Georgism, also called geoism and single tax (archaic), is
an economic ideology holding that, while people should own the value
they produce themselves, economic value derived from land (often
including natural resources and natural opportunities) should belong
equally to all members of society.
Developed from the writings of the economist and social reformer Henry
George, the Georgist paradigm seeks solutions to social and ecological
problems, based on principles of land rights and public finance which
attempt to integrate economic efficiency with social
1 Main tenets
1.1 Economic properties
1.2 Sources of economic rent and related policy interventions
2 Synonyms and variants 3 Influence
3.1 Communities 3.2 Institutes and organizations
4 Reception 5 Notable Georgists
5.1 Economists 5.2 Heads of government 5.3 Other political figures 5.4 Activists 5.5 Authors 5.6 Journalists 5.7 Artists 5.8 Philosophers 5.9 Other
6 See also 7 References
A supply and demand diagram showing the effects of land value
taxation. Note that the burden of the tax is entirely on the land
owner, the rental price of land does not change, and there is no
See also: Land value tax
.mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 The tax upon land values is, therefore, the most just and equal of all taxes. It falls only upon those who receive from society a peculiar and valuable benefit, and upon them in proportion to the benefit they receive. It is the taking by the community, for the use of the community, of that value which is the creation of the community. It is the application of the common property to common uses. When all rent is taken by taxation for the needs of the community, then will the equality ordained by Nature be attained. No citizen will have an advantage over any other citizen save as is given by his industry, skill, and intelligence; and each will obtain what he fairly earns. Then, but not till then, will labor get its full reward, and capital its natural return.— Henry George, Progress and Poverty, Book VIII, Chapter 3
George believed there was an important distinction between common and collective property. Although equal rights to land might be achieved by nationalizing land and then leasing it to private users, George preferred taxing unimproved land value and leaving the control of land mostly in private hands. George's reasoning for leaving land in private control and slowly shifting to land value tax was that it would not penalize existing owners who had improved land and would also be less disruptive and controversial in a country where land titles have already been granted. Georgists have observed that privately created wealth is socialized via the tax system (e.g., through income and sales tax), while socially created wealth in land values are privatized in the price of land titles and bank mortgages. The opposite would be the case if land rents replaced taxes on labor as the main source of public revenue; socially created wealth would become available for use by the community, while the fruits of labor would remain private. According to Georgists, a land value tax can be considered a user fee instead of a tax, since it is related to the market value of socially created locational advantage, the privilege to exclude others from locations. Assets consisting of commodified privilege can be considered as wealth since they have exchange value, similar to taxi medallions.[failed verification] A land value tax, charging fees for exclusive use of land, as a means of raising public revenue is also a progressive tax tending to reduce economic inequality, since it applies entirely to ownership of valuable land, which is correlated with income, and there is generally no means by which landlords can shift the tax burden onto tenants or laborers.
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Standard economic theory suggests that a land value tax would be
extremely efficient – unlike other taxes, it does not reduce
Ground-rents are a still more proper subject of taxation than the rent of houses. A tax upon ground-rents would not raise the rents of houses. It would fall altogether upon the owner of the ground-rent, who acts always as a monopolist, and exacts the greatest rent which can be got for the use of his ground. More or less can be got for it according as the competitors happen to be richer or poorer, or can afford to gratify their fancy for a particular spot of ground at a greater or smaller expense. In every country the greatest number of rich competitors is in the capital, and it is there accordingly that the highest ground-rents are always to be found. As the wealth of those competitors would in no respect be increased by a tax upon ground-rents, they would not probably be disposed to pay more for the use of the ground. Whether the tax was to be advanced by the inhabitant, or by the owner of the ground, would be of little importance. The more the inhabitant was obliged to pay for the tax, the less he would incline to pay for the ground; so that the final payment of the tax would fall altogether upon the owner of the ground-rent. Both ground-rents and the ordinary rent of land are a species of revenue which the owner, in many cases, enjoys without any care or attention of his own. Though a part of this revenue should be taken from him in order to defray the expenses of the state, no discouragement will thereby be given to any sort of industry. The annual produce of the land and labour of the society, the real wealth and revenue of the great body of the people, might be the same after such a tax as before. Ground-rents and the ordinary rent of land are, therefore, perhaps, the species of revenue which can best bear to have a peculiar tax imposed upon them. ... Nothing can be more reasonable than that a fund which owes its existence to the good government of the state should be taxed peculiarly, or should contribute something more than the greater part of other funds, towards the support of that government.
Benjamin Franklin and
Sources of economic rent and related policy interventions
Extractable resources (minerals and hydrocarbons) Severables (forests and stocks of fish) Extraterrestrial domains (geosynchronous orbits and airway corridor use) Legal privileges that apply to specific location (taxi medallions, billboard and development permits, or the monopoly of electromagnetic frequencies) Restrictions/taxes of pollution or severance (tradable emission permits and fishing quotas) Right-of-way (transportation) used by railroads, utilities, and internet service providers Issuance of legal tender (see seigniorage) Privileges that are less location dependent but that still exclude others from natural opportunities (patents) Where free competition is impossible, such as telegraphs, water, gas, and transportation, George wrote, "[S]uch business becomes a proper social function, which should be controlled and managed by and for the whole people concerned." Georgists were divided by this question of natural monopolies and often favored public ownership only of the rents from common rights-of-way, rather than public ownership of utility companies themselves.
Revenue uses The revenue can allow the reduction or elimination of taxes, greater public investment/spending, or the direct distribution of funds to citizens as a pension or basic income/citizen's dividend. In practice, the elimination of all other taxes implies a very great land value tax, greater than any currently existing land tax. Introducing a land value tax greater than the value of existing taxes would, at an uncertain point, inevitably cause the price of all land titles to decrease. George did not believe landowners should be compensated, and described the issue as being analogous to compensation for former slave owners. Other geoists disagree on the question of compensation; some advocate complete compensation while others endorse only enough compensation required to achieve Georgist reforms. Geoists have also long differed from George as to the degree of rent capture needed. Historically, those who advocated for public rent tax only great enough to replace other taxes were known as endorsers of single tax limited.
Synonyms and variants
Henry George, whose writings and advocacy form the basis for
Georgist ideas heavily influenced the politics of the early 20th
century. Political parties that were formed based on Georgist ideas
include the United States Commonwealth Land Party, the Henry George
Several communities were also initiated with Georgist principles
during the height of the philosophy's popularity. Two such communities
that still exist are Arden, Delaware, which was founded in 1900 by
Frank Stephens and Will Price, and Fairhope, Alabama, which was
founded in 1894 by the auspices of the Fairhope Single Tax
Corporation. Some established communities in the United
States also adopted Georgist tax policies. A Georgist in Houston,
Texas, Joseph Jay "J.J." Pastoriza, promoted a Georgist club in that
city established in 1890. Years later, in his capacity as a city
alderman, he was selected to serve as Houston
Institutes and organizations
Various organizations still exist that continue to promote the ideas
of Henry George. According to The American Journal of
Notable Georgists .mw-parser-output div.columns-2 div.column float:left;width:50%;min-width:300px .mw-parser-output div.columns-3 div.column float:left;width:33.3%;min-width:200px .mw-parser-output div.columns-4 div.column float:left;width:25%;min-width:150px .mw-parser-output div.columns-5 div.column float:left;width:20%;min-width:120px Economists Harry Gunnison Brown John R. Commons Raymond Crotty Herman Daly Paul Douglas Ottmar Edenhofer Fred Foldvary Mason Gaffney Max Hirsch Harold Hotelling Wolf Ladejinsky Donald Shoup Herbert A. Simon Robert Solow Joseph Stiglitz Nicolaus Tideman William Vickrey Léon Walras Philip Wicksteed
Heads of government John Ballance Winston Churchill Alfred Deakin Andrew Fisher George Grey Rutherford B. Hayes William Morris Hughes Robert Stout Sun Yat-sen
Other political figures John Peter Altgeld Newton D. Baker Willie Brown Clyde Cameron George F. Cotterill William Jay Gaynor Keir Hardie Frederic C. Howe Blas Infante Tom L. Johnson Samuel M. Jones Frank de Jong Franklin Knight Lane Hazen S. Pingree Philip Snowden Josiah C. Wedgwood William Bauchop Wilson Jackson Stitt Wilson Andrew MacLaren MP 
Activists Jane Addams Peter Barnes Sara Bard Field Michael Davitt Samuel Gompers Bolton Hall Hubert Harrison John Haynes Holmes Stewart Headlam Mary Elizabeth Lease Benjamin C. Marsh James Ferdinand Morton Thomas Mott Osborne Amos Pinchot Terence V. Powderly Samuel Seabury Catherine Helen Spence Helen Taylor William Simon U'Ren Ida B. Wells Frances Willard
Authors Ernest Howard Crosby Charles Eisenstein Hamlin Garland Fred Harrison James A. Herne Ebenezer Howard Elbert Hubbard Aldous Huxley James Howard Kunstler Jose Martí William D. McCrackan Albert Jay Nock Kathleen Norris Upton Sinclair Leo Tolstoy Charles Erskine Scott Wood
Journalists William F. Buckley, Jr. Timothy Thomas Fortune Theodor Herzl Michael Kinsley Suzanne La Follette Dylan Matthews Raymond Moley Charles Edward Russell Jacob Riis Reihan Salam Horace Traubel Martin Wolf Merryn Somerset Webb Brand Whitlock Tim Worstall Matthew Yglesias
Artists David Bachrach John Wilson Bengough Daniel Carter Beard Matthew Bellamy George de Forest Brush Walter Burley Griffin John Hutchinson George Inness Emma Lazarus Agnes de Mille Henry Churchill de Mille William C. deMille Francis Neilson Eddie Palmieri Banjo Paterson Louis Prang Will Price Frank Stephens Frank Lloyd Wright
Philosophers Ralph Borsodi Ludwig Büchner Nicholas Murray Butler Frank Chodorov John B. Cobb John Dewey Silvio Gesell Leon MacLaren Franz Oppenheimer Philippe Van Parijs Bertrand Russell Hillel Steiner
Other Roger Babson Louis Brandeis Clarence Darrow Albert Einstein Henry Ford Spencer Heath Mumia Abu-Jamal Margrit Kennedy John C. Lincoln Elizabeth Magie Edward McGlynn Buckey O'Neill George Foster Peabody Louis Freeland Post Walter Rauschenbusch Raymond A. Spruance Silvanus P. Thompson Fiske Warren Alfred Russel Wallace Joseph Fels George Bernard Shaw
Cap and Share
Causes of poverty
Community land trust
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^ Post, Louis Freeland (April 12, 1912). "Sun Yat Sen's Economic Program for China". The Public. 15: 349. Retrieved 8 November 2016. land tax as the only means of supporting the government is an infinitely just, reasonable, and equitably distributed tax, and on it we will found our new system
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^ "Single-Taxers again laud Henry George" (PDF). Daily Standard Union. Brooklyn, NY. Sep 8, 1912. p. 12. Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
^ * "British MP guest at George dinner" (PDF). Daily Standard Union.
Brooklyn, NY. Sep 6, 1912. p. 9. Retrieved Nov 7, 2014.
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Morton, James F., Jr. (July–August 1918). "Report of James F.
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^ Jorgensen, Emil Oliver. The next Step toward Real Democracy: One
Hundred Reasons Why America Should Abolish, as Speedily as Possible,
All Taxation upon the Fruits of Industry, and Raise the Public Revenue
by a Single
^ a b Gorgas, William Crawford, and Lewis Jerome Johnson. Two Papers on Public Sanitation and the Single Tax. New York: Single Tax Information Bureau, 1914. https://books.google.com/books?id=v3NHAAAAYAAJ
^ a b Ware, Louise. George Foster Peabody, Banker, Philanthropist, Publicist. Athens: U of Georgia, 1951. http://dlg.galileo.usg.edu/ugapressbks/pdfs/ugp9780820334561.pdf
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^ Thompson, John (1987). Reformers and war : American progressive publicists and the First World War. Cambridge Cambridgeshire New York: Cambridge University Press.
^ Powderly, Terence Vincent (1889). Thirty Years of Labor. 1859–1889. Excelsior publishing house. Retrieved 8 December 2014. "It would be far easier to levy a "single tax," basing it upon land values." "It is because […] a single land tax would prove to be the very essence of equity, that l advocate it.
^ Mitgang, Herbert (1996). The Man Who Rode the Tiger: The Life and Times of Judge Samuel Seabury. Fordham Univ Press. ISBN 9780823217229.
^ Magarey, Susan (1985). Unbridling the tongues of women : a biography of Catherine Helen Spence. Sydney, NSW: Hale & Iremonger. ISBN 978-0868061498.
^ Wenzer, Kenneth (1997). An Anthology of Henry George's Thought (Volume 1). University Rochester Press. pp. 87, 243. ISBN 9781878822819.
^ "Oregon Biographies: William S. U'Ren". Oregon History Project. Portland, Oregon: Oregon Historical Society. 2002. Archived from the original on 2006-11-10. Retrieved 2006-12-29.
^ Candeloro, Dominic (April 1979). "The Single
^ "The Inquisitive Voter". The Great Adventure. 4 (35). September 11,
1920. The proposition of
^ Eisenstein, Charles. "Post-Capitalism". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
^ a b c "The Funeral Procession" (PDF). New York Times. November 1, 1897. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
^ Newlin, Keith (2008).
^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vviBboUXhuA Fred Harrison speaks at ALTER Spring Conference 2014
^ Aller, Pat. "The Georgist Philosophy in Culture and History". Retrieved 2 October 2014.
^ Steuer, Max (June 2000). "REVIEW ARTICLE A hundred years of town planning and the influence of Ebenezer Howard". The British Journal of Sociology. 51 (2): 377–86. doi:10.1111/j.1468-4446.2000.00377.x. PMID 10905006.
^ Meacham, Standish (1999). Regaining Paradise: Englishness and the Early Garden City Movement. Yale University Press. pp. 50–53. ISBN 978-0300075724. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
^ Purdom, Charles Benjamin (1963). The Letchworth Achievement. p. 1. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
^ Hubard, Elbert (1907). Little Journeys to the Homes of Great Reformers. East Aurora, New York: The Roycrofters. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
^ Harrison, F. (May–June 1989). "
^ Kunstler, James Howard (1998). "Chapter 7". Home from Nowhere: Remaking Our Everyday World For the 21st Century. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780684837376.
^ Mace, Elisabeth. "The economic thinking of Jose Marti: Legacy foundation for the integration of America". Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
^ Hudson, Michael. "Speech to the Communist Party of Cuba". Retrieved 5 August 2015.
^ Lora, Ronald; Longton, William Henry, eds. (1999). The Conservative
Press in Twentieth-century America. Greenwood Publishing, Inc. p. 310.
"Thus, the Freeman was to speak for the great tradition of classical
liberalism, which [
Albert Jay Nock
^ Norris, Kathleen. "The Errors of Marxism". Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
^ Sinclair, Upton. "The Consequences of Land Speculation are Tenantry and Debt on the Farms, and Slums and Luxury in the Cities". Retrieved 3 November 2014.Sinclair was an active georgist but eventually gave up on explicitly advocating the reform because, "Our opponents, the great rich bankers and land speculators of California, persuaded the poor man that we were going to put all taxes on this poor man's lot."
^ Gaffney, Mason. "Excerpts from The Corruption of Economics". Retrieved 3 November 2014.
^ A Great Iniquity..
^ Lebrun, Victor. "
^ Starr, Kevin (1997). The dream endures : California enters the 1940s. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195157970. Wood had "strong leanings toward the single-tax theory of Henry George".
^ Barnes, Tim. "C.E.S. Wood (1852–1944)". The Oregon Encyclipedia. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
^ Buckley, William F. Jr. "FIRING LINE: Has New York Let Us Down?" (PDF). PBS, Robert Schalkenbach Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 6 November 2014. Buckley says, "The location problem is, of course, easily solved by any Georgist, and I am one."
^ Perry, Jeffrey (2009). Hubert Harrison the voice of Harlem radicalism, 1883–1918. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231139113.
^ a b Sklar, Dusty. "
^ Kinsley, Michael (Jun 13, 2012). "Inequality: It's Even Worse Than We Thought". Bloomberg. BloombergView. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
^ Kinsley, Michael. "The Capital-Gains Tax: A Tragedy in Two Acts" (Dec 19, 2012). Retrieved 31 October 2014.Kinsley reiterates that George is his favorite economist and that land taxes are the best source of revenue.
^ "The Land Question Quotations from Historical and Contemporary Sources". Archived from the original on 1 November 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014.In The New Republic (February 12, 1992) Kinsley advocates removing all taxes and collecting land rent instead.
^ Chamberlain, John (1965). Farewell To Reform. Quadrangle Books. pp. 47–48.
^ Bernstein, David (May 2003). "Lochner's Feminist Legacy". Michigan Law Review. 101 (6). Retrieved 23 December 2014.
^ Matthews, Dylan (January 7, 2014). "Five conservative reforms millennials should be fighting for". The Washington Post. Wonkblog. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
^ Dylan Matthews [@dylanmatt] (20 December 2013). "@Bencjacobs @mattyglesias I think we've both been Georgists for a while now, though @AshokRao95 led me to revisit this stuff" (Tweet) – via Twitter. Dylan Matthews's verified account states, "I think we've both been Georgists for a while now."
^ Lawson, R (2006). A commonwealth of hope : the New Deal response to crisis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0801884061.
^ Mowry, George (1958). The era of Theodore Roosevelt and the birth of
modern America, 1900–1912. New York: Harper & Row.
ISBN 978-0061330223. I conceded the voice of ultimate wisdom and
^ Riis, Jacob A. "The Unemployed: a Problem". (In Peters, John P.,
Labor and Capital, a chapter on "
^ Burrows, Edwin (1999). Gotham : a history of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 1183. ISBN 978-0195140491.
^ Salam, Reihan (July 15, 2010). "On
^ Traubel, Horace (1896). "Progress and Poverty". The Conservator. 7–9: 252–53. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
^ Merryn Somerset Webb (2013-09-27). "How a levy based on location values could be the perfect tax". The Financial Times. Retrieved 2013-10-02.
^ ©ommons $ense 🔰 [@iddqkfa] (19 May 2014). "Closet georgist, @MerrynSW, on an entertaining BBC program "Simon Evans Goes to Market", about investing in land #LVT" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
^ Smith, Charles Joseph (January–February 1941). "Forty Years of the Struggle for Freedom". Land and Freedom. XLI (1). Retrieved 30 October 2014.
^ Filler, Louis (1993). The muckrakers. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.
^ Worstall, Tim (2012-12-22). "What Michael Kinsley Gets Wrong About Taxation". Forbes. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
^ Matthew, Yglesias (2013-10-23). "My Five-Point Plan for Fixing Everything". Slate. Retrieved 7 November 2013.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-05. Retrieved
2014-08-23.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) "WSJ story on
^ Wineapple, Brenda. Sister Brother: Gertrude and Leo Stein. Lincoln: U of Nebraska, 2008.
^ a b Mills, Allen. "Single Tax,
^ Smith, Carl (2008). Urban Disorder and the Shape of Belief: The Great Chicago Fire, the Haymarket Bomb, and the Model Town of Pullman, Second Edition. University of Chicago Press. p. 359. ISBN 9780226764252.
^ Muse return with new album The Resistance "Sure, he has already launched into a passionate soliloquy about Geoism (the land-tax movement inspired by the 19th-century political economist Henry George)".
^ Caldwell, John (1994). American paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: The Museum in association with Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691037950.
^ Co-founder of the
^ Williams, Karl. "Walter Burley Griffin". Retrieved 1 October 2013.
^ "Henry George, our hero in the battle for the right (Songs of the Hutchinsons)". Retrieved 17 November 2013.
^ Schor, Esther (2006). Emma Lazarus. Random House. ISBN 9780805242751. Author of "The New Colossus", on the Statue of Liberty, and the poem "Progress and Poverty", named after George's book, of which she said, “The life and thought of no one capable of understanding it can be quite the same after reading it.”
^ Peseroff, Joyce (March–April 2007). "Emma Lazarus". Tikkun. 22 (2). Retrieved 20 December 2014. Lazarus "supported Henry George's single tax".
^ Schwartzman, Jack. "A Remembrance of Anna George de Mille and Agnes de Mille". Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
^ Eyman, Scott (2010). Empire of Dreams: The Epic Life of Cecil B. DeMille. Simon and Schuster. pp. 29, 47. ISBN 9781439180419.
^ Easton, Carol (1996). No Intermissions The Life of Agnes de Mille. Da Capo Press.
^ Louvish, Simon (2008). Cecil B. DeMille: A Life in Art. Macmillan. pp. 40, 249. ISBN 9780312377335.
^ Eyman, Scott (2010). Empire of Dreams: The Epic Life of Cecil B. DeMille. Simon and Schuster. p. 314. ISBN 9781439180419.
^ "Henry George, The Scholar" Archived 2013-10-04 at the Wayback
Machine – A Commencement Address Delivered by
^ Neilson, Francis (September 1939). "
Albert Jay Nock
^ "Happy Birthday, Eddie Palmieri! Alt.Latino Helps El Maestro Blow Out 81 Candles". WMOT. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
^ McQueen, Humphrey. A New Britannia. St. Lucia, Qld.: U of Queensland, 2004.
^ Mills, Benjamin Fay (1911). "Louis Prang, Popularizer of Art". Vocations, Vocational Guidance, Hall & Locke Company. 10: 254. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
^ Taylor, Mark (2010). Arden. Arcadia Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 9780738585598.
^ Shields, Jerry. "Forgotten Writings of Arden's Frank Stephens". Collecting Delaware Books.
Frank Lloyd Wright
^ Carlson, Allan. The New Agrarian Mind: The Movement Toward Decentralist Thought in Twentieth-Century America Transaction Publishers, 2004 (p. 51).
^ Silagi, M., & Faulkner, S. (1993).
^ Buttenheim, Harold S. (March 1934). "The Relation of Housing to Taxation". Law and Contemporary Problems. 1, No. 2 (Low-Cost Housing and Slum Clearance: A Symposium): 198–205. doi:10.2307/1189565. JSTOR 1189565.
^ Butler, Nicholas. "Progress and Poverty" (PDF). Commencement Speech, Columbia University (1931). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
^ "Frank Chodorov". Retrieved 30 November 2013.
^ "Frank Chodorov". Retrieved 30 November 2013.
^ Daly, Herman (1994). For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy Toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future. Beacon Press. pp. 258–59, 328–29. ISBN 9780807047057.
^ "John Dewey: An Appreciation of Henry George". www.wealthandwant.com. Retrieved 9 October 2017.
^ Onken, Werner. "The Political Economy of Silvio Gesell: A Century of
Activism." American Journal of
^ "The Life of Leon MacLaren". Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
^ "The School of Economic Science". Archived from the original on 6 October 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
^ Stewart, John, 1931- (2001). Standing for justice : a biography of Andrew MacLaren, MP. London: Shepheard-Walwyn. ISBN 0856831948. OCLC 49362105.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ Van Parijs, Philippe (1992). Introduction to Arguing for Basic Income (PDF). London: Verso. pp. 3–43.
^ Sterba, James P. (2013). From Rationality to Equality. Oxford University Press. p. 193. ISBN 9780199580767.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2013-04-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Letter addressed to a Mr. Krumreig
^ Vallentyne, Peter. Left-libertarianism: A Primer. In Vallentyne, Peter; Steiner, Hillel (2000). "Left-libertarianism and Its Critics: The Contemporary Debate". Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Publishers Ltd. "Georgist libertarians—such as eponymous George (1879, 1892), Steiner (1977, 1980, 1981, 1992, 1994), and Tideman (1991, 1997, 1998)—hold that agents may appropriate unappropriated natural resources as long as they pay for the competitive value of the rights they claim."
^ Babson, Roger (Aug 20, 1943). "
^ Brandeis, Louis (1971). Letters of Louis D. Brandeis: Vol. 1. p. 82. ISBN 9781438422565.
^ "101+ Famous Thinkers on Owning Earth". Archived from the original on 5 January 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2013. Brandeis said, "I find it very difficult to disagree with the principles of Henry George... I believe in the taxation of land values only."
^ How to Abolish Unfair Taxation: An Address Before a Los Angeles Audience, Delivered March 1913 https://books.google.com/books/about/How_to_Abolish_Unfair_Taxation.html?id=rlOFHAAACAAJ
^ Darrow, Clarence. "The Land Belongs To The People" (PDF). www.umn.edu. Everyman. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
^ "The Centre for Incentive Taxation". 20 (4). August 1994. Darrow replied about Georgism, "Well, you either come to it or go broke."
^ Two letters written in 1934 to Henry George's daughter, Anna George De Mille Archived 2011-04-12 at the Wayback Machine. In one letter Einstein writes, "The spreading of these works is a really deserving cause, for our generation especially has many and important things to learn from Henry George."
^ Elazar, Daniel (February 4, 1955). "Earth Is the Lord's". Newspapers.com. The Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
^ Wilhelm, Donald (September 5, 1942). "
^ MacCallum, Spencer H. (Summer–Fall 1997). "The Alternative Georgist Tradition" (PDF). Fragments. 35. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
^ Foldvary, Fred E. (April 2004). "Heath: Estranged Georgist".
American Journal of
^ Kennedy, Margrit. "Money & The Land Grab". YouTube. Share the Rents. Retrieved 12 December 2013.
^ Lincoln, John. "Fighting For Fundamentals". Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
^ Magie invented The Landlord's Game, predecessor to Monopoly
^ Dodson, Edward J. "How Henry George's Principles Were Corrupted Into the Game Called Monopoly". Retrieved 1 October 2013.
^ "Offers $250,000 For a Single
^ Post, Louis F. (April 2002). The Prophet of San Francisco: Personal Memories & Interpretations of Henry George. The Minerva Group. ISBN 9780898758337.
^ Thomas B. Buell (1974). The Quiet Warrior. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 9780870215629.
^ "American Single Taxers Invade Tiny Andorra;
^ Sinclair, Upton. "The Consequences of Land Speculation are Tenantry and Debt on the Farms, and Slums and Luxury in the Cities". Retrieved 29 July 2014.
^ Stanley, Buder (1990). Visionaries and Planners: The Garden City Movement and the Modern Community. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195362886. Wallace described Progress and Poverty as “Undoubtedly the most remarkable and important book of the present century.”
^ Dudden, Arthur (1971).
^ George Bernard Shaw, his life and works. Stewart & Kidd Company. 1911.
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