The Info List - Georgia (U.S. State)

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Georgia (/ˈdʒɔːrdʒə/ ( listen) JOR-jə) is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies.[5] Named after King George II of Great Britain,[6] the Province of Georgia
Province of Georgia
covered the area from South Carolina
South Carolina
down to Spanish Florida
Spanish Florida
and New France
New France
along Louisiana (New France), also bordering to the west towards the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788.[7] In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi
Territory, which later split to form Alabama
with part of former West Florida
West Florida
in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, and was one of the original seven Confederate states.[7] It was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870.[7] Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas.[8] Georgia is known as the Peach
State and the Empire State of the South.[7] Atlanta
is the state's capital, its most populous city, and has been named a global city. Georgia is bordered to the south by Florida, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and South Carolina, to the west by Alabama, and to the north by Tennessee
and North Carolina. The state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald
Brasstown Bald
at 4,784 feet (1,458 m) above sea level; the lowest is the Atlantic
Ocean. Of the states entirely east of the Mississippi
River, Georgia is the largest in land area.[9]


1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Boundaries 2.2 Geology and terrain 2.3 Ecology 2.4 Flora 2.5 Fauna 2.6 Climate

3 Demographics

3.1 Population 3.2 Languages 3.3 Major cities (2016) 3.4 Religion

4 Government

4.1 State government 4.2 Local government 4.3 Elections 4.4 Politics

5 Economy

5.1 Agriculture 5.2 Mining 5.3 Industry 5.4 Logistics 5.5 Military 5.6 Energy use and production 5.7 State taxes 5.8 Film 5.9 Tourism

6 Cultural

6.1 Fine and performing arts 6.2 Literature 6.3 Television 6.4 Music 6.5 Film 6.6 Sports

7 Parks and recreational activities 8 Education 9 Media 10 Infrastructure

10.1 Transportation 10.2 Health care

11 Cities 12 Notable people 13 State symbols 14 See also 15 References 16 Bibliography 17 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Georgia (U.S. state) Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures. The British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733.[10] The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by (and named for) King George II. The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish in 1742, during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king.[11]

The Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, on June 27, 1864

The Province of Georgia
Province of Georgia
was one of the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution
American Revolution
by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778,[12] and was the 4th state to ratify the current Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia
North Georgia
mountains, which led to the Georgia Gold Rush
Georgia Gold Rush
and an established federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued its operation until 1861. The subsequent influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
signed the Indian Removal Act into law, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia (1832) that ruled U.S. states were not permitted to redraw the Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the Cherokee and deport them west of the Mississippi. This forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia joined the Confederacy and became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, and Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta
to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service, roughly one of every five who served.[13] In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union.

A girl spinner in a Georgia cotton mill, 1909.

With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering.[14] In 1908, the state established a white primary; with the only competitive contests within the Democratic Party, it was another way to exclude blacks from politics.[15] They constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population that was African American dropped thereafter to 28%, primarily due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration.[16] This political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States
United States
(1877-1950), Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these crimes of any state in the South, exceeded by Mississippi. The overwhelming number of victims were black and male.[17] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Georgia (U.S. state)

Road to Brasstown Bald

Jekyll Island

Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

Boundaries[edit] Beginning from the Atlantic
Ocean, the state's eastern border with South Carolina
South Carolina
runs up the Savannah River, northwest to its origin at the confluence of the Tugaloo and Seneca Rivers. It then continues up the Tugaloo (originally Tugalo) and into the Chattooga River, its most significant tributary. These bounds were decided in the 1797 Treaty of Beaufort, and tested in the U.S. Supreme Court
U.S. Supreme Court
in the two Georgia v. South Carolina
South Carolina
cases in 1923 and 1989. The border then takes a sharp turn around the tip of Rabun County, at latitude 35°N, though from this point it diverges slightly south (due to inaccuracies in the original survey). This northern border was originally the Georgia and North Carolina
North Carolina
border all the way to the Mississippi
River, until Tennessee
was divided from North Carolina, and the Yazoo companies induced the legislature of Georgia to pass an act, approved by the governor in 1795, to sell the greater part of Georgia's territory presently comprising Alabama
and Mississippi.[18] The state's western border runs in a straight line south-southeastward from a point southwest of Chattanooga, to meet the Chattahoochee River near West Point. It continues downriver to the point where it joins the Flint River (the confluence of the two forming Florida's Apalachicola River); the southern border goes almost due east and very slightly south, in a straight line to the St. Mary's River, which then forms the remainder of the boundary back to the ocean. The water boundaries are still set to be the original thalweg of the rivers. Since then, several have been inundated by lakes created by dams, including the Apalachicola/Chattahoochee/Flint point now under Lake Seminole. Georgia state legislators have claimed that in an 1818 survey, the state's border with Tennessee
was erroneously placed one mile (1.6 km) farther south than intended, and they proposed a correction in 2010. The state was then in the midst of a significant drought, and the new border would allow Georgia access to water from the Tennessee
River.[19] Geology and terrain[edit]

Map of elevations in Georgia

Main article: Geology of Georgia (U.S. state) Each region has its own distinctive characteristics. For instance, the Ridge and Valley, which lies in the northwest corner of the state, includes limestone, sandstone, shale and other sedimentary rocks, which have yielded construction-grade limestone, barite, ocher, and small amounts of coal. Ecology[edit] Main article: Ecology of Georgia Flora[edit] The state of Georgia has approximately 250 tree species and 58 protected plants. Georgia's native trees include red cedar, a variety of pines, oaks, hollies, cypress, sweetgum, scaly-bark and white hickories and sabal palmetto. East Georgia is in the subtropical coniferous forest biome and conifer species as other broadleaf evergreen flora make up the majority of the southern and coastal regions. Yellow jasmine, and mountain laurel make up just a few of the flowering shrubs in the state. See also: List of taxa described from Georgia Fauna[edit] White-tailed (Virginia) deer are in nearly all counties. The northern mockingbird and brown thrasher are among the 160 bird species that live in the state.[20] Reptiles and amphibians include the eastern diamondback, copperhead, and cottonmouth, salamanders, frogs, alligators and toads. There are about 79 species of reptile and 63 amphibians known to live in Georgia.[20] The most popular freshwater game fish are trout, bream, bass, and catfish, all but the last of which are produced in state hatcheries for restocking. Popular saltwater game fish include red drum, spotted seatrout, flounder, and tarpon. Porpoises, whales, shrimp, oysters, and blue crabs are found inshore and offshore of the Georgia coast.[20] See also: List of taxa described from Georgia Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Georgia (U.S. state)

Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
types of Georgia

Image of March 1993 Storm of the Century
1993 Storm of the Century
covering the length of the east coast. The outline of Georgia is discernible in the center of the image.

The majority of the state is primarily a humid subtropical climate. Hot and humid summers are typical, except at the highest elevations. The entire state, including the North Georgia
North Georgia
mountains, receives moderate to heavy precipitation, which varies from 45 inches (1143 mm) in central Georgia[21] to approximately 75 inches (1905 mm) around the northeast part of the state.[22] The degree to which the weather of a certain region of Georgia is subtropical depends on the latitude, its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
or Gulf of Mexico, and the elevation. The latter factor is felt chiefly in the mountainous areas of the northern part of the state, which are farther away from the ocean and can be 4500 feet (1350 m) above sea level. The USDA Plant hardiness zones for Georgia range from zone 6b (no colder than −5 °F (−21 °C) ) in the Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
to zone 8b (no colder than 15 °F (−9 °C) ) along the Atlantic
coast and Florida
border.[23] The highest temperature ever recorded is 112 °F (44.4 °C) in Louisville on July 24, 1952,[24] while the lowest is −17 °F (−27.2 °C) in northern Floyd County on January 27, 1940.[25] Georgia is one of the leading states in frequency of tornadoes, though they are rarely stronger than F1. Although tornadoes striking the city are very rare,[26] a F2 nonviolent tornado[26] hit downtown Atlanta
on March 14, 2008, causing moderate to severe damage to various buildings. With a coastline on the Atlantic
Ocean, Georgia is also vulnerable to hurricanes, although direct hurricane strikes were rare during the 20th century. Georgia often is affected by hurricanes that strike the Florida
panhandle, weaken over land, and bring strong tropical storm winds and heavy rain to the interior, as well as hurricanes that come close to the Georgia coastline, brushing the coast on their way north.

Monthly average daily high and low temperatures for major Georgia cities

City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Athens 51/11 33/1 56/13 35/2 65/18 42/6 73/23 49/9 80/27 58/14 87/31 65/18 90/32 69/21 88/31 68/20 82/28 63/17 73/23 51/11 63/17 42/6 54/12 35/2

Atlanta 52/11 34/1 57/14 36/2 65/18 44/7 73/23 50/10 80/27 60/16 86/30 67/19 89/32 71/22 88/31 70/21 82/28 64/18 73/23 53/12 63/17 44/7 55/13 36/2

Augusta 56/13 33/1 61/16 36/4 69/21 42/6 77/25 48/9 84/29 57/14 90/32 65/18 92/33 70/21 90/32 68/20 85/29 62/17 76/24 50/10 68/20 41/5 59/15 35/2

Columbus 57/14 37/3 62/17 39/4 69/21 46/8 76/24 52/11 83/28 61/16 90/32 69/21 92/33 72/22 91/32 72/22 86/30 66/19 77/25 54/12 68/20 46/8 59/15 39/4

Macon 57/14 34/1 61/16 37/3 68/20 44/7 76/24 50/10 83/28 59/15 90/32 67/19 92/33 70/21 90/32 70/21 85/29 64/18 77/25 51/11 68/20 42/6 59/15 36/2

Savannah 60/16 38/3 64/18 41/5 71/22 48/9 78/26 53/12 84/29 61/16 90/32 68/20 92/33 72/22 90/32 71/22 86/30 67/19 78/26 56/13 70/21 47/8 63/17 40/4

Temperatures are given in °F/°C format, with highs on top of lows.[27]

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Georgia (U.S. state)

Historical population

Census Pop.

1790 82,548

1800 162,686


1810 251,407


1820 340,989


1830 516,823


1840 691,392


1850 906,185


1860 1,057,286


1870 1,184,109


1880 1,542,181


1890 1,837,353


1900 2,216,331


1910 2,609,121


1920 2,895,832


1930 2,908,506


1940 3,123,723


1950 3,444,578


1960 3,943,116


1970 4,589,575


1980 5,463,105


1990 6,478,216


2000 8,186,453


2010 9,687,653


Est. 2017 10,429,739


1910–2010[28] 2015 Estimate[29]

Population density of Georgia.

The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of Georgia was 10,214,860 on July 1, 2015, a 5.44% increase since the 2010 United States
United States
Census.[29] In 2015, Georgia had an estimated population of 10,214,860 which was an increase of 117,517 from the previous year, and an increase of 527,207 since 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 438,939 people (that is 849,414 births minus 410,475 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 606,673 people into the state. Immigration
resulted in a net increase of 228,415 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 378,258 people. As of 2010[update], the number of illegal immigrants living in Georgia has skyrocketed, more than doubling to 480,000 from January 2000 to January 2009, according to a new federal report. That gave Georgia the greatest percentage increase among the 10 states with the biggest illegal immigrant populations during those years.[30] There were 743,000 veterans in 2009.[31] Population[edit] According to the 2010 United States
United States
Census, Georgia had a population of 9,687,653. In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 59.7% White (55.9% Non-Hispanic White Alone), 30.5% Black or African American, 0.3% American Indian and Alaska
Native, 3.2% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and Other Pacific Islander, 4.0% from Some Other Race, and 2.1% from Two or More Races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 8.8% of the population.[32]

Georgia Racial Breakdown of Population

Racial composition 1990[33] 2000[34] 2010[35]

White 71.0% 65.1% 59.7%

Black 27.0% 28.7% 30.5%

Asian 1.2% 2.1% 3.3%

Native 0.2% 0.3% 0.3%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander – 0.1% 0.1%

Other race 0.6% 2.4% 4.0%

Two or more races – 1.4% 2.1%

As of 2011[update], 58.8% of Georgia's population younger than age 1 were minorities (meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white) compared to other states like California
with 75.1%, New York with 55.6%, and Texas
with 69.8%.[36] The largest European ancestry groups are:

English 8.1% Irish 8.1%[37] German 7.2%[38]

In the 1980 census 1,584,303 Georgians claimed English ancestry out of a total state population of 3,994,817, making them 40% of the state, and the largest ethnic group at the time.[39] Today, many of these same people claiming that they are of "American" ancestry are actually of English descent, and some are of Scots-Irish descent; however, their families have lived in the state for so long, in many cases since the colonial period, that they choose to identify simply as having "American" ancestry or do not in fact know their own ancestry. Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies and for this reason many of them today simply claim "American" ancestry, though they are of predominately English ancestry.[40][41][42][43] As of 2004[update], 7.7% of Georgia's population was reported as under 5 years of age, 26.4% under 18, and 9.6% were 65 or older. Also as of 2004[update], females made up approximately 50.6% of the population and African Americans made up approximately 29.6%. Historically, about half of Georgia's population was composed of African Americans who, before the Civil War, were almost exclusively enslaved. The Great Migration of hundreds of thousands of blacks from the rural South to the industrial North from 1914–70 reduced the African American
African American
population.[44] Georgia had the second-fastest-growing Asian population growth in the U.S. from 1990 to 2000, more than doubling in size during the ten-year period.[45] In addition, according to census estimates, Georgia ranks third among the states in terms of the percent of the total population that is African American
African American
(after Mississippi
and Louisiana) and third in numerical Black population after New York and Florida. Georgia was the state with the largest numerical increase in the black population from 2006 to 2007 with 84,000. Georgia is the state with the third-lowest percentage of older people (65 or older), at 12.8 percent (as of 2015[update]).[46] The colonial settlement of large numbers of Scottish American, English American and Scotch-Irish Americans in the mountains and piedmont, and coastal settlement by some English Americans and African Americans, have strongly influenced the state's culture in food, language and music. The concentration of Africans imported to coastal areas in the 18th century repeatedly from rice-growing regions of West Africa
West Africa
led to the development of Gullah-Geechee language and culture in the Low Country among African Americans. They share a unique heritage in which African traditions of food, religion and culture were continued more than in some other areas. In the creolization of Southern culture, their foodways became an integral part of all Southern cooking in the Low Country.[47][48] Languages[edit]

Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in Georgia

Language Percentage of population (as of 2010[update])[49]

Spanish 7.42%

Korean 0.51%

Vietnamese 0.44%

French 0.42%

Chinese (including Mandarin) 0.38%

German 0.29%

Hindi 0.23%

Niger-Congo languages
Niger-Congo languages
of West Africa
West Africa
(Ibo, Kru, and Yoruba) 0.21%

Gujarati 0.18%

Portuguese and French Creole 0.16%

As of 2010[update], 87.35% (7,666,663) of Georgia residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 7.42% (651,583) spoke Spanish, 0.51% (44,702) Korean, 0.44% (38,244) Vietnamese, 0.42% (36,679) French, 0.38% (33,009) Chinese (which includes Mandarin), and German, which was spoken as a main language by 0.29% (23,351) of the population over the age of five. In total, 12.65% (1,109,888) of Georgia's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[49] Major cities (2016)[edit]


v t e

Largest cities or towns in Georgia (U.S. state) http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src/bkmk

Rank Name County Pop.


Columbus 1 Atlanta Fulton 472,522



2 Columbus Muscogee 197,485

3 Augusta Richmond 197,081

4 Macon Bibb 152,555

5 Savannah Chatham 146,763

6 Athens Clarke 123,371

7 Sandy Springs Fulton 105,703

8 Roswell Fulton 94,598

9 Johns Creek Fulton 83,873

10 Warner Robins Houston 74,388

* In 2012, voters in Macon and Bibb County approved the consolidation of the city of Macon and unincorporated Bibb County; they officially merged on January 1, 2014. Macon joined Columbus, Augusta, and Athens as consolidated cities in Georgia.

The U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
lists fourteen metropolitan areas in Georgia. The largest, Atlanta, is the ninth most populous metro area in the United States.


St. Mark's United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
in Atlanta

The composition of religious affiliation in Georgia is 70% Protestant, 9% Catholic, 1% Mormon, 1% Jewish, 0.5% Muslim, 0.5% Buddhist, and 0.5% Hindu. Atheists, deists, agnostics, and other unaffiliated people make up 13% of the population.[50] The largest Christian denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Southern Baptist Convention with 1,759,317; the United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
with 619,394; and the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
with 596,384. Non-denominational Evangelical Protestant
had 566,782 members, the Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) has 175,184 members, and the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. has 172,982 members.[51] The Presbyterian Church (USA)
Presbyterian Church (USA)
is the largest Presbyterian body in the state, with 300 congregations and 100,000 members. The other large body, Presbyterian Church in America, had at its founding date 14 congregations and 2,800 members; in 2010 it counted 139 congregations and 32,000 members.[52][53] The Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
is noteworthy in Georgia's urban areas, and includes the Archdiocese of Atlanta
and the Diocese of Savannah. Georgia is home to the largest Hindu
temple in the United States, the BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Atlanta, located in the suburb city of Lilburn. Georgia is home to several historical synagogues including The Temple (Atlanta), Congregation Beth Jacob (Atlanta), and Congregation Mickve Israel (Savannah). Chabad
and the Rohr Jewish Learning Institute
Rohr Jewish Learning Institute
are also active in the state.[54][55]

Religion in Georgia (2014)[56]









Jehovah's Witness








Don't know


Government[edit] Main article: Government of Georgia (U.S. state) State government[edit] See also: List of governors of Georgia
List of governors of Georgia
and Georgia elected officials

The Georgia State Capitol
Georgia State Capitol
in Atlanta
with the distinctive gold dome

City Hall in Savannah

As with all other US states and the federal government, Georgia's government is based on the separation of legislative, executive, and judicial power.[57] Executive authority in the state rests with the governor, currently Nathan Deal
Nathan Deal
(Republican). Both the Governor of Georgia and lieutenant governor are elected on separate ballots to four-year terms of office. Unlike the federal government, but like many other U.S. States, most of the executive officials who comprise the governor's cabinet are elected by the citizens of Georgia rather than appointed by the governor. Legislative authority resides in the General Assembly, composed of the Senate and House of Representatives. The Lieutenant Governor presides over the Senate, while members of the House of Representatives select their own Speaker. The Georgia Constitution mandates a maximum of 56 senators, elected from single-member districts, and a minimum of 180 representatives, apportioned among representative districts (which sometimes results in more than one representative per district); there are currently 56 senators and 180 representatives. The term of office for senators and representatives is two years.[58] The laws enacted by the General Assembly are codified in the Official Code of Georgia Annotated. State judicial authority rests with the state Supreme Court and Court of Appeals, which have statewide authority.[59] In addition, there are smaller courts which have more limited geographical jurisdiction, including Superior Courts, State Courts, Juvenile Courts, Magistrate Courts and Probate Courts. Justices of the Supreme Court and judges of the Court of Appeals are elected statewide by the citizens in non-partisan elections to six-year terms. Judges for the smaller courts are elected to four-year terms by the state's citizens who live within that court's jurisdiction. Local government[edit] Further information: List of counties in Georgia Georgia consists of 159 counties, second only to Texas, with 254.[60] Georgia had 161 counties until the end of 1931, when Milton and Campbell were merged into the existing Fulton. Some counties have been named for prominent figures in both American and Georgian history, and many bear names with Native American origin. Counties in Georgia have their own elected legislative branch, usually called the Board of Commissioners, which usually also has executive authority in the county.[61] Several counties have a sole Commissioner form of government, with legislative and executive authority vested in a single person. Georgia is the only state with Sole Commissioner counties. Georgia's Constitution provides all counties and cities with "home rule" authority. The county commissions have considerable power to pass legislation within their county, as a municipality would. Georgia recognizes all local units of government as cities, so every incorporated town is legally a city. Georgia does not provide for townships or independent cities, though there have been bills proposed in the Legislature
to provide for townships;[62] it does allow consolidated city-county governments by local referendum. All of Georgia's second-tier cities except Savannah have now formed consolidated city-county governments by referendum: Columbus (in 1970), Athens (1990), Augusta (1995), and Macon (2012). (Augusta and Athens have excluded one or more small, incorporated towns within their consolidated boundaries; Columbus and Macon eventually absorbed all smaller incorporated entities within their consolidated boundaries.) The small town of Cusseta adopted a consolidated city-county government after it merged with unincorporated Chattahoochee County in 2003. Three years later, in 2006, the town of Georgetown consolidated with the rest of Quitman County. There is no true metropolitan government in Georgia, though the Atlanta
Regional Commission (ARC) and Georgia Regional Transportation Authority do provide some services, and the ARC must approve all major land development projects in the Atlanta
metropolitan area. Elections[edit] Main article: Elections in Georgia (U.S. state) See also: United States
United States
presidential election, 2004, in Georgia and Political party strength in Georgia (U.S. state)

Presidential elections results

Year Republican Democratic

2016 51.30% 2,068,623 45.60% 1,837,300

2012 53.40% 2,070,221 45.44% 1,761,761

2008 52.20% 2,048,744 47.00% 1,844,137

2004 57.97% 1,914,254 41.37% 1,366,149

2000 54.67% 1,419,720 42.98% 1,116,230

1996 47.01% 1,080,843 45.84% 1,053,849

1992 42.88% 995,252 43.47% 1,008,966

1988 59.75% 1,081,331 39.50% 714,792

1984 60.17% 1,068,722 39.79% 706,628

1980 40.95% 654,168 55.76% 890,733

1976 32.96% 483,743 66.74% 979,409

1972 75.04% 881,496 24.65% 289,529

1968* 30.40% 380,111 26.75% 334,440

1964 54.12% 616,584 41.15% 522,557

1960 37.43% 274,472 62.54% 458,638

1956 32.65% 216,652 66.48% 441,094

1952 30.34% 198,979 69.66% 456,823

1948 18.31% 76,691 60.81% 254,646

1944 18.25% 59,880 81.74% 268,187

1940 14.83% 46,360 84.85% 265,194

*State won by George Wallace of the American Independent Party, at 42.83%, or 535,550 votes

of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

Until 1964, Georgia's state government had the longest unbroken record of single-party dominance, by the Democratic Party, of any state in the Union. This record was established largely due to the disenfranchisement of most blacks and many poor whites by the state in its constitution and laws in the early 20th century. Some elements, such as requiring payment of poll taxes and passing literacy tests, prevented blacks from registering to vote; their exclusion from the political system lasted into the 1960s and reduced the Republican Party to a non-competitive status in the early 20th century.[63] White Democrats regained power after Reconstruction due in part to the efforts of some using intimidation and violence, but this method came into disrepute.[64] In 1900, shortly before Georgia adopted a disfranchising constitutional amendment in 1908, blacks comprised 47% of the state's population.[65] The whites dealt with this problem of potential political power by the 1908 amendment, which in practice disenfranchised blacks and poor whites, nearly half of the state population. It required that any male at least 21 years of age wanting to register to vote must also: (a) be of good character and able to pass a test on citizenship, (b) be able to read and write provisions of the U.S. and Georgia constitutions, or (c) own at least 40 acres of land or $500 in property. Any Georgian who had fought in any war from the American Revolution
American Revolution
through the Spanish–American War was exempted from these additional qualifications. More importantly, any Georgian descended from a veteran of any of these wars also was exempted. Because by 1908 many white Georgia males were grandsons of veterans and/or owned the required property, the exemption and the property requirement basically allowed only well-to-do whites to vote. The qualifications of good character, citizenship knowledge, and literacy (all determined subjectively by white registrars), and property ownership were used to disqualify most blacks and poor whites, preventing them from registering to vote. The voter rolls dropped dramatically.[64][66] In the early 20th century, Progressives promoted electoral reform and reducing the power of ward bosses to clean up politics. Their additional rules, such as the eight-box law, continued to effectively close out people who were illiterate.[15] White, one-party rule was solidified. For more than 130 years, from 1872 to 2003, Georgians nominated and elected only white Democratic governors, and white Democrats held the majority of seats in the General Assembly.[67] Most of the Democrats elected throughout these years were Southern Democrats, who were fiscally and socially conservative by national standards.[68][69] This voting pattern continued after the segregationist period.[70] Legal segregation was ended by passage of federal legislation in the 1960s. According to the 1960 census, the proportion of Georgia's population that was African American
African American
was 28%; hundreds of thousands of blacks had left the state in the Great Migration to the North and Midwest. New white residents arrived through migration and immigration. Following support from the national Democratic Party for the civil rights movement and especially civil rights legislation of 1964 and 1965, most African-American voters, as well as other minority voters, have largely supported the Democratic Party in Georgia.[71] In the decades since the late 20th century, the conservative white-majority voters have increasingly supported Republicans for national and state offices. In 2003, incumbent moderate Democratic Governor Roy Barnes
Roy Barnes
was defeated by Republican Sonny Perdue, a state legislator and former Democrat. While Democrats retained control of the State House, they lost their majority in the Senate when four Democrats switched parties. They lost the House in the 2004 election. Republicans then controlled all three partisan elements of the state government. Even before 2003, the state had become increasingly supportive of Republicans in Presidential elections. It has supported a Democrat for president only three times since 1960. In 1976 and 1980, native son Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
carried the state; in 1992, the former Arkansas
governor Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
narrowly won the state. Generally, Republicans are strongest in the predominantly white suburban (especially the Atlanta suburbs) and rural portions of the state.[72] Many of these areas were represented by conservative Democrats in the state legislature well into the 21st century. One of the most conservative of these was U.S. Congressman Larry McDonald, former head of the John Birch Society, who died when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
shot down KAL 007
KAL 007
near Sakhalin Island. Democratic candidates have tended to win a higher percentage of the vote in the areas where black voters are most numerous,[72] as well as in the cities among liberal urban populations (especially Atlanta
and Athens), and the rural Black Belt region that passes through the central and southwestern portion of the state. The ascendancy of the Republican Party in Georgia and in the South in general resulted in Georgia U.S. House of Representatives member Newt Gingrich being elected as Speaker of the House following the election of a Republican majority in the House in 1994. Gingrich served as Speaker until 1999, when he resigned in the aftermath of the loss of House seats held by members of the GOP. Gingrich mounted an unsuccessful bid for President in the 2012 election, but withdrew after winning only the South Carolina
South Carolina
and Georgia primaries. In recent events, Democrat Jim Martin ran against incumbent Republican Senator Saxby Chambliss. Chambliss failed to acquire the necessary 50 percent of votes, a Libertarian Party candidate receiving the remainder of votes. In the runoff election held on December 2, 2008, Chambliss became the second Georgia Republican to be reelected to the U.S. Senate. As of the 2010[update] reapportionment, the state has 14 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives. These are held by 10 Republicans and 4 Democrats. The Georgia House of Representatives
Georgia House of Representatives
has 61 Democrats, 118 Republicans, and 1 Independent, while the Georgia Senate has 17 Democrats and 39 Republicans.[73][74] Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Georgia (U.S. state) During the 1960s and 1970s, Georgia made significant changes in civil rights and governance. As in many other states, its legislature had not reapportioned congressional districts according to population from 1931 to after the 1960 census. Problems of malapportionment in the state legislature, where rural districts had outsize power in relation to urban districts, such as Atlanta's, were corrected after the US Supreme Court ruling in Wesberry v. Sanders
Wesberry v. Sanders
(1964). The court ruled that congressional districts had to be reapportioned to have essentially equal populations. A related case, Reynolds v. Sims
Reynolds v. Sims
(1964), required state legislatures to end their use of geographical districts or counties in favor of "one man, one vote;" that is, districts based upon approximately equal populations, to be reviewed and changed as necessary after each census. These changes resulted in residents of Atlanta
and other urban areas gaining political power in Georgia in proportion to their populations.[75] From the mid-1960s, the voting electorate increased after African Americans' rights to vote were enforced under civil rights law. Economic growth through this period was dominated by Atlanta
and its region. It was a bedrock of the emerging "New South". From the late 20th century, Atlanta
attracted headquarters and relocated workers of national companies, becoming more diverse, liberal and cosmopolitan than many areas of the state. In the 21st century, many conservative Democrats, including former U.S. Senator and governor Zell Miller, decided to support Republicans. The state's socially conservative bent results in wide support for such measures as restrictions on abortion. In 2004, a state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriages was approved by 76% of voters.[76] However, after the United States
United States
Supreme Court issued its ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges, all Georgia counties came into full compliance, recognizing the rights of same-sex couples to marry in the state.[77] Economy[edit] See also: Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia (U.S. state)
locations by per capita income Georgia's 2016 total gross state product was $531 billion.[78] Its per capita personal income for 2011 put it 39th in the nation at $35,979.[79] For years Georgia as a state has had the highest credit rating by Standard & Poor's (AAA) and is one of only 15 states with a AAA rating.[80] If Georgia were a stand-alone country, it would be the 28th largest economy in the world.[81]

A heat map of Georgia's counties depicting the median income as of 2014.

There are 17 Fortune 500 companies and 26 Fortune 1000 companies with headquarters in Georgia, including Home Depot, UPS, Coca-Cola, TSYS, Delta Air Lines, Aflac, Southern Company, Anthem Inc., Honeywell, and SunTrust Banks. Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta
International Airport, the world's busiest airport as measured by both passenger traffic and aircraft traffic, is located in Georgia.[82][83] Also, the Port of Savannah
Port of Savannah
is the fourth largest seaport and fastest-growing container seaport in North America, importing and exporting a total of 2.3 million TEUs per year.[84] Atlanta
has a large effect on the state of Georgia, the Southeastern United States, and beyond. Atlanta
has been the site of growth in real estate, service, logistics and the communications and film industries, while tourism is important to the economy. Atlanta
is a global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, as a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system. For the past five years, Georgia has been ranked the top state (number 1) in the nation to do business, and has been recognized as number 1 for business and labor climate in the nation, number 1 in business climate in the nation, number 1 in the nation in workforce training and as having a “Best in Class” state economic development agency.[85][86] In 2016, Georgia had median annual income per person of between $50,000–$59,999 which is inflated adjusted dollars for 2016. The US Median annual income for the entire nation is $57,617. This lies within the range of Georgia's median annual income.[87] Agriculture[edit] Widespread farms produce peanuts, corn, and soybeans across middle and south Georgia. The state is the number one producer of pecans in the world, with the region around Albany in southwest Georgia being the center of Georgia's pecan production. Gainesville in northeast Georgia touts itself as the Poultry Capital of the World. Georgia is in the top five blueberry producers in the United States.[88] Georgia's agricultural outputs include poultry and eggs, pecans, peaches, cotton, peanuts, rye, cattle, hogs, dairy products, turfgrass, timber, particularly pine trees, tobacco and vegetables.


A Georgia U.S. quarter

Major products in the mineral industry include a variety of clays, stones, sands and the clay palygorskite, known as attapulgite. See also: List of gold mines in Georgia Industry[edit] Industry in Georgia is diverse. While many textile jobs moved overseas, there is still a textile industry located around the cities of Rome, Columbus, Augusta, Macon and along the I-75 corridor between Atlanta
and Chattanooga, Tennessee. Historically it started along the fall line in the Piedmont, where factories were powered by waterfalls and rivers. It includes the towns of Cartersville, Calhoun, Ringgold and Dalton[89] In November 2009, Kia started production in Georgia at the first U.S. Kia Motors plant, Kia Motors Manufacturing Georgia in West Point. Industrial products include textiles and apparel, transportation equipment, food processing, paper products, chemicals and products, and electric equipment. Logistics[edit] Georgia was ranked the No. 2 state for infrastructure and global access by Area Development magazine.[90] The Georgia Ports Authority owns and operates four ports in the state: Port of Savannah, Port of Brunswick, Port Bainbridge, and Port Columbus. The Port of Savannah
Port of Savannah
is the fourth largest seaport in the United States, importing and exporting a total of 2.3 million TEUs per year.[84] The Port of Savannah’s Garden City Terminal is the largest single container terminal in North America.[91] Several major companies including Target, IKEA, and Heineken
operate distribution centers in close proximity to the Port of Savannah. Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta
International Airport has three cargo complexes that include two million square feet of space, the airport moves over 650,000 tons of cargo annually, it has nearby cold storage for perishables, and is the only airport in the Southeast with USDA-approved cold-treatment capabilities. Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
also offers an on-airport refrigeration facility for perishable cargo, and a 250-acre Foreign Trade Zone is located at the airport.[92] Georgia is a major railway hub, has the most extensive rail system in the Southeast, and has the service of two Class I railroads, CSX and Norfolk Southern, plus 24 short-line railroads. Georgia is ranked the #3 state in the nation for rail accessibility. Rail shipments include intermodal, bulk, automotive and every other type of shipment.[93] Georgia has an extensive interstate highway system including 1,200 miles of interstate highway and 20,000 miles of federal and state highways that facilitate the efficient movement of more than $620 billion of cargo by truck each year. Georgia’s six interstates connect to 80 percent of the U.S. population within a two-day truck drive. More than $14 billion in funding has been approved for new roadway infrastructure.[94] Military[edit] Southern Congressmen have attracted major investment by the US military in the state. The several US military installations include Moody Air Force Base, Fort Stewart, Hunter Army Airfield, Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, Fort Benning, Robins Air Force Base, Fort Gordon, Marine Corps Logistics Base Albany, Dobbins Air Reserve Base, Coast Guard Air Station Savannah
Coast Guard Air Station Savannah
and Coast Guard Station Brunswick. These installations command numerous jobs and business for related contractors. Energy use and production[edit] Georgia's electricity generation and consumption are among the highest in the United States, with natural gas being the primary electrical generation fuel, followed by coal. The state also has two nuclear power facilities, Plant Hatch and Plant Vogtle, which contribute almost one fourth of Georgia's electricity generation, and an additional two nuclear power plants are under construction at Plant Vogtle. In 2013, the generation mix was 39% gas, 35% coal, 23% nuclear, 3% hydro and other renewable sources. The leading area of energy consumption is the industrial sector because Georgia "is a leader in the energy-intensive wood and paper products industry".[95] Solar generated energy is becoming more in use with solar energy generators currently installed ranking Georgia 15th in the country in installed solar capacity. In 2013, $189 million was invested in Georgia to install solar for home, business and utility use representing a 795% increase over the previous year.[96] State taxes[edit] Georgia has a progressive income tax structure with six brackets of state income tax rates that range from 1% to 6%. In 2009, Georgians paid 9% of their income in state and local taxes, compared to the US average of 9.8% of income.[97] This ranks Georgia 25th among the states for total state and local tax burden.[97] The state sales tax in Georgia is 4%[98] with additional percentages added through local options (e.g. Special-purpose local-option sales tax
Special-purpose local-option sales tax
or SPLOST), but there is no sales tax on prescription drugs, certain medical devices, or food items for home consumption.[99] The state legislature may allow municipalities to institute local sales taxes and special local taxes, such as the 2% SPLOST tax and the 1% sales tax for MARTA serviced counties. Excise
taxes are levied on alcohol, tobacco, and motor fuel. Owners of real property in Georgia pay property tax to their county. All taxes are collected by the Georgia Department of Revenue and then properly distributed according to any agreements that each county has with its cities. Film[edit] Main article: Film industry in Georgia (U.S. state) The Georgia Film, Music and Digital Entertainment Office promotes filming in the state.[100] Since 1972, seven hundred film and television projects have been filmed on location in Georgia.[101] Georgia overtook California
in 2016 as the state location with the most feature films produced. In fiscal year 2017 film and tv production had an economic impact in Georgia of $9.5 billion.[102] Tourism[edit]

Savannah's River Street is a popular tourist destination.

In the Atlanta
area, World of Coke, Georgia Aquarium, Zoo Atlanta
and Stone Mountain
Stone Mountain
are important tourist attractions.[103][104] Stone Mountain is Georgia's "most popular attraction"; receiving over four million tourists per year.[105][106] The Georgia Aquarium, in Atlanta, was the largest aquarium in the world in 2010 according to Guinness World Records.[107] Callaway Gardens, in western Georgia, is a family resort.[108] The area is also popular with golfers. The Savannah Historic District attracts over eleven million tourists each year.[109] The Golden Isles are a string of barrier islands off the Atlantic coast of Georgia near Brunswick that include beaches, golf courses and the Cumberland Island National Seashore. Several sites honor the lives and careers of noted American leaders: the Little White House
Little White House
in Warm Springs, which served as the summer residence of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
while he was being treated for polio; President Jimmy Carter's hometown of Plains and the Carter Presidential Center in Atlanta; the Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site in Atlanta, which is the final resting place of Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
and Coretta Scott King; and Atlanta's Ebenezer Baptist Church, where Dr. King preached. Cultural[edit] Main article: Culture of Georgia (U.S. state)

The Fox Theatre is a performing arts venue located in Midtown Atlanta, and is the centerpiece of the Fox Theatre Historic District.

Fine and performing arts[edit] Georgia's major fine art museums include the High Museum of Art
High Museum of Art
and the Michael C. Carlos Museum, both in Atlanta; the Georgia Museum of Art on the campus of the University of Georgia
University of Georgia
in Athens; Telfair Museum of Art and the SCAD Museum of Art
SCAD Museum of Art
in Savannah; and the Morris Museum of Art in Augusta.[110] The state theatre of Georgia is the Springer Opera House
Springer Opera House
located in Columbus. The Atlanta
Opera brings opera to Georgia stages.[111] The Atlanta Symphony Orchestra is the most widely recognized orchestra and largest arts organization in the southeastern United States.[112] There are a number of performing arts venues in the state, among the largest are the Fox Theatre, and the Alliance Theatre at the Woodruff Arts Center, both on Peachtree Street
Peachtree Street
in Midtown Atlanta
as well as the Cobb Energy Performing Arts Centre, located in Northwest Atlanta. Literature[edit] Authors have grappled with Georgia's complex history. Popular novels related to this include Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind, Olive Ann Burns' Cold Sassy Tree, and Alice Walker's The Color Purple. A number of noted authors, poets and playwrights have lived in Georgia, such as James Dickey, Flannery O'Connor, Sidney Lanier, Frank Yerby and Lewis Grizzard.[113] Television[edit] Well-known television shows set in Atlanta
include, from Tyler Perry Studios, House of Payne and Tyler Perry's Meet the Browns, The Real Housewives of Atlanta, the CBS sitcom Designing Women, Matlock, the popular AMC series The Walking Dead, Lifetime Drop Dead Diva, Rectify and numerous HGTV original productions. The Dukes of Hazzard, a 1980s TV show, was set in the fictional Hazzard County, Georgia. The first five episodes were shot on location in Conyers and Covington, Georgia
Covington, Georgia
as well as some locations in Atlanta. Production was then moved to Burbank, California.[citation needed] Also filmed in Georgia is The Vampire Diaries, using Covington as the setting for the fictional Mystic Falls. Music[edit] Main article: Music of Georgia (U.S. state) See also: List of hip hop musicians from Atlanta A number of notable musicians in various genres of popular music are from Georgia. Among them are Ray Charles
Ray Charles
(whose many hits include "Georgia on My Mind", now the official state song), and Gladys Knight (known for her Georgia-themed song, "Midnight Train to Georgia"). Rock groups from Georgia include the Atlanta
Rhythm Section, The Black Crowes, and The Allman Brothers. The university city of Athens sparked an influential rock music scene in the 1980s and 1990s. Among the groups achieving their initial prominence in that city were R.E.M., Widespread Panic, and the B-52's. Since the 1990s, various hip-hop and R&B musicians have included top-selling artists such as Outkast, Usher, Ludacris, TLC, B.o.B., and Ciara. Atlanta
is mentioned in a number of these artists' tracks, such as Usher's "A-Town Down" reference in his 2004 hit Yeah! (which also features Atlanta
artists Lil Jon
Lil Jon
and Ludacris), Ludacris' "Welcome to Atlanta", Outkast's album "ATLiens", and B.o.B.'s multiple references to Decatur, Georgia, as in his hit song "Strange Clouds". Film[edit] Films set in Georgia include two pictures both set in Atlanta
that were awarded the Oscar for Best Picture: Gone with the Wind (1939) and Driving Miss Daisy (1989). Other films set in Georgia include Deliverance
(1972), which was based on the novel of the same name by James Dickey, Parental Guidance (2012), and Vacation at Six Flags Over Georgia. Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Georgia (U.S. state)

Kickoff at Sanford Stadium
Sanford Stadium
of the Georgia- South Carolina
South Carolina
college football game on September 8, 2007

Sports in Georgia include professional teams in nearly all major sports, Olympic Games
Olympic Games
contenders and medalists, collegiate teams in major and small-school conferences and associations, and active amateur teams and individual sports. The state of Georgia has teams in four major professional leagues — the Atlanta
Braves of Major League Baseball, the Atlanta
Falcons of the National Football League, the Atlanta
Hawks of the National Basketball Association, and Atlanta United FC of Major League Soccer. The Georgia Bulldogs
Georgia Bulldogs
(Southeastern Conference), Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets ( Atlantic
Coast Conference), Georgia State Panthers
Georgia State Panthers
and Georgia Southern Eagles
Georgia Southern Eagles
(Sun Belt Conference) are Georgia's NCAA Division I FBS football teams, having won multiple national championships between them. The 1996 Summer Olympics took place in Atlanta. The stadium that was built to host various Olympic events was converted to Turner Field, the home of the Atlanta
Braves through the 2016 season. The Masters golf tournament, the first of the PGA tour's four "majors", is held annually the second weekend of April at the Augusta National Golf Club. The Atlanta
Motor Speedway hosts the Dixie 500
Dixie 500
NASCAR Cup Series
NASCAR Cup Series
stock car race and Road Atlanta
the Petit Le Mans
Petit Le Mans
endurance sports car race. Atlanta's Georgia Dome
Georgia Dome
hosted Super Bowl XXVIII
Super Bowl XXVIII
in 1994 and Super Bowl XXXIV in 2000. The Georgia Dome
Georgia Dome
hosted the NCAA Final Four Men's Basketball National Championship in 2002, 2007, and 2013.[114] It hosted WWE's WrestleMania XXVII
WrestleMania XXVII
in 2011, an event which set an attendance record of 71,617. The dome was also the venue of the annual Chick-fil-A Bowl
Chick-fil-A Bowl
post-season college football games. Since 2017, they have been held at the Mercedes-Benz Stadium
Mercedes-Benz Stadium
along with the FIRST
World Championships. Professional baseball's Ty Cobb
Ty Cobb
was the first player inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. He was from Narrows and was nicknamed the "Georgia Peach."[115] Parks and recreational activities[edit] Main article: Protected areas of Georgia (U.S. state) There are 63 parks in Georgia, 48 of which are state parks and 15 that are historic sites, and numerous state wildlife preserves, under the supervision of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources.[116] Other historic sites and parks are supervised by the National Park Service and include the Andersonville National Historic Site
Andersonville National Historic Site
in Andersonville; Appalachian National Scenic Trail; Chattahoochee River
Chattahoochee River
National Recreation Area near Atlanta; Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park at Fort Oglethorpe; Cumberland Island National Seashore near St. Marys; Fort Frederica National Monument
Fort Frederica National Monument
on St. Simons Island; Fort Pulaski National Monument
Fort Pulaski National Monument
in Savannah; Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
National Historic Site near Plains; Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park near Kennesaw; Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site
Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site
in Atlanta; Ocmulgee National Monument
Ocmulgee National Monument
at Macon; Trail of Tears
Trail of Tears
National Historic Trail; and the Okefenokee Swamp
Okefenokee Swamp
in Waycross, Georgia[117] Outdoor recreational activities include hiking along the Appalachian Trail; Civil War Heritage Trails; rock climbing and whitewater kayaking.[118][119][120][121] Other outdoor activities include hunting and fishing. Education[edit] Main article: Education in Georgia (U.S. state)

Georgia Tech's Tech Tower

Georgia county and city public school systems are administered by school boards with members elected at the local level. As of 2013[update], all but 19 of 181 boards are elected from single-member districts. Residents and activist groups in Fayette County, Georgia sued the board of commissioners and school board for maintaining an election system based on at-large voting, which tended to increase the power of the majority and effectively prevented minority participation on elected local boards for nearly 200 years.[122] A change to single-member districts has resulted in the African-American minority being able to elect representatives of its choice. Georgia high schools (grades nine through twelve) are required to administer a standardized, multiple choice End of Course Test, or EOCT, in each of eight core subjects including algebra, geometry, U.S. history, economics, biology, physical science, Ninth Grade Literature and composition, and American literature. The official purpose of the tests is to assess "specific content knowledge and skills." Although a minimum test score is not required for the student to receive credit in the course, completion of the test is mandatory. The EOCT score accounts for 15% of a student's grade in the course.[123] The ‘’Georgia Milestone’’ evaluation is taken by public school students in the state.[124] Georgia has 85 public colleges, universities, and technical colleges in addition to over 45 private institutes of higher learning. Among Georgia's public universities is the flagship research university, the University of Georgia, founded in 1785 as the country's oldest state-chartered university and the birthplace of the American system of public higher education.[125] The University System of Georgia
University System of Georgia
is the presiding body over public education in the state. The System includes 29 institutions of higher learning. The System is governed by the Georgia Board of Regents. Georgia’s workforce of more than 6.3 million is constantly refreshed by the growing number of people who move here along with the 90,000 graduates from the universities, colleges and technical colleges across the state, including the nationally-ranked University of Georgia, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University.[126] The HOPE Scholarship, funded by the state lottery, is available to all Georgia residents who have graduated from high school or earned a General Educational Development
General Educational Development
certificate. The student must maintain a 3.2 or higher grade point average and attend a public college or university in the state. The Georgia Historical Society, an independent educational and research institution, has a research center located in Savannah. The research center's library and archives hold the oldest collection of materials related to Georgia history in the nation. Media[edit] See also: List of newspapers in Georgia (U.S. state)

The CNN Center
CNN Center
in Atlanta.

The Atlanta
metropolitan area is the ninth largest media market in the United States
United States
as ranked by Nielsen Media Research. The state's other top markets are Savannah (95th largest), Augusta (115th largest), and Columbus (127th largest).[127] There are 48 television broadcast stations in Georgia including TBS, TNT, TCM, Cartoon Network, CNN
and Headline News, all founded by notable Georgia resident Ted Turner. The Weather Channel
The Weather Channel
also has its headquarters in Atlanta. By far, the largest daily newspaper in Georgia is the Atlanta Journal-Constitution with a daily readership of 195,592 and a Sunday readership of 397,925.[128][129] Other large dailies include The Augusta Chronicle, the Columbus Ledger-Enquirer, The Telegraph (formerly The Macon Telegraph) and the Savannah Morning News. WSB-AM in Atlanta
was the first licensed radio station in the southeastern United States, signing on in 1922. Georgia Public Radio has been in service since 1984[130][131] and, with the exception of Atlanta, it broadcasts daily on several FM (and one AM) stations across the state. Georgia Public Radio
Georgia Public Radio
reaches nearly all of Georgia (with the exception of the Atlanta
area, which is served by WABE). WSB-TV
in Atlanta
is the state's oldest television station, having begun operations in 1948. WSB was only the second such operation founded in the Southern U.S., trailing only WTVR in Richmond, Virginia. Infrastructure[edit] Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Georgia (U.S. state)

The Port of Brunswick
Port of Brunswick
and the Sidney Lanier
Sidney Lanier

Transportation in Georgia is overseen by the Georgia Department of Transportation, a part of the executive branch of the state government. Georgia's major Interstate Highways are I-20, I-75, I-85, and I-95. On March 18, 1998, the Georgia House of Representatives passed a resolution naming the portion of Interstate Highway
Interstate Highway
75, which runs from the Chattahoochee River
Chattahoochee River
northward to the Tennessee
state line the Larry McDonald
Larry McDonald
Memorial Highway. Larry McDonald, a Democratic member of the House of Representatives, had been on Korean Air Lines Flight 007 when it was shot down by the Soviets on September 1, 1983.

MARTA commuter train

Georgia's primary commercial airport is Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL), and is the world's busiest passenger airport.[132] In addition to Hartsfield-Jackson, there are eight other airports serving major commercial traffic in Georgia. Savannah/Hilton Head International Airport is the second-busiest airport in the state as measured by passengers served, and is the only additional international airport. Other commercial airports (ranked in order of passengers served) are located in Augusta, Columbus, Albany, Macon, Brunswick, Valdosta, and Athens.[133] The Georgia Ports Authority manages two deepwater seaports, at Savannah and Brunswick, and two river ports, at Bainbridge and Columbus. The Port of Savannah
Port of Savannah
is a major U.S. seaport on the Atlantic coast. The Metropolitan Atlanta
Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) is the principal rapid transit system in the Atlanta
metropolitan area. Formed in 1971 as strictly a bus system, MARTA operates a network of bus routes linked to a rapid transit system consisting of 48 miles (77 km) of rail track with 38 train stations. MARTA operates almost exclusively in Fulton and DeKalb counties, with bus service to two destinations in Cobb county and the Cumberland Transfer Center next to the Cumberland Mall, and a single rail station in Clayton County at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta
International Airport. MARTA also operates a separate paratransit service for disabled customers. As of 2009[update], the average total daily ridership for the system (bus and rail) was 482,500 passengers.[134] Health care[edit]

Medical Center of Central Georgia
Central Georgia
in Macon (Georgia's 2nd largest hospital)

See also: List of hospitals in Georgia (U.S. state) The state has 151 general hospitals, over 15,000 doctors and almost 6,000 dentists.[135] The state is ranked forty-first in the percentage of residents who engage in regular exercise.[136] Cities[edit] See also: Georgia census statistical areas

Downtown Atlanta

Atlanta, located in north-central Georgia at the Eastern Continental Divide, has been Georgia's capital city since 1868. It is the most populous city in Georgia, with just over 420,000 residents in 2010.[137] The Atlanta
metropolitan area is the cultural and economic center of the Southeast; its population in 2010 was 5,268,860, or 53.6% of Georgia's total. Atlanta
is the nation's ninth largest metropolitan area.[138] The state has fourteen other cities with populations above 50,000 (based on 2012 census estimates).[139] In descending order of size they are Columbus, Augusta, Macon, Savannah, Athens, Sandy Springs, Roswell, Albany, Johns Creek, Warner Robins, Alpharetta, Marietta, Valdosta and Smyrna. Along with the rest of the Southeast, Georgia's population continues to grow rapidly, with primary gains concentrated in urban areas. The population of the Atlanta
metropolitan area added 1.23 million people (24 percent) between 2000 and 2010, and Atlanta
rose in rank from the eleventh-largest metropolitan area in the United States
United States
to the ninth-largest.[140] Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Georgia (U.S. state) Jimmy Carter, from Plains, Georgia, was President of the United States from 1977 to 1981. Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
was born in Atlanta
in 1929. He was a civil rights movement leader fighting for rights for African Americans and received the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1964.[141] State symbols[edit]

A brown thrasher, Georgia's state bird.

Rosa laevigata, Cherokee rose, the state flower of Georgia.

Reference: Georgia Symbols[142]

Amphibian: American green tree frog Bird: brown thrasher Crop: peanut Fish: largemouth bass Flower: Cherokee rose Fruit: peach Gem: quartz Insect: honey bee Mammal: white-tailed deer[143] Marine mammal: right whale Mineral: staurolite Nicknames:

" Peach
State" "Empire State of the South"[144]

Reptile: gopher tortoise Song: "Georgia on My Mind" Tree: live oak Vegetable: Vidalia onion

See also[edit]

Georgia USA portal

Index of Georgia (U.S. state)-related articles Outline of Georgia (U.S. state)
Outline of Georgia (U.S. state)
– organized list of topics about Georgia

Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia (U.S. state)
– book References[edit]

^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 22, 2017.  ^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.  ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved October 21, 2011.  ^ Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988. ^ "Georgia History Overview – The History Channel". The History Channel. Retrieved February 20, 2012.  ^ "Georgia at the Online Etymology Dictionary". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved February 20, 2012.  ^ a b c d "New Georgia Encyclopaedia". The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved February 20, 2012.  ^ "Coweta is the 41st fastest growing county in United States". The Times-Herald. Archived from the original on December 13, 2009. Retrieved May 22, 2010.  ^ TIGER database (January 1, 2010). "State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates". Census.gov. United States
United States
Census. Retrieved April 23, 2016.  ^ "Georgia Facts and Symbols – Georgia.gov". Archived from the original on May 24, 2014.  ^ "Trustee Georgia, 1732–1752". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. July 27, 2009. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ "The Articles of Confederation: Primary Documents of American History (Virtual Programs & Services, Library of Congress)". Loc.gov. July 10, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^ "A Resolution Archived October 30, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.". Georgia General Assembly. Retrieved June 26, 2012. ^ "" Atlanta
in the Civil Rights Movement", Atlanta
Regional Council for Higher Education". Atlantahighered.org. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^ a b Crowe, Charles (January 1, 1968). "Racial Violence and Social Reform-Origins of the Atlanta
Riot of 1906". The Journal of Negro History. 53 (3): 234–256. doi:10.2307/2716218. JSTOR 2716218.  ^ Historical Census Browser, 1900 Federal Census, University of Virginia
Archived August 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., accessed March 15, 2008 ^ ]https://eji.org/sites/default/files/lynching-in-america-second-edition-supplement-by-county.pdf Lynching in America: Confronting the Legacy of Racial Terror, "Supplement: Lynching by County" 2nd edition, Montgomery, Alabama: Equal Justice Institute, 2015 ^ Ulrich Bonnell Phillips (1902). Georgia and state rights: a study of the political history of Georgia from the Revolution to the Civil War. Annual Report of American Historical Association for the 57th US Congress, 1901. p. 30. Retrieved October 23, 2012.  ^ "Drought-stricken Georgia eyes Tennessee's border – and river water". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, California. February 10, 2010.  ^ a b c "Georgia – Flora and fauna". City-data.com. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^ Monthly Averages for Macon, GA The Weather Channel. ^ Monthly Averages for Clayton, GA The Weather Channel. ^ "Georgia USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". Retrieved November 11, 2010.  ^ Each state's high temperature record USA Today, last updated August 2004. ^ Each state's low temperature record USA Today, last updated August 2006 ^ a b Wurman, Joshua. "Why don't tornadoes hit cities more often?". scientificamerican.com. SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, A DIVISION OF NATURE AMERICA, INC. Retrieved June 10, 2016.  ^ "Weather By Day Georgia". Weatherbyday.com. Archived from the original on July 10, 2009. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ "Resident Population Data". United States
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Constitution-Journal. pp. A6.  quoting the Bureau of Labor Statistics. ^ "American FactFinder". Census. October 5, 2010. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved August 5, 2011.  ^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". Census.gov. Archived from the original on December 24, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^ Population of Georgia: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts[dead link] ^ "2010 Census Data". Census.gov. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^ Exner, Rich (June 3, 2012). "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer.  ^ "SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES-2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". Retrieved September 4, 2013.  ^ "American FactFinder". Census. Retrieved February 11, 2012.  ^ "Persons Who Reported at Least One Specific Ancestry Group for Regions, Divisions and States" (PDF). Census. 1980. Retrieved October 23, 2012.  ^ Pulera, Dominic J (2004-10-20), Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America, ISBN 9780826416438  ^ Farley, Reynolds (August 1991), "The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?", Demography, 28 (3): 411–29, doi:10.2307/2061465, JSTOR 2061465, PMID 1936376  ^ Lieberson, Stanley; Santi, Lawrence (1985), "The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns", Social Science Research, 14 (1): 44–6, doi:10.1016/0049-089x(85)90011-0  ^ Lieberson, Stanley; Waters, Mary C (September 1986), "Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites", Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 487 (79): 82–86, doi:10.1177/0002716286487001004  ^ Frey, William H (May 2004), The New Great Migration: Black Americans' Return to the South, 1965–2000 (PDF), The Brookings Institution, archived from the original (PDF) on April 28, 2008, retrieved May 19, 2008 . ^ Atlanta
(PDF) (profile), GA: Oca, archived from the original (PDF) on July 11, 2009 . ^ "Georgia", Quickfacts, Census, archived from the original on June 22, 2015 . ^ "Early Mountain Life", Travel, Georgia, archived from the original on May 4, 2008  ^ Who are Americans, The well  ^ a b "Georgia". Modern Language Association. Retrieved August 12, 2013.  ^ "Maps". Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Retrieved November 7, 2013.  ^ "www.thearda.com/rcms2010/r/s/13/rcms2010_13_state_name_2010.asp". Thearda.com. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^ "www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/articles/arts-culture/presbyterian-church-america". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^ Weiszer, Marc (September 29, 2014). "Georgia's Kublanow balances faith and football". Savannah Now. Kublanow wasn't just born Jewish, he was raised and had his bar mitzvah while attending an orthodox Chabad
synagogue. His mother, Shelly Kublanow Rosenblatt, will attend Friday night and Saturday morning services at the Chabad
House in Athens and then head to Sanford Stadium
Sanford Stadium
in the afternoon to watch Kublanow and his linemates clear the way for Todd Gurley.  ^ Sollish, Ari (October 11, 2007). " Chabad
Course Explores Israel's Spiritual Side". Crown Heights Info. ATLANTA, GA – A new six-part adult-education course from Chabad-Lubavitch's Rohr Jewish
Learning Institute will explore the spiritual connection between the Jewish people and the land of Israel starting at the end of October. Unlike courses that focus on the history or the culture of Israel, "The Land & the Spirit: Why We All Care About Israel" will explore the mystery of the deep connection between Jews everywhere and that small patch of land in the Middle East.  ^ "Religious Landscape Study". May 11, 2015.  ^ Senate Kids. Retrieved December 30, 2007. Archived December 22, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Constitution of Georgia Article III Section II. Retrieved December 30, 2007. Archived December 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "The Supreme Court of Georgia History". Supreme Court of Georgia. Retrieved November 26, 2016.  ^ A Brief History of Georgia Counties. Retrieved December 30, 2007. Archived November 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Georgia's County Governments". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. June 5, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^ Niesse, Mark (January 21, 2016). "Townships proposed as an alternative to cities in Georgia". Atlanta
Journal-Constitution. Retrieved April 8, 2016.  ^ "Race, Voting Rights, and Segregation". University of Michigan. Retrieved October 15, 2016.  ^ a b Saye, Albert B. (2010-05-01). A Constitutional History of Georgia, 1732–1945. University of Georgia
University of Georgia
Press. ISBN 9780820335544. Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ Historical Census Browser, 1900 US Census, University of Virginia. Retrieved March 15, 2008. Archived August 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Georgia's 1908 Disfranchisement Constitutional Amendment". Ray City History. Ray City Community Library. Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ "A State Divided". Ourgeorgiahistory.com. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^ "The long goodbye". Economist.com. November 11, 2010. Retrieved September 3, 2013.  ^ "The Confident Years". Ngeorgia.com. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^ "Last white Democrat in House from Deep South wins re-election". Reuters.com. 2012. Retrieved September 3, 2013.  ^ "White voters solidly in for GOP in Georgia (October 16, 2012)". Ajc.com. October 16, 2012. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^ a b "Election 2004". CNN. Retrieved October 24, 2010.  ^ "Partisan composition of state houses". Ballotpedia. Ballotpedia. Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ "Georgia State Senate". Ballotpedia. Ballotpedia. Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ Lee Epstein, Thomas G. Walk, Constitutional Law: Rights, Liberties and Justice 8th Edition, SAGE, 2012, p. 753 ^ "Georgia Marriage Amendment, Question 1 (2004)". Ballotpedia. Retrieved May 22, 2010.  ^ Bluestein, Greg (June 29, 2015). "Top Georgia court official: Judges are following the law on gay marriages". Atlanta, Georgia: Atlanta Constitution-Journal.  ^ [1] ^ "Per Capita Personal Income by State". Bureau of Business & Economic Research, UNM. Archived from the original on March 2, 2009. Retrieved April 21, 2013.  ^ "State credit ratings". ballotpedia.org. Ballotpedia. Retrieved July 22, 2016.  ^ "BEA statistics for 2005 GSP – October 26, 2006". Bea.gov. May 23, 2011. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^ Tharpe, Jim (January 4, 2007). " Atlanta
Airport Still the "Busiest"". The Atlanta
Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on January 6, 2007. Retrieved January 4, 2007.  ^ "Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta
International Airport". Delta Air Lines, Inc. Retrieved June 23, 2013.  ^ a b " Port of Savannah
Port of Savannah
fourth-busiest, fastest-growing in the U.S." Atlanta
Business Chronicle. American City Business Journals. Retrieved August 26, 2013.  ^ Belser, Briana. "State of Georgia ranked No. 1 in business". CBS46.com. WGCL-TV (Meredith Corporation). Retrieved November 3, 2016.  ^ "No. 1 State For Business Georgia Leads in Workforce Training, Global Access and Infrastructure". georgia.org. Georgia Department of Economic Development. Retrieved November 6, 2017.  ^ [2] ^ "Did You Know?". Georgia Blueberry Commission. Georgia Department of Agriculture. Retrieved January 11, 2015.  ^ Lohr, Kathy (September 3, 2013) "New Carpet Factories Help Cushion Blows From Recession Losses", NPR; Retrieved March 19, 2014. ^ "Infrastructure in Georgia". workforce.georgia.org. Georgia Department of Economic Development. Retrieved 10 November 2017.  ^ "Savannah's Garden City Terminal is the Largest Single Container Terminal in North America". georgia.org. Georgia Department of Economic Development. Retrieved November 6, 2017.  ^ "Infrastructure in Georgia By Air". workforce.georgia.org. Georgia Department of Economic Development. Retrieved 10 November 2017.  ^ "Infrastructure in Georgia". georgia.org. Georgia Department of Economic Development. Retrieved November 7, 2017.  ^ "INFRASTRUCTURE IN GEORGIA". georgia.org. Georgia Department of Economic Development. Retrieved November 7, 2017.  ^ "Energy Information Administration". Tonto.eia.doe.gov. March 27, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^ "Facts on the Georgia Solar Industry". Georgia Solar. Solar Energy Industries Association. Archived from the original on December 27, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2015.  ^ a b "Georgia's State and Local Tax Burden 1977–2009". The Tax Foundation. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011. Retrieved February 8, 2012.  ^ https://etax.dor.ga.gov/salestax/salestaxrates/LGS_2014_Jul_Rate_Chart.pdf[permanent dead link] ^ "Georgia Public Policy Foundation" (PDF). Gppf.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 31, 2012. Retrieved October 23, 2012.  ^ Film Industry in Georgia. (2004–2010). The New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 1, 2010. ^ Georgia Industries: Film Facts Archived February 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. (2010). Georgia. Retrieved April 1, 2010. ^ Simmons, Kenna. "GA GA LAND Georgia's film industry spurs big plans beyond production". georgiatrend.com. Georgia Trend Magazine. Retrieved 1 March 2018.  ^ Zoo Atlanta. Retrieved December 8, 2007. ^ Circues. Retrieved December 8, 2007. ^ Alexander, Sheridan " Stone Mountain
Stone Mountain
Park – Georgia's Most Popular Attraction". gosoutheast.about.com. Retrieved November 28, 2014. ^ Rattlesnake Roundups. Retrieved December 8, 2007. ^ Associated Press "Aquarium sets Guinness record – Official from world record book says aquarium is world's largest". ajc.com. Retrieved November 28, 2014. ^ Callaway Gardens. Retrieved December 8, 2007 ^ "Savannah GA Historical Information". Savannahvisit.com. Archived from the original on October 22, 2012. Retrieved October 23, 2012.  ^ Willamette. Retrieved December 8, 2007. Archived October 5, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Atlanta
Opera. Retrieved December 8, 2007 ^ Atlanta
Symphony Orchestra. Retrieved December 8, 2007. ^ Literature: Overview. Retrieved December 5, 2007. ^ Tucker, Tim (March 19, 2012). " Atlanta
tunes up for Final Four with South region". Atlanta
Journal Constitution. Retrieved August 26, 2013.  ^ "Cobb, Ty". National Baseball Hall of Fame
Baseball Hall of Fame
and Museum. Retrieved December 19, 2012.  ^ Georgia Department of Natural Resources
Georgia Department of Natural Resources
gadnr.org, accessed May 13, 2007 ^ National Park Service
National Park Service
nps.gov, accessed May 13, 2007 ^ Appalachian Trail. Retrieved December 8, 2007. ^ Civil War Heritage Trails. Retrieved December 8, 2007. ^ Rock climbing. Retrieved December 8, 2007. ^ "Whitewater rafting". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. July 1, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^ Staff, A. B. S. (May 22, 2013). "Fayette County At-Large Election Process Violates Voting Rights Act".  ^ GA DOE – Testing – EOCT. Retrieved April 24, 2008. Archived May 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Lowry, Donna (September 2, 2014). "New Georgia test will be different from CRCT". 11 Alive. Retrieved August 9, 2015. [permanent dead link] ^ "Points of Pride". University of Georgia. Retrieved February 9, 2013.  ^ "Georgia Leads in Workforce Training, Global Access and Infrastructure". georgia.org. Georgia Department of Economic Development. Retrieved November 6, 2017.  ^ "210 Designated Market Areas – 03–04". Nielsen Media. Archived from the original on May 17, 2006. Retrieved February 7, 2012.  ^ "AJC circulation continues to fall". Atlanta
Business Chronicle. American City Business Journals. April 26, 2010.  ^ "Georgia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 31, 2017.  ^ Network, Georgia Public Radio, archived from the original on February 2, 2007, retrieved May 19, 2007  ^ About, Georgia Public Radio, archived from the original on May 3, 2007, retrieved May 19, 2007  ^ "Airport information", Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta
International Airport, archived from the original on June 12, 2008, retrieved June 18, 2008  ^ "Public-Use Airports", Georgia Encyclopedia, retrieved June 27, 2011  ^ Dawson, Christie (Autumn 2009), Public Transportation Ridership Report (PDF), American Public Transportation Association  ^ "Living in Georgia", Culture, retrieved May 16, 2007  ^ "Physical exercise", Health (graph), Statemaster, retrieved May 16, 2007  ^ "US Census Bureau". 2010.census.gov. March 17, 2011. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved June 27, 2011.  ^ "Metropolitan Area Population & Housing Patterns: 2000–2010". Proximityone.com. Retrieved October 23, 2012.  ^ "American FactFinder". Factfinder2.census.gov. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved August 5, 2011.  ^ " Atlanta
moves to 9th largest US Metro area". www.ajc.com. Retrieved October 23, 2012.  ^ Tieck, Sarah (2013). Georgia. Minneapolis, MN: ABDO Publishing Company. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-61783-348-9.  ^ "Georgia Symbols". Georgia.gov.  ^ "White-Tailed Deer Named State Mammal of Georgia – Georgia.gov".  ^ "Look Georgia Agriculture on www.georgia.gov" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 22, 2011. Retrieved August 5, 2011. 


Bartley, Numan V. The Creation of Modern Georgia (1990). Covers 1865–1990 period. ISBN 0-8203-1183-9. Coleman, Kenneth. ed. A History of Georgia (1991). ISBN 0-8203-1269-X. London, Bonnie Bullard. (2005) Georgia and the American Experience Atlanta, Georgia: Clairmont Press ISBN 1-56733-100-9. A middle school textbook. Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States (1974). Information on politics and economics 1960–72. ISBN 0-393-05496-9. Williams, David and Christopher C. Meyers. Georgia: A Brief History Macon: Mercer University Press, 2012.

External links[edit]

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Preceded by New Jersey List of U.S. states
List of U.S. states
by date of admission to the Union Ratified Constitution on January 2, 1788 (4th) Succeeded by Connecticut

Places adjacent to Georgia (U.S. state)

and  North Carolina  South Carolina


 Georgia: Outline • Index


 Florida Atlantic

Topics related to Georgia (U.S. state) Peach

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 State of Georgia



Index Geology History Congressional delegations Government Law People Media

Newspapers Radio TV

Music Elections Geography State Parks Symbols Transportation Tourist Attractions

Seal of Georgia


Culture Crime Demographics Economy Education Politics Sports


coastal plain Blue Ridge Central Georgia Cumberland Plateau Golden Isles Historic South Lower Coastal Plain Metro Atlanta North Georgia North Georgia
North Georgia
Mountains Northeast Georgia Piedmont Ridge and Valley Sea Islands Southern Rivers Southeast Georgia Southwest Georgia Tennessee
Valley Wiregrass Region

Largest cities

Albany Atlanta Athens Augusta Columbus Johns Creek Macon Marietta Roswell Sandy Springs Savannah Valdosta Warner Robins


Appling Atkinson Bacon Baker Baldwin Banks Barrow Bartow Ben Hill Berrien Bibb Bleckley Brantley Brooks Bryan Bulloch Burke Butts Calhoun Camden Candler Carroll Catoosa Charlton Chatham Chattahoochee Chattooga Cherokee Clarke Clay Clayton Clinch Cobb Coffee Colquitt Columbia Cook Coweta Crawford Crisp Dade Dawson Decatur DeKalb Dodge Dooly Dougherty Douglas Early Echols Effingham Elbert Emanuel Evans Fannin Fayette Floyd Forsyth Franklin Fulton Gilmer Glascock Glynn Gordon Grady Greene Gwinnett Habersham Hall Hancock Haralson Harris Hart Heard Henry Houston Irwin Jackson Jasper Jeff Davis Jefferson Jenkins Johnson Jones Lamar Lanier Laurens Lee Liberty Lincoln Long Lowndes Lumpkin Macon Madison Marion McDuffie McIntosh Meriwether Miller Mitchell Monroe Montgomery Morgan Murray Muscogee Newton Oconee Oglethorpe Paulding Peach Pickens Pierce Pike Polk Pulaski Putnam Quitman Rabun Randolph Richmond Rockdale Schley Screven Seminole Spalding Stephens Stewart Sumter Talbot Taliaferro Tattnall Taylor Telfair Terrell Thomas Tift Toombs Towns Treutlen Troup Turner Twiggs Union Upson Walker Walton Ware Warren Washington Wayne Webster Wheeler White Whitfield Wilcox Wilkes Wilkinson Worth (Campbell) (Milton)

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Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Georgia

Keisha Lance Bottoms (Atlanta) Teresa Tomlinson (Columbus) Hardie Davis (Augusta) Robert Reichert (Macon) Eddie DeLoach (Savannah) Nancy Denson (Athens)

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Protected areas of Georgia


National historic sites and military parks

Andersonville NHS Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
NHS Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
NHS Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park

National monuments

Fort Frederica Fort Pulaski Ocmulgee

National forests

Chattahoochee Oconee

National wildlife refuges

Banks Lake Blackbeard Island Bond Swamp Eufaula Harris Neck Okefenokee Piedmont Savannah Wassaw Wolf Island

Wilderness areas

Big Frog Wilderness Blood Mountain Wilderness Brasstown Wilderness Cohutta Wilderness Cumberland Island National Seashore Ellicott Rock Wilderness Mark Trail Wilderness Okefenokee Wilderness Raven Cliffs Wilderness Rich Mountain Wilderness Southern Nantahala Wilderness Tray Mountain Wilderness

Wild and scenic rivers

Chattooga River

National trails

Appalachian Trail Pinhoti National Recreation Trail

Other protected areas

Chattahoochee River
Chattahoochee River
National Recreation Area Cumberland Island National Seashore Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Sapelo Island
Sapelo Island
National Estuarine Research Reserve



Amicalola Falls Black Rock Mountain Bobby Brown Buck Shoals Chattahoochee Bend Cloudland Canyon Crooked River Don Carter Elijah Clark F.D. Roosevelt Florence Marina Fort Mountain Fort Yargo General Coffee George L. Smith George T. Bagby Georgia Veterans Gordonia-Alatamaha Hamburg Hard Labor Creek Hart High Falls Indian Springs James H. "Sloppy" Floyd John Tanner Laura S. Walker Little Ocmulgee Magnolia Springs Mistletoe Moccasin Creek Panola Mountain Providence Canyon Red Top Mountain Reed Bingham Richard B. Russell Sapelo Island Seminole Skidaway Island Smithgall Woods Sprewell Bluff Standing Boy Creek Stephen C. Foster Sweetwater Creek Tallulah Gorge Tugaloo Unicoi Victoria Bryant Vogel Watson Mill Bridge

Historic parks and sites

A.H. Stephens Chief Vann House Dahlonega Gold Museum Etowah Indian Mounds Fort McAllister Fort King George Fort Morris Hofwyl-Broadfield Plantation Jarrell Plantation Jefferson Davis Memorial Kolomoki Mounds Lapham-Patterson House Little White House New Echota Pickett's Mill Battlefield Robert Toombs House Travelers Rest Wormsloe


Baldwin Bartram Brender-Hitchiti Dixon Memorial Dawson Hightower Paulding Spirit Creek


Centennial Olympic Park Charlie Elliott Wildlife Center Jekyll Island Len Foote Hike Inn Radium Springs Sapelo Island Stone Mountain
Stone Mountain

County, municipal and other


Chehaw Park Cobb County Parks McIntosh Reserve Murphey Candler Park Okefenokee Swamp
Okefenokee Swamp
Park Robert G. Hunter Memorial Park Roswell Recreation and Parks Seaborn Jones Memorial Park Shaking Rock Park

Forests and nature preserves

Autrey Mill Nature Preserve & Heritage Center Fernbank Forest Marshall Forest Morningside Nature Preserve Phinizy Swamp Nature Park Reynolds Nature Preserve

Nature and environmental education centers

Birdsong Nature Center Charlie Elliott Wildlife Center Chattahoochee Nature Center Cochran Mill Nature Center Dauset Trails Nature Center Dunwoody Nature Center Elachee Nature Science Center Georgia Nature Center Grand Bay Wetland Education Center Melvin L. Newman Wetlands Center Oatland Island Wildlife Center Oxbow Meadows Environmental Learning Center Panola Mountain
Panola Mountain
State Park Nature Center Sandy Creek Nature Center Savannah-Ogeechee Canal Museum & Nature Center Tidelands Nature Center Tybee Island Marine Science Center West Atlanta
Watershed Alliance Outdoor Activity Center

Georgia Department of Natural Resources Georgia Forestry Commission (web)

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Southern United States


Culture Cuisine Geography Economy Government and Politics History Sports


Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina Oklahoma South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia West Virginia

Major cities

Atlanta Birmingham Charleston Charlotte Columbia Dallas Fort Worth Greensboro Houston Jacksonville Little Rock Memphis Miami Nashville New Orleans Norfolk Oklahoma
City Orlando Raleigh Richmond Tampa Tulsa

State capitals

Atlanta Austin Baton Rouge Charleston Columbia Jackson Little Rock Montgomery Nashville Raleigh Richmond Oklahoma
City Tallahassee

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Political divisions of the Confederate States (1861–65)


Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia

West Virginia1

States in exile

Kentucky Missouri



1 Admitted to the Union June 20, 1863. 2 Organized January 18, 1862.

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Political divisions of the United States


Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Coordinates: 33°00′N 83°30′W / 33°N 83.5°W / 33; -83.5

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 144230826 LCCN: n79023113 ISNI: 0000 0004 0405 8664 GND: 40202