Georgia (/ˈdʒɔːrdʒə/ ( listen) JOR-jə) is a state in
the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733,
the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. Named after King George
II of Great Britain, the
Province of Georgia
Province of Georgia covered the area from
South Carolina down to
Spanish Florida and
New France along Louisiana
(New France), also bordering to the west towards the Mississippi
River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States
Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia
was split to the
Mississippi Territory, which later split to form
Alabama with part of former
West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its
secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, and was one of the
original seven Confederate states. It was the last state to be
restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 24th
largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007
to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100
fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the
Peach State and the Empire State of the South.
Atlanta is the
state's capital, its most populous city, and has been named a global
Georgia is bordered to the south by Florida, to the east by the
Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina, to the west by Alabama, and to the
Tennessee and North Carolina. The state's northernmost part
is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains
system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state
from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the
rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's
southern part. Georgia's highest point is
Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet
(1,458 m) above sea level; the lowest is the
Atlantic Ocean. Of
the states entirely east of the
Mississippi River, Georgia is the
largest in land area.
2.2 Geology and terrain
3.3 Major cities (2016)
4.1 State government
4.2 Local government
5.6 Energy use and production
5.7 State taxes
6.1 Fine and performing arts
7 Parks and recreational activities
10.2 Health care
12 Notable people
13 State symbols
14 See also
17 External links
Main article: History of Georgia (U.S. state)
Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound
building cultures. The British colony of Georgia was founded by James
Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by
the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America
under a charter issued by (and named for) King George II. The Trustees
implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as
the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman
farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish
in 1742, during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government
failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the
Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown
colony, with a governor appointed by the king.
The Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, on June 27, 1864
Province of Georgia
Province of Georgia was one of the
Thirteen Colonies that revolted
against British rule in the
American Revolution by signing the 1776
Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution
was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify
the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, and was the 4th
state to ratify the current Constitution on January 2, 1788.
In 1829, gold was discovered in the
North Georgia mountains, which led
Georgia Gold Rush
Georgia Gold Rush and an established federal mint in Dahlonega,
which continued its operation until 1861. The subsequent influx of
white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the
Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President
Andrew Jackson signed the Indian
Removal Act into law, sending many eastern Native American nations to
reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's
tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia
(1832) that ruled U.S. states were not permitted to redraw the Indian
boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the
ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal
troops to gather the Cherokee and deport them west of the Mississippi.
This forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death
of over 4,000 Cherokees.
In early 1861, Georgia joined the Confederacy and became a major
theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga,
Kennesaw Mountain, and Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the
Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William
Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in
service, roughly one of every five who served. In 1870, following
the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to
be restored to the Union.
A girl spinner in a Georgia cotton mill, 1909.
With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature,
they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks
and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state
established a white primary; with the only competitive contests within
the Democratic Party, it was another way to exclude blacks from
politics. They constituted 46.7% of the state's population in
1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population that was African
American dropped thereafter to 28%, primarily due to tens of thousands
leaving the state during the Great Migration. This political
disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress
passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in
United States (1877-1950), Georgia had 531 deaths, the
second-highest total of these crimes of any state in the South,
exceeded by Mississippi. The overwhelming number of victims were black
Main article: Geography of Georgia (U.S. state)
Road to Brasstown Bald
Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia
Beginning from the
Atlantic Ocean, the state's eastern border with
South Carolina runs up the Savannah River, northwest to its origin at
the confluence of the Tugaloo and Seneca Rivers. It then continues up
the Tugaloo (originally Tugalo) and into the Chattooga River, its most
significant tributary. These bounds were decided in the 1797 Treaty of
Beaufort, and tested in the
U.S. Supreme Court
U.S. Supreme Court in the two Georgia v.
South Carolina cases in 1923 and 1989.
The border then takes a sharp turn around the tip of Rabun County, at
latitude 35°N, though from this point it diverges slightly south (due
to inaccuracies in the original survey). This northern border was
originally the Georgia and
North Carolina border all the way to the
Mississippi River, until
Tennessee was divided from North Carolina,
and the Yazoo companies induced the legislature of Georgia to pass an
act, approved by the governor in 1795, to sell the greater part of
Georgia's territory presently comprising
Alabama and Mississippi.
The state's western border runs in a straight line south-southeastward
from a point southwest of Chattanooga, to meet the Chattahoochee River
near West Point. It continues downriver to the point where it joins
the Flint River (the confluence of the two forming Florida's
Apalachicola River); the southern border goes almost due east and very
slightly south, in a straight line to the St. Mary's River, which then
forms the remainder of the boundary back to the ocean.
The water boundaries are still set to be the original thalweg of the
rivers. Since then, several have been inundated by lakes created by
dams, including the Apalachicola/Chattahoochee/Flint point now under
Georgia state legislators have claimed that in an 1818 survey, the
state's border with
Tennessee was erroneously placed one mile
(1.6 km) farther south than intended, and they proposed a
correction in 2010. The state was then in the midst of a significant
drought, and the new border would allow Georgia access to water from
Geology and terrain
Map of elevations in Georgia
Main article: Geology of Georgia (U.S. state)
Each region has its own distinctive characteristics. For instance, the
Ridge and Valley, which lies in the northwest corner of the state,
includes limestone, sandstone, shale and other sedimentary rocks,
which have yielded construction-grade limestone, barite, ocher, and
small amounts of coal.
Main article: Ecology of Georgia
The state of Georgia has approximately 250 tree species and 58
protected plants. Georgia's native trees include red cedar, a variety
of pines, oaks, hollies, cypress, sweetgum, scaly-bark and white
hickories and sabal palmetto. East Georgia is in the subtropical
coniferous forest biome and conifer species as other broadleaf
evergreen flora make up the majority of the southern and coastal
regions. Yellow jasmine, and mountain laurel make up just a few of the
flowering shrubs in the state.
See also: List of taxa described from Georgia
White-tailed (Virginia) deer are in nearly all counties. The northern
mockingbird and brown thrasher are among the 160 bird species that
live in the state.
Reptiles and amphibians include the eastern diamondback, copperhead,
and cottonmouth, salamanders, frogs, alligators and toads. There are
about 79 species of reptile and 63 amphibians known to live in
The most popular freshwater game fish are trout, bream, bass, and
catfish, all but the last of which are produced in state hatcheries
for restocking. Popular saltwater game fish include red drum, spotted
seatrout, flounder, and tarpon. Porpoises, whales, shrimp, oysters,
and blue crabs are found inshore and offshore of the Georgia
See also: List of taxa described from Georgia
Main article: Climate of Georgia (U.S. state)
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification types of Georgia
Image of March
1993 Storm of the Century
1993 Storm of the Century covering the length of the
east coast. The outline of Georgia is discernible in the center of the
The majority of the state is primarily a humid subtropical climate.
Hot and humid summers are typical, except at the highest elevations.
The entire state, including the
North Georgia mountains, receives
moderate to heavy precipitation, which varies from 45 inches
(1143 mm) in central Georgia to approximately 75 inches
(1905 mm) around the northeast part of the state. The degree
to which the weather of a certain region of Georgia is subtropical
depends on the latitude, its proximity to the
Atlantic Ocean or Gulf
of Mexico, and the elevation. The latter factor is felt chiefly in the
mountainous areas of the northern part of the state, which are farther
away from the ocean and can be 4500 feet (1350 m) above sea level. The
USDA Plant hardiness zones for Georgia range from zone 6b (no colder
than −5 °F (−21 °C) ) in the
Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains to
zone 8b (no colder than 15 °F (−9 °C) ) along the
Atlantic coast and
The highest temperature ever recorded is 112 °F (44.4 °C)
in Louisville on July 24, 1952, while the lowest is −17 °F
(−27.2 °C) in northern Floyd County on January 27, 1940.
Georgia is one of the leading states in frequency of tornadoes, though
they are rarely stronger than F1. Although tornadoes striking the city
are very rare, a F2 nonviolent tornado hit downtown
March 14, 2008, causing moderate to severe damage to various
buildings. With a coastline on the
Atlantic Ocean, Georgia is also
vulnerable to hurricanes, although direct hurricane strikes were rare
during the 20th century. Georgia often is affected by hurricanes that
Florida panhandle, weaken over land, and bring strong
tropical storm winds and heavy rain to the interior, as well as
hurricanes that come close to the Georgia coastline, brushing the
coast on their way north.
Monthly average daily high and low temperatures for major Georgia
Temperatures are given in °F/°C format, with highs on top of
Main article: Demographics of Georgia (U.S. state)
Population density of Georgia.
United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of
Georgia was 10,214,860 on July 1, 2015, a 5.44% increase since the
United States Census.
In 2015, Georgia had an estimated population of 10,214,860 which was
an increase of 117,517 from the previous year, and an increase of
527,207 since 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last
census of 438,939 people (that is 849,414 births minus 410,475 deaths)
and an increase from net migration of 606,673 people into the state.
Immigration resulted in a net increase of 228,415 people, and
migration within the country produced a net increase of 378,258
As of 2010[update], the number of illegal immigrants living in Georgia
has skyrocketed, more than doubling to 480,000 from January 2000 to
January 2009, according to a new federal report. That gave Georgia the
greatest percentage increase among the 10 states with the biggest
illegal immigrant populations during those years.
There were 743,000 veterans in 2009.
According to the 2010
United States Census, Georgia had a population
of 9,687,653. In terms of race and ethnicity, the state was 59.7%
White (55.9% Non-Hispanic White Alone), 30.5% Black or African
American, 0.3% American Indian and
Alaska Native, 3.2% Asian, 0.1%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 4.0% from Some Other Race,
and 2.1% from Two or More Races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race
made up 8.8% of the population.
Georgia Racial Breakdown of Population
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
Two or more races
As of 2011[update], 58.8% of Georgia's population younger than age 1
were minorities (meaning that they had at least one parent who was not
non-Hispanic white) compared to other states like
75.1%, New York with 55.6%, and
Texas with 69.8%.
The largest European ancestry groups are:
In the 1980 census 1,584,303 Georgians claimed English ancestry out of
a total state population of 3,994,817, making them 40% of the state,
and the largest ethnic group at the time. Today, many of these
same people claiming that they are of "American" ancestry are actually
of English descent, and some are of Scots-Irish descent; however,
their families have lived in the state for so long, in many cases
since the colonial period, that they choose to identify simply as
having "American" ancestry or do not in fact know their own ancestry.
Their ancestry primarily goes back to the original thirteen colonies
and for this reason many of them today simply claim "American"
ancestry, though they are of predominately English
As of 2004[update], 7.7% of Georgia's population was reported as under
5 years of age, 26.4% under 18, and 9.6% were 65 or older. Also as of
2004[update], females made up approximately 50.6% of the population
and African Americans made up approximately 29.6%.
Historically, about half of Georgia's population was composed of
African Americans who, before the Civil War, were almost exclusively
enslaved. The Great Migration of hundreds of thousands of blacks from
the rural South to the industrial North from 1914–70 reduced the
African American population.
Georgia had the second-fastest-growing Asian population growth in the
U.S. from 1990 to 2000, more than doubling in size during the ten-year
period. In addition, according to census estimates, Georgia ranks
third among the states in terms of the percent of the total population
African American (after
Mississippi and Louisiana) and third
in numerical Black population after New York and Florida. Georgia was
the state with the largest numerical increase in the black population
from 2006 to 2007 with 84,000.
Georgia is the state with the third-lowest percentage of older people
(65 or older), at 12.8 percent (as of 2015[update]).
The colonial settlement of large numbers of Scottish American, English
American and Scotch-Irish Americans in the mountains and piedmont, and
coastal settlement by some English Americans and African Americans,
have strongly influenced the state's culture in food, language and
music. The concentration of Africans imported to coastal areas in the
18th century repeatedly from rice-growing regions of
West Africa led
to the development of Gullah-Geechee language and culture in the Low
Country among African Americans. They share a unique heritage in which
African traditions of food, religion and culture were continued more
than in some other areas. In the creolization of Southern culture,
their foodways became an integral part of all Southern cooking in the
Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in Georgia
Percentage of population
(as of 2010[update])
Chinese (including Mandarin)
Niger-Congo languages of
West Africa (Ibo, Kru, and Yoruba)
Portuguese and French Creole
As of 2010[update], 87.35% (7,666,663) of Georgia residents age 5 and
older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 7.42%
(651,583) spoke Spanish, 0.51% (44,702) Korean, 0.44% (38,244)
Vietnamese, 0.42% (36,679) French, 0.38% (33,009) Chinese (which
includes Mandarin), and German, which was spoken as a main language by
0.29% (23,351) of the population over the age of five. In total,
12.65% (1,109,888) of Georgia's population age 5 and older spoke a
mother language other than English.
Major cities (2016)
Largest cities or towns in Georgia (U.S. state)
* In 2012, voters in Macon and Bibb County approved the consolidation
of the city of Macon and unincorporated Bibb County; they officially
merged on January 1, 2014. Macon joined Columbus, Augusta, and Athens
as consolidated cities in Georgia.
U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau lists fourteen metropolitan areas in Georgia.
The largest, Atlanta, is the ninth most populous metro area in the
United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church in Atlanta
The composition of religious affiliation in Georgia is 70% Protestant,
9% Catholic, 1% Mormon, 1% Jewish, 0.5% Muslim, 0.5% Buddhist, and
0.5% Hindu. Atheists, deists, agnostics, and other unaffiliated people
make up 13% of the population. The largest Christian denominations
by number of adherents in 2010 were the Southern Baptist Convention
with 1,759,317; the
United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church with 619,394; and the
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church with 596,384. Non-denominational Evangelical
Protestant had 566,782 members, the Church of God (Cleveland,
Tennessee) has 175,184 members, and the National Baptist Convention,
USA, Inc. has 172,982 members. The
Presbyterian Church (USA)
Presbyterian Church (USA) is
the largest Presbyterian body in the state, with 300 congregations and
100,000 members. The other large body, Presbyterian Church in America,
had at its founding date 14 congregations and 2,800 members; in 2010
it counted 139 congregations and 32,000 members. The Roman
Catholic Church is noteworthy in Georgia's urban areas, and includes
the Archdiocese of
Atlanta and the Diocese of Savannah. Georgia is
home to the largest
Hindu temple in the United States, the BAPS Shri
Swaminarayan Mandir Atlanta, located in the suburb city of Lilburn.
Georgia is home to several historical synagogues including The Temple
(Atlanta), Congregation Beth Jacob (Atlanta), and Congregation Mickve
Chabad and the
Rohr Jewish Learning Institute
Rohr Jewish Learning Institute are
also active in the state.
Religion in Georgia (2014)
Main article: Government of Georgia (U.S. state)
List of governors of Georgia
List of governors of Georgia and Georgia elected officials
Georgia State Capitol
Georgia State Capitol in
Atlanta with the distinctive gold dome
City Hall in Savannah
As with all other US states and the federal government, Georgia's
government is based on the separation of legislative, executive, and
judicial power. Executive authority in the state rests with the
Nathan Deal (Republican). Both the Governor of
Georgia and lieutenant governor are elected on separate ballots to
four-year terms of office. Unlike the federal government, but like
many other U.S. States, most of the executive officials who comprise
the governor's cabinet are elected by the citizens of Georgia rather
than appointed by the governor.
Legislative authority resides in the General Assembly, composed of the
Senate and House of Representatives. The Lieutenant Governor presides
over the Senate, while members of the House of Representatives select
their own Speaker. The Georgia Constitution mandates a maximum of 56
senators, elected from single-member districts, and a minimum of 180
representatives, apportioned among representative districts (which
sometimes results in more than one representative per district); there
are currently 56 senators and 180 representatives. The term of office
for senators and representatives is two years. The laws enacted by
the General Assembly are codified in the Official Code of Georgia
State judicial authority rests with the state Supreme Court and Court
of Appeals, which have statewide authority. In addition, there are
smaller courts which have more limited geographical jurisdiction,
including Superior Courts, State Courts, Juvenile Courts, Magistrate
Courts and Probate Courts. Justices of the Supreme Court and judges of
the Court of Appeals are elected statewide by the citizens in
non-partisan elections to six-year terms. Judges for the smaller
courts are elected to four-year terms by the state's citizens who live
within that court's jurisdiction.
Further information: List of counties in Georgia
Georgia consists of 159 counties, second only to Texas, with 254.
Georgia had 161 counties until the end of 1931, when Milton and
Campbell were merged into the existing Fulton. Some counties have been
named for prominent figures in both American and Georgian history, and
many bear names with Native American origin. Counties in Georgia have
their own elected legislative branch, usually called the Board of
Commissioners, which usually also has executive authority in the
county. Several counties have a sole Commissioner form of
government, with legislative and executive authority vested in a
single person. Georgia is the only state with Sole Commissioner
counties. Georgia's Constitution provides all counties and cities with
"home rule" authority. The county commissions have considerable power
to pass legislation within their county, as a municipality would.
Georgia recognizes all local units of government as cities, so every
incorporated town is legally a city. Georgia does not provide for
townships or independent cities, though there have been bills proposed
Legislature to provide for townships; it does allow
consolidated city-county governments by local referendum. All of
Georgia's second-tier cities except Savannah have now formed
consolidated city-county governments by referendum: Columbus (in
1970), Athens (1990), Augusta (1995), and Macon (2012). (Augusta and
Athens have excluded one or more small, incorporated towns within
their consolidated boundaries; Columbus and Macon eventually absorbed
all smaller incorporated entities within their consolidated
boundaries.) The small town of Cusseta adopted a consolidated
city-county government after it merged with unincorporated
Chattahoochee County in 2003. Three years later, in 2006, the town of
Georgetown consolidated with the rest of Quitman County.
There is no true metropolitan government in Georgia, though the
Atlanta Regional Commission (ARC) and Georgia Regional Transportation
Authority do provide some services, and the ARC must approve all major
land development projects in the
Atlanta metropolitan area.
Main article: Elections in Georgia (U.S. state)
United States presidential election, 2004, in Georgia and
Political party strength in Georgia (U.S. state)
Presidential elections results
*State won by George Wallace
of the American Independent Party,
at 42.83%, or 535,550 votes
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.
Until 1964, Georgia's state government had the longest unbroken record
of single-party dominance, by the Democratic Party, of any state in
the Union. This record was established largely due to the
disenfranchisement of most blacks and many poor whites by the state in
its constitution and laws in the early 20th century. Some elements,
such as requiring payment of poll taxes and passing literacy tests,
prevented blacks from registering to vote; their exclusion from the
political system lasted into the 1960s and reduced the Republican
Party to a non-competitive status in the early 20th century.
White Democrats regained power after Reconstruction due in part to the
efforts of some using intimidation and violence, but this method came
into disrepute. In 1900, shortly before Georgia adopted a
disfranchising constitutional amendment in 1908, blacks comprised 47%
of the state's population.
The whites dealt with this problem of potential political power by the
1908 amendment, which in practice disenfranchised blacks and poor
whites, nearly half of the state population. It required that any male
at least 21 years of age wanting to register to vote must also: (a) be
of good character and able to pass a test on citizenship, (b) be able
to read and write provisions of the U.S. and Georgia constitutions, or
(c) own at least 40 acres of land or $500 in property. Any Georgian
who had fought in any war from the
American Revolution through the
Spanish–American War was exempted from these additional
qualifications. More importantly, any Georgian descended from a
veteran of any of these wars also was exempted. Because by 1908 many
white Georgia males were grandsons of veterans and/or owned the
required property, the exemption and the property requirement
basically allowed only well-to-do whites to vote. The qualifications
of good character, citizenship knowledge, and literacy (all determined
subjectively by white registrars), and property ownership were used to
disqualify most blacks and poor whites, preventing them from
registering to vote. The voter rolls dropped dramatically. In
the early 20th century, Progressives promoted electoral reform and
reducing the power of ward bosses to clean up politics. Their
additional rules, such as the eight-box law, continued to effectively
close out people who were illiterate. White, one-party rule was
For more than 130 years, from 1872 to 2003, Georgians nominated and
elected only white Democratic governors, and white Democrats held the
majority of seats in the General Assembly. Most of the Democrats
elected throughout these years were Southern Democrats, who were
fiscally and socially conservative by national standards. This
voting pattern continued after the segregationist period.
Legal segregation was ended by passage of federal legislation in the
1960s. According to the 1960 census, the proportion of Georgia's
population that was
African American was 28%; hundreds of thousands of
blacks had left the state in the Great Migration to the North and
Midwest. New white residents arrived through migration and
immigration. Following support from the national Democratic Party for
the civil rights movement and especially civil rights legislation of
1964 and 1965, most African-American voters, as well as other minority
voters, have largely supported the Democratic Party in Georgia. In
the decades since the late 20th century, the conservative
white-majority voters have increasingly supported Republicans for
national and state offices.
In 2003, incumbent moderate Democratic Governor
Roy Barnes was
defeated by Republican Sonny Perdue, a state legislator and former
Democrat. While Democrats retained control of the State House, they
lost their majority in the Senate when four Democrats switched
parties. They lost the House in the 2004 election. Republicans then
controlled all three partisan elements of the state government.
Even before 2003, the state had become increasingly supportive of
Republicans in Presidential elections. It has supported a Democrat for
president only three times since 1960. In 1976 and 1980, native son
Jimmy Carter carried the state; in 1992, the former
Bill Clinton narrowly won the state. Generally, Republicans are
strongest in the predominantly white suburban (especially the Atlanta
suburbs) and rural portions of the state. Many of these areas were
represented by conservative Democrats in the state legislature well
into the 21st century. One of the most conservative of these was U.S.
Congressman Larry McDonald, former head of the John Birch Society, who
died when the
Soviet Union shot down
KAL 007 near Sakhalin Island.
Democratic candidates have tended to win a higher percentage of the
vote in the areas where black voters are most numerous, as well as
in the cities among liberal urban populations (especially
Athens), and the rural Black Belt region that passes through the
central and southwestern portion of the state.
The ascendancy of the Republican Party in Georgia and in the South in
general resulted in Georgia U.S. House of Representatives member Newt
Gingrich being elected as Speaker of the House following the election
of a Republican majority in the House in 1994. Gingrich served as
Speaker until 1999, when he resigned in the aftermath of the loss of
House seats held by members of the GOP. Gingrich mounted an
unsuccessful bid for President in the 2012 election, but withdrew
after winning only the
South Carolina and Georgia primaries.
In recent events, Democrat Jim Martin ran against incumbent Republican
Senator Saxby Chambliss. Chambliss failed to acquire the necessary 50
percent of votes, a Libertarian Party candidate receiving the
remainder of votes. In the runoff election held on December 2, 2008,
Chambliss became the second Georgia Republican to be reelected to the
As of the 2010[update] reapportionment, the state has 14 seats in the
U.S. House of Representatives. These are held by 10 Republicans and 4
Georgia House of Representatives
Georgia House of Representatives has 61 Democrats, 118
Republicans, and 1 Independent, while the Georgia Senate has 17
Democrats and 39 Republicans.
Main article: Politics of Georgia (U.S. state)
During the 1960s and 1970s, Georgia made significant changes in civil
rights and governance. As in many other states, its legislature had
not reapportioned congressional districts according to population from
1931 to after the 1960 census. Problems of malapportionment in the
state legislature, where rural districts had outsize power in relation
to urban districts, such as Atlanta's, were corrected after the US
Supreme Court ruling in
Wesberry v. Sanders
Wesberry v. Sanders (1964). The court ruled
that congressional districts had to be reapportioned to have
essentially equal populations.
A related case,
Reynolds v. Sims
Reynolds v. Sims (1964), required state legislatures
to end their use of geographical districts or counties in favor of
"one man, one vote;" that is, districts based upon approximately equal
populations, to be reviewed and changed as necessary after each
census. These changes resulted in residents of
Atlanta and other urban
areas gaining political power in Georgia in proportion to their
populations. From the mid-1960s, the voting electorate increased
after African Americans' rights to vote were enforced under civil
Economic growth through this period was dominated by
Atlanta and its
region. It was a bedrock of the emerging "New South". From the late
Atlanta attracted headquarters and relocated workers of
national companies, becoming more diverse, liberal and cosmopolitan
than many areas of the state.
In the 21st century, many conservative Democrats, including former
U.S. Senator and governor Zell Miller, decided to support Republicans.
The state's socially conservative bent results in wide support for
such measures as restrictions on abortion. In 2004, a state
constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriages was approved by
76% of voters. However, after the
United States Supreme Court
issued its ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges, all Georgia counties came
into full compliance, recognizing the rights of same-sex couples to
marry in the state.
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia (U.S. state) locations by per capita income
Georgia's 2016 total gross state product was $531 billion. Its per
capita personal income for 2011 put it 39th in the nation at
$35,979. For years Georgia as a state has had the highest credit
rating by Standard & Poor's (AAA) and is one of only 15 states
with a AAA rating. If Georgia were a stand-alone country, it would
be the 28th largest economy in the world.
A heat map of Georgia's counties depicting the median income as of
There are 17 Fortune 500 companies and 26 Fortune 1000 companies with
headquarters in Georgia, including Home Depot, UPS, Coca-Cola, TSYS,
Delta Air Lines, Aflac, Southern Company, Anthem Inc., Honeywell, and
Atlanta International Airport, the world's busiest
airport as measured by both passenger traffic and aircraft traffic, is
located in Georgia. Also, the
Port of Savannah
Port of Savannah is the fourth
largest seaport and fastest-growing container seaport in North
America, importing and exporting a total of 2.3 million TEUs per
Atlanta has a large effect on the state of Georgia, the Southeastern
United States, and beyond.
Atlanta has been the site of growth in real
estate, service, logistics and the communications and film industries,
while tourism is important to the economy.
Atlanta is a global city,
also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, as a
city generally considered to be an important node in the global
For the past five years, Georgia has been ranked the top state (number
1) in the nation to do business, and has been recognized as number 1
for business and labor climate in the nation, number 1 in business
climate in the nation, number 1 in the nation in workforce training
and as having a “Best in Class” state economic development
In 2016, Georgia had median annual income per person of between
$50,000–$59,999 which is inflated adjusted dollars for 2016. The US
Median annual income for the entire nation is $57,617. This lies
within the range of Georgia's median annual income.
Widespread farms produce peanuts, corn, and soybeans across middle and
south Georgia. The state is the number one producer of pecans in the
world, with the region around Albany in southwest Georgia being the
center of Georgia's pecan production. Gainesville in northeast Georgia
touts itself as the Poultry Capital of the World. Georgia is in the
top five blueberry producers in the United States.
Georgia's agricultural outputs include poultry and eggs, pecans,
peaches, cotton, peanuts, rye, cattle, hogs, dairy products,
turfgrass, timber, particularly pine trees, tobacco and vegetables.
A Georgia U.S. quarter
Major products in the mineral industry include a variety of clays,
stones, sands and the clay palygorskite, known as attapulgite.
See also: List of gold mines in Georgia
Industry in Georgia is diverse.
While many textile jobs moved overseas, there is still a textile
industry located around the cities of Rome, Columbus, Augusta, Macon
and along the I-75 corridor between
Atlanta and Chattanooga,
Tennessee. Historically it started along the fall line in the
Piedmont, where factories were powered by waterfalls and rivers. It
includes the towns of Cartersville, Calhoun, Ringgold and Dalton
In November 2009, Kia started production in Georgia at the first U.S.
Kia Motors plant, Kia Motors Manufacturing Georgia in West Point.
Industrial products include textiles and apparel, transportation
equipment, food processing, paper products, chemicals and products,
and electric equipment.
Georgia was ranked the No. 2 state for infrastructure and global
access by Area Development magazine.
Georgia Ports Authority owns and operates four ports in the state:
Port of Savannah, Port of Brunswick, Port Bainbridge, and Port
Port of Savannah
Port of Savannah is the fourth largest seaport in the
United States, importing and exporting a total of 2.3 million TEUs per
year. The Port of Savannah’s Garden City Terminal is the largest
single container terminal in North America. Several major
companies including Target, IKEA, and
Heineken operate distribution
centers in close proximity to the Port of Savannah.
Atlanta International Airport has three cargo
complexes that include two million square feet of space, the airport
moves over 650,000 tons of cargo annually, it has nearby cold storage
for perishables, and is the only airport in the Southeast with
USDA-approved cold-treatment capabilities.
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines also offers
an on-airport refrigeration facility for perishable cargo, and a
250-acre Foreign Trade Zone is located at the airport.
Georgia is a major railway hub, has the most extensive rail system in
the Southeast, and has the service of two Class I railroads, CSX and
Norfolk Southern, plus 24 short-line railroads. Georgia is ranked the
#3 state in the nation for rail accessibility. Rail shipments include
intermodal, bulk, automotive and every other type of shipment.
Georgia has an extensive interstate highway system including 1,200
miles of interstate highway and 20,000 miles of federal and state
highways that facilitate the efficient movement of more than $620
billion of cargo by truck each year. Georgia’s six interstates
connect to 80 percent of the U.S. population within a two-day truck
drive. More than $14 billion in funding has been approved for new
Southern Congressmen have attracted major investment by the US
military in the state. The several US military installations include
Moody Air Force Base, Fort Stewart, Hunter Army Airfield, Naval
Submarine Base Kings Bay, Fort Benning, Robins Air Force Base, Fort
Gordon, Marine Corps Logistics Base Albany, Dobbins Air Reserve Base,
Coast Guard Air Station Savannah
Coast Guard Air Station Savannah and Coast Guard Station Brunswick.
These installations command numerous jobs and business for related
Energy use and production
Georgia's electricity generation and consumption are among the highest
in the United States, with natural gas being the primary electrical
generation fuel, followed by coal. The state also has two nuclear
power facilities, Plant Hatch and Plant Vogtle, which contribute
almost one fourth of Georgia's electricity generation, and an
additional two nuclear power plants are under construction at Plant
Vogtle. In 2013, the generation mix was 39% gas, 35% coal, 23%
nuclear, 3% hydro and other renewable sources. The leading area of
energy consumption is the industrial sector because Georgia "is a
leader in the energy-intensive wood and paper products industry".
Solar generated energy is becoming more in use with solar energy
generators currently installed ranking Georgia 15th in the country in
installed solar capacity. In 2013, $189 million was invested in
Georgia to install solar for home, business and utility use
representing a 795% increase over the previous year.
Georgia has a progressive income tax structure with six brackets of
state income tax rates that range from 1% to 6%. In 2009, Georgians
paid 9% of their income in state and local taxes, compared to the US
average of 9.8% of income. This ranks Georgia 25th among the
states for total state and local tax burden. The state sales tax
in Georgia is 4% with additional percentages added through local
Special-purpose local-option sales tax
Special-purpose local-option sales tax or SPLOST), but
there is no sales tax on prescription drugs, certain medical devices,
or food items for home consumption.
The state legislature may allow municipalities to institute local
sales taxes and special local taxes, such as the 2% SPLOST tax and the
1% sales tax for MARTA serviced counties.
Excise taxes are levied on
alcohol, tobacco, and motor fuel. Owners of real property in Georgia
pay property tax to their county. All taxes are collected by the
Georgia Department of Revenue and then properly distributed according
to any agreements that each county has with its cities.
Main article: Film industry in Georgia (U.S. state)
The Georgia Film, Music and Digital Entertainment Office promotes
filming in the state. Since 1972, seven hundred film and
television projects have been filmed on location in Georgia.
California in 2016 as the state location with the
most feature films produced. In fiscal year 2017 film and tv
production had an economic impact in Georgia of $9.5 billion.
Savannah's River Street is a popular tourist destination.
Atlanta area, World of Coke, Georgia Aquarium, Zoo
Stone Mountain are important tourist attractions. Stone
Mountain is Georgia's "most popular attraction"; receiving over four
million tourists per year. The Georgia Aquarium, in Atlanta,
was the largest aquarium in the world in 2010 according to Guinness
Callaway Gardens, in western Georgia, is a family resort. The
area is also popular with golfers.
The Savannah Historic District attracts over eleven million tourists
The Golden Isles are a string of barrier islands off the Atlantic
coast of Georgia near Brunswick that include beaches, golf courses and
the Cumberland Island National Seashore.
Several sites honor the lives and careers of noted American leaders:
Little White House
Little White House in Warm Springs, which served as the summer
residence of President
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt while he was being
treated for polio; President Jimmy Carter's hometown of Plains and the
Carter Presidential Center in Atlanta; the Martin Luther King, Jr.,
National Historic Site in Atlanta, which is the final resting place of
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. and Coretta Scott King; and Atlanta's Ebenezer
Baptist Church, where Dr. King preached.
Main article: Culture of Georgia (U.S. state)
The Fox Theatre is a performing arts venue located in Midtown Atlanta,
and is the centerpiece of the Fox Theatre Historic District.
Fine and performing arts
Georgia's major fine art museums include the
High Museum of Art
High Museum of Art and
the Michael C. Carlos Museum, both in Atlanta; the Georgia Museum of
Art on the campus of the
University of Georgia
University of Georgia in Athens; Telfair
Museum of Art and the
SCAD Museum of Art
SCAD Museum of Art in Savannah; and the Morris
Museum of Art in Augusta.
The state theatre of Georgia is the
Springer Opera House
Springer Opera House located in
Atlanta Opera brings opera to Georgia stages. The Atlanta
Symphony Orchestra is the most widely recognized orchestra and largest
arts organization in the southeastern United States.
There are a number of performing arts venues in the state, among the
largest are the Fox Theatre, and the
Alliance Theatre at the Woodruff
Arts Center, both on
Peachtree Street in Midtown
Atlanta as well as
the Cobb Energy Performing Arts Centre, located in Northwest Atlanta.
Authors have grappled with Georgia's complex history. Popular novels
related to this include Margaret Mitchell's Gone with the Wind, Olive
Ann Burns' Cold Sassy Tree, and Alice Walker's The Color Purple.
A number of noted authors, poets and playwrights have lived in
Georgia, such as James Dickey, Flannery O'Connor, Sidney Lanier, Frank
Yerby and Lewis Grizzard.
Well-known television shows set in
Atlanta include, from Tyler Perry
House of Payne and Tyler Perry's Meet the Browns, The Real
Housewives of Atlanta, the CBS sitcom Designing Women, Matlock, the
popular AMC series The Walking Dead, Lifetime Drop Dead Diva, Rectify
and numerous HGTV original productions.
The Dukes of Hazzard, a 1980s TV show, was set in the fictional
Hazzard County, Georgia. The first five episodes were shot on location
in Conyers and
Covington, Georgia as well as some locations in
Atlanta. Production was then moved to Burbank, California.[citation
Also filmed in Georgia is The Vampire Diaries, using Covington as the
setting for the fictional Mystic Falls.
Main article: Music of Georgia (U.S. state)
See also: List of hip hop musicians from Atlanta
A number of notable musicians in various genres of popular music are
from Georgia. Among them are
Ray Charles (whose many hits include
"Georgia on My Mind", now the official state song), and Gladys Knight
(known for her Georgia-themed song, "Midnight Train to Georgia").
Rock groups from Georgia include the
Atlanta Rhythm Section, The Black
Crowes, and The Allman Brothers.
The university city of Athens sparked an influential rock music scene
in the 1980s and 1990s. Among the groups achieving their initial
prominence in that city were R.E.M., Widespread Panic, and the B-52's.
Since the 1990s, various hip-hop and R&B musicians have included
top-selling artists such as Outkast, Usher, Ludacris, TLC, B.o.B., and
Atlanta is mentioned in a number of these artists' tracks, such
as Usher's "A-Town Down" reference in his 2004 hit Yeah! (which also
Lil Jon and Ludacris), Ludacris' "Welcome to
Atlanta", Outkast's album "ATLiens", and B.o.B.'s multiple references
to Decatur, Georgia, as in his hit song "Strange Clouds".
Films set in Georgia include two pictures both set in
were awarded the Oscar for Best Picture: Gone with the Wind (1939) and
Driving Miss Daisy (1989). Other films set in Georgia include
Deliverance (1972), which was based on the novel of the same name by
James Dickey, Parental Guidance (2012), and Vacation at Six Flags Over
Main article: Sports in Georgia (U.S. state)
Sanford Stadium of the Georgia-
South Carolina college
football game on September 8, 2007
Sports in Georgia include professional teams in nearly all major
Olympic Games contenders and medalists, collegiate teams in
major and small-school conferences and associations, and active
amateur teams and individual sports. The state of Georgia has teams in
four major professional leagues — the
Atlanta Braves of Major League
Atlanta Falcons of the National Football League, the
Atlanta Hawks of the National Basketball Association, and Atlanta
United FC of Major League Soccer.
Georgia Bulldogs (Southeastern Conference), Georgia Tech Yellow
Atlantic Coast Conference),
Georgia State Panthers
Georgia State Panthers and
Georgia Southern Eagles
Georgia Southern Eagles (Sun Belt Conference) are Georgia's NCAA
Division I FBS football teams, having won multiple national
championships between them.
The 1996 Summer Olympics took place in Atlanta. The stadium that was
built to host various Olympic events was converted to Turner Field,
the home of the
Atlanta Braves through the 2016 season.
The Masters golf tournament, the first of the PGA tour's four
"majors", is held annually the second weekend of April at the Augusta
National Golf Club.
Atlanta Motor Speedway hosts the
NASCAR Cup Series
NASCAR Cup Series stock
car race and Road
Petit Le Mans
Petit Le Mans endurance sports car race.
Georgia Dome hosted
Super Bowl XXVIII
Super Bowl XXVIII in 1994 and Super Bowl
XXXIV in 2000. The
Georgia Dome hosted the NCAA Final Four Men's
Basketball National Championship in 2002, 2007, and 2013. It
WrestleMania XXVII in 2011, an event which set an
attendance record of 71,617. The dome was also the venue of the annual
Chick-fil-A Bowl post-season college football games. Since 2017, they
have been held at the
Mercedes-Benz Stadium along with the
Ty Cobb was the first player inducted into the
Baseball Hall of Fame. He was from Narrows and was nicknamed the
Parks and recreational activities
Main article: Protected areas of Georgia (U.S. state)
There are 63 parks in Georgia, 48 of which are state parks and 15 that
are historic sites, and numerous state wildlife preserves, under the
supervision of the Georgia Department of Natural Resources. Other
historic sites and parks are supervised by the National Park Service
and include the
Andersonville National Historic Site
Andersonville National Historic Site in Andersonville;
Appalachian National Scenic Trail;
Chattahoochee River National
Recreation Area near Atlanta; Chickamauga and Chattanooga National
Military Park at Fort Oglethorpe; Cumberland Island National Seashore
near St. Marys;
Fort Frederica National Monument
Fort Frederica National Monument on St. Simons Island;
Fort Pulaski National Monument
Fort Pulaski National Monument in Savannah;
Jimmy Carter National
Historic Site near Plains; Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park
Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site
Martin Luther King, Jr., National Historic Site in
Ocmulgee National Monument
Ocmulgee National Monument at Macon;
Trail of Tears
Trail of Tears National
Historic Trail; and the
Okefenokee Swamp in Waycross, Georgia
Outdoor recreational activities include hiking along the Appalachian
Trail; Civil War Heritage Trails; rock climbing and whitewater
kayaking. Other outdoor activities include hunting
Main article: Education in Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia Tech's Tech Tower
Georgia county and city public school systems are administered by
school boards with members elected at the local level. As of
2013[update], all but 19 of 181 boards are elected from single-member
districts. Residents and activist groups in Fayette County, Georgia
sued the board of commissioners and school board for maintaining an
election system based on at-large voting, which tended to increase the
power of the majority and effectively prevented minority participation
on elected local boards for nearly 200 years. A change to
single-member districts has resulted in the African-American minority
being able to elect representatives of its choice.
Georgia high schools (grades nine through twelve) are required to
administer a standardized, multiple choice End of Course Test, or
EOCT, in each of eight core subjects including algebra, geometry, U.S.
history, economics, biology, physical science, Ninth Grade Literature
and composition, and American literature. The official purpose of the
tests is to assess "specific content knowledge and skills." Although a
minimum test score is not required for the student to receive credit
in the course, completion of the test is mandatory. The EOCT score
accounts for 15% of a student's grade in the course. The
‘’Georgia Milestone’’ evaluation is taken by public school
students in the state.
Georgia has 85 public colleges, universities, and technical colleges
in addition to over 45 private institutes of higher learning. Among
Georgia's public universities is the flagship research university, the
University of Georgia, founded in 1785 as the country's oldest
state-chartered university and the birthplace of the American system
of public higher education. The
University System of Georgia
University System of Georgia is
the presiding body over public education in the state. The System
includes 29 institutions of higher learning. The System is governed by
the Georgia Board of Regents. Georgia’s workforce of more than 6.3
million is constantly refreshed by the growing number of people who
move here along with the 90,000 graduates from the universities,
colleges and technical colleges across the state, including the
nationally-ranked University of Georgia, Georgia Institute of
Technology and Emory University.
The HOPE Scholarship, funded by the state lottery, is available to all
Georgia residents who have graduated from high school or earned a
General Educational Development
General Educational Development certificate. The student must maintain
a 3.2 or higher grade point average and attend a public college or
university in the state.
The Georgia Historical Society, an independent educational and
research institution, has a research center located in Savannah. The
research center's library and archives hold the oldest collection of
materials related to Georgia history in the nation.
See also: List of newspapers in Georgia (U.S. state)
CNN Center in Atlanta.
Atlanta metropolitan area is the ninth largest media market in the
United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research. The state's other
top markets are Savannah (95th largest), Augusta (115th largest), and
Columbus (127th largest).
There are 48 television broadcast stations in Georgia including TBS,
TNT, TCM, Cartoon Network,
CNN and Headline News, all founded by
notable Georgia resident Ted Turner.
The Weather Channel
The Weather Channel also has its
headquarters in Atlanta.
By far, the largest daily newspaper in Georgia is the Atlanta
Journal-Constitution with a daily readership of 195,592 and a Sunday
readership of 397,925. Other large dailies include The
Augusta Chronicle, the Columbus Ledger-Enquirer, The Telegraph
(formerly The Macon Telegraph) and the Savannah Morning News.
Atlanta was the first licensed radio station in the
southeastern United States, signing on in 1922. Georgia Public Radio
has been in service since 1984 and, with the exception of
Atlanta, it broadcasts daily on several FM (and one AM) stations
across the state.
Georgia Public Radio
Georgia Public Radio reaches nearly all of Georgia
(with the exception of the
Atlanta area, which is served by WABE).
Atlanta is the state's oldest television station, having
begun operations in 1948. WSB was only the second such operation
founded in the Southern U.S., trailing only WTVR in Richmond,
Main article: Transportation in Georgia (U.S. state)
Port of Brunswick
Port of Brunswick and the
Sidney Lanier Bridge
Transportation in Georgia is overseen by the Georgia Department of
Transportation, a part of the executive branch of the state
government. Georgia's major Interstate Highways are I-20, I-75, I-85,
and I-95. On March 18, 1998, the Georgia House of Representatives
passed a resolution naming the portion of
Interstate Highway 75, which
runs from the
Chattahoochee River northward to the
Larry McDonald Memorial Highway. Larry McDonald, a Democratic
member of the House of Representatives, had been on Korean Air Lines
Flight 007 when it was shot down by the Soviets on September 1, 1983.
MARTA commuter train
Georgia's primary commercial airport is Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta
International Airport (ATL), and is the world's busiest passenger
airport. In addition to Hartsfield-Jackson, there are eight other
airports serving major commercial traffic in Georgia. Savannah/Hilton
Head International Airport is the second-busiest airport in the state
as measured by passengers served, and is the only additional
international airport. Other commercial airports (ranked in order of
passengers served) are located in Augusta, Columbus, Albany, Macon,
Brunswick, Valdosta, and Athens.
Georgia Ports Authority manages two deepwater seaports, at
Savannah and Brunswick, and two river ports, at Bainbridge and
Port of Savannah
Port of Savannah is a major U.S. seaport on the Atlantic
Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) is the
principal rapid transit system in the
Atlanta metropolitan area.
Formed in 1971 as strictly a bus system, MARTA operates a network of
bus routes linked to a rapid transit system consisting of 48 miles
(77 km) of rail track with 38 train stations. MARTA operates
almost exclusively in Fulton and DeKalb counties, with bus service to
two destinations in Cobb county and the Cumberland Transfer Center
next to the Cumberland Mall, and a single rail station in Clayton
County at Hartsfield-Jackson
Atlanta International Airport. MARTA also
operates a separate paratransit service for disabled customers. As of
2009[update], the average total daily ridership for the system (bus
and rail) was 482,500 passengers.
Medical Center of
Central Georgia in Macon (Georgia's 2nd largest
See also: List of hospitals in Georgia (U.S. state)
The state has 151 general hospitals, over 15,000 doctors and almost
6,000 dentists. The state is ranked forty-first in the percentage
of residents who engage in regular exercise.
See also: Georgia census statistical areas
Atlanta, located in north-central Georgia at the Eastern Continental
Divide, has been Georgia's capital city since 1868. It is the most
populous city in Georgia, with just over 420,000 residents in
Atlanta metropolitan area is the cultural and economic center of
the Southeast; its population in 2010 was 5,268,860, or 53.6% of
Atlanta is the nation's ninth largest metropolitan
The state has fourteen other cities with populations above 50,000
(based on 2012 census estimates). In descending order of size
they are Columbus, Augusta, Macon, Savannah, Athens, Sandy Springs,
Roswell, Albany, Johns Creek, Warner Robins, Alpharetta, Marietta,
Valdosta and Smyrna.
Along with the rest of the Southeast, Georgia's population continues
to grow rapidly, with primary gains concentrated in urban areas. The
population of the
Atlanta metropolitan area added 1.23 million people
(24 percent) between 2000 and 2010, and
Atlanta rose in rank from the
eleventh-largest metropolitan area in the
United States to the
Main article: List of people from Georgia (U.S. state)
Jimmy Carter, from Plains, Georgia, was President of the United States
from 1977 to 1981.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr. was born in
Atlanta in 1929.
He was a civil rights movement leader fighting for rights for African
Americans and received the
Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.
A brown thrasher, Georgia's state bird.
Rosa laevigata, Cherokee rose, the state flower of Georgia.
Reference: Georgia Symbols
Amphibian: American green tree frog
Bird: brown thrasher
Fish: largemouth bass
Flower: Cherokee rose
Insect: honey bee
Mammal: white-tailed deer
Marine mammal: right whale
"Empire State of the South"
Reptile: gopher tortoise
Song: "Georgia on My Mind"
Tree: live oak
Vegetable: Vidalia onion
Georgia USA portal
Index of Georgia (U.S. state)-related articles
Outline of Georgia (U.S. state)
Outline of Georgia (U.S. state) – organized list of topics about
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia (U.S. state) – book
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1 Admitted to the Union June 20, 1863.
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Coordinates: 33°00′N 83°30′W / 33°N 83.5°W / 33;
ISNI: 0000 0004 0405 8664