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English ( American English
American English
dialects, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch English) German ( American German
American German
dialects, Standard German, Bavarian German, Swabian German, Colognian German, Alsatian German, Bernese German, Hutterite
Hutterite
German, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German, Plautdietsch, Texas
Texas
German)

Religion

Christian

51% Protestant, significantly Lutheran, Reformed and Anabaptist
Anabaptist
but also multiple other branches 26% Roman Catholic

1% Jewish 16% other[5]

Related ethnic groups

Germans Austrians Austrian Americans Swiss Americans Dutch Americans Danish Americans Swedish Americans Norwegian Americans Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch German Canadians other German diaspora

German Americans
Americans
(German: Deutschamerikaner) are Americans
Americans
who have full or partial German ancestry. With an estimated size of approximately 44 million in 2016, German Americans
Americans
are the largest of the ancestry groups reported by the US Census Bureau
US Census Bureau
in its American Community Survey.[1] The group accounts for about one third of the total ethnic German population in the world.[6][7][8] None of the German states had American colonies. In the 1670s, the first significant groups of German immigrants arrived in the British colonies, settling primarily in Pennsylvania, New York, and Virginia. Immigration continued in very large numbers during the 19th century, with eight million arrivals from Germany. Between 1820 and 1870 over seven and a half million German immigrants came to the United States—more than doubling the entire population of the country. By 2010, their population grew to 49.8 million immigrants, reflecting a jump of 6 million people since 2000. There is a "German belt" that extends all the way across the United States, from eastern Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
to the Oregon
Oregon
coast. Pennsylvania has the largest population of German- Americans
Americans
in the U.S. and is home to one of the group's original settlements, Germantown (Philadelphia), founded in 1683 and the birthplace of the American antislavery movement in 1688, as well as the revolutionary Battle of Germantown. The state of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
has 3.5 million people of German ancestry. They were pulled by the attractions of land and religious freedom, and pushed out of Europe by shortages of land and religious or political oppression.[9] Many arrived seeking religious or political freedom, others for economic opportunities greater than those in Europe, and others for the chance to start fresh in the New World. The arrivals before 1850 were mostly farmers who sought out the most productive land, where their intensive farming techniques would pay off. After 1840, many came to cities, where "Germania"—German-speaking districts—soon emerged.[10][11][12] German Americans
Americans
established the first kindergartens in the United States,[13] introduced the Christmas tree
Christmas tree
tradition,[14][15] and introduced popular foods such as hot dogs and hamburgers to America.[16] The great majority of people with some German ancestry have become Americanized and hardly can be distinguished; fewer than 5% speak German. German-American societies abound, as do celebrations that are held throughout the country to celebrate German heritage of which the German-American Steuben Parade
German-American Steuben Parade
in New York City
New York City
is one of the most well-known and is held every third Saturday in September. Traditional Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
celebrations and the German-American Day
German-American Day
are popular festivities. There are major annual events in cities with German heritage including Chicago, Cincinnati, Milwaukee, Pittsburgh, San Antonio, and St. Louis.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Colonial era

1.1.1 Palatines 1.1.2 Louisiana 1.1.3 Southeast 1.1.4 New England 1.1.5 Pennsylvania

1.2 American Revolution 1.3 19th century

1.3.1 Jews 1.3.2 Northeastern cities 1.3.3 Cities of the Midwest 1.3.4 Deep South 1.3.5 Texas 1.3.6 Germans
Germans
from Russia 1.3.7 Civil War 1.3.8 Farmers 1.3.9 Politics

1.4 World Wars

1.4.1 Intellectuals 1.4.2 World War I
World War I
anti-German sentiment 1.4.3 World War II

1.5 Contemporary period

2 Demographics

2.1 German-American communities

2.1.1 Communities with high percentages of people of German ancestry 2.1.2 Large communities with high percentages of people of German ancestry 2.1.3 Communities with the most residents born in Germany

3 Culture

3.1 Music 3.2 Turners 3.3 Media 3.4 Athletics 3.5 Religion 3.6 Language

4 Assimilation 5 German American influence 6 Education 7 Notable people

7.1 German-American presidents

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading

10.1 Historiography 10.2 Primary sources 10.3 In German

11 External links

11.1 German-American history and culture 11.2 German-American organizations 11.3 Local German-American history and culture

History[edit] The Germans
Germans
included many quite distinct subgroups with differing religious and cultural values.[17] Lutherans and Catholics typically opposed Yankee moralizing programs such as the prohibition of beer, and favored paternalistic families with the husband deciding the family position on public affairs.[18][19] They generally opposed women's suffrage but this was used as argument in favor of suffrage when German Americans
Americans
became pariahs during World War I.[20] On the other hand, there were Protestant groups that emerged from European pietism such as the German Methodist and United Brethren; they more closely resembled the Yankee Methodists in their moralism.[21] Colonial era[edit] The first English settlers arrived at Jamestown, Virginia
Virginia
in 1607, and were accompanied by the first German American, Dr. Johannes Fleischer. He was followed in 1608 by five glassmakers and three carpenters or house builders.[22] The first permanent German settlement in what became the United States
United States
was Germantown, Pennsylvania, founded near Philadelphia
Philadelphia
on October 6, 1683.[23]

John Jacob Astor, in an oil painting by Gilbert Stuart, 1794, was the first of the Astor family
Astor family
dynasty and the first millionaire in the United States, making his fortune in the fur trade and New York City real estate.

Large numbers of Germans
Germans
migrated from the 1680s to 1760s, with Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
the favored destination. They migrated to America for a variety of reasons.[23] Push factors involved worsening opportunities for farm ownership in central Europe, persecution of some religious groups, and military conscription; pull factors were better economic conditions, especially the opportunity to own land, and religious freedom. Often immigrants paid for their passage by selling their labor for a period of years as indentured servants.[24] Large sections of Pennsylvania, Upstate New York, and the Shenandoah valley of Virginia
Virginia
attracted Germans. Most were Lutheran or German Reformed; many belonged to small religious sects such as the Moravians and Mennonites. German Catholics did not arrive in number until after the War of 1812.[25] Palatines[edit] In 1709, Protestant Germans
Germans
from the Pfalz or Palatine region of Germany
Germany
escaped conditions of hardship, traveling first to Rotterdam and then to London. Anne, Queen of Great Britain, helped them get to her colonies in America. The trip was long and difficult to survive because of the poor quality of food and water aboard ships and the infectious disease typhus. Many immigrants, particularly children, died before reaching America in June 1710.[26] The Palatine immigration of about 2100 people who survived was the largest single immigration to America in the colonial period. Most were first settled along the Hudson River
Hudson River
in work camps, to pay off their passage. By 1711, seven villages had been established in New York on the Robert Livingston manor. In 1723 Germans
Germans
became the first Europeans allowed to buy land in the Mohawk Valley
Mohawk Valley
west of Little Falls. One hundred homesteads were allocated in the Burnetsfield Patent. By 1750, the Germans
Germans
occupied a strip some 12 miles (19 km) long along both sides of the Mohawk River. The soil was excellent; some 500 houses were built, mostly of stone, and the region prospered in spite of Indian raids. Herkimer was the best-known of the German settlements in a region long known as the "German Flats".[26] They kept to themselves, married their own, spoke German, attended Lutheran churches, and retained their own customs and foods. They emphasized farm ownership. Some mastered English to become conversant with local legal and business opportunities. They tolerated slavery (although few were rich enough to own a slave).[27] The most famous of the early German Palatine immigrants was editor John Peter Zenger, who led the fight in colonial New York City
New York City
for freedom of the press in America. A later immigrant, John Jacob Astor, who came from Baden after the Revolutionary War, became the richest man in America from his fur trading empire and real estate investments in New York.[28] Louisiana[edit]

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John Law organized the first colonization of Louisiana
Louisiana
with German immigrants. Of the over 5,000 Germans
Germans
initially immigrating primarily from the Alsace
Alsace
Region as few as 500 made up the first wave of immigrants to leave France
France
en route to the Americas. Less than 150 of those first indentured German farmers made it to Louisiana
Louisiana
and settled along what became known as the German Coast. With tenacity, determination and the leadership of D'arensburg these Germans
Germans
felled trees, cleared land, and cultivated the soil with simple hand tools as draft animals were not available. The German coast settlers supplied the budding City of New Orleans
New Orleans
with corn, rice, eggs. and meat for many years following. The Mississippi Company
Mississippi Company
settled thousands of German pioneers in French Louisiana
Louisiana
during 1721. It encouraged Germans, particularly Germans
Germans
of the Alsatian region who had recently fallen under French rule, and the Swiss to immigrate. Alsace
Alsace
was sold to France
France
within the greater context of the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
(1618–1648). The Jesuit
Jesuit
Charlevoix traveled New France
France
( Canada
Canada
and Louisiana) in the early 1700s. His letter said "these 9,000 Germans, who were raised in the Palatinate ( Alsace
Alsace
part of France) were in Arkansas. The Germans
Germans
left Arkansas
Arkansas
en masse. They went to New Orleans
New Orleans
and demanded passage to Europe. The Mississippi Company
Mississippi Company
gave the Germans
Germans
rich lands on the right bank of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
about 25 miles (40 km) above New Orleans. The area is now known as 'the German Coast'." A thriving population of Germans
Germans
lived upriver from New Orleans, Louisiana, known as the German Coast. They were attracted to the area through pamphlets such as J. Hanno Deiler's "Louisiana: A Home for German Settlers".[29]

Carl Schurz
Carl Schurz
was the first German born US Senator (Missouri, 1868) and later US Secretary of the Interior

Southeast[edit] Two waves of German colonists in 1714 and 1717 founded a large colony in Virginia
Virginia
called Germanna,[30] located near modern-day Culpeper, Virginia. Virginia
Virginia
Lieutenant Governor Alexander Spotswood, taking advantage of the headright system, had bought land in present-day Spotsylvania and encouraged German immigration by advertising in Germany
Germany
for miners to move to Virginia
Virginia
and establish a mining industry in the colony. The name "Germanna", selected by Governor Alexander Spotswood, reflected both the German immigrants who sailed across the Atlantic to Virginia
Virginia
and the British Queen, Anne, who was in power at the time of the first settlement at Germanna. In North Carolina, German Moravians living around Bethlehem, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
purchased nearly 100,000 acres (400 km2) from Lord Granville (one of the British Lords Proprietor) in the Piedmont of North Carolina
North Carolina
in 1753. They established German settlements on that tract, especially in the area around what is now Winston-Salem.[31] They also founded the transitional settlement of Bethabara, North Carolina, translated as House of Passage, the first planned Moravian community in North Carolina, in 1759. Soon after, the German Moravians founded the town of Salem in 1766 (now a historical section in the center of Winston-Salem) and Salem College
Salem College
(an early female college) in 1772. In the Georgia Colony, Germans
Germans
mainly from the Swabia
Swabia
region settled in Savannah, St. Simon's Island and Fort Frederica
Fort Frederica
in the 1730s and 1740s. They were actively recruited by James Oglethorpe
James Oglethorpe
and quickly distinguished themselves through improved farming, advanced tabby (cement)-construction, and leading joint Lutheran-Anglican-Reformed religious services for the colonists. German immigrants also settled in other areas of the American South, including around the Dutch (Deutsch) Fork area of South Carolina,[25] and Texas, especially in the Austin area. New England[edit] Between 1742 and 1753, roughly 1,000 Germans
Germans
settled in Broad Bay, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
(now Waldoboro, Maine). Many of the colonists fled to Boston, Maine, Nova Scotia, and North Carolina
North Carolina
after their houses were burned and their neighbors killed or carried into captivity by Native Americans. The Germans
Germans
who remained found it difficult to survive on farming, and eventually turned to the shipping and fishing industries.[32] Pennsylvania[edit] Main article: Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German The tide of German immigration to Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
swelled between 1725 and 1775, with immigrants arriving as redemptioners or indentured servants. By 1775, Germans
Germans
constituted about one-third of the population of the state. German farmers were renowned for their highly productive animal husbandry and agricultural practices. Politically, they were generally inactive until 1740, when they joined a Quaker-led coalition that took control of the legislature, which later supported the American Revolution. Despite this, many of the German settlers were loyalists during the Revolution, possibly because they feared their royal land grants would be taken away by a new republican government, or because of loyalty to a British German monarchy who had provided the opportunity to live in a liberal society.[33] The Germans, comprising Lutherans, Reformed, Mennonites, Amish, and other sects, developed a rich religious life with a strong musical culture. Collectively, they came to be known as the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch (from Deutsch).[34][35] Etymologically, the word Dutch originates from the Old High German word "diutisc" (from "diot" "people"), referring to the Germanic "language of the people" as opposed to Latin, the language of the learned (see also theodiscus). Only later did the word come to refer to the people who spoke the language. Other Germanic language variants for "deutsch/deitsch/dutch" are: Dutch "Duits" and "Diets", Yiddish "daytsh", Danish/Norwegian "tysk", or Swedish "tyska." The Japanese "doitzu" also derives from the aforementioned "Dutch" variations. There were few German Catholics in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
before the 1810s.[36] The Studebaker
Studebaker
brothers, forefathers of the wagon and automobile makers, arrived in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in 1736 from the famous blade town of Solingen. With their skills, they made wagons that carried the frontiersmen westward; their cannons provided the Union Army
Union Army
with artillery in the American Civil War, and their automobile company became one of the largest in America, although never eclipsing the "Big Three", and was a factor in the war effort and in the industrial foundations of the Army.[37] From names in the 1790 U.S. census, historians estimate Germans constituted nearly 9% of the white population in the United States.[38] American Revolution[edit] Main article: Germans
Germans
in the American Revolution The King of Great Britain, whose King George III was also the Elector of Hanover in Germany, hired 18,000 Hessians (career soldiers from small German states) to support British forces. Many were captured; they remained as prisoners during the war but some stayed and became U.S. citizens.[39] German Americans
Americans
served on both sides of the American Revolution. The religious minorities were neutral. The Lutherans were split. In New York, many were neutral or supported the Loyalist cause. In Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
most were on the patriot side.[40] The Muhlenberg family, led by Rev. Henry Muhlenberg
Henry Muhlenberg
was especially influential on the Patriot side.[41] His son Peter Muhlenberg, a Lutheran clergyman in Virginia
Virginia
became a major general and later a Congressman.[42][43] The brief Fries's Rebellion
Fries's Rebellion
was an anti-tax movement among Germans
Germans
in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
in 1799-1800.[44] 19th century[edit]

German population density in the United States, 1872

German Immigration to United States
United States
(1820–2004)[45]

Immigration period Number of Immigrants Immigration period Number of Immigrants

1820–1840 160,335 1921–1930 412,202

1841–1850 434,626 1931–1940 114,058

1851–1860 951,667 1941–1950 226,578

1861–1870 787,468 1951–1960 477,765

1871–1880 718,182 1961–1970 190,796

1881–1890 1,452,970 1971–1980 74,414

1891–1900 505,152 1981–1990 91,961

1901–1910 341,498 1991–2000 92,606

1911–1920 143,945 2001–2004 61,253

Total : 7,237,594

The largest flow of German immigration to America occurred between 1820 and World War I, during which time nearly six million Germans immigrated to the United States. From 1840 to 1880, they were the largest group of immigrants. Following the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, a wave of political refugees fled to America, who became known as Forty-Eighters. They included professionals, journalists, and politicians. Prominent Forty-Eighters
Forty-Eighters
included Carl Schurz and Henry Villard.[46]

"From the Old to the New World" shows German emigrants boarding a steamer in Hamburg, to New York. Harper's Weekly, (New York) November 7, 1874

"Latin farmer" or Latin Settlement
Latin Settlement
is the designation of several settlements founded by some of the Dreissiger and other refugees from Europe after rebellions like the Frankfurter Wachensturm
Frankfurter Wachensturm
beginning in the 1830s—predominantly in Texas
Texas
and Missouri, but also in other US states—in which German intellectuals (freethinkers, German: Freidenker, and Latinists) met together to devote themselves to the German literature, philosophy, science, classical music, and the Latin language. A prominent representative of this generation of immigrants was Gustav Koerner
Gustav Koerner
who lived most of the time in Belleville, Illinois until his death. Jews[edit] Main article: History of the Jews in the United States A few German Jews
German Jews
came in the colonial era. The largest numbers arrived after 1820, especially in the mid-19th century.[47] They spread across the North and South (and California, where Levi Strauss arrived in 1853. They formed small German-Jewish communities in cities and towns. They typically were local and regional merchants selling clothing; others were livestock dealers, agricultural commodity traders, bankers, and operators of local businesses. Henry Lehman, who founded Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers
in Alabama, was a particularly prominent example of such a German-Jewish immigrant. They formed Reform synagogues[48] and sponsored numerous local and national philanthropic organizations, such as B'nai B'rith.[49] This German-speaking group is quite distinct from the Yiddish-speaking East-European Jews who arrived in much larger numbers starting in the late 19th century and concentrated in New York. Northeastern cities[edit] Further information: Germans
Germans
in Syracuse, New York and History of the Germans
Germans
in Baltimore The port cities of New York, and Baltimore had large populations. As did Hoboken, New Jersey. Cities of the Midwest[edit] Further information: Germans
Germans
in Chicago; Germans
Germans
in Omaha, Nebraska; and History of the Germans
Germans
in Louisville Cities along the Great Lakes, the Ohio
Ohio
River, and the Mississippi
Mississippi
and Missouri
Missouri
Rivers attracted a large German element. The Midwestern cities of Milwaukee, Cincinnati, St. Louis, Chicago
Chicago
were favored destinations of German immigrants. Also, the Northern Kentucky
Northern Kentucky
and Louisville area along the Ohio River
Ohio River
was a favored destination. By 1900, the populations of the cities of Cleveland, Milwaukee, and Cincinnati
Cincinnati
were all more than 40% German American. Dubuque and Davenport, Iowa
Davenport, Iowa
had even larger proportions, as did Omaha, Nebraska, where the proportion of German Americans
Americans
was 57% in 1910. In many other cities of the Midwest, such as Fort Wayne, Indiana, German Americans
Americans
were at least 30% of the population.[32][50] By 1850 there were 5,000 Germans, mostly Schwabians living in, and around, Ann Arbor, Michigan.[51] Many concentrations acquired distinctive names suggesting their heritage, such as the "Over-the-Rhine" district in Cincinnati
Cincinnati
and "German Village" in Columbus, Ohio.[52] A favorite destination was Milwaukee, known as "the German Athens". Radical Germans
Germans
trained in politics in the old country dominated the city's Socialists. Skilled workers dominated many crafts, while entrepreneurs created the brewing industry; the most famous brands included Pabst, Schlitz, Miller, and Blatz.[53] Whereas half of German immigrants settled in cities, the other half established farms in the Midwest. From Ohio
Ohio
to the Plains states, a heavy presence persists in rural areas into the 21st century.[25][54] Deep South[edit] Further information: Germans
Germans
in Alabama Few German immigrants settled in the Deep South, apart from New Orleans, the German Coast, and Texas.[55] Texas[edit] Main article: German Texan

The Wahrenberger House
Wahrenberger House
in Austin served as a German-American school.[56]

Texas
Texas
attracted many Germans
Germans
who entered through Galveston and Indianola, both those who came to farm, and later immigrants who more rapidly took industrial jobs in cities such as Houston. As in Milwaukee, Germans
Germans
in Houston built the brewing industry. By the 1920s, the first generation of college-educated German Americans
Americans
were moving into the chemical and oil industries.[25] Texas
Texas
had about 20,000 German Americans
Americans
in the 1850s. They did not form a uniform bloc, but were highly diverse and drew from geographic areas and all sectors of European society, except that very few aristocrats or upper middle class businessmen arrived. In this regard, Texas
Texas
Germania was a microcosm of the Germania nationwide.

The Germans
Germans
who settled Texas
Texas
were diverse in many ways. They included peasant farmers and intellectuals; Protestants, Catholics, Jews, and atheists; Prussians, Saxons, and Hessians; abolitionists and slave owners; farmers and townsfolk; frugal, honest folk and ax murderers. They differed in dialect, customs, and physical features. A majority had been farmers in Germany, and most arrived seeking economic opportunities. A few dissident intellectuals fleeing the 1848 revolutions sought political freedom, but few, save perhaps the Wends, went for religious freedom. The German settlements in Texas
Texas
reflected their diversity. Even in the confined area of the Hill Country, each valley offered a different kind of German. The Llano valley had stern, teetotaling German Methodists, who renounced dancing and fraternal organizations; the Pedernales valley had fun-loving, hardworking Lutherans and Catholics who enjoyed drinking and dancing; and the Guadalupe valley had freethinking Germans
Germans
descended from intellectual political refugees. The scattered German ethnic islands were also diverse. These small enclaves included Lindsay in Cooke County, largely Westphalian Catholic; Waka in Ochiltree County, Midwestern Mennonite; Hurnville in Clay County, Russian German Baptist; and Lockett in Wilbarger County, Wendish Lutheran.[57]

Germans
Germans
from Russia[edit] See also: Volga Germans
Germans
and Russian Mennonite

Temporary quarters for Volga Germans
Germans
in central Kansas, 1875

Germans
Germans
from Russia were the most traditional of German-speaking arrivals.[citation needed] They were Germans
Germans
who had lived for generations throughout the Russian Empire, but especially along the Volga River
Volga River
in Russia and near the Crimea. Their ancestors had come from all over the German-speaking world, invited by Catherine the Great in 1762 and 1763 to settle and introduce more advanced German agriculture methods to rural Russia. They had been promised by the manifesto of their settlement the ability to practice their respective Christian denominations, retain their culture and language, and retain immunity from conscription for them and their descendants. As time passed, the Russian monarchy gradually eroded the ethnic German population's relative autonomy. Conscription eventually was reinstated; this was especially harmful to the Mennonites, who practice pacifism. Throughout the 19th century, pressure increased from the Russian government to culturally assimilate. Many Germans from Russia found it necessary to emigrate to avoid conscription and preserve their culture. About 100,000 immigrated by 1900, settling primarily in the Dakotas, Kansas
Kansas
and Nebraska. The southern central part of North Dakota
North Dakota
was known as "the German-Russian triangle". A smaller number moved farther west, finding employment as ranchers and cowboys. Negatively influenced by the violation of their rights and cultural persecution by the Tsar, the Germans
Germans
from Russia who settled in the northern Midwest
Midwest
saw themselves a downtrodden ethnic group separate from Russian Americans
Russian Americans
and having an entirely different experience from the German Americans
Americans
who had emigrated from German lands; they settled in tight-knit communities that retained their German language and culture. They raised large families, built German-style churches, buried their dead in distinctive cemeteries using cast iron grave markers, and created choir groups that sang German church hymns. Many farmers specialized in sugar beets—still a major crop in the upper Great Plains. During World War I, their identity was challenged by anti-German sentiment. By the end of World War II, the German language, which had always been used with English for public and official matters, was in serious decline. Today, German is preserved mainly through singing groups and recipes, with the Germans
Germans
from Russia in the northern Great Plains states speaking predominantly English. German remains the second most spoken language in North and South Dakota, and Germans
Germans
from Russia often use loanwords, such as Kuchen for cake. Despite the loss of their language, the ethnic group remains distinct, and has left a lasting impression on the American West.[58] Civil War[edit] Main article: German Americans
Americans
in the American Civil War Sentiment among German Americans
Americans
was largely anti-slavery, especially among Forty-Eighters.[46] Notable Forty-Eighter Hermann Raster
Hermann Raster
wrote passionately against slavery and was very pro-Lincoln. Raster published anti-slavery pamphlets and was the editor of the most influential German language
German language
newspaper in America at the time.[59] He helped secure the votes of German- Americans
Americans
across the United States for Abraham Lincoln. When Raster died the Chicago
Chicago
Tribune published an article regarding his service as a correspondent for America to the German states saying, "His writings during and after the Civil War did more to create understanding and appreciation of the American situation in Germany
Germany
and to float U.S. bonds in Europe than the combined efforts of all the U.S. ministers and consuls."[60] Hundreds of thousands of German Americans
Americans
volunteered to fight for the Union in the American Civil War
American Civil War
(1861–1865).[61] The Germans
Germans
were the largest immigrant group to participate in the Civil War; over 176,000 U.S. soldiers were born in Germany.[62] A popular Union commander among Germans, Major General Franz Sigel
Franz Sigel
was the highest-ranking German officer in the Union Army, with many German immigrants claiming to enlist to "fight mit Sigel".[63]

The German vote in 1900 was in doubt; they opposed the "repudiation" policy of Bryan (right poster), but also disliked the overseas expansion McKinley had delivered (left poster)

Although only one in four Germans
Germans
fought in all-German regiments, they created the public image of the German soldier. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
fielded five German regiments, New York eleven, and Ohio
Ohio
six.[61] Farmers[edit] Western railroads, with large land grants available to attract farmers, set up agencies in Hamburg and other German cities, promising cheap transportation, and sales of farmland on easy terms. For example, the Santa Fe railroad hired its own commissioner for immigration, and sold over 300,000 acres (1,200 km2) to German-speaking farmers.[64] Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the German Americans
Americans
showed a high interest in becoming farmers, and keeping their children and grandchildren on the land. While they needed profits to stay in operation, they used profits as a tool "to maintain continuity of the family."[65] They used risk averse strategies, and carefully planned their inheritances to keep the land in the family. Their communities showed smaller average farm size, greater equality, less absentee ownership and greater geographic persistence. As one farmer explained, "To protect your family has turned out to be the same thing as protecting your land."[66] Germany
Germany
was a large country with many diverse subregions which contributed immigrants. Dubuque was the base of the Ostfriesische Nachrichten ("East Fresian News") from 1881 to 1971. It connected the 20,000 immigrants from East Friesland (Ostfriesland), Germany, to each other across the Midwest, and to their old homeland. In Germany
Germany
East Friesland was often a topic of ridicule regarding backward rustics, but editor Leupke Hündling shrewdly combined stories of proud memories of Ostfriesland. The editor enlisted a network of local correspondents. By mixing local American and local German news, letters, poetry, fiction, and dialogue, the German-language newspaper allowed immigrants to honor their origins and celebrate their new life as highly prosperous farmers with much larger farms than were possible back in impoverished Ostfriesland. During the world wars, when Germania came under heavy attack, the paper stressed its humanitarian role, mobilizing readers to help the people of East Friesland with relief funds. Younger generations could usually speak German but not read it, so the subscription based dwindled away as the target audience Americanized itself.[67] Politics[edit] Relatively few German Americans
Americans
held office, but the men voted once they became citizens. In general during the Third party System (1850s–1890s), the Protestants and Jews leaned toward the Republican party and the Catholics were strongly Democratic. When prohibition was on the ballot, the Germans
Germans
voted solidly against it. They strongly distrusted moralistic crusaders, whom they called "Puritans", including the temperance reformers and many Populists. The German community strongly opposed Free Silver, and voted heavily against crusader William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan
in 1896. In 1900, however, many German Democrats returned to their party and voted for Bryan, perhaps because of President William McKinley's foreign policy.[68] At the local level, historians have explored the changing voting behavior of the German-American community and one of its major strongholds, St. Louis, Missouri. The German Americans
Americans
had voted 80 percent for Lincoln in 1860, and strongly supported the war effort. They were a bastion of the Republican Party in St. Louis
St. Louis
and nearby immigrant strongholds in Missouri
Missouri
and southern Illinois. The German Americans
Americans
were angered by a proposed Missouri
Missouri
state constitution that discriminated against Catholics and freethinkers. The requirement of a special loyalty oath for priests and ministers was troublesome. Despite their strong opposition the constitution was ratified in 1865. Racial tensions with the blacks began to emerge, especially in terms of competition for unskilled labor jobs. Germania was nervous about black suffrage in 1868, fearing that blacks would support puritanical laws Especially regarding the prohibition of beer gardens on Sundays. The tensions split off a large German element in 1872, led by Carl Schurz. They supported the Liberal Republican party led by Benjamin Gratz Brown for governor in 1870 and Horace Greeley
Horace Greeley
for president in 1872.[69] Many Germans
Germans
in late 19th century cities were communists; Germans played a significant role in the labor union movement.[70][71] A few were anarchists.[72] Eight of the forty-two anarchist defendants in the Haymarket Affair
Haymarket Affair
of 1886 in Chicago
Chicago
were German. World Wars[edit] Intellectuals[edit]

Hugo Münsterberg, Harvard professor of psychology

Hugo Münsterberg
Hugo Münsterberg
(1863–1916), a German psychologist, moved to Harvard in the 1890s and became a leader in the new profession. He was president of the American Psychological Association in 1898, and the American Philosophical Association in 1908, and played a major role in many other American and international organizations.[73] Arthur Preuss (1871–1934) was a leading journalist, and theologian. A layman in St Louis. His Fortnightly Review (in English) was a major conservative voice read closely by church leaders and intellectuals from 1894 until 1934. He was intensely loyal to the Vatican. Preuss upheld the German Catholic community, denounced the "Americanism" heresy, promoted the Catholic University of America, and anguished over the anti-German America hysteria during World War I. He provided lengthy commentary regarding the National Catholic Welfare Conference, the anti-Catholic factor in the presidential campaign of 1928, the hardships of the Great Depression, and the liberalism of the New Deal.[74][75] World War I
World War I
anti-German sentiment[edit] See also: American entry into World War I
American entry into World War I
and Internment of German Americans During World War I
World War I
(1917–18), German Americans
Americans
were often accused of being too sympathetic to Imperial Germany. Former president Theodore Roosevelt denounced "hyphenated Americanism", insisting that dual loyalties were impossible in wartime. A small minority came out for Germany, or ridiculed the British (as did H. L. Mencken). Similarly, Harvard psychology professor Hugo Münsterberg
Hugo Münsterberg
dropped his efforts to mediate between America and Germany, and threw his efforts behind the German cause.[76][77] The Justice Department prepared a list of all German aliens, counting approximately 480,000 of them, more than 4,000 of whom were imprisoned in 1917–18. The allegations included spying for Germany, or endorsing the German war effort.[78] Thousands were forced to buy war bonds to show their loyalty.[79] The Red Cross barred individuals with German last names from joining in fear of sabotage. One person was killed by a mob; in Collinsville, Illinois, German-born Robert Prager was dragged from jail as a suspected spy and lynched.[80] A Minnesota minister was tarred and feathered when he was overheard praying in German with a dying woman.[81] In Chicago, Frederick Stock
Frederick Stock
temporarily stepped down as conductor of the Chicago
Chicago
Symphony Orchestra until he finalized his naturalization papers. Orchestras replaced music by German composer Wagner with French composer Berlioz. In Cincinnati, the public library was asked to withdraw all German books from its shelves.[82] German-named streets were renamed. The town, Berlin, Michigan, was changed to Marne, Michigan (honoring those who fought in the Battle of Marne). In Iowa, in the 1918 Babel Proclamation, the governor prohibited all foreign languages in schools and public places. Nebraska
Nebraska
banned instruction in any language except English, but the U.S. Supreme Court ruled the ban illegal in 1923 (Meyer v. Nebraska).[83] The response of German Americans
Americans
to these tactics was often to "Americanize" names (e.g., Schmidt to Smith, Müller to Miller) and limit the use of the German language
German language
in public places, especially churches.[84]

American wartime propaganda depicted the bloodthirsty German "Hun" soldier as an enemy of civilization, with his eyes on America from across the Atlantic

German-American farmer John Meints of Minnesota
Minnesota
was tarred and feathered in August 1918 for allegedly not supporting war bond drives.

World War II[edit]

Marlene Dietrich
Marlene Dietrich
signing a soldier's cast (Belgium, 1944).

Between 1931 and 1940, 114,000 Germans
Germans
moved to the United States, many of whom—including Nobel prize winner Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
and author Erich Maria Remarque—were Jewish Germans
Germans
or anti-Nazis fleeing government oppression.[85] About 25,000 people became paying members of the pro-Nazi German American Bund
German American Bund
during the years before the war.[86] German aliens were the subject of suspicion and discrimination during the war, although prejudice and sheer numbers meant they suffered as a group generally less than Japanese Americans. The Alien Registration Act of 1940 required 300,000 German-born resident aliens who had German citizenship to register with the Federal government and restricted their travel and property ownership rights.[87][88] Under the still active Alien Enemy Act of 1798, the United States
United States
government interned nearly 11,000 German citizens between 1940 and 1948. Civil rights violations occurred.[89] An unknown number of "voluntary internees" joined their spouses and parents in the camps and were not permitted to leave.[90][91][92] President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
sought out Americans
Americans
of German ancestry for top war jobs, including General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, and USAAF
USAAF
General Carl Andrew Spaatz. He appointed Republican Wendell Willkie
Wendell Willkie
(who ironically ran against Roosevelt in the 1940 presidential election) as a personal representative. German Americans
Americans
who had fluent German language
German language
skills were an important asset to wartime intelligence, and they served as translators and as spies for the United States.[93] The war evoked strong pro-American patriotic sentiments among German Americans, few of whom by then had contacts with distant relatives in the old country.[25][94]

Number of German Americans

Year Number

1980[95]

49,224,146

1990[96]

57,947,374

2000[97]

42,885,162

2010[98]

47,911,129

Contemporary period[edit]

Parking meter checker stands by his police vehicle which is imprinted with the German word for police (Polizei). It is part of the town's highlighting its German ethnic origins. New Ulm, Minnesota, July 1974.

In the aftermath of World War II, millions of ethnic Germans
Germans
were forcibly expelled from their homes within the redrawn borders of Central and Eastern Europe, including the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Hungary
Hungary
and Yugoslavia. Most resettled in Germany, but others came as refugees to the United States
United States
in the late 1940s, and established cultural centers in their new homes. Some Danube
Danube
Swabians, for instance, ethnic Germans
Germans
who had maintained language and customs after settlement along the Danube
Danube
in Hungary, later Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(now Serbia), immigrated to the U.S. after the war. After 1970, anti-German sentiment aroused by World War II
World War II
faded away.[99] Today, German Americans
Americans
who immigrated after World War II share the same characteristics as any other Western European immigrant group in the U.S. They are mostly professionals and academics who have come for professional reasons. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union and reunification, Germany
Germany
has become a preferred destination for immigrants rather than a source of migrating peoples.[100]

US Ancestries by County, Germany
Germany
in light blue, as of 2000[update] census

In the 1990 U.S. Census, 58 million Americans
Americans
claimed to be solely or partially of German descent.[101] According to the 2005 American Community Survey, 50 million Americans
Americans
have German ancestry. German Americans
Americans
represent 17% of the total U.S. population and 26% of the non-Hispanic white population.[102] The Economist magazine in 2015 interviewed Petra Schürmann, the director of the German-American Heritage Museum in Washington for a major article on German-Americans. She notes that all over the United States celebrations such as German fests and Oktoberfests have been appearing. Demographics[edit]

Distribution of German Americans
Americans
according to the 2000 Census

States with the highest proportions of German Americans
Americans
tend to be those of the upper Midwest, including Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, Wisconsin, and the Dakotas; all at over one-third.[103] Of the four major US regions, German was the most-reported ancestry in the Midwest, second in the West, and third in both the Northeast and the South. German was the top reported ancestry in 23 states, and it was one of the top five reported ancestries in every state except Maine
Maine
and Rhode Island.[104] At the 2000 census, this was the breakdown of German Americans
Americans
by state, including the District of Columbia:

State German American Population Percentage

 Alabama 354,259 5.7

 Alaska 121,832 14.2

 Arizona 977,613 15.6

 Arkansas 358,764 9.3

 California 6,517,470 9.8

 Colorado 1,090,983 22.0

 Connecticut 365,727 9.8

 Delaware 133,757 14.3

 District of Columbia 27,450 4.8

 Florida 2,270,456 11.8

Georgia 757,769 7.0

 Hawaii 83,967 5.8

 Idaho 317,536 18.8

 Illinois 2,668,955 19.6

 Indiana 1,629,766 22.6

 Iowa 1,169,638 35.7

 Kansas 856,348 25.8

 Kentucky 638,231 12.7

 Louisiana 403,222 7.0

 Maine 109,401 8.6

 Maryland 937,887 15.7

 Massachusetts 402,176 5.9

 Michigan 2,271,091 20.4

 Minnesota 1,949,346 38.4

 Mississippi 172,456 4.5

 Missouri 1,576,813 23.5

 Montana 282,130 27.0

 Nebraska 738,894 42.7

 Nevada 338,717 14.1

 New Hampshire 124,430 8.6

 New Jersey 1,092,054 12.6

 New Mexico 219,278 9.8

 New York 2,250,309 11.2

 North Carolina 1,020,432 9.5

  North Dakota 290,452 46.8

 Ohio 3,231,788 26.5

 Oklahoma 531,375 12.6

 Oregon 811,780 20.5

 Pennsylvania 4,491,269 25.4

 Rhode Island 60,634 5.7

 South Carolina 425,455 8.4

 South Dakota 334,068 44.5

 Tennessee 612,669 8.3

 Texas 2,542,996 9.9

 Utah 313,733 11.5

 Vermont 67,706 9.1

 Virginia 973,438 11.7

 Washington 1,319,975 18.8

 West Virginia 354,704 14.0

 Wisconsin 2,455,980 43.8

 Wyoming 144,972 25.9

Total US 42,902,103 15.2

[105][not in citation given] German-American communities[edit] Today, most German Americans
Americans
have assimilated to the point that they no longer have readily identifiable ethnic communities, though there are still many metropolitan areas where German is the most reported ethnicity, such as Cincinnati, Northern Kentucky, Cleveland, Columbus, Indianapolis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis – Saint Paul, Pittsburgh, and St. Louis.[106][107] Communities with high percentages of people of German ancestry[edit] The 25 U.S. communities with the highest percentage of residents claiming German ancestry are:[108]

Monterey, Ohio
Ohio
83.6% Granville, Ohio
Ohio
79.6% St. Henry, Ohio
Ohio
78.5% Germantown Township, Illinois
Illinois
77.6% Jackson, Indiana
Indiana
77.3% Washington, Ohio
Ohio
77.2% St. Rose, Illinois
Illinois
77.1% Butler, Ohio
Ohio
76.4% Marion, Ohio
Ohio
76.3% Jennings, Ohio
Ohio
and Germantown, Illinois
Illinois
(village) 75.6% Coldwater, Ohio
Ohio
74.9% Jackson, Ohio
Ohio
74.6% Union, Ohio
Ohio
74.1% Minster, Ohio
Ohio
and Kalida, Ohio
Ohio
73.5% Greensburg, Ohio
Ohio
73.4% Aviston, Illinois
Illinois
72.5% Teutopolis, Illinois
Illinois
(village) 72.4% Teutopolis, Illinois
Illinois
(township) and Cottonwood, Minnesota
Minnesota
72.3% Dallas, Michigan
Michigan
71.7% Gibson, Ohio
Ohio
71.6% Town of Marshfield, Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
71.5% Santa Fe, Illinois
Illinois
70.8% Recovery, Ohio
Ohio
70.4% Town of Brothertown, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
69.9% Town of Herman, Dodge County, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
69.8%

Large communities with high percentages of people of German ancestry[edit] U.S. communities with the highest percentage of residents claiming German ancestry are:[109]

Dubuque, Iowa
Dubuque, Iowa
43% Fargo, North Dakota
North Dakota
31% Madison, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
29% Green Bay, Wisconsin
Wisconsin
29% Levittown, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
22% Erie, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
22% Cincinnati, Ohio
Ohio
19.8% Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
19.7% Columbus, Ohio
Ohio
19.4% Beaverton, Oregon
Oregon
17%

Communities with the most residents born in Germany[edit] The 25 U.S. communities with the most residents born in Germany are:[110]

Lely Resort, Florida
Florida
6.8% Pemberton Heights, New Jersey
New Jersey
5.0% Kempner, Texas
Texas
4.8% Cedar Glen Lakes, New Jersey
New Jersey
4.5% Alamogordo, New Mexico
New Mexico
4.3% Sunshine Acres, Florida
Florida
and Leisureville, Florida
Florida
4.2% Wakefield, Kansas
Kansas
4.1% Quantico, Virginia
Virginia
4.0% Crestwood Village, New Jersey
New Jersey
3.8% Shandaken, New York
Shandaken, New York
3.5% Vine Grove, Kentucky
Kentucky
3.4% Burnt Store Marina, Florida
Florida
and Boles Acres, New Mexico
New Mexico
3.2% Allenhurst, Georgia, Security-Widefield, Colorado, Grandview Plaza, Kansas, and Fairbanks Ranch, California
California
3.0% Standing Pine, Mississippi
Mississippi
2.9% Millers Falls, Massachusetts, Marco Island, Florida, Daytona Beach Shores, Florida, Radcliff, Kentucky, Beverly Hills, Florida, Davilla, Texas, Annandale, New Jersey, and Holiday Heights, New Jersey
New Jersey
2.8% Fort Riley North, Kansas, Copperas Cove, Texas, and Cedar Glen West, New Jersey
New Jersey
2.7% Pelican Bay, Florida, Masaryktown, Florida, Highland Beach, Florida, Milford, Kansas, and Langdon, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
2.6% Forest Home, New York, Southwest Bell, Texas, Vineyards, Florida, South Palm Beach, Florida, and Basye-Bryce Mountain, Virginia
Virginia
2.5% Sausalito, California, Bovina, New York, Fanwood, New Jersey, Fountain, Colorado, Rye Brook, New York
Rye Brook, New York
and Desoto Lakes, Florida
Florida
2.4% Ogden, Kansas, Blue Berry Hill, Texas, Lauderdale-by-the-Sea, Florida, Sherman, Connecticut, Leisuretowne, New Jersey, Killeen, Texas, White House Station, New Jersey, Junction City, Kansas, Ocean Ridge, Florida, Viola, New York, Waynesville, Missouri
Missouri
and Mill Neck, New York 2.3% Level Plains, Alabama, Kingsbury, Nevada, Tega Cay, South Carolina, Margaretville, New York, White Sands, New Mexico, Stamford, New York, Point Lookout, New York, and Terra Mar, Florida
Florida
2.2% Rifton, Manasota Key, Florida, Del Mar, California, Yuba Foothills, California, Daleville, Alabama. Tesuque, New Mexico, Plainsboro Center, New Jersey, Silver Ridge, New Jersey
New Jersey
and Palm Beach, Florida 2.1% Oriental, North Carolina, Holiday City-Berkeley, New Jersey, North Sea, New York, Ponce Inlet, Florida, Woodlawn-Dotsonville, Tennessee, West Hurley, New York, Littlerock, California, Felton, California, Laguna Woods, California, Leisure Village, New Jersey, Readsboro, Vermont, Nolanville, Texas, and Groveland-Big Oak Flat, California 2.0% Rotonda, Florida, Grayson, California, Shokan, New York, The Meadows, Florida, Southeast Comanche, Oklahoma, Lincolndale, New York, Fort Polk South, Louisiana, and Townsend, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
1.9% Pine Ridge, Florida, Boca Pointe, Florida, Rodney Village, Delaware, Palenville, New York, and Topsfield, Massachusetts
Massachusetts
1.8%

Culture[edit] The Germans
Germans
worked hard to maintain and cultivate their language, especially through newspapers and classes in elementary and high schools. German Americans
Americans
in many cities, such as Milwaukee, brought their strong support of education, establishing German-language schools and teacher training seminaries (Töchter-Institut) to prepare students and teachers in German language
German language
training. By the late 19th century, the Germania Publishing Company was established in Milwaukee, a publisher of books, magazines, and newspapers in German.[111] "Germania" was the common term for German American neighborhoods and their organizations.[112] Deutschtum was the term for transplanted German nationalism, both culturally and politically. Between 1875 and 1915, the German American population in the United States
United States
doubled, and many of its members insisted on maintaining their culture. German was used in local schools and churches, while numerous Vereine, associations dedicated to literature, humor, gymnastics, and singing, sprang up in German American communities. German Americans
Americans
tended to support the German government's actions, and, even after the United States entered World War I, they often voted for antidraft and antiwar candidates. 'Deutschtum' in the United States
United States
disintegrated after 1918.[113] Music[edit] Beginning in 1741, the German-speaking Moravian Church
Moravian Church
Settlements of Bethlehem, Nazareth and Lititz, Pennsylvania, and Wachovia in North Carolina had highly developed musical cultures. Choral music, Brass and String Music and Congregational singing were highly cultivated. The Moravian Church
Moravian Church
produced many composers and musicians. Haydn's Creation had its American debut in Bethlehem in the early 19th century. The spiritual beliefs of Johann Conrad Beissel (1690–1768) and the Ephrata Cloister—such as the asceticism and mysticism of this Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, group - are reflected in Beissel's treatises on music and hymns, which have been considered the beginning of America's musical heritage.[114] In most major cities, Germans
Germans
took the lead in creating a musical culture, with popular bands, singing societies, operas and symphonic orchestras.[115] A small city, Wheeling, West Virginia
Virginia
could boast of 11 singing societies—Maennerchor, Harmonie, Liedertafel, Beethoven, Concordia, Liederkranz, Germania, Teutonia, Harmonie-Maennerchor, Arion, and Mozart. The first began in 1855; the last folded in 1961. An important aspect of Wheeling social life, these societies reflected various social classes and enjoyed great popularity until anti-German sentiments during World War I
World War I
and changing social values dealt them a death blow.[116] The Liederkranz, a German-American music society, played an important role in the integration of the German community into the life of Louisville, Kentucky. Started in 1848, the organization was strengthened by the arrival of German liberals after the failure of the revolution of that year. By the mid-1850s the Germans
Germans
formed one-third of Louisville's population and faced nativist hostility organized in the Know-Nothing movement. Violent demonstrations forced the chorus to suppress publicity of its performances that included works by composer Richard Wagner. The Liederkranz suspended operations during the Civil War, but afterward grew rapidly, and was able to build a large auditorium by 1873. An audience of 8,000 that attended a performance in 1877 demonstrated that the Germans
Germans
were an accepted part of Louisville life.[117] The Imperial government in Berlin promoted German culture in the U.S., especially music. A steady influx of German-born conductors, including Arthur Nikisch and Karl Muck, spurred the reception of German music in the United States, while German musicians seized on Victorian Americans' growing concern with 'emotion'. The performance of pieces such as Beethoven's Ninth Symphony established German serious music as the superior language of feeling. .[118] Turners[edit] Turner societies in the United States
United States
were first organized during the mid-19th century so German American immigrants could visit with one another and become involved in social and sports activities. The National Turnerbund, the head organization of the Turnvereine, started drilling members as in militia units in 1854. Nearly half of all Turners
Turners
fought in the Civil War, mostly on the Union side, and a special group served as bodyguards for President Lincoln. By the 1890s, Turners
Turners
numbered nearly 65,000. At the turn of the 21st century, however, with the ethnic identity of European Americans
European Americans
in flux and Americanization a key element of immigrant life, there were few Turner groups, athletic events were limited, and non- Germans
Germans
were members. A survey of surviving groups and members reflects these radical changes in the role of Turner societies and their marginalization in 21st-century American society, as younger German Americans
Americans
tended not to belong, even in strongholds of German heritage in the Midwest.[119] Media[edit] Main article: German American journalism

German newspapers in North America, 1922

As for any immigrant population, the development of a foreign-language press helped immigrants more easily learn about their new home, maintain connections to their native land, and unite immigrant communities.[120] By the late 19th century, Germania published over 800 regular publications. The most prestigious daily newspapers, such as the New Yorker Staats-Zeitung, the Anzeiger des Westens
Anzeiger des Westens
in St. Louis, and the Illinois
Illinois
Staats-Zeitung in Chicago, promoted middle-class values and encouraged German ethnic loyalty among their readership.[121] The Germans
Germans
were proud of their language, supported many German-language public and private schools, and conducted their church services in German.[122] They published at least two-thirds of all foreign language newspapers in the U.S. The papers were owned and operated in the U.S., with no control from Germany. As Wittke emphasizes, press. it was "essentially an American press published in a foreign tongue." The papers reported on major political and diplomatic events involving Germany, with pride but from the viewpoint of its American readers.[123][124] For example, during the latter half of the 19th century, at least 176 different German-language publications began operations in the city of Cincinnati
Cincinnati
alone. Many of these publications folded within a year, while a select few, such as the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Freie Presse, lasted nearly a century.[125] Other cities experienced similar turnover among immigrant publications, especially from opinion press, which published little news and focused instead on editorial commentary.[126] By the end of the 19th century, there were over 800 German-language publications in the United States.[127] German immigration was on the decline, however, and with subsequent generations integrating into English-speaking society, the German language
German language
press began to struggle.[128] The periodicals that managed to survive in immigrant communities faced an additional challenge with anti-German sentiment during World War I[129] and with the Espionage and Sedition Acts, which authorized censorship of foreign language newspapers.[130] Prohibition
Prohibition
also had a destabilizing impact on the German immigrant communities upon which the German-language publications relied.[128] By 1920, there were only 278 German language
German language
publications remaining in the country.[131] After 1945, only a few publications have been started. One example is Hiwwe wie Driwwe (Kutztown, PA), the nation's only Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German newspaper, which was established in 1997. Athletics[edit] Germans
Germans
brought organized gymnastics to America, and were strong supporters of sports programs. They used sport both to promote ethnic identity and pride and to facilitate integration into American society. Beginning in the mid-19th century, the Turner movement offered exercise and sports programs, while also providing a social haven for the thousands of new German immigrants arriving in the United States
United States
each year. Another highly successful German sports organization was the Buffalo Germans
Germans
basketball team, winners of 762 games (against only 85 losses) in the early years of the 20th century. These examples, and others, reflect the evolving place of sport in the assimilation and socialization of much of the German-American population.[132] Religion[edit]

This 1850 census map shows the Lutheran population. Nearly all were German, since few Scandinavians had arrived yet.

German immigrants who arrived before the 19th century tended to have been members of the Evangelical Lutheran Churches in Germany, and created the Lutheran Synods of Pennsylvania, North Carolina
North Carolina
and New York. The largest Lutheran denominations in the U.S. today—the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, and the Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Evangelical Lutheran Synod—are all descended from churches started by German immigrants among others. Calvinist
Calvinist
Germans
Germans
founded the Reformed Church in the United States (especially in New York and Pennsylvania), and the Evangelical Synod of North America (strongest in the Midwest), which is now part of the United Church of Christ. Many immigrants joined different churches from those that existed in Germany. Protestants often joined the Methodist church.[25] In the 1740s, Count Nicolas von Zinzendorf tried to unite all the German-speaking Christians—(Lutheran, Reformed, and Separatists)—into one "Church of God in the Spirit". The Moravian Church in America is one of the results of this effort, as are the many "Union" churches in rural Pennsylvania. Before 1800, communities of Amish, Mennonites, Schwarzenau Brethren and Moravians had formed and are still in existence today. The Old Order Amish
Amish
and a majority of the Old Order Mennonites still speak dialects of German, including Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German, informally known as Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch. The Amish, who were originally from southern Germany
Germany
and Switzerland, arrived in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
during the early 18th century. Amish
Amish
immigration to the United States
United States
reached its peak between the years 1727 and 1770. Religious freedom was perhaps the most pressing cause for Amish
Amish
immigration to Pennsylvania, which became known as a haven for persecuted religious groups.[133] The Hutterites are another example of a group of German Americans
Americans
who continue a lifestyle similar to that of their ancestors. Like the Amish, they fled persecution for their religious beliefs, and came to the United States
United States
between 1874 and 1879. Today, Hutterites mostly reside in Montana, the Dakotas, and Minnesota, and the western provinces of Canada. Hutterites continue to speak Hutterite
Hutterite
German. Most are able to understand Standard German
Standard German
in addition to their dialect.[134] The German speaking "Russian" Mennonites migrated during the same time as the Hutterites, but assimilated relatively quickly in the United States, whereas groups of "Russian" Mennonites in Canada resisted assimilation.[135] Immigrants from Germany
Germany
in the mid-to-late-19th century brought many different religions with them. The most numerous were Lutheran or Catholic, although the Lutherans were themselves split among different groups. The more conservative Lutherans comprised the Lutheran Church– Missouri
Missouri
Synod and the Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Other Lutherans formed various synods, most of which merged with Scandinavian-based synods in 1988, forming the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.[136] Catholic Germans
Germans
started immigrating in large numbers in the mid to latter 19th century, spurred in particular by the Kulturkampf. Some 19th-century immigrants, especially the "Forty-Eighters", were secular, rejecting formal religion. About 250,000 German Jews
German Jews
had arrived by the 1870s, and they sponsored reform synagogues in many small cities across the country. About 2 million Central and Eastern European Jews arrived from the 1880s to 1924, bringing more traditional religious practices.[137] Language[edit]

German speakers in the US

Year

Speakers

1910a

2,759,032

1920a

2,267,128

1930a

2,188,006

1940a

1,589,040

1960a

1,332,399

1970a

1,201,535

1980[138]

1,586,593

1990[139]

1,547,987

2000[140]

1,383,442

2007[141]

1,104,354

^a Foreign-born population only[142]

After two or three generations, most German Americans
Americans
adopted mainstream American customs — some of which they heavily influenced — and switched their language to English. As one scholar concludes, "The overwhelming evidence ... indicates that the German-American school was a bilingual one much (perhaps a whole generation or more) earlier than 1917, and that the majority of the pupils may have been English-dominant bilinguals from the early 1880s on."[143] By 1914, the older members attended German-language church services, while younger ones attended English services (in Lutheran, Evangelical and Catholic churches). In German parochial schools, the children spoke English among themselves, though some of their classes were in German. In 1917–18, after the US entry into World War I
World War I
on the side of the British, nearly all German language
German language
instruction ended, as did most German-language church services.[84] About 1.5 million Americans
Americans
speak German at home, according to the 2000 census. From 1860–1917, German was widely spoken in German neighborhoods; see German in the United States. There is a false belief, called the Muhlenberg legend, that German was almost the official language of the U.S. There was never any such proposal. The U.S. has no official language, but use of German was strongly discouraged during World War I
World War I
and fell out of daily use in many places.[144] There were fierce battles in Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and Illinois
Illinois
around 1890 regarding proposals to stop the use of German as the primary language in public and parochial schools. The Bennett Law was a highly controversial state law passed in Wisconsin
Wisconsin
in 1889 that required the use of English to teach major subjects in all public and private elementary and high schools. It affected the state's many German-language private schools (and some Norwegian schools), and was bitterly resented by German American communities. The German Catholics and Lutherans each operated large networks of parochial schools in the state. Because the language used in the classroom was German, the law meant the teachers would have to be replaced with bilingual teachers, and in most cases shut down. The Germans
Germans
formed a coalition between Catholics and Lutherans, under the leadership of the Democratic Party, and the language issue produced a landslide for the Democrats, as Republicans dropped the issue until World War I. By 1917, almost all schools taught in English, but courses in German were common in areas with large German populations. These courses were permanently dropped.[145] Assimilation[edit] "Assimilation" in this context means the steady loss of distinctive characteristics (especially language), as the Germans
Germans
melted into a common American nationality. By 1910 German Americans
Americans
had created their own distinctive, vibrant, prosperous German-language communities, called "Germania". According to historian Walter Kamphoefner, a "number of big cities introduced German into their public school programs".[146] Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Cleveland and other cities "had what we now call two-way immersion programs: school taught half in German, half in English".[146] This was a tradition which continued "all the way down to World War I."[146] According to Kamphoefner, German "was in a similar position as the Spanish language is in the 20th and 21st century"; it "was by far the most widespread foreign language, and whoever was the largest group was at a definite advantage in getting its language into the public sphere."[146] Kamphoefner has come across evidence that as late as 1917, a German version of "The Star-Spangled Banner" was still being sung in public schools in Indianapolis.[146] The transition to the English language
English language
was abrupt, forced by the federal government during World War One. After 1917 the German language was seldom heard in public; most newspapers and magazines closed; churches and parochial schools switched to English. Film critic Roger Ebert
Roger Ebert
wrote how "I could hear the pain in my German-American father's voice as he recalled being yanked out of Lutheran school during World War I
World War I
and forbidden by his immigrant parents ever to speak German again".[147] Youth increasingly attended high schools, where they mingled, in English, and dated (and later married) people of other ethnicities. The Catholic high schools were deliberately structured to commingle ethnic groups so as to promote intermarriage.[148] German-speaking taverns, beer gardens and saloons were all shut down by prohibition; those that reopened in 1933 spoke English. By the 1940s Germania had largely vanished outside remote areas and the Germans
Germans
were thoroughly assimilated.[149] Historians have tried to explain what became of the German Americans and their descendents. Kazal (2004) looks at Germans
Germans
in Philadelphia, focusing on four ethnic subcultures: middle-class Vereinsdeutsche, working-class socialists, Lutherans, and Catholics. Each group followed a somewhat distinctive path toward assimilation. Lutherans, and the better situated Vereinsdeutsche with whom they often overlapped, after World War I
World War I
abandoned the last major German characteristics and redefined themselves as old stock or as "Nordic" Americans, stressing their colonial roots in Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and distancing themselves from more recent immigrants. On the other hand, working-class and Catholic Germans, groups that heavily overlapped, lived and worked with Irish and other European ethnics; they also gave up German characteristics but came to identify themselves as white ethnics, distancing themselves above all from African American
African American
recent arrivals in nearby neighborhoods. Well before World War I, women in particular were becoming more and more involved in a mass consumer culture that lured them out of their German-language neighborhood shops and into English language
English language
downtown department stores. The 1920s and 1930s brought English language
English language
popular culture via movies and radio that drowned out the few surviving German language
German language
venues.[150] Despite this assimilation, it is worth noting that a distinct German American ethnicity survived well into the mid-20th century in some places. Writing about the town of Hustisford, Wisconsin, Jennifer Ludden discusses Mel Grulke, who was born in 1941, with German his first language at home; "Grulke's great-grandparents immigrated to the U.S. in the late 1880s, yet three generations later, his farmer parents still spoke German at home, attended German language
German language
church services and chatted in German with shopkeepers when they brought their farm eggs into town to sell".[146] Bethany Lutheran Church in Hustisford offered German-language services into the 1970s.[146] Homer Rudolf, a man from North Dakota
North Dakota
of German Russian descent, stated in 2004 that his maternal grandmother, who died in 1980 at the age of 90, "did not learn English".[151] As recently as 1990, one quarter of North Dakota's households included a German speaker.[152] To this day, relatively unassimilated people of German-speaking heritage can be found in the United States
United States
among different Anabaptist groups - the Old Order Amish
Amish
and most Old Order Mennonites speak Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Dutch (or Bernese German or Alsatian by a minority of Amish) along with High German
High German
to various degrees (though they are generally fluent in English).[153] All Hutterites speak Hutterite German and many "Russian" Mennonites speak Plautdietsch, a German dialect coming originally from the area around Danzig. The three Amish dialects as well as Hutterite German are still learned by all children of the group, whereas Plautdietsch-speakers tend much more to assimilate. German American influence[edit] Main article: German language
German language
in the United States

Late-19th-century German-American buildings in Manhattan

Freie Bibliothek und Lesehalle (Free Library and Reading Hall) and Deutsches Dispensary (German Dispensary), both by William Schickel (1883–1884) on Second Avenue at St Mark's Place in the East Village

Deutsch-Amerikanische Schützen Gesellschaft (German-American Shooting Society) by William C. Frohne (1885) on St. Mark's Place in the East Village

Scheffel Hall by Weber and Drosser (1894) on Third Avenue between 17th and 18th Streets, near Gramercy Park

Germans
Germans
have contributed to a vast number of areas in American culture and technology. Baron von Steuben, a former Prussian officer, led the reorganization of the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
during the War for Independence and helped make the victory against British troops possible. The Steinway & Sons piano manufacturing firm was founded by immigrant Henry E. Steinway in 1853. German settlers brought the Christmas tree
Christmas tree
custom and other German Christmas traditions to the United States. The Studebakers built large numbers of wagons used during the Western migration; Studebaker, like the Duesenberg
Duesenberg
brothers, later became an important early automobile manufacturer. Carl Schurz, a refugee from the unsuccessful first German democratic revolution of 1848 became an influential politician first in the Republican then in the Democratic party, and served as U.S. Secretary of the Interior.[154] After World War II, Wernher von Braun, and most of the leading engineers from the former German V-2 rocket base at Peenemünde, were brought to the U.S. They contributed decisively to the development of U.S. military rockets, as well as rockets for the NASA
NASA
space program and the initiation of the Apollo program
Apollo program
to land on the Moon.[155] Similarly, fellow German aviation technologist Siegfried Knemeyer, the former top aviation technologist within Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring's Reich Air Ministry
Reich Air Ministry
during World War II, was brought to the United States
United States
through a similar path to von Braun, and served as a civilian employee of the USAF
USAF
for over twenty years. The influence of German cuisine
German cuisine
is seen in the cuisine of the United States throughout the country, especially regarding pastries, meats and sausages, and above all, beer. Frankfurters (or "wieners", originating from Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt am Main
and Vienna, respectively), hamburgers, bratwurst, sauerkraut, and strudel are common dishes. German bakers introduced the pretzel, which is popular across the United States. Germans
Germans
introduced America to lager, the most-produced beer style in the United States, and have been the dominant ethnic group in the beer industry since 1850.[25][156] The oldest extant brewery in the United States
United States
is D. G. Yuengling & Son of Pottsville, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(approximately 80 miles northwest of Philadelphia), founded in 1829 by an immigrant from Aldingen
Aldingen
in what is today Baden-Württemberg; the brewery's flagship product remains a 19th-century German-style amber lager.[157] By the late 19th century, Milwaukee, with a large population of German origin, was once the home to four of the world's largest breweries owned by ethnic Germans
Germans
(Schlitz, Blatz, Pabst, and Miller) and was the number one beer producing city in the world for many years. Almost half of all current beer sales in the United States
United States
can be attributed to German immigrants, Capt. A. Pabst, Eberhard Anheuser, and Adolphus Busch, who founded Anheuser-Busch
Anheuser-Busch
in St. Louis
St. Louis
in 1860.[158] Later German immigrants figured prominently in the rebirth of craft brews following Prohibition, culminating in the microbrew movement that swept the U.S. beginning in the late 1980s. German and German-American celebrations, such as Oktoberfest, Rhenish Carnival, German-American Day
German-American Day
and Von Steuben Day
Von Steuben Day
are held regularly throughout the country. One of the largest is the German-American Steuben Parade in New York City, held every third Saturday in September. There are also major annual events in Chicago's Lincoln Square neighborhood, a traditional a center of the city's German population, in Cincinnati, where its annual Oktoberfest Zinzinnati[159] is the largest Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
outside of Germany[160] and in Milwaukee, which celebrates its German heritage with an annual German Fest.[106] Many of the immigrants from Germany
Germany
and other German-speaking countries came to Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
to what was then "Allegheny City" (now part of the North Side of the City of Pittsburgh). So many German speakers arrived, the area became known as "Deutschtown" and has been revived as such.[161][162] Within Deutschtown and since 1854, The Teutonia Männerchor has been promoting and furthering German cultural traditions.[163] Skat, the most popular card game in Germany, is also played in areas of the United States
United States
with large German American populations, such as Wisconsin
Wisconsin
and Texas.[106] Education[edit] The following German international schools are in operation in the United States, serving German citizens, Americans, and other U.S. residents:

German International School Boston German School New York German American School of Portland German International School of Silicon Valley German School Washington, D.C.

Notable people[edit] For a more comprehensive list, see List of German Americans. German Americans
Americans
have been influential in almost every field in American society, including science, architecture, business, sports, entertainment, theology, politics, and the military. Many of these individuals were of German Jewish descent or anti-Nazis who fleed Nazi oppression.[164] German American general/flag military officers Baron von Steuben, George Armstrong Custer, John Pershing, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Chester W. Nimitz, Carl Andrew Spaatz
Carl Andrew Spaatz
and Norman Schwarzkopf
Norman Schwarzkopf
commanded the United States
United States
Army in the American Revolutionary War, American Civil War, Indian Wars, World War I, World War II, and the Persian Gulf War, respectively. German Americans
Americans
were famous American politicians, including Carl Schurz, Friedrich Hecker, Frederick Muhlenberg, Henry Morgenthau, Sr., Henry Morgenthau, Jr., Dwight D. Eisenhower, Herbert Hoover, Henry Kissinger, John Boehner
John Boehner
and Donald Trump. Many German Americans
Americans
have played a prominent role in American industry and business, including Henry J. Heinz
Henry J. Heinz
(H. J. Heinz Company), Frank Seiberling
Frank Seiberling
(Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company), Walt Disney (Disney), John D. Rockefeller
John D. Rockefeller
(Standard Oil), William Boeing
William Boeing
(The Boeing Company) and (United Airlines), Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(Chrysler Corporation), Frederick and August Duesenberg
Duesenberg
( Duesenberg
Duesenberg
Automobile Corporation), Studebaker
Studebaker
brothers ( Studebaker
Studebaker
Automobile Corporation), George Westinghouse
George Westinghouse
(Westinghouse Electric Corporation), Levi Strauss ( Levi Strauss
Levi Strauss
& Co.), Charles Guth (PepsiCo Inc.), Bill Gates ( Microsoft
Microsoft
Corporation), Elon Musk
Elon Musk
(SolarCity), (SpaceX) and (Tesla Motors), James L. Kraft
James L. Kraft
(Kraft Foods Inc.), Henry E. Steinway (Steinway & Sons), Charles Pfizer (Pfizer, Inc.), John Jacob Astor (Waldorf Astoria Hotels and Resorts), Conrad Hilton
Conrad Hilton
(Hilton Hotels & Resorts), Guggenheim family
Guggenheim family
(Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation), (Guggenheim Partners), Marcus Goldman
Marcus Goldman
and Samuel Sachs (The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.), Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers
( Lehman Brothers
Lehman Brothers
Holdings Inc.), Carl Laemmle
Carl Laemmle
(Universal Studios), Marcus Loew
Marcus Loew
(Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc.), Harry Cohn
Harry Cohn
(Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc.), Herman Hollerith ( International Business Machines Corporation
International Business Machines Corporation
(IBM)), Steve Jobs (Apple Inc.),[165] Michael Dell
Michael Dell
(Dell Inc.), Eric Schmidt
Eric Schmidt
(Google Inc.) and (Alphabet Inc.), Peter Thiel
Peter Thiel
( PayPal
PayPal
Inc.), Adolph Simon Ochs and Arthur Ochs Sulzberger
Arthur Ochs Sulzberger
(The New York Times), Charles Bergstresser (The Wall Street Journal), Al Neuharth (USA Today), Eugene Meyer (The Washington Post) etc. German Americans
Americans
were pioneers and dominated beer brewing for much of American history, beginning with breweries founded in the 19th century by German immigrants August Schell
August Schell
( August Schell
August Schell
Brewing Company), Christian Moerlein ( Christian Moerlein Brewing Co.), Eberhard Anheuser ( Anheuser-Busch
Anheuser-Busch
InBev), Adolphus Busch
Adolphus Busch
( Anheuser-Busch
Anheuser-Busch
InBev), Adolph Coors (Molson Coors Brewing Company), Frederick Miller (Miller Brewing Company), Frederick Pabst
Frederick Pabst
(Pabst Brewing Company), Bernhard Stroh (Stroh Brewery Company) and Joseph Schlitz
Joseph Schlitz
( Joseph Schlitz
Joseph Schlitz
Brewing Company).[158] Some, such as Brooklyn Bridge
Brooklyn Bridge
engineer John A. Roebling
John A. Roebling
and architects Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius
and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, left behind visible landmarks. Others, including Albert Einstein, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Wernher von Braun, John Peter Zenger, John Steinbeck, Kurt Vonnegut, Joseph Weizenbaum set intellectual landmarks while Neil Armstrong
Neil Armstrong
was the first human to land on the moon. Still others, such as Bruce Willis, George Eyser, Babe Ruth, Lou Gehrig, Jack Nicklaus, Doris Mary Ann Kappelhoff (Doris Day), Grace Kelly, Clark Gable, Marlene Dietrich, Johnny Weissmuller, Ernst Lubitsch, Walter Damrosch, Henry John Deutschendorf (John Denver), John Kay, Heidi Klum, Meryl Streep, Marlon Brando, Kim Basinger, Sandra Bullock, David Hasselhoff, Leonardo DiCaprio, Kirsten Dunst, and Kevin George Knipfing (Kevin James) became prominent athletes, actors, film directors or artists.[166] German-American presidents[edit] There have been three presidents whose fathers were of German descent: Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(original family name Eisenhauer and maternal side is also German/Swiss), Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
(original family name Huber), and Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(whose paternal grandparents were Bavarian immigrants). Presidents with maternal German ancestry include Richard Milhous Nixon (Nixon's maternal ancestors were Germans
Germans
who anglicized Melhausen to Milhous)[167] and Barack Obama, whose maternal family's ancestry includes German immigrants from the South German town of Besigheim[168] and from Bischwiller
Bischwiller
in the Alsace
Alsace
region that is nowadays part of France; both families came to America around 1750.[169] See also[edit]

United States
United States
portal Germany
Germany
portal

Distinguished German-American of the Year Hyphenated American

References[edit]

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and Their New Identity", International Journal of the History of Sport 2002 19(1): 91-118 ^ Carl Wittke, The German-Language Press in America (1957) ^ Peter Conolly-Smith, "Transforming an Ethnic Readership Through "Word and Image": William Randolph Hearst's Deutsches Journal and New York's German-Language Press, 1895–1918", Volume 19, Number 1, 2009 in Project MUSE; Peter Conolly-Smith, Translating America: An Ethnic Press Visualizes Popular American Culture, 1895–1918 (2004); Carl Wittke, The German-Language Press in America (1957). ^ Richard Jensen, The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888–1896 (1971) ch. 5 ^ Wittke, The German-Language Press in America. p. 6 ^ Shore, "Introduction." in The German-American Radical Press. ^ Arndt, The German Language Press of the Americas ^ Wittke, The German-Language Press in America ^ La Verne Rippley, The German Americans, Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1984, p. 164. ^ a b Dobbert, G.A. "German- Americans
Americans
between New and Old Fatherland, 1870-1914." American Quarterly. 19.4 (1967): 663-680. ^ Shell, Marc. "Hyphens: Between Deitsch and American." Multilingual America. Ed.. Werner Sollors. New York City: New York University Press, 1998. ^ Thomas Adam (Ed.), Germany
Germany
and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2005, p. 319. ^ Rippley, p. 166. ^ Annette R. Hofmann, "Between Ethnic Separation and Assimilation: German Immigrants and Their Athletic Endeavours in Their New American Home Country", International Journal of the History of Sport 2008 25(8): 993-1009, ^ The Amish, retrieved 2006-10-06  ^ Allard, William Albert (2006), Hutterite
Hutterite
Sojourn, Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society  ^ Donald B. Kraybill and Nelson Hostetter: Anabaptist
Anabaptist
World USA, 2001, Scottdale, PA, and Waterloo, ON, page 115. ^ Almen, Lowell (1997), One Great Cloud of Witnesses, Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress  ^ Edward S. Shapiro, "Jews", in Elliott Barkan, ed. A Nation of Peoples (1999) 330–36. ^ "Appendix Table 2. Languages Spoken at Home: 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2007". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved August 6, 2012.  ^ "Detailed Language Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English for Persons 5 Years and Over --50 Languages with Greatest Number of Speakers: United States
United States
1990". United States
United States
Census Bureau. 1990. Retrieved July 22, 2012.  ^ "Language Spoken at Home: 2000". United States
United States
Bureau of the Census. Retrieved August 8, 2012.  ^ "Language Use in the United States:2007" (PDF). United States
United States
Bureau of the Census. Retrieved June 24, 2014.  ^ "Mother Tongue of the Foreign-Born Population: 1910 to 1940, 1960, and 1970". United States
United States
Census Bureau. March 9, 1999. Retrieved August 6, 2012.  ^ "Language loyalty in the German-American Church: the Case of an Over-confident Minority". Ccat.sas.upenn.edu. Retrieved 17 March 2015.  ^ see U.S. State Department, "German Language in the U.S" ^ Robert J. Ulrich, The Bennett Law of Eighteen Eighty-Nine: Education and Politics in Wisconsin
Wisconsin
(1981). ^ a b c d e f g Ludden, Jennifer (April 1, 2009). "German". National Public Radio. Retrieved December 23, 2012.  ^ Ebert, Roger (April 12, 2002). ""I could hear the pain in my German-American father's voice"". Chicago
Chicago
Sun-Times. Retrieved December 23, 2012.  ^ Edward R. Kantowicz, Corporation Sole: Cardinal Mundelein and Chicago
Chicago
Catholicism (1983) ^ Russell A. Kazal, "Revisiting Assimilation: The Rise, Fall, and Reappraisal of a Concept." American Historical Review
American Historical Review
100 (1995): 437-71. in JSTOR ^ Russell A. Kazal, Becoming Old Stock: The Paradox of German-American Identity (2004). ^ " Germans
Germans
from Russia Heritage Collection". Library.ndsu.edu. September 18, 2004. Retrieved April 18, 2013.  ^ Brooke, James (2 March 1996). "North Dakota, With German Roots, Adopts Spanish as Second Language". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 28 August 2017.  ^ Skutsch, Carl (2005). Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities. Routledge. p. 101.  ^ SCHURZ, Carl, (1829 - 1906), United States
United States
Congress, retrieved 19 November 2009  ^ "Outstanding German Scientists Being Brought to U.S.", War Department press release, V2Rocket.com, 1945-10-01  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-07-30. Retrieved 2013-07-30.  ^ BeerHistory.com. " Yuengling
Yuengling
of Pottsville: America's Oldest Brewery". Retrieved December 8, 2006. ^ a b Amy Mittelman, Brewing Battles: A History of American Beer (2007) ^ " Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
Zinzinnati". Oktoberfest-zinzinnati.com. Retrieved 28 August 2017.  ^ "About Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
- Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
Zinzinnati". Oktoberfestzinzinnati.com. Retrieved 28 August 2017.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-01-17. Retrieved 2012-01-14. "'About the Teutonia Männerchor' -- THE EARLY 1800s – Around the early and the mid-1800s and through the end of the 20th century, there was a mass immigration from all across Europe to the United States. Many of the immigrants from Germany
Germany
and other German-speaking countries came to Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
to what was then "Allegheny City" (now the Northside) – just across the river from the City of Pittsburgh. So many German speakers arrived, the area became known as "Deutschtown"." ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-11-26. Retrieved 2011-11-03.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-06. Retrieved 2012-05-17. "MÄNNERCHOR, DAMENCHOR, GEMISCHTER CHOR, ALPEN SCHUHPLATTLER UND TRACHTENVEREIN, PITTSBURGH DISTRICT KINDERCHOR, SCHÜTZENKAMERADEN, TEUTONIA HAUSKAPELLE, LUSTIGEN MUSIKANTEN, and 66 CARD LEAGUE" ^ Sass, Ed. "GermAmChron". www.eds-resources.com.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-15. Retrieved 2013-05-02.  ^ "Rating the Top Baseball Players of All Time". Baseballguru.com. Retrieved 2007-11-28.  ^ Stephen E. Ambose Nixon chapter 1 (1987) ^ "Researchers: Obama has German roots", USA Today, June 4, 2009  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-03. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 

Further reading[edit] Further information: German Americans
Americans
in the Civil War § Further reading

Adams, Willi Paul. The German-Americans: An Ethnic Experience (1993). Bank, Michaela. Women of Two Countries: German-American Women, Women's Rights and Nativism, 1848–1890 (Berghahn, 2012). Baron, Frank, "Abraham Lincoln and the German Immigrants: Turners
Turners
and Forty-Eighters," Yearbook of German-American Studies, 4 (Supplemental Issue 2012), 1–254. Barry, Colman J. The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and German Americans. (1953). Bronner, Simon J. and Joshua R. Brown, eds. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Germans: An Interpretive Encyclopedia (: Johns Hopkins UP, 2017), xviii, 554 pp. Brancaforte, Charlotte L., ed. The German Forty-Eighters
Forty-Eighters
in the United States. (1989). Bungert, Heike, Cora Lee Kluge, & Robert C. Ostergren (eds.). Wisconsin
Wisconsin
German Land and Life. Madison, Wis.: Max Kade Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2006. Coburn, Carol K. Life at Four Corners: Religion, Gender, and Education in a German-Lutheran Community, 1868–1945. (1992). Conzen, Kathleen Neils. "Germans" in Stephan Thernstrom (ed.). Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. (1980). pp. 405–425. Conzen, Kathleen Neils. Germans
Germans
in Minnesota. (2003). Conzen, Kathleen Neils. Immigrant Milwaukee, 1836–1860: Accommodation and Community in a Frontier City. (1976). DeWitt, Petra. Degrees of Allegiance: Harassment and Loyalty in Missouri's German-American Community during World War I
World War I
(Ohio University Press, 2012). Dobbert, Guido A. "German- Americans
Americans
between New and Old Fatherland, 1870–1914". American Quarterly 19 (1967): 663–680. Efford, Alison Clark. German Immigrants: Race and Citizenship in the Civil War Era. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013. Ellis, M. and P. Panayi. "German Minorities in World War I: A Comparative Study of Britain and the USA", Ethnic and Racial Studies 17 (April 1994): 238–259. Emmerich, Alexander. John Jacob Astor
John Jacob Astor
and the First Great American Fortune. (2013); Astor (1763-1848) came to the US in 1783 Ernst, Robert. Immigrant Life in New York City, 1825-1863 (1949), detailed coverage of Germans
Germans
and Irish. Faust, Albert Bernhardt. The German Element in the United States
United States
with Special
Special
Reference to Its Political, Moral, Social, and Educational Influence. 2 vol (1909). vol. 1, vol. 2 Fogleman, Aaron. Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717–1775 (University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Press, 1996) online "German-Americans: The silent minority". The Economist February 7, 2015, With a statistical map by counties German Historical Institute. Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies, 1720 to the Present. (2010, updated continually) Gross, Stephen John. "Handing down the farm: Values, strategies, and outcomes in inheritance practices among rural German Americans", Journal of Family History, (1996) 21: 2, 192–217. Grubb, Farley. German Immigration and Servitude in America, 1709–1920 (Routledge Explorations in Economic History) (2011). Hawgood, John. The Tragedy of German-America. (1940). Iverson, Noel. Germania, U.S.A.: Social Change in New Ulm, Minnesota. (1966). emphasizes Turners. Jensen, Richard. The Winning of the Midwest, Social and Political Conflict 1888–1896. (1971). Voting behavior of Germans, prohibition, language, and school issues. Johnson, Hildegard B. "The Location of German Immigrants in the Middle West". Annals of the Association of American Geographers 41 (1951): 1–41. Jordon, Terry G. German Seed in Texas
Texas
Soil: Immigrant Farmers in Nineteenth-century Texas. (1966). Kamphoefner, Walter D. and Wolfgang Helbich, eds. German-American Immigration and Ethnicity in Comparative Perspective. Madison, Wisconsin: Max Kade Institute, University of Wisconsin–Madison (2004). Kamphoefner, Walter D., "Uprooted or Transplanted? Reflections on Patterns of German Immigration to Missouri," Missouri
Missouri
Historical Review, 103 (January 2009), 71-89. Kamphoefner, Walter D. "Immigrant Epistolary and Epistemology: On the Motivators and Mentality of Nineteenth-Century German Immigrants." Journal of American Ethnic History (2009): 34-54. in JSTOR, on deep-reading their letters Kazal, Russell A. Becoming Old Stock: The Paradox of German-American Identity. (2004). Keller, Christian B. "Flying Dutchmen and Drunken Irishmen: The Myths and Realities of Ethnic Civil War Soldiers," Journal of Military History, 73 (January 2009), 117–145. Keller, Phyllis. States of Belonging: German-American Intellectuals and the First World War. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1979. Knarr, Mary L. "Faith, frauen, and the formation of an ethnic identity: German Lutheran women in south and central Texas, 1831–1890". (Ph.D. dissertation, Texas
Texas
Christian U. 2009). online Kulas, S. John. Der Wanderer of St. Paul: The First Decade, 1867-1877: a Mirror of the German-Catholic Immigrant Experience in Minnesota (Peter Lang, 1996). Levine, Bruce. The Spirit of 1848: German Immigrants, Labor Conflict, and the Coming of the Civil War. Urbana: University of Illinois
Illinois
Press, 1992. Lohne, Raymond. "Team of Friends: A New Lincoln Theory and Legacy", Journal of the Illinois
Illinois
State Historical Society Fall/Winter 2008, vol. 101 no. 3/4, pp. 285–314. German American politics and Abraham Lincoln Luebke, Frederick C. Bonds of Loyalty: German Americans
Americans
During World War I. (1974). Luebke, Frederick C., ed. Ethnic Voters and the Election of Lincoln. (1971). Luebke, Frederick C. Germans
Germans
in the New World. (1990). Luebke, Frederick. Immigrants and Politics: The Germans
Germans
of Nebraska, 1880–1900. (1969). Nadel, Stanley. Little Germany: Ethnicity, Religion, and Class in New York City, 1845-80 (1990). O'Connor, Richard. German-Americans: an Informal History. (1968), popular history Otterness, Philip. Becoming German: The 1709 Palatine Migration to New York (2004) 235 pp. Pickle, Linda. Contented among Strangers: Rural German-Speaking Women and Their Families in the Nineteenth-Century Midwest
Midwest
(1996). Pochmann, Henry A. and Arthur R. Schultz; German Culture in America, 1600–1900: Philosophical and Literary Influences. (1957). Ritter, Luke, "Sunday Regulation and the Formation of German American Identity in St. Louis, 1840–1860," Missouri
Missouri
Historical Review, (2012), vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 23–40. Roeber, A. G. Palatines, Liberty, and Property: German Lutherans in Colonial British America. (1998). Salamon, Sonya. Prairie Patrimony: Family, Farming, and Community in the Midwest
Midwest
(U of North Carolina
North Carolina
Press, 1992), focus on German Americans. Salmons, Joseph C. The German Language in America, 1683-1991. Madison, Wis.: Max Kade Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1993. Schiffman, Harold. "Language loyalty in the German-American Church: The Case of an Over-confident Minority" (1987). Schirp, Francis. " Germans
Germans
in the United States". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. New York: Appleton, 1909. Schlossman, Steven L. "Is there an American tradition of bilingual education? German in the public elementary schools, 1840-1919." American Journal of Education (1983): 139-186. in JSTOR Tatlock, Lynne and Matt Erlin, eds. German Culture in Nineteenth-Century America: Reception, Adaptation, Transformation. (2005). Thernstrom, Stephan, ed. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (1980) online Tischauser, Leslie V. The Burden of Ethnicity: The German Question in Chicago, 1914–1941. (1990). Tolzmann, Don H., ed. German Americans
Americans
in the World Wars, 2 vols. Munich, Germany: K.G. Saur, (1995). Tolzmann, Don H. German-American Literature (Scarecrow Press, 1977). Trommler, Frank & Joseph McVeigh, eds. America and the Germans: An Assessment of a Three-Hundred-Year History. (2 vol 1985); vol 1: Immigration, Language, Ethnicity; vol 2: The Relationship in the Twentieth Century. Essays by scholars covering broad themes. Turk, Eleanor L. " Germans
Germans
in Kansas: Review Essay". Kansas
Kansas
History: A Journal of the Central Plains 28 (Spring 2005): 44–71. van Ravenswaay, Charles. The Arts and Architecture of German Settlements in Missouri: A Survey of a Vanishing Culture (1977; reprint University of Missouri
Missouri
Press, 2006). Walker, Mack. Germany
Germany
and the Emigration, 1816–1885 (1964). Where Have All the Germans
Germans
Gone?. New York: Films Media Group, 1976. Wittke, Carl Frederick. The German-Language Press in America. (1957). Wittke, Carl Frederick. Refugees of Revolution: The German Forty-Eighters
Forty-Eighters
in America. (1952). Wittke, Carl Frederick. We Who Built America: The Saga of the Immigrant. (1939), ch. 6, 9. Wood, Ralph, ed. The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Germans. (1942). Zeitlin, Richard. Germans
Germans
in Wisconsin. Madison: Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Historical Society, (2000).

Historiography[edit]

Hustad, Bradley Jake. "Problems in Historiography: The Americanization of German Ethnics." (MA thesis, Mankato State University, 2013). online Kazal, Russell A. "Revisiting Assimilation: The Rise, Fall, and Reappraisal of a Concept". American Historical Review
American Historical Review
100 (1995): 437–71. Kluge, Cora Lee. Other Witnesses: An Anthology of Literature of the German Americans, 1850–1914. Madison, Wis.: Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies, 2007. Ortlepp, Anke. "Deutsch-Athen Revisited: Writing the History of Germans
Germans
in Milwaukee" in Margo Anderson and Victor Greene (eds.), Perspectives on Milwaukee's Past. Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2009. Miller, Zane L. " Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Germans
Germans
and the Invention of an Ethnic Group", Queen City Heritage: The Journal of the Cincinnati
Cincinnati
Historical Society 42 (Fall 1984): 13–22. Parish, Peter J., ed. (2013). Reader's Guide to American History. Taylor & Francis. pp. 294–95. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

Primary sources[edit]

Kamphoefner, Walter D., and Wolfgang Helbich, eds. Germans
Germans
in the Civil War; The Letters They Wrote Home. (U of North Carolina
North Carolina
Press, 2006). Kamphoefner, Walter D., Wolfgang Johannes Helbich and Ulrike Sommer, eds. News from the Land of Freedom: German Immigrants Write Home. (Cornell University Press, 1991). "German". Chicago
Chicago
Foreign Language Press Survey. Chicago
Chicago
Public Library Omnibus Project of the Works Progress Administration
Works Progress Administration
of Illinois. 1942 – via Newberry Library.  (English translations of selected German-language newspaper articles, 1855-1938).

In German[edit]

Emmerich, Alexander. Geschichte der Deutschen in Amerika von 1680 bis in die Gegenwart. (2013). Rehs, Michael. Wurzeln in fremder Erde: Zur Geschichte der südwestdeutschen Auswanderung nach Amerika DRW-Verlag, 1984. ISBN 3-87181-231-5 "List of Newspapers and Periodicals Printed Wholly or in Part in Languages Other Than English: German", American Newspaper Directory, New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1880 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to German Americans.

German-American history and culture[edit]

Chronology: Germans
Germans
in America German Immigrant Culture in America: Syllabus (1998) Emigrant Letters to Germany
Germany
(in German) Famous Americans
Americans
of German, Austrian, or German-Swiss Ancestry German-American Hall of Fame How German Is American? The German-Hollywood Connection Chicago
Chicago
Foreign Language Press Survey: English translations of 120,000 pages of newspaper articles from Chicago's foreign language press from 1855 to 1938, many from German papers.

German-American organizations[edit]

German American Heritage Center Germans
Germans
from Russia Heritage Society The Max Kade Institute for German-American Studies The Germantown Historical Society (Philadelphia) The German Society of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(oldest German Society in the U.S.) The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German Society Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German Cultural Heritage Center Indiana
Indiana
German Heritage Society Max Kade German-American Research and Resource Center

Local German-American history and culture[edit]

Germans
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and Georgia are transcontinental countries. They have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus. 6 Kazakhstan
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See also

Ostsiedlung Partitions of Poland Flight and expulsion of Germans
Germans
(1944–50)

Authority control

GND: 1027976557 BNF:

.