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General
General
Ulrich de Maizière General
General
Ernst Ferber, COMAFCENT 1973–1975 Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
Jörg Schönbohm, later Undersecretary of Defense

The German Army
Army
(German: Deutsches Heer) is the land component of the armed forces of Germany. The present-day German Army
Army
was founded in 1955 as part of the newly formed West German Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
together with the Marine (German Navy) and the Luftwaffe (German Air Force). As of 28 February 2018[update], the German Army
Army
had a strength of 60,431 soldiers.[2]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Overview 1.2 Founding of the Army 1.3 Post Cold War

2 German Army
Army
today

2.1 Modern equipment

3 Structure and organisation 4 Truppengattungen 5 Rank structure 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

9.1 Historical links

History[edit]

Bundeswehr

Branches (Teilstreitkräfte)

Heer

Luftwaffe

Marine

Organisational areas (Organisationsbereiche)

Joint Medical Service

Joint Support Service

Cyber and Information Space

Overview[edit] A German Army, equipped, organized and trained following a single doctrine, and permanently unified under one command dates from 1871, and the unification of Germany
Germany
under the leadership of Prussia. From 1871 to 1919 the title Deutsches Heer (German Army) was the official name of the German land forces. Following the German defeat in World War I and the end of the German Empire
German Empire
the main army was dissolved. From 1921 to 1935 the name of the German land forces was Reichsheer ( Army
Army
of the Realm) and from 1935 to 1945 the name Heer was used. The Heer was one of two ground forces of the Third Reich during World War II, but unlike the Heer, the Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
was not a branch of the Wehrmacht, but was a combat force under the Nazi Party's own Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
forces. The Heer was formally disbanded in August 1946.[3] After World War II
World War II
Germany
Germany
was split into two sovereign states and both formed their own militaries: on 12 November 1955 the first recruits began their service in the West German Heer, while on 1 March 1956 the East German Landstreitkräfte der NVA (Land Forces of the National People's Army) were founded. During the Cold War the West German Army
Army
was fully integrated into NATOs command structure, while the Landstreitkräfte were part of the Warsaw Pact. Following the German reunification
German reunification
in 1990 the Landstreitkräfte were partially integrated into the German Army. Since then the German Army
Army
has been employed in peacekeeping operations worldwide and since 2002 also in combat operations in Afghanistan as part of NATO's International Security Assistance Force. While the modern German army prefers to distance itself from the World War II era, it still retains certain uniform accessories from that era and before. For example, the iconic Stahlhelm
Stahlhelm
remains in service, as do the arabesque general collar tab designs. Cufftitle designs used by elite units during World War II
World War II
now appear on both cuffs. The German Army
Army
also continues to use the MG3, a machine gun that looks much like the MG42 used during World War II. The East German military used uniforms that were very similar to the WWII era army uniforms. Founding of the Army[edit] See also: Tank formations during the Cold War

Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
soldiers with MG1 and HK G3
HK G3
during a 1960s maneuver. In the background is a Schützenpanzer Kurz.

Following World War II
World War II
the Allies dissolved the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
with all its branches on 20 August 1946. However already one year after the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
in May 1949 and because of its increasing links with the West under German chancellor Konrad Adenauer, the Consultative Assembly of Europe
Europe
began to consider the formation of a European Defence Community
European Defence Community
with German participation on 11 August 1950. Former high-ranking German Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
officers outlined in the Himmeroder memorandum a plan for a "German contingent in an international force for the defense of Western Europe." For the German land forces the memorandum envisioned the formation of a 250,000 strong army. The officers saw the need for the formation of twelve Panzer divisions and six corps staffs with accompanying Corps troops, as only armored divisions could muster a fighting force to throw back the numerically far superior forces of the Warsaw Pact.[4] On 26 October 1950 Theodor Blank
Theodor Blank
was appointed "officer of the Federal Chancellor for the Strengthening of Allied Troops questions". This Defence Ministry forerunner was known somewhat euphemistically as the Blank Office (Amt Blank), but explicitly used to prepare for the rearmament of West Germany
Germany
(Wiederbewaffnung).[5] By March 1954 the Blank Office had finished plans for a new German army. Plans foresaw the formation of six infantry, four armoured, and two mechanised infantry divisions, as the German contribution to the defense of Western Europe
Europe
in the framework of a European Defence Community.[4] On 8 February 1952 the Bundestag approved a German contribution to the defense of Western Europe
Europe
and on 26 February 1954 the Basic Law of the Republic was amended with the insertion of an article regarding the defence of the sovereignty of the federal government.[6] Following a decision at the London Nine Power Conference of 28 September to 3 October 1954, Germany's entry into NATO
NATO
effective from 9 May 1955 was accepted as a replacement for the failed European Defence Community plan. Afterwards the Blank Office was converted to the Defence Ministry and Theodor Blank
Theodor Blank
became the first Defence Minister. The nucleus of army was the so-called V Branch of the Department of Defence. Subdivisions included were VA Leadership and Training, VB Organisation and VC Logistics. The army saw itself explicitly not as a successor to the defeated Wehrmacht, but as in the traditions of the Prussian military reformers of 1807 to 1814 and the members of the military resistance during National Socialism; such as the officers which undertook the failed 20 July plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
in 1944. Nevertheless, for lack of alternatives the officer corps was made up largely of former Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
officers. The first Chief of the Army
Army
was the former Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
General
General
der Panzertruppe Hans Rottiger, who had been involved in the drafting of the Himmeroder memorandum. The official date of the founding of the army is 12 November 1955 when the first soldiers began their service in Andernach.[7] In 1956 the first troops set up seven training companies in Andernach
Andernach
and began the formation of schools and training centers. On 1 April 1957, the first conscripts arrived for service in the army. The first military organisations created were instructional battalions, officer schools, and the Army
Army
Academy, the forerunner to the Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
in Hamburg.[6] In total of twelve armoured and infantry divisions were to be established by 1959, as planned in Army
Army
Structure I. To achieve this goal existing units were split approximately every six months. However the creation of all twelve divisions did not take place until 1965. At the end of 1958 the strength of the army was about 100,000 men. The army was equipped at first with American material, such as the M-47 Patton
M-47 Patton
main battle tank. Three corps commands were formed beginning in 1957: the I Corps, II Corps, and the III Corps. Also in 1957 the "Office for Territorial Defence" was established as the highest Territorial Army
Army
authority. The Office for Territorial Defence was under the direct command of the Federal Ministry of Defence and commanded the Territorial Army
Army
(Germany) (Territorialheer), a reserve formation. While the Heer along with the Marine and Luftwaffe were firmly integrated into the NATO
NATO
Military Command Structure, the Territorialheer remained under national command. The main function of the Territorialheer was to maintain the operational freedom of NATO
NATO
forces through providing rear area defence against saboteurs, enemy special forces, and the like. There were three Territorial Commands (Territorialkommandos), including North, South, and Schleswig-Holstein, and up to six Wehrbereichskommandos (WBKs), military regional commands.[8] By 1985 each of the WBKs had two Heimatschutzbrigades (HSBs, home defence brigades).

M47 Patton
M47 Patton
tank in service with the Bundeswehr, 1960

The development of Soviet tactical nuclear weapons required the development of a new Army
Army
structure even before Army
Army
Structure I was fully achieved. To minimize the effects of attacks with tactical nuclear weapons on massed forces, the 28,000 strong divisions of the Heer were broken up into smaller and more mobile brigades. These smaller units were also to be capable of self-sustainment on an atomic battlefield for several days, and to be capable of to move quickly from defense and to attack. The new armoured and mechanized brigades were capable of combined arms combat. Each division was composed of three brigades. The armoured brigades consisted of an armoured infantry battalion, two armoured battalions, an armoured artillery battalion and a supply battalion. The mechanized brigades consisted of a motorized infantry battalion, two mechanized infantry battalions, an armored battalion, a field artillery battalion and a supply battalion. The motorized brigades consisted of three motorized infantry battalions, an anti-tank battalion, a field artillery battalion and a supply battalion. The alpine brigades consisted of three alpine battalions, a mountain artillery battalion and a supply battalion. By 1959 the Heer consisted of 11 divisions of 27 brigades, four Panzer (armoured), four Panzergrenadier (mechanized), two Jäger (motorized), and one Gebirgsjäger
Gebirgsjäger
(alpine). At the end of the Cold War the German Army
Army
fielded 12 divisions with 38 brigades: six Panzer (armoured), four Panzergrenadier (mechanized), one Fallschirmjäger (airborne), and one Gebirgsjäger
Gebirgsjäger
(alpine) division. Nine divisions were grouped into three corps: I German Corps as part of NATO's Northern Army
Army
Group, II German Corps and III German Corps as part of Central Army
Army
Group. The remaining three divisions were part of Allied Forces Baltic Approaches
Allied Forces Baltic Approaches
(6th Panzergrenadier Division) and NORTHAG's I Netherlands
Netherlands
Corps (3rd Panzer Division), while 1st Fallschirmjäger Division was assigned in peacetime to II German Corps and doubled as general staff for the ACE Mobile Force (Land).[citation needed] Post Cold War[edit]

Helicopter of the German Army
Army
Aviation Corps in Northern Iraq
Iraq
in 1991

After 1990, the Heer absorbed the Nationale Volksarmee, the armed forces of East Germany. The former East German forces were initially controlled by the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
Command East under the command of Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
Jörg Schönbohm
Jörg Schönbohm
and disbanded on 30 June 1991.[9] In the aftermath of the merger, the German Army
Army
consisted of four Corps (including IV Corps at Potsdam
Potsdam
in the former DDR) with a manpower of 360,000 men. It was continuously downsized from this point. In 1994 III Corps was reorganised as the German Army
Army
Forces Command. In 1996, the 25th Airborne Brigade
Brigade
was converted into a new command leading the Army's special forces, known as the Kommando Spezialkräfte. The 2001 onwards restructuring of the German Army
Army
saw it move to a seven division structure – 5 mechanized (each with two mechanized brigades), 1 special forces, and one air assault. In 2003, three Corps still existed, each including various combat formations and a maintenance brigade, as well as the I. German/Dutch Corps, a joint German- Netherlands
Netherlands
organization, used to control in peacetime the 1st Panzer and 7th Panzer Divisions as well as Dutch formations. The 1st Panzer would have reported to the corps in wartime while the 7th would be posted to the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps. II Corps was German in peacetime but would have exchanged a division with the V U.S. Corps in time of war (the 5th Panzer). The 5th Panzer was formally Division disbanded as of 30 June 2001. In peacetime it also commanded the 10th Panzer Division, which was allocated to Eurocorps and which parents the German half of the Franco-German Brigade. The 1st Mountain Division at Munich was also subordinate to this headquarters. The IV Corps was headquartered at Potsdam
Potsdam
in eastern Germany
Germany
and controlled two Panzer-Grenadier Divisions, the 13th and 14th. The 14th Panzergrenadier Division also took control of units in Western Germany re-subordinated from the 6th Panzergrenadier Division when it lost its command function. It would have made up the German contribution to the Multinational Corps Northeast
Multinational Corps Northeast
in time of war. IV Corps also used to have under its command the Military District Command I, the 1st Airmobile Brigade, and the Berlin
Berlin
Command (de:Standortkommando Berlin). German Army
Army
today[edit] All corps have now been disbanded or transferred to a multinational level such as Multinational Corps North East. IV Corps was reorganized and on 31 March 2002 became an overseas deployment command, the Einsatzführungskommando der Bundeswehr, like the British Permanent Joint Headquarters. An army reorganisation in recent years has seen the disbandment of the 13th Mechanized Infantry Division headquarters, a merge of the Airmobile Operations Division and Special
Special
Operations Division headquarters, the disbandment of the 1st Airmobile Brigade, and reshuffling of units between divisions.[citation needed] No heavy brigades were disbanded, but the two remaining heavy divisions command three rather than two brigades. As of 28 February 2018[update] there were a total of 61,054 soldiers on active service in the German Army.[2] However, the quite unique German military branch of the Joint Support Service consists to a significant degree of Heeresuniformträger (army uniform wearing personnel).[10] This is also contributed to by the Joint Medical Service, which does have other solely-military-medical branch counterparts (such as in South Africa). In accordance with EU working hour regulations, the regular work-week is 41 hours, although numerous exceptions exist for e.g. deployments in oversea missions, training exercises, emergencies, and similar military needs.[11] Modern equipment[edit] Main article: List of modern equipment of the German Army

Leopard 2A6
Leopard 2A6
main battle tank

PzH2000 self-propelled artillery

NH-90 transport helicopter

Structure and organisation[edit] Main article: Structure of the German Army

1. Panzer division

9 Panzer Lehr Bde

21 Panzer Bde

41 Panzer-Grenadier Bde

43 Mechanized Bde

10. Panzer division

12 Panzer Bde

23 Mountain Infantry Bde

37 Panzer-Grenadier Bde

Division Schnelle Kräfte

1 Airborne Bde

11 Airmobile Bde

KSK

Franco-German Bde

Locations of the army's major units

Structure of the German Army
Army
with integrated allied units in 2017 (click to enlarge; for structure with only German units see: Structure of the German Army)

German Army
Army
soldiers from Paratrooper Battalion 261 on board an armoured personnel carrier in Somalia in 1993

German ISAF soldiers involved in combat in Northern Afghanistan in 2009

A German Army
Army
soldier demonstrates the equipment of the IdZ
IdZ
program.

The German Army
Army
is commanded by the Inspector of the Army
Army
(Inspekteur des Heeres) based at the Army
Army
Command (Kommando Heer) in Strausberg near Berlin. The training centers are supervised by the Army
Army
Training Command in Leipzig. The combat units of the army include two armored divisions, one rapid forces division and the Franco-German Brigade, which is under direct supervision of the Army
Army
Command. Unlike other European armies such as neighbouring France, regiments are not a common form of organization and are thus rare in the German army. Battalions are directly subordinate to brigades or to divisions as divisional troops. German infantry battalions field 1,000 men, considerably larger than most NATO
NATO
armies, i.e. twice the size of a US Army
Army
battalion.

1. Panzerdivision in Oldenburg

Divisional troops 9th Armoured Demonstration Brigade
Brigade
in Munster 21st Panzer Brigade
Brigade
at Augustdorf 41st Mechanized Infantry Brigade
Brigade
Vorpommern in Neubrandenburg 43rd Mechanized Brigade
Brigade
in Havelte, (Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Army) 325th Artillery Demonstration Battalion

10. Panzerdivision in Veitshöchheim

Divisional troops 12th Armoured Brigade
Brigade
Oberpfalz in Cham 23rd Mountain Infantry Brigade
Brigade
Bayern in Bad Reichenhall 37th Panzergrenadier Brigade
Brigade
at Frankenberg, Saxony Deutsch-Französische Brigade
Brigade
(Franco-German Brigade) in Müllheim 131st Artillery Battalion 345th Artillery Demonstration Battalion

Division Schnelle Kräfte (Rapid Forces Division) in Stadtallendorf

Divisional troops Kommando Spezialkräfte
Kommando Spezialkräfte
(KSK) ( Special
Special
Forces Command) in Calw 1st Airborne Brigade, in Saarlouis 11th Airmobile Brigade, in Schaarsbergen (Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Army) 10th Transport Helicopter Regiment 30th Transport Helicopter Regiment 36th Attack Helicopter Regiment

German elements, Eurocorps
Eurocorps
HQ in Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(France)

Command Support Brigade German elements in two permanent battalions and one staff company

1 (German/Netherlands) Corps
1 (German/Netherlands) Corps
in Münster

German elements in two permanent battalions and one staff company

Multinational Corps North East
Multinational Corps North East
in Szczecin
Szczecin
(Poland)

Fernmeldebataillon 610 (610th Signal Battalion) German elements

Zentrales Langzeitlager ( Army
Army
Central Depot) in Herongen Zentrales Langzeitlager ( Army
Army
Central Depot) in Pirmasens Zentraler Mobilmachungsstützpunkt (Central Mobilisation Base) in Brück

Truppengattungen[edit] The German Army
Army
has eleven different branches of troops, designated as Truppengattungen. Each Truppengattung is responsible for training and readiness of its units and disposes of its own schools and centres of excellence for doing so. Optically this distinction can be made by the branch colour, called Waffenfarbe
Waffenfarbe
which is displayed by a cord attached to the rank insignia, and the colour of their beret with a specific badge attached to it. Beret Colour ( Army
Army
only and Security Units of Navy and Air Force)

Black: Armoured Corps, Reconnaissance Corps Green: Mechanized Infantry and Rifles Corps Dark Red: Aviation Corps, Airborne Corps, Special
Special
Forces, formations assigned to airborne division Light Red: Combat Support Corps and Military Police Dark Blue: Medical Corps Navy Blue: Multinational Units, Officer Cadet Battalions, Navy and Air Force Security Units Bright Blue: Troops with United Nations Missions

Grey mountain cap (Bergmütze): Mountain Troops
Mountain Troops
Gebirgsjäger Waffenfarbe
Waffenfarbe
( Army
Army
and army support branch only)

NBC

Artillery

Military Police

Signals

Reconnaissance

Army
Army
Aviation

Technical Troops

Infantry

Military band

Armoured Troops (i.e. Tanks)

Pioneers (i.e. Engineering)

Medical Troops

Bright Red: General
General
ranks (only "Kragenspiegel", not "Litze"), Crimson: General
General
Staff

Rank structure[edit] The rank structure of the German army is adjusted to the rank structure of NATO. Unlike its predecessors, the modern German Army does not use the rank of Colonel
Colonel
General. The highest rank for an army officer is Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General, as the rank of Full General
General
is reserved for the Armed Forces chief of staff or officers serving as NATO officers. Officer cadets do not pass through all enlisted ranks, but are directly promoted to Lieutenant
Lieutenant
after 36 months of service. Equivalent US Army
Army
ranks are shown below according to "STANAG 2116 NSA MC LO (EDITION 6) – NATO
NATO
CODES FOR GRADES OF MILITARY PERSONNEL":

Officers of the German Army

General (General) Gen Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
(Generalleutnant) GenLt/GL Major
Major
General
General
(Generalmajor) GenMaj/GM Brigadier General
General
(Brigadegeneral) BrigGen/BG Colonel (Oberst) Oberst/O Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Colonel (Oberstleutnant) Oberstlt/OTL

OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4

Officers of the German Army

Major (Major) Maj/M Staff Captain (Stabshauptmann) StHptm/SH Captain (Hauptmann) Hptm/H 1st Lieutenant (Oberleutnant) OLt /OL 2nd Lieutenant (Leutnant) Lt/L

OF-3 OF-2 OF-2 OF-1 OF-1

Non-Commissioned Officers of the German Army
Army

Sergeant
Sergeant
Major
Major
(Oberstabsfeldwebel) OStFw/OSF Master Sergeant (Stabsfeldwebel) StFw/SF Sergeant 1st Class
Sergeant 1st Class
(officer cadet) (Oberfähnrich) OFähnr/OFR Sergeant
Sergeant
1st Class (Hauptfeldwebel) HptFw/HF Staff Sergeant (Oberfeldwebel) OFw/OF

OR-9 OR-8 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6

Non-Commissioned Officers of the German Army
Army

Staff Sergeant
Staff Sergeant
(officer cadet) (Fähnrich) Fähnr/FR Staff Sergeant (Feldwebel) Fw/F Sergeant (Stabsunteroffizier) StUffz/SU Corporal
Corporal
(officer cadet) (Fahnenjunker) Fhj/FJ Corporal (Unteroffizier) Uffz/U

OR-6 OR-6 OR-5 OR-5 OR-5

Enlisted Ranks of the German Army

Corporal
Corporal
Specialist (Oberstabsgefreiter) OStGefr/OSG Specialist (Stabsgefreiter) StGefr/SG Lance Corporal (Hauptgefreiter) HptGefr/HG Private 1st Class (NCO cadet) ( Obergefreiter UA) OGefr/OG Private 1st Class (Obergefreiter) OGefr/OG

OR-4 OR-4 OR-3 OR-3 OR-3

Enlisted Ranks of the German Army

Private 1st Class (officer cadet) ( Gefreiter
Gefreiter
OA) Gefr/G Private 1st Class ( Sergeant
Sergeant
cadet) ( Gefreiter
Gefreiter
FA) Gefr/G Private 1st Class (NCO cadet) ( Gefreiter
Gefreiter
UA) Gefr/G Private 1st Class (Gefreiter) Gefr/G Private (Soldat) S

OR-2 OR-2 OR-2 OR-2 OR-1

See also[edit]

Military of Germany
Germany
portal

Wehrmacht Kaiserliche Armee Bundeswehr History of Germany
Germany
during World War II Infantryman of the Future Imperial Army
Army
(German Empire) (to 1806) Prussian Army Reichswehr Tank battalions of the German Army
Army
1956–2008 Bavarian Army

References[edit]

^ "World Air Forces 2017". Flightglobal: 10. Retrieved 10 February 2017.  ^ a b "Die Stärke der Streitkräfte [Personnel strength of German Armed Forces]". 4 April 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.  ^ Large, David Clay (1996). Germans to the Front: West German Rearmament in the Adenauer Era, p. 25 ^ a b For a discussion on German defence planning in the context of the EDC, see Abenheim, Reforging the Iron Cross, Chap. 5 (Zilian, p.41) ^ See Frederick Zilian Jr., 'From Confrontation to Cooperation: The Takeover of the National People's (East German) Army
Army
by the Bundeswehr,' Praeger, Westport, Conn., 1999, ISBN 0-275-96546-5, p.40-41, for a discussion of this period ^ a b Zilian, p.41 ^ ZEIT ONLINE GmbH, Hamburg, Germany
Germany
(2 June 2005). "Bundeswehr: Adenauers Geheimnis". ZEIT ONLINE. Retrieved 19 April 2016. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Isby and Kamps 1985, 228-229. ^ See Jorg Schonbohm, 'Two Armies
Armies
and One Fatherland', Berghahn Books, Providence & Oxford, 1996 ^ German Bundestag - Annual Disarmament Report 2013, bundestag.de, page 63 ^ "FAQ Arbeitszeitregelung". Bundeswehr. 30 December 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

Addington, Larry H. The Blitzkrieg Era and the German General
General
Staff, 1865-1941 (1971). Bartov, Omer. Hitler's army: Soldiers, Nazis, and war in the Third Reich (1992). Bull, Stephen. German Assault Troops of the First World War: Stosstrupptaktik-The First Stormtroopers (History Press, 2014). Citino, Robert M. The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-39 (2007). Citino, Robert M. Quest for Decisive Victory: From Stalemate to Blitzkrieg in Europe, 1899-1940 (2002). Dupuy, Trevor Nevitt. A Genius for War: The German Army
Army
and General Staff, 1807-1945 (1977). Gross, Gerhard P. The Myth and Reality of German Warfare: Operational Thinking From Moltke the Elder to Heusinger (2016). Deist, Wilhelm, ed. The German military in the age of total war (Berg, 1985). Hubatscheck, Gerhard (2006), 50 Jahre Heer: Der Soldat und seine Ausrüstung, Sulzvach: Report-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-932385-21-6  Hughes, Daniel J. and Richard L. DiNardo, eds. Imperial Germany
Germany
and War, 1871-1918 (University Press of Kansas, 2018). Kelleher, Catherine M. "Fundamentals of German Security: The Creation of the Bundeswehr: Continuity and Change", in Stephen F. Szabo (ed.), The Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
and Western Security, St. Martin's Press, New York, 1990. Seaton, Albert. The German Army: 1933-45 (1982). Showalter, Dennis. Instrument of War: The German army 1914-18 (2016) Showalter, Dennis. The Wars of German Unification (2015) Wheeler-Bennet, Sir John (2005), The Nemesis of Power: German Army
Army
in Politics, 1918–1945 (2nd ed.), New York: Palgrave Macmillan Publishing Company, ISBN 978-1-4039-1812-3  Online free

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Heer (Bundeswehr).

Official Homepage of the German Army
Army
(Heer) in German

Historical links[edit]

German Army
Army
pre 1914 German Army
Army
1914-1918 German Army
Army
Organization 1914 German Infantry Photographs from World War II
World War II
- Colour photographs of German infantry during World War II Gebirgsjaeger - German Mountain Troops Axis History - Axis History site including German troops.

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