its Declaration of the Rights of the German people, a constitution was drawn up (excluding Austria, which openly rejected the Assembly), and the leadership of the Reich was offered to Friedrich Wilhelm, who refused to "pick up a crown from the gutter". Thousands of middle class liberals fled abroad, especially to the United States. In 1849, Friedrich Wilhelm proposed his own constitution. His document concentrated real power in the hands of the King and the upper classes, and called for a confederation of North German states—the Erfurt Union. Austria
Austria
and Russia, fearing a strong, Prussian-dominated Germany, responded by pressuring Saxony
Saxony
and Hanover to withdraw, and forced Prussia to abandon the scheme in a treaty dubbed the "humiliation of Olmütz". Bismarck and the Wars of Unification[edit] A new generation of statesmen responded to popular demands for national unity for their own ends, continuing Prussia's tradition of autocracy and reform from above. Germany
Germany
found an able leader to accomplish the seemingly paradoxical task of conservative modernization. Bismarck was appointed by Wilhelm I of Prussia (the future Kaiser Wilhelm I) to circumvent the liberals in the Landtag of Prussia, who resisted Wilhelm's autocratic militarism. Bismarck told the Diet, "The great questions of the day are not decided by speeches and majority votes ... but by blood and iron"—that is, by warfare and industrial might.[26] Prussia already had a great army; it was now augmented by rapid growth of economic power. Gradually, Bismarck won over the middle class, reacting to the revolutionary sentiments expressed in 1848 by providing them with the economic opportunities for which the urban middle sectors had been fighting.[27] Territorial legacy[edit]

Map of the German Confederation

The current countries whose territory were partly or entirely located inside the boundaries of German Confederation
Confederation
1815–1866 are:

Germany
Germany
(all states except Southern Schleswig
Schleswig
in the north of Schleswig-Holstein) Austria
Austria
(all states except Burgenland) Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(entire territory) Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
(entire territory) Netherlands
Netherlands
(Duchy of Limburg, was a member of the Confederation
Confederation
from 1839 till 1866) Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(entire territory) Slovenia
Slovenia
(except for Prekmurje
Prekmurje
and the municipalities of Koper, Izola and Piran) Poland
Poland
(West Pomeranian Voivodship, Lubusz Voivodship, Lower Silesian Voivodship, Opole Voivodship, part of Silesia
Silesia
— overwhelmingly German speaking at the time) Belgium
Belgium
(German-speaking community and some other territory in the east of the province of Liège); the larger province of Luxembourg
Luxembourg
had left the Confederation
Confederation
at its accession to Belgium
Belgium
in 1839 Italy
Italy
(autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, the Province of Trieste, most of the Province of Gorizia
Province of Gorizia
except the Monfalcone
Monfalcone
enclave, and the municipalities of Tarvisio, Malborghetto Valbruna, Pontebba, Aquileia, Fiumicello, and Cervignano
Cervignano
in the Province of Udine) Croatia
Croatia
(the Pazin
Pazin
territory in Istria county
Istria county
and the coastal strip between Opatija
Opatija
and Plomin
Plomin
in the Liburnia
Liburnia
region) The Danish crown had been a member only in the context of its duchy of Holstein. Schleswig
Schleswig
first joined as part of Prussia following the Second War of Schleswig
Schleswig
(1864).

See also[edit]

Germany
Germany
portal

States of the German Confederation History of Germany German Empire North German Confederation Former countries in Europe after 1815 Federal Convention Frankfurt Parliament

Notes[edit]

^ "German Confederation". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ Lee, Loyd E. (1985). "The German Confederation
Confederation
and the Consolidation of State Power in the South German States, 1815–1848". Consortium on Revolutionary Europe, 1750–1850: Proceedings. 15: 332–346. ISSN 0093-2574.  ^ Deutsche Geschichte 1848/49, Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885–1892 ^ a b c Heeren, Arnold Hermann Ludwig (1873), Talboys, David Alphonso, ed., A Manual of the History of the Political System of Europe and its Colonies, London: H. G. Bohn, pp. 480–481  ^ Ernst Rudolf Huber: Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte seit 1789. Vol. III: Bismarck und das Reich. 3rd edition, W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart [u. a.] 1988, p. 571, 576. ^ Case, Nelson (1902). European Constitutional History. Cincinnati: Jennings & Pye. p. 139. OCLC 608806061.  ^ Case 1902, pp. 139–140 ^ Ernst Rudolf Huber: Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte seit 1789. Vol. III: Bismarck und das Reich. 3rd edition, W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart [u. a.] 1988, p. 747. ^ Williamson, George S. (2000). "What Killed August von Kotzebue? The Temptations of Virtue and the Political Theology of German Nationalism, 1789–1819". Journal of Modern History. 72 (4): 890–943. JSTOR 318549.  ^ Sheehan, James J. (1989). German History: 1770–1866. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 324–371, 802–820. ISBN 0198221207.  ^ Nipperdey, Thomas (1996). Germany
Germany
from Napoleon
Napoleon
to Bismarck: 1800–1866. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 86. ISBN 069102636X.  ^ Nipperdey, Thomas (1996). Germany
Germany
from Napoleon
Napoleon
to Bismarck: 1800–1866. Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. 87–92, 99. ISBN 069102636X.  ^ Clapham, J. H. (1936). The Economic Development of France and Germany: 1815–1914. Cambridge University Press. pp. 6–28.  ^ Weber, Eugen (1971). A Modern History of Europe. New York: Norton. p. 586. ISBN 0393099814.  ^ Sagarra 1977, pp. 37–55, 183–202 ^ The monasteries of Bavaria, which controlled 56% of the land, were broken up by the government, and sold off around 1803. Nipperdey, Thomas (1996). Germany
Germany
from Napoleon
Napoleon
to Bismarck: 1800–1866. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 59. ISBN 069102636X.  ^ Sagarra 1977, pp. 140–154 ^ For details on the life of a representative peasant farmer, who migrated in 1710 to Pennsylvania, see Kratz, Bernd (2008). "Hans Stauffer: A Farmer in Germany
Germany
Before his Emigration to Pennsylvania". Genealogist. 22 (2): 131–169.  ^ Nipperdey, Germany
Germany
from Napoleon
Napoleon
to Bismarck: 1800–1866 pp 96–97 ^ Murphy, David T. (1991). "Prussian aims for the Zollverein, 1828–1833". Historian. 53 (2): 285–302. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6563.1991.tb00808.x.  ^ W. O. Henderson, The Zollverein
Zollverein
(1959) is the standard history in English ^ William Manchester, The Arms of Krupp, 1587–1968 (1968) ^ Karl Marx, Selected Works, II., "Germany: Revolution and Counter-Revolution", written mainly by Engels. ^ James J. Sheehan, German History, 1770–1866 (1993), pp 656–710 ^ Mattheisen, Donald J. (1983). "History as Current Events: Recent Works on the German Revolution of 1848". American Historical Review. 88 (5): 1219–1237. JSTOR 1904890.  ^ Martin Kitchen, A History of Modern Germany, 1800–2000 (2006) p. 105 ^ Otto Pflanze, Bismarck and the Development of Germany, Vol. 1: The Period of Unification, 1815–1871 (1971)

References[edit]

Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German, detailed maps) WorldStatesmen- here Germany; also links to a map on rootsweb.com Barrington Moore, Jr. 1993 [1966]. Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Boston: Beacon Press.

Further reading[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to German Confederation.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Federative Constitution
Constitution
of Germany, of the 8th June 1815.

Blackbourn, David. The Long Nineteenth Century: A History of Germany, 1780–1918 (1998) excerpt and text search Blackbourn, David, and Geoff Eley. The Peculiarities of German History: Bourgeois Society and Politics in Nineteenth-Century Germany (1984) online edition Brose, Eric Dorn. German History, 1789–1871: From the Holy Roman Empire to the Bismarckian Reich. (1997) online edition Evans, Richard J., and W. R. Lee, eds. The German Peasantry: Conflict and Community from the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Centuries (1986) Nipperdey, Thomas. Germany
Germany
from Napoleon
Napoleon
to Bismarck (1996), very dense coverage of every aspect of German society, economy and government Pflanze, Otto. Bismarck and the Development of Germany, Vol. 1: The Period of Unification, 1815-1871 (1971) Ramm, Agatha. Germany, 1789–1919 (1967) Sagarra, Eda (1977). A Social History of Germany: 1648–1914. New York: Holmes & Meier. pp. 37–55, 183–202. ISBN 0841903328.  Sagarra, Eda. Introduction to Nineteenth Century Germany
Germany
(1980) Sheehan, James J. German History, 1770–1866 (1993), 969pp; the major survey in English Werner, George S. Bavaria in the German Confederation
Confederation
1820–1848 (1977)

v t e

States of the German Confederation
Confederation
(1815–66)

Empires

Austria1

Kingdoms

Prussia1 Bavaria Saxony Hanover Württemberg

Electorates

Hesse-Kassel

Grand Duchies

Baden Hesse-Darmstadt Luxembourg Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Oldenburg Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach

Duchies

Anhalt

Bernburg2 Dessau2 Köthen3

Brunswick Holstein Limburg4 Nassau Saxe-Lauenburg Ernest

Altenburg5 Coburg-Saalfeld6 Coburg-Gotha5 Gotha-Altenburg6 Hildburghausen6 Meiningen

Principalities

Hesse-Homburg Hohenzollern

Hechingen7 Sigmaringen7

Liechtenstein Lippe Reuss-Gera (Junior Line) Reuss-Greiz (Elder Line) Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg

Rudolstadt Sondershausen

Waldeck and Pyrmont

City-states

Bremen Frankfurt Hamburg Lübeck

1 w/o areas listed under other territories 2 Merged with Anhalt from 1863 3 until 1847 4 from 1839 5 from 1826 6 until 1826 7 until 1850 8 1849–60 9 as of 1849 10 until 1837 11 until 1829 12 until 1848/57 13 until 1848 14 as of 1848 15 as of 1829 16 as of 1864

v t e

Unification of Germany

States

Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
(later Austria-Hungary) Kingdom of Bavaria Kingdom of Hanover Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of Saxony Kingdom of Württemberg more

Unions

German Confederation Zollverein German Empire
German Empire
(1848/1849) (constitution) Erfurt Union North German Confederation
Confederation
(constitution) German Empire
German Empire
(constitution)

Events

Vormärz 1814–15 Congress of Vienna 1819 Carlsbad Decrees 1832 Hambach Festival 1833 Frankfurter Wachensturm 1848 Revolutions 1848–49 Frankfurt Parliament 1850 Punctation of Olmütz 1850-51  Dresden
Dresden
Conference 1862 "Blood and Iron" speech 1864 Second Schleswig
Schleswig
War 1866 Austro-Prussian War / Peace of Prague 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War 1871 Treaty of Versailles

People

Baron von Stein Charles I of Württemberg Christian IX of Denmark Eduard von Simson Franz I of Austria Franz Joseph I of Austria Frederick William III of Prussia Frederick William IV of Prussia Friedrich Daniel Bassermann Friedrich Ferdinand von Beust Heinrich von Gagern Johann Gottlieb Fichte Johann Gustav Droysen Archduke John of Austria John of Saxony Karl August von Hardenberg Klemens Wenzel, Prince von Metternich Ludwig II of Bavaria Napoleon III
Napoleon III
of France Otto von Bismarck Robert Blum Wilhelm von Humboldt Wilhelm I, German Emperor

Related

Alsace-Lorraine Burschenschaft Das Lied der Deutschen Die Wacht am Rhein Flag of Germany
Flag of Germany
(Lützow Free Corps) Pan-Germanism Kleindeutschland / Großdeutschland Frankfurt Parliament German reunification Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
Question Sonderweg

Germany
Germany
portal

Coordinates: 50°06′29″N 8°40′30″E / 50.108°N 8.675°E / 50.108; 8.675

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 137179268 LCCN: n50074157 GND: 2033890-9 SUDOC: 030684439 BNF:

.