The German Confederation (german: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 predominantly German-speaking sovereign states in Central Europe
, created by the Congress of Vienna
in 1815 as a replacement of the former Holy Roman Empire
, which had been dissolved in 1806.
The Confederation was weakened by rivalry between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire
and the inability of its multiple members to compromise. The German revolutions of 1848–49
, motivated by liberal, democratic, socialist and nationalist sentiments, attempted to transform the Confederation into a unified German federal state
with a liberal constitution (usually called the Frankfurt Constitution
in English). The ruling body of the Confederation, the Confederate Diet
, was dissolved on 12 July 1848, but was re-established in 1850 after the revolution was crushed by Austria, Prussia and other states.
[Deutsche Geschichte 1848/49](_blank)
Meyers Konversationslexikon 1885–1892
The Confederation was finally dissolved after the victory of the Kingdom of Prussia
in the Seven Weeks' War
over the Austrian Empire
in 1866. The dispute over which had the inherent right to rule German lands ended in favour of Prussia, leading to the creation of the North German Confederation
under Prussian leadership in 1867, to which the eastern portions of the Kingdom of Prussia were added. A number of South German states remained independent until they joined the North German Confederation, which was renamed and proclaimed as the "German Empire
" in 1871, as the unified Germany (aside from Austria) with the Prussian king as emperor (Kaiser) after the victory over French Emperor Napoleon III
in the Franco-Prussian War
Most historians have judged the Confederation to have been weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to the creation of a German nation-state. This weakness was part of its design, as the European Great Powers
, including Prussia and especially Austria, did not want it to become a nation-state. However, the Confederation was not a 'loose' tie between the German states, as it was impossible to leave the Confederation, and as Confederation law stood above the law of the aligned states. The constitutional weakness of the Confederation lay in the principle of unanimity in the Diet and the limits of the Confederation's scope: it was essentially a military alliance to defend Germany against external attacks and internal riots. Ironically, the war of 1866 proved its ineffectiveness, as it was unable to combine the federal troops in order to fight the Prussian secession.
The War of the Third Coalition
lasted from about 1803 to 1806. Following defeat at the Battle of
by the French under Napoleon
in December 1805, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II
abdicated, and the Empire
was dissolved on 6 August 1806. The resulting Treaty of
established the Confederation of the Rhine
in July 1806, joining together sixteen of France's allies among the German states (including Bavaria and ). After the Battle of
of October 1806 in the War of the Fourth Coalition
, various other German states, including Saxony and Westphalia, also joined the Confederation. Only Austria, Prussia, Danish , Swedish Pomerania
, and the French-occupied Principality of Erfurt
stayed outside the Confederation of the Rhine. The War of the Sixth Coalition
from 1812 to winter 1814 saw the defeat of Napoleon and the liberation of Germany. In June 1814, the famous German patriot Heinrich vom Stein
created the Central Managing Authority for Germany (''Zentralverwaltungsbehörde'') in Frankfurt to replace the defunct Confederation of the Rhine. However, plenipotentiaries gathered at the Congress of Vienna
were determined to create a weaker union of German states than envisaged by Stein.
The German Confederation was created by the 9th Act
of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 after being alluded to in Article 6
of the 1814 Treaty of Paris
, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition.
The Confederation was formally created by a second treaty, the ''Final Act of the Ministerial Conference to Complete and Consolidate the Organization of the German Confederation''. This treaty was not concluded and signed by the parties until 15 May 1820. States joined the German Confederation by becoming parties to the second treaty. The states designated for inclusion in the Confederation were:
In 1839, as compensation for the loss of part of the province of
to Belgium, the Duchy of Limburg
was created and became a member of the German Confederation (held by the Netherlands jointly with Luxembourg) until the dissolution of 1866. In 1867 the duchy was declared to be an "integral part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands". The cities of Maastricht and Venlo were not included in the Confederation.
The Austrian Empire
and the Kingdom of Prussia
were the largest and by far the most powerful members of the Confederation. Large parts of both countries were not included in the Confederation, because they had not been part of the former Holy Roman Empire, nor had the greater parts of their armed forces been incorporated in the federal army. Austria and Prussia each had one vote in the Federal Assembly.
Six other major states had one vote each in the Federal Assembly: the Kingdom of Bavaria
, the Kingdom of Saxony
, the Kingdom of
, the Electorate of Hesse
, the Grand Duchy of Baden
, and the Grand Duchy of Hesse
Three foreign monarchs ruled member states: the King of Denmark
as Duke of the Duchy of Holstein
and Duke of Saxe-Lauenburg
; the King of the Netherlands
as Grand Duke of Luxembourg
and (from 1839) Duke of the Duchy of Limburg
; and the King of Great Britain
(until 1837) as King of Hanover
were members of the German Confederation. Each of them had a vote in the Federal Assembly. As at its foundation in 1815, that left four member states which were ruled by foreign monarchs, as the King of Denmark was Duke of both Holstein and Saxe-Lauenburg.
The four free cities
of , , , and shared one vote in the Federal Assembly.
The 23 remaining states (as at its formation in 1815) shared five votes in the Federal Assembly: -
1. Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Saxe-Hildburghausen (5 states)
2. Brunswick and Nassau (2 states)
3. Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz (2 states)
4. Oldenburg, Anhalt-Dessau, Anhalt-Bernburg, Anhalt-Köthen, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (6 states)
5. Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, Liechtenstein, Reuss (Elder Branch), Reuss (Younger Branch), Schaumburg-Lippe, Lippe and Waldeck (8 states)
There were therefore 17 votes in the Federal Assembly.
The German Federal Army
(''Deutsche Bundesheer'') was decreed in 1815 to collectively defend the German Confederation from external enemies, primarily France. Successive laws passed by the Confederate Diet set the form and function of the army, as well as contribution limits of the member states. The Diet had the power to declare war and was responsible for appointing a supreme commander of the army and commanders of the individual army corps. This made mobilization extremely slow and added a political dimension to the army. In addition, the Diet oversaw the construction and maintenance of several German Federal Fortresses
and collected funds annually from the member states for this purpose.
Projections of army strength were published in 1835, but the work of forming the Army Corps did not commence until 1840 as a consequence of the Rhine Crisis
. Money for the fortresses were determined by an act of the Confederate Diet in that year. By 1846, Luxemburg still had not formed its own contingent, and Prussia was rebuffed for offering to supply 1,450 men to garrison the Luxemburg fortress that should have been supplied by Waldeck and the two Lippes. In that same year, it was decided that a common symbol for the Federal Army should be the old Imperial two-headed eagle, but without crown, scepter, or sword, as any of those devices encroached on the individual sovereignty of the states. King Frederick William IV of Prussia
was among those who derided the "disarmed imperial eagle" as a national symbol.
The German Federal Army was divided into ten Army Corps (later expanded to include a Reserve Corps). However, the Army Corps were not exclusive to the German Confederation but composed from the national armies of the member states, and did not include all of the armed forces of a state. For example, Prussia's army consisted of nine Army Corps but contributed only three to the German Federal Army.
The strength of the mobilized German Federal Army was projected to total 303,484 men in 1835 and 391,634 men in 1860, with the individual states providing the following figures:
Situation in history
Between 1806 and 1815, Napoleon
organized the German states, aside from Prussia and Austria, into the Confederation of the Rhine
, but this collapsed after his defeats in 1812 to 1815. The German Confederation had roughly the same boundaries as the Empire at the time of the French Revolution
(less what is now Belgium). It also kept intact most of Confederation's reconstituted member states and their boundaries. The member states
, drastically reduced to 39 from more than 300 (see ) under the Holy Roman Empire
, were recognized as fully sovereign. The members pledged themselves to mutual defense, and joint maintenance of the fortresses
, the city of Luxembourg
, , , and .
The only organ of the Confederation was the Federal Assembly
(officially , often called ), which consisted of the delegates of the states' governments. There was no head of state, but the Austrian delegate presided over the Assembly (according to the Bundesakte). Austria did not have extra powers, but consequently the Austrian delegate was called and Austria the (presiding power). The Assembly met in Frankfurt.
The Confederation was enabled to accept and deploy ambassadors. It allowed ambassadors of the European powers to the Assembly, but rarely deployed ambassadors itself.
During the revolution of 1848/49 the Federal Assembly was inactive. It transferred its powers to the , the revolutionary German Central Government of the Frankfurt National Assembly
. After crushing the revolution and illegally disbanding the National Assembly, the Prussian King failed to create a German nation state by himself. The Federal Assembly was revived in 1850 on Austrian initiative, but only fully reinstalled in the Summer of 1851.
Rivalry between Prussia and Austria grew more and more, especially after 1859. The Confederation was dissolved in 1866 after the Austro-Prussian War
, and was succeeded in 1866 by the Prussian-dominated North German Confederation
. Unlike the German Confederation, the North German Confederation was in fact a true state. Its territory comprised the parts of the German Confederation north of the river Main
, plus Prussia's eastern territories and the Duchy of , but excluded Austria and the other southern German states.
Prussia's influence was widened by the Franco-Prussian War
resulting in the proclamation of the German Empire
at on 18 January 1871, which united the North German Federation with the southern German states. All the constituent states of the former German Confederation became part of the in 1871, except Austria, Luxembourg
, the Duchy of Limburg
, and Liechtenstein
Impact of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic invasions
The late 18th century was a period of political, economic, intellectual, and cultural reforms, the Enlightenment
(represented by figures such as Locke
, , , and Adam Smith
), but also involving early Romanticism
, and climaxing with the French Revolution
, where freedom of the individual and nation was asserted against privilege and custom. Representing a great variety of types and theories, they were largely a response to the disintegration of previous cultural patterns, coupled with new patterns of production, specifically the rise of industrial capitalism.
However, the defeat of Napoleon enabled conservative and reactionary regimes such as those of the Kingdom of Prussia
, the Austrian Empire
, and Tsar
ist Russia to survive, laying the groundwork for the Congress of Vienna
and the alliance that strove to oppose radical demands for change ushered in by the French Revolution
. The Great Power
s at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 aimed to restore Europe (as far as possible) to its pre-war conditions by combating both liberalism
and nationalism and by creating barriers around France. With Austria
's position on the continent now intact and ostensibly secure under its reactionary premier , the Habsburg
empire would serve as a barrier to contain the emergence of Italian and German nation-states as well, in addition to containing France. But this reactionary balance of power, aimed at blocking German and Italian nationalism
on the continent, was precarious.
After Napoleon's final defeat in 1815, the surviving member states of the defunct Holy Roman Empire joined to form the German Confederation ()—a rather loose organization, especially because the two great rivals, the Austrian Empire
and the Kingdom of Prussia
, each feared domination by the other.
In Prussia the rulers forged a centralized state. By the time of the Napoleonic Wars, Prussia, grounded in the virtues of its established military aristocracy (the ') and stratified by rigid hierarchical lines, had been surpassed militarily and economically by France. After 1807, Prussia's defeats by Napoleonic France highlighted the need for administrative, economic, and social reforms to improve the efficiency of the bureaucracy and encourage practical merit-based education. Inspired by the Napoleonic organization of German and Italian principalities, the Prussian Reform Movement
led by and Count
was conservative, enacted to preserve aristocratic
privilege while modernizing institutions.
Outside Prussia, industrialization progressed slowly, and was held back because of political disunity, conflicts of interest between the nobility and merchants, and the continued existence of the guild system, which discouraged competition and innovation. While this kept the middle class
at bay, affording the old order a measure of stability not seen in France, Prussia's vulnerability to Napoleon's military proved to many among the old order that a fragile, divided, and traditionalist Germany would be easy prey for its cohesive and industrializing neighbor.
The reforms laid the foundation for Prussia's future military might by professionalizing the military and decreeing universal military conscription
. In order to industrialize Prussia, working within the framework provided by the old aristocratic institutions, land reforms were enacted to break the monopoly of the ''s'' on land ownership, thereby also abolishing, among other things, the feudal practice of serfdom
Romanticism, nationalism, and liberalism in the era
Although the forces unleashed by the French Revolution were seemingly under control after the Vienna Congress, the conflict between conservative forces and liberal nationalists was only deferred at best. The era until the failed 1848 revolution, in which these tensions built up, is commonly referred to as ("pre-March"), in reference to the outbreak of riots in March 1848.
This conflict pitted the forces of the old order against those inspired by the French Revolution and the Rights of Man. The sociological breakdown of the competition was, roughly, the emerging capitalist bourgeoisie
(engaged mostly in commerce, trade, and industry), and the growing (and increasingly radicalized) industrial working class
; and the other side associated with landowning aristocracy or military aristocracy (the ''s'') in Prussia, the Habsburg
monarchy in Austria, and the conservative notables of the small princely state
s and city-state
s in Germany.
Meanwhile, demands for change from below had been fomenting due to the influence of the French Revolution. Throughout the German Confederation, Austrian influence was paramount, drawing the ire of the nationalist movements. considered nationalism, especially the nationalist youth movement, the most pressing danger: German nationalism might not only repudiate Austrian dominance of the Confederation, but also stimulate nationalist sentiment within the Austrian Empire itself. In a multi-national polyglot
state in which Slavs and Magyars outnumbered the Germans, the prospects of Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Polish, Serb, or Croatian sentiment along with middle class liberalism was certainly horrifying to the monarchist landed aristocracy.
Figures like , , , , , , and rose in the era. Father 's gymnastic associations exposed middle class German youth to nationalist and democratic ideas, which took the form of the nationalistic and liberal democratic college fraternities known as the . The Wartburg Festival in 1817 celebrated Martin Luther
as a proto-German nationalist, linking Lutheranism to German nationalism, and helping arouse religious sentiments for the cause of German nationhood. The festival culminated in the burning of several books and other items that symbolized reactionary
attitudes. One item was a book by . In 1819, was accused of spying for Russia, and then murdered by a theological student, , who was executed
for the crime. Sand belonged to a militant nationalist faction of the . used the murder as a pretext to issue the Carlsbad Decrees
of 1819, which dissolved the , cracked down on the liberal press, and seriously restricted academic freedom
German artists and intellectuals, heavily influenced by the French Revolution, turned to Romanticism
. At the universities, high-powered professors developed international reputations, especially in the humanities led by history and philology, which brought a new historical perspective to the study of political history, theology, philosophy, language, and literature. With (1770–1831) in philosophy, (1768–1834) in theology and (1795–1886) in history, the University of Berlin
, founded in 1810, became the world's leading university. , for example, professionalized history and set the world standard for historiography. By the 1830s, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology had emerged with world class science, led by (1769–1859) in natural science and (1777–1855) in mathematics. Young intellectuals often turned to politics, but their support for the failed Revolution of 1848 forced many into exile.
The population of the German Confederation (excluding Austria) grew 60% from 1815 to 1865, from 21,000,000 to 34,000,000. The era saw the demographic transition
take place in Germany. It was a transition from high birth rates and high death rates to low birth and death rates as the country developed from a pre-industrial to a modernized agriculture and supported a fast-growing industrialized urban economic system. In previous centuries, the shortage of land meant that not everyone could marry, and marriages took place after age 25. The high birthrate was offset by a very high rate of infant mortality
, plus periodic epidemics and harvest failures. After 1815, increased agricultural productivity meant a larger food supply, and a decline in famines, epidemics, and malnutrition. This allowed couples to marry earlier, and have more children. Arranged marriages became uncommon as young people were now allowed to choose their own marriage partners, subject to a veto by the parents. The upper and middle classes began to practice birth control
, and a little later so too did the peasants. The population in 1800 was heavily rural, with only 8% of the people living in communities of 5,000 to 100,000 and another 2% living in cities of more than 100,000.
In a heavily agrarian society, land ownership played a central role. Germany's nobles, especially those in the East called ', dominated not only the localities, but also the Prussian court
, and especially the Prussian army
. Increasingly after 1815, a centralized Prussian government based in Berlin took over the powers of the nobles, which in terms of control over the peasantry had been almost absolute. They retained control of the judicial system on their estates until 1848, as well as control of hunting and game laws. They paid no land tax until 1861 and kept their police authority until 1872, and controlled church affairs into the early 20th century. To help the nobility avoid indebtedness, Berlin set up a credit institution to provide capital loans in 1809, and extended the loan network to peasants in 1849. When the German Empire was established in 1871, the nobility controlled the army and the Navy, the bureaucracy, and the royal court; they generally set governmental policies.
Peasants continued to center their lives in the village, where they were members of a corporate body and helped manage community resources and monitor community life. In the East, they were serfs who were bound prominently to parcels of land. In most of Germany, farming was handled by tenant farmers who paid rents and obligatory services to the landlord, who was typically a nobleman. Peasant leaders supervised the fields and ditches and grazing rights, maintained public order and morals, and supported a village court which handled minor offenses. Inside the family, the patriarch made all the decisions and tried to arrange advantageous marriages for his children. Much of the villages' communal life centered around church services and holy days. In Prussia, the peasants drew lots to choose conscripts required by the army. The noblemen handled external relationships and politics for the villages under their control, and were not typically involved in daily activities or decisions.
Rapidly growing cities
After 1815, the urban population grew rapidly, due primarily to the influx of young people from the rural areas. Berlin
grew from 172,000 people in 1800 to 826,000 in 1870; Hamburg
grew from 130,000 to 290,000; Munich
from 40,000 to 269,000; (now ) from 60,000 to 208,000; Dresden
from 60,000 to 177,000; (now Kaliningrad
) from 55,000 to 112,000. Offsetting this growth, there was extensive emigration, especially to the United States
. Emigration totaled 480,000 in the 1840s, 1,200,000 in the 1850s, and 780,000 in the 1860s.
Despite its name and intention, the German Confederation was not entirely populated by Germans; many people of other ethnic groups lived within its borders:
* French-speaking Walloons
lived in western Luxembourg
prior to its division in 1839;
* the Duchy of Limburg
(a member between 1839 and 1866) was populated solely by Dutchmen
lived in south and southeast Austria;
* Bohemia and Moravia, of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown
were inhabited by a majority of Czechs
had a Polish
minority, while Sorbs
were present in the parts of Saxony
and the Prussian province of Brandenburg
known as Lusatia
: economic integration
Further efforts to improve the confederation began in 1834 with the establishment of a customs union
, the . In 1834, the Prussian regime sought to stimulate wider trade advantages and industrialism by decree—a logical continuation of the program of and less than two decades earlier. Historians have seen three Prussian goals: as a political tool to eliminate Austrian influence in Germany; as a way to improve the economies; and to strengthen Germany against potential French aggression while reducing the economic independence of smaller states.
Inadvertently, these reforms sparked the unification movement and augmented a middle class demanding further political rights, but at the time backwardness and Prussia's fears of its stronger neighbors were greater concerns. The customs union opened up a common market, ended tariffs between states, and standardized weights, measures, and currencies within member states (excluding Austria), forming the basis of a proto-national economy.
By 1842 the included most German states. Within the next twenty years the output of German furnaces increased fourfold. Coal production grew rapidly as well. In turn, German industry (especially the works established by the family) introduced the steel gun, cast-steel axle
, and a breech-loading rifle
, exemplifying Germany's successful application of technology to weaponry. Germany's security was greatly enhanced, leaving the Prussian state and the landowning aristocracy secure from outside threat. German manufacturers also produced heavily for the civilian sector. No longer would Britain supply half of Germany's needs for manufactured goods, as it did beforehand. However, by developing a strong industrial base, the Prussian state strengthened the middle class and thus the nationalist movement. Economic integration
, especially increased national consciousness among the German states, made political unity a far likelier scenario. Germany finally began exhibiting all the features of a proto-nation.
The crucial factor enabling Prussia's conservative regime to survive the era was a rough coalition between leading sectors of the landed upper class
and the emerging commercial and manufacturing interests. and , in their analysis of the abortive 1848 Revolutions, defined such a coalition: "a commercial and industrial class which is too weak and dependent to take power and rule in its own right and which therefore throws itself into the arms of the landed aristocracy and the royal bureaucracy, exchanging the right to rule for the right to make money." Even if the commercial and industrial element is weak, it must be strong enough (or soon become strong enough) to become worthy of co-optation, and the French Revolution
terrified enough perceptive elements of Prussia's ''s'' for the state to be sufficiently accommodating.
While relative stability was maintained until 1848, with enough bourgeois
elements still content to exchange the "right to rule for the right to make money", the landed upper class found its economic base sinking. While the brought economic progress and helped to keep the bourgeoisie at bay for a while, it increased the ranks of the middle class swiftly—the very social base for the nationalism and liberalism that the Prussian state sought to stem.
The was a move toward economic integration, modern industrial capitalism, and the victory of centralism over localism, quickly bringing to an end the era of guilds in the small German princely states. This led to the 1844 revolt of the Silesia
n Weavers, who saw their livelihood destroyed by the flood of new manufactures.
The also weakened Austrian domination of the Confederation as economic unity increased the desire for political unity and nationalism.
Revolutions of 1848
thumb|right|180px|Naval jack of the
News of the 1848 Revolution
in Paris quickly reached discontented bourgeois liberals, republicans and more radical working-men. The first revolutionary uprisings in Germany began in the state of in March 1848. Within a few days, there were revolutionary uprisings in other states including Austria, and finally in Prussia. On 15 March 1848, the subjects of of Prussia vented their long-repressed political aspirations in violent rioting in Berlin, while barricades were erected in the streets of Paris. King of France
fled to Great Britain. gave in to the popular fury, and promised a constitution
, a parliament, and support for German unification, safeguarding his own rule and regime.
On 18 May, the Frankfurt Parliament
(Frankfurt Assembly) opened its first session, with delegates from various German states. It was immediately divided between those favoring a (small German) or (greater German) solution. The former favored offering the imperial crown to Prussia. The latter favored the Habsburg crown in Vienna, which would integrate Austria proper and Bohemia
(but not Hungary) into the new Germany.
From May to December, the Assembly eloquently (and leisurely) debated academic topics while conservatives swiftly moved against the reformers. As in Austria and Russia, this middle-class assertion increased authoritarian and reactionary sentiments among the landed upper class, whose economic position was declining. They turned to political levers to preserve their rule. As the Prussian army proved loyal, and the peasants were uninterested, regained his confidence. The Assembly belatedly issued its Declaration of the Rights of the German People
; a constitution was drawn up (excluding Austria, which openly rejected the Assembly), and the leadership of the was offered to , who refused to "pick up a crown from the gutter". As the monarchist forces marched their armies to crush rebellions in cities and towns throughout Austria and Germany the Frankfurt Assembly was forced to flee, first to Stuttgart and then to Württemberg, where, reduced to so few deputies that it could no longer form a quorum, its final meeting was forcibly dispersed on 18 June 1849 by the Württemberg army. With the complete triumph of monarchist reaction rampaging across all of Europe, thousands of German middle class liberals and "red" Forty-eighters
were forced to flee into exile (primarily to the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia).
In 1849, proposed his own constitution. His document concentrated real power in the hands of the King and the upper classes, and called for a confederation of North German states—the Erfurt Union
. Austria and Russia, fearing a strong, Prussian-dominated Germany, responded by pressuring Saxony and Hanover to withdraw, and forced Prussia to abandon the scheme in a treaty dubbed the "humiliation of
Dissolution of the Confederation
Rise of Bismarck
A new generation of statesmen responded to popular demands for national unity for their own ends, continuing Prussia's tradition of autocracy and reform from above. Germany found an able leader to accomplish the seemingly paradoxical task of conservative modernization. In 1851, Bismarck
was appointed by King Wilhelm I
of Prussia (the future Kaiser Wilhelm I) to circumvent the liberals in the Landtag of Prussia
, who resisted Wilhelm's autocratic militarism. Bismarck told the Diet, "The great questions of the day are not decided by speeches and majority votes ... but by blood and iron" — that is, by warfare and industrial might. Prussia already had a great army; it was now augmented by rapid growth of economic power
Gradually, Bismarck subdued the more restive elements of the middle class with a combination of threats and reforms, reacting to the revolutionary sentiments expressed in 1848 by providing them with the economic opportunities for which the urban middle sectors had been fighting.
Seven Weeks' War
The German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War
of 1866 between Austrian Empire
and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia
and its allies on the other. The Confederation had 33 members immediately before its dissolution. In the Prague peace treaty
, on 23 August 1866, Austria had to accept that the Confederation was dissolved. The following day, the remaining member states confirmed the dissolution. The treaty allowed Prussia to create a new (a new kind of federation) in the North of Germany. The South German states were allowed to create a South German Confederation but this did not come into existence.
North German Confederation
Prussia created the North German Confederation
in 1867 covering all German states north of the river Main
and also the Hohenzollern
territories in Swabia
. Besides Austria, the South German states Bavaria, , , and Hesse- remained separate from the rest of Germany. However, due to the successful prosecution of the Franco-Prussian War
, the four southern states joined the North German Confederation by treaty in November 1870.
As the Franco-Prussian War drew to a close, King Ludwig II of Bavaria
was persuaded to ask King Wilhelm to assume the crown of the new German Empire. On 1 January 1871, the Empire was declared by the presiding princes and generals in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles
, near Paris
. The Diet of the North German Confederation moved to rename the North German Confederation as the German Empire
and gave the title of German Emperor
to the King of Prussia
The new constitution of the state, the Constitution of the German Confederation
, effectively transformed the Diet of the Confederation into the German Parliament (''Reichstag'').
The current countries whose territory were partly or entirely located inside the boundaries of the German Confederation 1815–1866 are:
* Germany (all states
in the north of )
* Austria (all states
* Netherlands (Duchy of Limburg
, was a member of the Confederation from 1839 till 1866)
* Czech Republic (entire territory)
(except for and the municipalities of , and )
* Poland (West Pomeranian Voivodship
, Lower Silesian Voivodship
, part of Silesia
— overwhelmingly German speaking at the time; East Prussia
, West Prussia
, and much of the Grand Duchy of Posen
were admitted into the Confederation on 11 April 1848, but the terms of the restored Confederate Diet removed these territories on 30 May 1851)
* Belgium (nine of the eleven cantons of Eupen-Malmedy
, Liège Province
); the larger province of Luxembourg had left the Confederation at its accession to Belgium in 1839
* Italy (autonomous region of /
, the Province of Trieste
, most of the Province of Gorizia
except the enclave, and the municipalities of , , , , , and in the Province of Udine
(the territory in Istria county
and the coastal strip between and in the Liburnia
* The Danish crown had been a member only in the context of its ownership of the and the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg
. first joined on 12 April 1848 after a revolutionary government was formed in opposition to the new Danish Constitution.
[Wilhelm Eichhoff, ''How Schleswig-Holstein has become what it is''. Henry Gaskarth, 1864, page 18.]
The London Protocol of 1852
removed Schleswig from the Confederation, but the Second War of Schleswig
returned the Duchy to the Confederation under Prussian governance as per the Treaty of Vienna in 1864
* States of the German Confederation
* History of Germany
* German Empire
* North German Confederation
* Former countries in Europe after 1815
* Federal Convention
* Frankfurt Parliament
* (in German, detailed maps)
Category:History of Prussia
Category:Modern history of Austria
Category:Modern history of Germany
Category:19th century in Germany
Category:19th century in Prussia
Category:States and territories established in 1815
Category:States and territories disestablished in 1848
Category:States and territories established in 1850
Category:States and territories disestablished in 1866
Category:1815 establishments in Europe
Category:1866 disestablishments in Europe