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Georgian (ქართული ენა, kartuli ena, pronounced [kʰɑrtʰuli ɛnɑ]) is a Kartvelian language
Kartvelian language
spoken by Georgians. It is the official language of Georgia. Georgian is written in its own writing system, the Georgian script. Georgian is the literary language for all regional subgroups of Georgians, including those who speak other Kartvelian languages: Svans, Mingrelians
Mingrelians
and the Laz.

Contents

1 Classification 2 Dialects 3 History 4 Phonology

4.1 Consonants 4.2 Vowels 4.3 Prosody 4.4 Phonotactics

5 Writing system

5.1 Keyboard layout

6 Grammar

6.1 Morphology

6.1.1 Morphophonology 6.1.2 Inflection

6.2 Syntax

7 Vocabulary 8 Examples

8.1 Word formations 8.2 Words that begin with multiple consonants

9 Language example 10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

13.1 Grammars 13.2 Dictionaries 13.3 Software 13.4 Literature and culture

Classification[edit] Georgian is the most pervasive of the Kartvelian languages, a family that also includes Svan and Megrelian (chiefly spoken in Northwest Georgia) and Laz (chiefly spoken along the Black Sea
Black Sea
coast of Turkey, from Melyat, Rize
Rize
to the Georgian frontier). Dialects[edit] Main article: Georgian dialects Dialects of Georgian are from Imereti, Racha-Lechkhumi, Guria, Adjara, Imerkhevi
Imerkhevi
(in Turkey), Kartli, Kakheti, Saingilo (in Azerbaijan), Tusheti, Khevsureti, Khevi, Pshavi, Fereydan
Fereydan
(in Iran), Mtiuleti
Mtiuleti
and Meskheti. History[edit] Further information: Kartvelian languages
Kartvelian languages
and Proto-Kartvelian language Further information: Old Georgian
Old Georgian
language

Part of a series on

Georgians ქართველები

Nation

Georgia

Ancient Kartvelian people

Colchians Iberians

Subgroups

Svans Zans

Culture

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Languages

Writing system Dialects Grammar

Religion

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Symbols

St George's Cross Grapevine cross Bolnisi cross Borjgali

History of Georgia

v t e

The history of the Georgian language
Georgian language
can conventionally be divided into:[3]

Early Old Georgian: 5th–8th centuries Classical Old Georgian: 9th–11th centuries Middle Georgian: 11th/12th–17th/18th centuries Modern Georgian: 17th/18th century – present

Georgian shares an ancestral language with Mingrelian/Laz and Svan. Georgian as separate from the other Kartvelian languages
Kartvelian languages
would have emerged in the 1st millennium BC in the area known later as the Kingdom of Iberia. The earliest allusion to spoken Georgian may be a passage of the Roman grammarian Marcus Cornelius Fronto in the 2nd century: Fronto imagines the Iberians addressing the emperor Marcus Aurelius in their "incomprehensible tongue".[4] The evolution of Georgian into a written language was a consequence of the conversion of the Georgian elite to Christianity in the mid-4th century. The new literary language was constructed on an already well-established cultural infrastructure, appropriating the functions, conventions, and status of Aramaic, the literary language of pagan Georgia, and the new national religion.[3] The first Georgian texts are inscriptions and palimpsests dating to the 5th century. Georgian has a rich literary tradition. The oldest surviving literary work in Georgian is the 5th century Martyrdom of the Holy Queen Shushanik (წამებაჲ წმიდისა შუშანიკისი დედოფლისაჲ) by Iakob Tsurtaveli. In the 11th century, Old Georgian
Old Georgian
gives rise to Middle Georgian, the literary language of the medieval kingdom of Georgia. The Georgian national epic, Shota Rustaveli's The Knight in the Panther's Skin (ვეფხისტყაოსანი), dates from the 12th century. In 1629, Alphabetum Ibericum sive Georgianum cum Oratione
Alphabetum Ibericum sive Georgianum cum Oratione
and Dittionario giorgiano e italiano
Dittionario giorgiano e italiano
were the first two books printed in the Georgian language
Georgian language
using movable type in Rome
Rome
supported by the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
of the Catholic Church for their evangelical movement in Georgian kingdoms. This marked the beginning of the modern Georgian language. Phonology[edit] Consonants[edit] Symbols on the left are those of the IPA and those on the right are of the modern Georgian alphabet.

Georgian consonants[5]

  Labial Dental/ Alveolar Post-alveolar Velar Uvular Glottal

Nasal m   მ n   ნ

Stop aspirated pʰ   ფ tʰ   თ

kʰ   ქ

voiced b   ბ d   დ

ɡ   გ

ejective pʼ   პ tʼ   ტ

kʼ   კ qʼ   ყ

Affricate (aspirated)

t͡sʰ1   ც t͡ʃʰ1   ჩ

voiced

d͡z   ძ d͡ʒ   ჯ

ejective

t͡sʼ   წ t͡ʃ ʼ   ჭ

Fricative voiceless

s   ს ʃ   შ x 2   ხ h   ჰ

voiced v   ვ z   ზ ʒ   ჟ ɣ 2   ღ

Rhotic

r   რ

Lateral

l   ლ

Opinions differ on the aspiration of /t͡sʰ, t͡ʃʰ/, as it is non-contrastive.[citation needed] Opinions differ on how to classify /x/ and /ɣ/; Aronson (1990) classifies them as post-velar, Hewitt (1995) argues that they range from velar to uvular according to context.

A former distinction between /x/ (ხ) and /qʰ/ (ჴ) has been lost.[clarification needed] The glottalization of the ejectives is rather light, and in many romanization systems it is not marked, for transcriptions such as aspirated p, t, ts, ch, k and q, against the ejective series pʼ, tʼ, tsʼ, chʼ, kʼ and qʼ. Vowels[edit]

Vowels[6]

Front Back

Close i   ი u   უ

Mid ɛ   ე ɔ   ო

Open a~ɑ   ა[7]

Prosody[edit] Prosody in Georgian involves stress, intonation, and rhythm. Stress is very weak, and linguists disagree as to where stress occurs in words.[8] Jun, Vicenik, and Lofstedt have proposed that Georgian stress and intonation are the result of pitch accents on the first syllable of a word and near the end of a phrase.[9] The rhythm of Georgian speech is syllable-timed.[citation needed] Phonotactics[edit] Georgian contains many "harmonic clusters" involving two consonants of a similar type (voiced, aspirated, or ejective) which are pronounced with only a single release; e.g. ბგერა bgera (sound), ცხოვრება tskhovreba (life), and წყალი ts'q'ali (water).[10] There are also frequent consonant clusters, sometimes involving more than six consonants in a row, as may be seen in words like გვფრცქვნი gvprtskvni ("You peel us") and მწვრთნელი mts'vrtneli ("trainer"). Vicenik has observed that Georgian vowels following ejective stops have creaky voice and suggests this may be one cue distinguishing ejectives from their aspirated and voiced counterparts.[11] Writing system[edit]

Calligraphy

Arabic Chinese Georgian Indian Islamic Japanese Korean Mongolian Persian Tibetan Western

v t e

Main articles: Georgian scripts
Georgian scripts
and Georgian Braille

Road sign in Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli
and Latin scripts

"Mshrali khidi" (dry bridge) bilingual construction signboard in Georgian and Italian in Tbilisi.

Georgian has been written in a variety of scripts over its history. Currently the Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli
or "Military" script is almost completely dominant; the others are used mostly in religious documents and architecture. Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli
has 33 letters in common use; a half dozen more are obsolete in Georgian, though still used in other alphabets, like Mingrelian, Laz, and Svan. The letters of Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli
correspond closely to the phonemes of the Georgian language. According to the traditional account written down by Leonti Mroveli in the 11th century, the first Georgian script was created by the first ruler of the Kingdom of Iberia, Pharnavaz, in the 3rd century BC. However, the first examples of a Georgian script date from the 5th century AD. There are now three Georgian scripts, called asomtavruli "capitals", Nuskhuri
Nuskhuri
"small letters", and mkhedruli. The first two are used together as upper and lower case in the writings of the Georgian Orthodox Church and together are called Khutsuri "priests' [alphabet]". In Mkhedruli, there is no case. Sometimes, however, a capital-like effect, called Mtavruli, "title" or "heading", is achieved by modifying the letters so that their vertical sizes are identical and they rest on the baseline with no descenders. These capital-like letters are often used in page headings, chapter titles, monumental inscriptions, and the like.

Modern Georgian alphabet

Letter National transcription IPA transcription

ა a ɑ

ბ b b

გ g ɡ

დ d d

ე e ɛ

ვ v v

ზ z z

თ t tʰ

ი i i

კ k' kʼ

ლ l l

მ m m

ნ n n

ო o ɔ

პ p' pʼ

ჟ zh ʒ

რ r r

ს s s

ტ t' tʼ

უ u u

ფ p pʰ

ქ k kʰ

ღ gh ɣ

ყ q' qʼ

შ sh ʃ

ჩ ch t͡ʃʰ

ც ts t͡sʰ

ძ dz d͡z

წ ts' t͡sʼ

ჭ ch' t͡ʃʼ

ხ kh x

ჯ j d͡ʒ

ჰ h h

Keyboard layout[edit] Main article: Georgian keyboard layout This is the Georgian standard[12] keyboard layout. The standard Windows keyboard is essentially that of manual typewriters.

 “ „  1 !  2 ?  3 №  4 §  5 %  6 :  7 .  8 ;  9 ,  0 /  - _  + =  ←  Backspace

 Tab key ღ ჯ უ კ ე ჱ ნ გ შ წ ზ ხ ჴ ც ) (

 Caps lock ფ ჶ ძ ვ ჳ თ ა პ რ ო ლ დ ჟ Enter key  ↵

 Shift key  ↑ ჭ ჩ ყ ს მ ი ჲ ტ ქ ბ ჰ ჵ  Shift key  ↑

 Control key Win key  Alt key Space bar  AltGr key Win key Menu key  Control key    

Grammar[edit] Main articles: Georgian grammar and Georgian verb paradigm Morphology[edit] Georgian is an agglutinative language. There are certain prefixes and suffixes that are joined together in order to build a verb. In some cases, there can be up to eight different morphemes in one verb at the same time. An example can be ageshenebinat ("you (pl) had built"). The verb can be broken down to parts: a-g-e-shen-eb-in-a-t. Each morpheme here contributes to the meaning of the verb tense or the person who has performed the verb. The verb conjugation also exhibits polypersonalism; a verb may potentially include morphemes representing both the subject and the object. Morphophonology[edit] In Georgian morphophonology, syncope is a common phenomenon. When a suffix (especially the plural suffix -eb-) is attached to a word which has either of the vowels a or e in the last syllable, this vowel is, in most words, lost. For example, megobari means "friend". To say "friends", one says, megobØrebi (megobrebi), with the loss of a in the last syllable of the word root. Inflection[edit] Georgian has seven noun cases: nominative, ergative, dative, genitive, instrumental, adverbial and vocative. An interesting feature of Georgian is that, while the subject of a sentence is generally in the nominative case, and the object is in the accusative case (or dative), in Georgian, one can find this reversed in many situations (this depends mainly on the character of the verb). This is called the dative construction. In the past tense of the transitive verbs, and in the present tense of the verb "to know", the subject is in the ergative case. Syntax[edit]

Georgian is a left-branching language, in which adjectives precede nouns, possessors precede possessions, objects normally precede verbs, and postpositions are used instead of prepositions. Each postposition (whether a suffix or a separate word) requires the modified noun to be in a specific case. (This is similar to the way prepositions govern specific cases in many Indo-European languages such as German, Latin, or Russian.) Georgian is a pro-drop language: both subject and object pronouns are frequently omitted except for emphasis or to resolve ambiguity. A study by Skopeteas et al. concluded that Georgian word order tends to place the focus of a sentence immediately before the verb, and the topic before the focus. A subject–object–verb (SOV) word order is common in idiomatic expressions and when the focus of a sentence is on the object. A subject–verb–object (SVO) word order is common when the focus is on the subject, or in longer sentences. Object-initial word orders (OSV or OVS) are also possible, but less common. Verb-initial word orders including both subject and object (VSO or VOS) are extremely rare.[13] Georgian has no grammatical gender; even the pronouns are gender-neutral. Georgian has no articles. Therefore, for example, "guest", "a guest" and "the guest" are said in the same way. In relative clauses, however, it is possible to establish the meaning of the definite article through use of some particles.[citation needed]

Vocabulary[edit] Georgian has a rich word-derivation system. By using a root, and adding some definite prefixes and suffixes, one can derive many nouns and adjectives from the root. For example, from the root -kartv-, the following words can be derived: Kartveli (a Georgian person), Kartuli (the Georgian language) and Sakartvelo (Georgia). Most Georgian surnames end in -dze ("son") (Western Georgia), -shvili ("child") (Eastern Georgia), -ia (Western Georgia, Samegrelo), -ani (Western Georgia, Svaneti), -uri (Eastern Georgia), etc. The ending -eli is a particle of nobility, equivalent to French de, German von or Polish -ski. Georgian has a vigesimal numeric system like Basque or French, based on the counting system of 20. In order to express a number greater than 20 and less than 100, first the number of 20s in the number is stated and the remaining number is added. For example, 93 is expressed as ოთხმოცდაცამეტი - otkh-m-ots-da-tsamet'i (lit. four-times-twenty-and-thirteen). One of the most important Georgian dictionaries is the Explanatory dictionary of the Georgian language
Georgian language
(Georgian: ქართული ენის განმარტებითი ლექსიკონი). It consists of eight volumes and about 115,000 words. It was produced between 1950 and 1964, by a team of linguists under the direction of Arnold Chikobava. Examples[edit] Word formations[edit] Georgian has a word derivation system, which allows the derivation of nouns from verb roots both with prefixes and suffixes, for example:

From the root -ts'er- ("write"), the words ts'erili ("letter") and mts'erali ("writer") are derived. From the root -tsa- ("give"), the word gadatsema ("broadcast") is derived. From the root -tsda- ("try"), the word gamotsda ("exam") is derived. From the root -gav- ("resemble"), the words msgavsi ("similar") and msgavseba ("similarity") are derived. From the root -shen- ("build"), the word shenoba ("building") is derived. From the root -tskh- ("bake"), the word namtskhvari ("cake") is derived. From the root -tsiv- ("cold"), the word matsivari ("refrigerator") is derived. From the root -pr- ("fly"), the words tvitmprinavi ("plane") and aprena ("take-off") are derived.

It is also possible to derive verbs from nouns:

From the noun -omi- ("war"), the verb omob ("wage war") is derived. From the noun -sadili- ("lunch"), the verb sadilob ("eat lunch") is derived. From the noun -sauzme ("breakfast"), the verb ts'asauzmeba ("eat a little breakfast") is derived; the preverb ts'a- in Georgian could add the meaning "VERBing a little". From the noun -sakhli- ("home"), the verb gadasakhleba (the infinite form of the verb "to relocate, to move") is derived.

Likewise, verbs can be derived from adjectives, for example:

From the adjective -ts'iteli- ("red"), the verb gats'itleba (the infinite form of both "to blush" and "to make one blush") is derived. This kind of derivation can be done with many adjectives in Georgian. From the adjective -brma ("blind"), the verbs dabrmaveba (the infinite form of both "to become blind" and "to blind someone") are derived. From the adjective -lamazi- ("beautiful"), the verb galamazeba (the infinite form of the verb "to become beautiful") is derived.

Words that begin with multiple consonants[edit] In Georgian many nouns and adjectives begin with two or more contiguous consonants. This is because most syllables in the language begin with certain two consonants.

Some examples of words that begin with double consonants are:

 წყალი (help·info), (ts'q'ali), "water" სწორი, (sts'ori), "correct" რძე, (rdze), "milk" თმა, (tma), "hair" მთა, (mta), "mountain" ცხენი, (tskheni), "horse"

There are also many words that begin with three contiguous consonants:

თქვენ, (tkven), "you (plural)" მწვანე, (mts'vane), "green" ცხვირი, (tskhviri), "nose" ტკბილი, (t'k'bili), "sweet" მტკივნეული, (mt'k'ivneuli), "painful" ჩრდილოეთი, (chrdiloeti), "north"

There are also a few words in Georgian that begin with four contiguous consonants. Examples are:

მკვლელი, (mk'vleli), "murderer" მკვდარი, (mk'vdari), "dead" მთვრალი, (mtvrali), "drunk" მწკრივი; (mts'k'rivi), "row"

There can also be some extreme cases in Georgian. For example, the following word begins with six contiguous consonants:

მწვრთნელი, (mts'vrtneli), "trainer"

And the following words begin with eight consonants:

გვფრცქვნი (gvprtskvni), "you peel us" გვბრდღვნი (gvbrdghvni), "you tear us"

Language example[edit] Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in Georgian: ყველა ადამიანი იბადება თავისუფალი და თანასწორი თავისი ღირსებითა და უფლებებით. მათ მინიჭებული აქვთ გონება და სინდისი და ერთმანეთის მიმართ უნდა იქცეოდნენ ძმობის სულისკვეთებით.

Transliteration:

Q'vela adamiani ibadeba tavisupali da tanasts'ori tavisi ghirsebita da uplebebit. Mat minich'ebuli akvt goneba da sindisi da ertmanetis mimart unda iktseodnen dzmobis sulisk'vetebit.

Translation:

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.[14] See also[edit]

Old Georgian
Old Georgian
language Georgian dialects Georgian alphabet Georgian calligraphy Georgian calendar Georgian grammar Georgian numerals

References[edit]

^ Georgian at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Nuclear Georgian". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ a b Tuite, Kevin, "Early Georgian", pp. 145-6, in: Woodard, Roger D. (2008), The Ancient Languages of Asia Minor. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-68496-X ^ Braund, David (1994), Georgia in Antiquity; a History of Colchis
Colchis
and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 B.C. – A.D. 562, p. 216. Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-814473-3 ^ Shosted & Shikovani (2006:255) ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:261) ^ Aronson (1990) describes this vowel as more fronted than [ɑ] ^ Aronson (1990:18) ^ Jun, Vicenik & Lofstedt (2007) ^ Aronson (1990:33) ^ Vicenik (2010:87) ^ Georgian Keyboard Layout Microsoft ^ Skopeteas, Féry & Asatiani (2009:2–5) ^ About Georgia: Georgian Alphabet

Bibliography[edit]

Aronson, Howard I. (1990), Georgian: a reading grammar (second ed.), Columbus, OH: Slavica  Zaza Aleksidze. Epistoleta Tsigni, Tbilisi, 1968, 150 pp (in Georgian) Farshid Delshad. Georgica et Irano-Semitica Studies on Iranian, Semitic and Georgian Linguistics, Wiesbaden 2010, 401 pp (in German, English, Russian and Georgian summary) Korneli Danelia, Zurab Sarjveladze. Questions of Georgian Paleography, Tbilisi, 1997, 150 pp (in Georgian, English summary) Hewitt, B. G. (1995), Georgian: a structural reference grammar, Amsterdam: John Benjamins  Hewitt, B. G. (1996), Georgian: a Learner's Grammar, London: Routledge  Pavle Ingorokva. Georgian inscriptions of antique.- Bulletin of ENIMK, vol. X, Tbilisi, 1941, pp. 411–427 (in Georgian) Ivane Javakhishvili. Georgian Paleography, Tbilisi, 1949, 500 pp (in Georgian) Jun, Sun-Ah; Vicenik, Chad; Lofstedt, Ingvar (2007), "Intonational Phonology of Georgian" (PDF), UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics (106): 41–57, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-16  Kiziria, Dodona (2009), Beginner's Georgian with 2 Audio CDs, New York: Hippocrene, ISBN 0-7818-1230-5  Kraveishvili, M. & Nakhutsrishvili, G. (1972), Teach Yourself Georgian for English Speaking Georgians, Tbilisi: The Georgian Society for Cultural Relations with Compatriots Abroad  Elene Machavariani. The graphical basis of the Georgian Alphabet, Tbilisi, 1982, 107 pp (in Georgian, French summary) Ramaz Pataridze. The Georgian Asomtavruli, Tbilisi, 1980, 600 pp (in Georgian) Price, Glanville (1998), An Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe, Blackwell  Shosted, Ryan K.; Vakhtang, Chikovani (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659  "Great discovery" (about the expedition of Academician Levan Chilashvili).- Newspaper Kviris Palitra, Tbilisi, April 21–27, 2003 (in Georgian) Vicenik, Chad (2010), "An acoustic study of Georgian stop consonants", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (1): 59–92, doi:10.1017/s0025100309990302  Skopeteas, Stavros; Féry, Caroline; Asatiani, Rusudan (2009), Word order and intonation in Georgian, University of Potsdam 

External links[edit]

Georgian edition of, the free encyclopedia

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of an 1879 American Cyclopædia
American Cyclopædia
article about Georgian language.

Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Georgian.

Dryer, Matthew S.; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Georgian language". World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.  The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in Georgian language

Grammars[edit]

Reference grammar of Georgian by Howard Aronson (SEELRC, Duke University) Georgian Grammar

Dictionaries[edit]

Georgian English, English Georgian online dictionary English-Georgian, German-Georgian and Russian-Georgian dictionaries English-Georgian HTML Dictionary Georgian Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix)

Software[edit]

Georgian fonts, compliant with Unicode
Unicode
4.0, also available for MAC OS 9 or X A keyboard for typing georgian characters for firefox

Literature and culture[edit]

About Georgia - Language and Alphabet Summer School of Georgian at Tbilisi
Tbilisi
State University Learn how to write Georgian hand-written letters correctly

v t e

Georgian language

Grammar

Screeve Verb paradigm

Writing

Scripts Braille Calligraphy Keyboard Numerals Romanization Cyrillization

Genealogy

Proto-Kartvelian Kartvelian languages

Old Georgian

Georgian dialects

v t e

Kartvelian languages

Georgian language

old grammar

Svan language Mingrelian language

grammar

Laz language

grammar

v t e

Languages of Georgia

Official language

Georgian

Minority languages

Abkhazian Azerbaijani Western Armenian Laz Mingrelian Ossetian Pontic Greek Russian Svan Urum

Sign languages

Georgian Sign Language

v t e

Languages of the Caucasus

Caucasian (areal)

Caspian

Avar–Andic

Andic

Akhvakh Bagvalal–Tindi Botlix–Godoberi Chamalal Karata Literary Andi

Avar

Dargic

Literary Dargwa and dialects

Chirag Itsari Kajtak Kubachi

Didoic

Bezhta–Hunzib–Khwarshi Hinukh–Literary Tsez

Lezgic

Aghul Archi Budukh Kryts Lezgian Rutul Tabasaran Tsakhur Udi

Nakh

Bats Chechen–Ingush

Other

Khinalug Lak

Kartvelian

Karto-Zan–Svan

Georgian Svan Zan

Laz Mingrelian

Pontic

Abazgi–Adyghe

Abkhaz–Abaza Circassian

Indo-European

Armenian

Armenian

Germanic

German

Hellenic

Pontic Greek

Iranic

Northern

Ossetian

Western

Judæo-Tat Kurdish Persian Talysh Tat

Slavic

Russian Ukrainian

Mongolic

Kalmyk

Turkic

Kipchak–Cuman

Karachay–Balkar Kumyk Urum

Kipchak–Nogai

Nogai

Oghuz

Azerbaijani Turkish Turkmen

Afro-Asiatic

Semitic

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Bohtan Neo-Aramaic

 See also: Languages of Armenia  Languages of Azerbaijan  Languages of Georgia  Languages of Russia

v t e

Georgia articles

History

Early

Prehistoric Georgia Shulaveri-Shomu culture Kura–Araxes culture Trialeti culture Colchian culture Diaokhi Kingdom of Colchis Kingdom of Iberia Kingdom of Lazica Roman Georgia

Middle

Christianization of Iberia Sasanian Iberia Principality of Iberia Bagrationi dynasty Arab rule in Georgia Emirate of Tbilisi Kingdom of Abkhazia Principality of Hereti Principality of Kakheti Duchy of Kldekari Principality of Tao-Klarjeti Kingdom of Hereti Kingdom of Kakheti-Hereti Kingdom of Georgia Byzantine–Georgian wars Georgian–Seljuk wars
Georgian–Seljuk wars
(Battle of Didgori) Georgian Golden Age Mongol invasions of Georgia Timur's invasions of Georgia Principality of Samtskhe Turkmen invasions of Georgia Kingdom of Imereti

Principality of Abkhazia Principality of Svaneti Principality of Guria Principality of Mingrelia

Kingdom of Kartli Kingdom of Kakheti Shah Abbas I's invasions of Georgia Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti 1795 Persian Invasion Absorption by the Russian Empire

Modern

Democratic Republic of Georgia Georgian–Armenian War Red Army invasion of Georgia Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic April 9 tragedy Independent Georgia Georgian Civil War War in Abkhazia Rose Revolution Russo-Georgian War

By topic

Name of Georgia Monarchs States Military history Wars Battles Timeline of Georgian history more

Geography

Birds Black Sea Climate Earthquakes Environmental issues Glaciers Greater Caucasus Lakes Lesser Caucasus Mammals National parks Protected areas Rivers Volcanoes more

Subdivisions

Administrative divisions Cities and towns Tbilisi Regions more

Politics

Cabinet Constitution Elections Human rights

LGBT

Law enforcement Military

Air Force Coast Guard Land Forces

National Assembly Political parties President Prime Minister

Foreign relations

Ministry of Foreign Affairs Embassies in Georgia / of Georgia European Union NATO Georgian–Abkhaz conflict Georgian–Ossetian conflict

Economy

Agriculture Central bank Companies Energy International rankings Lari (currency) Mining Stock Exchange Telecommunications Tourism

visa policy

Transport

Airports Autoroutes Railway Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Metro

Stations

more

Culture

Alphabet Architecture Art Chokha Cinema Cuisine

Wine

Dance Georgian language

Laz Mingrelian Svan

Media Music Mythology Names Public holidays Sports World Heritage Sites more

Demographics

Education Ethnic minorities Georgians

List Diaspora

Health care Women more

Religion

Georgian Orthodox Church Islam Catholicism Judaism Bahá'í Freedom of religion Secularism and irreligion more

Symbols

Anthem Bolnisi cross Borjgali Coat of arms Flag Motto Saint George

cross

Saint Nino

cross

Outline Index

Book Category Portal

Authority control

LCCN: sh85054242 GND: 4124679-2 NDL: 0056

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