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Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
(French pronunciation: ​[ʒɔʁʒ lwi ləklɛʁ kɔ̃t də byfɔ̃]; 7 September 1707 – 16 April 1788) was a French naturalist, mathematician, cosmologist, and encyclopédiste. His works influenced the next two generations of naturalists, including Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
and Georges Cuvier. Buffon published thirty-six quarto volumes of his Histoire Naturelle
Histoire Naturelle
during his lifetime; with additional volumes based on his notes and further research being published in the two decades following his death.[1] Ernst Mayr
Ernst Mayr
wrote that "Truly, Buffon was the father of all thought in natural history in the second half of the 18th century".[2] Buffon held the position of intendant (director) at the Jardin du Roi, now called the Jardin des Plantes.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Career 3 Publications 4 Racial studies 5 Relevance to modern biology 6 See also 7 References 8 Recent editions 9 External links

Early life[edit] Georges Louis Leclerc (later Comte de Buffon) was born at Montbard, in the Province of Burgundy to Benjamin Francois Leclerc, a minor local official in charge of the salt tax and Anne-Christine Marlin also from a family of civil servants. Georges was named after his mother’s uncle (his godfather) Georges Blaisot, the tax-farmer of the Duke of Savoy for all of Sicily. In 1714 Blaisot died childless, leaving a considerable fortune to his seven-year-old godson. Benjamin Leclerc then purchased an estate containing the nearby village of Buffon and moved the family to Dijon acquiring various offices there as well as a seat in the Dijon Parlement. Georges attended the Jesuit College of Godrans in Dijon from the age of ten onwards. From 1723–1726 he then studied law in Dijon, the prerequisite for continuing the family tradition in civil service. In 1728 Georges left Dijon to study mathematics and medicine at the University of Angers
University of Angers
in France. At Angers in 1730 he made the acquaintance of the young English Duke of Kingston, who was on his grand tour of Europe, and traveled with him on a large and expensive entourage for a year and a half through southern France
France
and parts of Italy.[citation needed] Georges-Louis Leclerc had an elder brother, Pierre Daubenton (1703–1776), who wrote numerous articles for the Encyclopédie
Encyclopédie
by Diderot There are persistent but completely undocumented rumors from this period about duels, abductions and secret trips to England. In 1732 after the death of his mother and before the impending remarriage of his father, Georges left Kingston and returned to Dijon to secure his inheritance. Having added 'de Buffon' to his name while traveling with the Duke, he repurchased the village of Buffon, which his father had meanwhile sold off. With a fortune of about 80 000 livres Buffon set himself up in Paris
Paris
to pursue science, at first primarily mathematics and mechanics, and the increase of his fortune.[citation needed] Career[edit] In 1732 he moved to Paris, where he made the acquaintance of Voltaire and other intellectuals. He first made his mark in the field of mathematics and, in his Sur le jeu de franc-carreau, introduced differential and integral calculus into probability theory; the problem of Buffon's needle
Buffon's needle
in probability theory is named after him. In 1734 he was admitted to the French Academy of Sciences. During this period he corresponded with the Swiss mathematician Gabriel Cramer. His protector Maurepas had asked the Academy of Sciences to do research on wood for the construction of ships in 1733. Soon afterward, Buffon began a long-term study, performing some of the most comprehensive tests to date on the mechanical properties of wood. Included were a series of tests to compare the properties of small specimens with those of large members. After carefully testing more than a thousand small specimens without knots or other defects, Buffon concluded that it was not possible to extrapolate to the properties of full-size timbers, and he began a series of tests on full-size structural members. In 1739 he was appointed head of the Parisian Jardin du Roi
Jardin du Roi
with the help of Maurepas; he held this position to the end of his life. Buffon was instrumental in transforming the Jardin du Roi
Jardin du Roi
into a major research center and museum. He also enlarged it, arranging the purchase of adjoining plots of land and acquiring new botanical and zoological specimens from all over the world. Thanks to his talent as a writer, he was invited to join Paris's second great academy, the Académie française
Académie française
in 1753. In his Discours sur le style ("Discourse on Style"), pronounced before the Académie française, he said, "Writing well consists of thinking, feeling and expressing well, of clarity of mind, soul and taste .... The style is the man himself" ("Le style c'est l'homme même").[3] Unfortunately for him, Buffon's reputation as a literary stylist also gave ammunition to his detractors: The mathematician Jean le Rond D'Alembert, for example, called him "the great phrase-monger". In 1752 Buffon married Marie-Françoise de Saint-Belin-Malain, the daughter of an impoverished noble family from Burgundy, who was enrolled in the convent school run by his sister. Madame de Buffon’s second child, a son born in 1764, survived childhood; she herself died in 1769. When in 1772 Buffon became seriously ill and the promise that his son (then only 8) should succeed him as director of the Jardin became clearly impracticable and was withdrawn, the King raised Buffon’s estates in Burgundy to the status of a county – and thus Buffon (and his son) became a Count. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
in 1782.[4] Buffon died in Paris
Paris
in 1788. He was buried in a chapel adjacent to the church of Sainte-Urse Montbard; during the French Revolution, his tomb was broken into and the lead that covered the coffin was ransacked to produce bullets. His heart was initially saved, as it was guarded by Suzanne Necker
Suzanne Necker
(wife of Jacques Necker), but was later lost. Today, only Buffon's cerebellum remains, as it is kept in the base of the statue by Pajou that Louis XVI
Louis XVI
had commissioned in his honor in 1776, located at the Museum of Natural History
Museum of Natural History
in Paris. Publications[edit]

Statue of Buffon in the Jardin des Plantes

"Preuves de la théorie de la Terre", in the Buffon Museum, Montbard, Côte-d'Or, France

Buffon's Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière (1749–1788: in 36 volumes; an additional volume based on his notes appeared in 1789) was originally intended to cover all three "kingdoms" of nature but the Histoire naturelle
Histoire naturelle
ended up being limited to the animal and mineral kingdoms, and the animals covered were only the birds and quadrupeds. "Written in a brilliant style, this work was read ... by every educated person in Europe".[2] Those who assisted him in the production of this great work included Louis-Jean-Marie Daubenton, Philibert Guéneau de Montbeillard, and Gabriel-Léopold Bexon, along with numerous artists. Buffon's Histoire naturelle
Histoire naturelle
was translated into many different languages, making him one of the most widely read authors of the day, a rival to Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Voltaire.[5] In the opening volumes of the Histoire naturelle
Histoire naturelle
Buffon questioned the usefulness of mathematics, criticized Carl Linnaeus's taxonomical approach to natural history, outlined a history of the Earth with little relation to the Biblical account, and proposed a theory of reproduction that ran counter to the prevailing theory of pre-existence. The early volumes were condemned by the Faculty of Theology at the Sorbonne. Buffon published a retraction, but he continued publishing the offending volumes without any change. In the course of his examination of the animal world, Buffon noted that despite similar environments, different regions have distinct plants and animals, a concept later known as Buffon's Law. This is considered to be the first principle of biogeography. He made the suggestion that species may have both "improved" and "degenerated" after dispersing from a center of creation. In volume 14 he argued that all the world's quadrupeds had developed from an original set of just thirty-eight quadrupeds.[6] On this basis, he is sometimes considered a "transformist" and a precursor of Darwin. He also asserted that climate change may have facilitated the worldwide spread of species from their centers of origin. Still, interpreting his ideas on the subject is not simple, for he returned to topics many times in the course of his work. Buffon considered the similarities between humans and apes, but ultimately rejected the possibility of a common descent. He debated with James Burnett, Lord Monboddo
James Burnett, Lord Monboddo
on the relationship of the primates to man, Monboddo insisting, against Buffon, on a close relationship.[7] At one point, Buffon propounded a theory that nature in the New World was inferior to that of Eurasia. He argued that the Americas were lacking in large and powerful creatures, and that even the people were less virile than their European counterparts. He ascribed this inferiority to the marsh odors and dense forests of the American continent. These remarks so incensed Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
that he dispatched twenty soldiers to the New Hampshire
New Hampshire
woods to find a bull moose for Buffon as proof of the "stature and majesty of American quadrupeds".[8] Buffon later admitted his error. In Les époques de la nature (1778) Buffon discussed the origins of the solar system, speculating that the planets had been created by a comet's collision with the sun.[9] He also suggested that the earth originated much earlier than 4004 BC, the date determined by Archbishop James Ussher. Basing his figures on the cooling rate of iron tested at his Laboratory the Petit Fontenet at Montbard, he calculated that the age of the earth was 75,000 years. Once again, his ideas were condemned by the Sorbonne, and once again he issued a retraction to avoid further problems.[10] Racial studies[edit] See also: Scientific racism Buffon and Johann Blumenbach
Johann Blumenbach
were believers in monogenism, the concept that all races have a single origin. They also believed in the " Degeneration
Degeneration
theory" of racial origins. They both said that Adam and Eve were Caucasian and that other races came about by degeneration from environmental factors, such as the sun and poor diet. They believed that the degeneration could be reversed if proper environmental control was taken, and that all contemporary forms of man could revert to the original Caucasian race.[11] Buffon and Blumenbach claimed that pigmentation arose because of the heat of the tropical sun. They suggested cold wind caused the tawny colour of the Eskimos. They thought the Chinese relatively fair skinned compared to the other Asian stocks because they kept mostly in towns and were protected from environmental factors. Buffon said that food and the mode of living could make races degenerate and distinguish them from the original Caucasian race.[11] Believing in monogenism, Buffon thought that skin colour could change in a single lifetime, depending on the conditions of climate and diet.[12] Buffon was an advocate of the Asia hypothesis; in his Histoire Naturelle, he argued that man's birthplace must be in a high temperate zone. As he believed good climate conditions would breed healthy humans, he hypothesized that the most logical place to look for the first humans' existence would be in Asia and around the Caspian Sea region.[13] Relevance to modern biology[edit] Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
wrote in his preliminary historical sketch added to the third edition of On the Origin of Species: "Passing over... Buffon, with whose writings I am not familiar". Then, from the fourth edition onwards, he amended this to say that "the first author who in modern times has treated it [evolution] in a scientific spirit was Buffon. But as his opinions fluctuated greatly at different periods, and as he does not enter on the causes or means of the transformation of species, I need not here enter on details".[14] Buffon's work on degeneration, however, was immensely influential on later scholars but was overshadowed by strong moral overtones.[15] The paradox of Buffon is that, according to Ernst Mayr:

He was not an evolutionary biologist, yet he was the father of evolutionism. He was the first person to discuss a large number of evolutionary problems, problems that before Buffon had not been raised by anybody.... he brought them to the attention of the scientific world.

Except for Aristotle
Aristotle
and Darwin, no other student of organisms [whole animals and plants] has had as far-reaching an influence.

He brought the idea of evolution into the realm of science. He developed a concept of the "unity of type", a precursor of comparative anatomy. More than anyone else, he was responsible for the acceptance of a long-time scale for the history of the earth. He was one of the first to imply that you get inheritance from your parents, in a description based on similarities between elephants and mammoths. And yet, he hindered evolution by his frequent endorsement of the immutability of species. He provided a criterion of species, fertility among members of a species, that was thought impregnable.[2]

Buffon wrote about the concept of struggle for existence.[16] He developed a system of heredity which was similar to Darwin's hypothesis of pangenesis.[17] Commenting on Buffon's views, Darwin stated, "If Buffon had assumed that his organic molecules had been formed by each separate unit throughout the body, his view and mine would have been very closely similar."[18] See also[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon

Scientific Revolution Suites à Buffon Buffon's Needle

References[edit]

^ Farber, Paul. 2000. Finding Order in Nature. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p 14 ^ a b c Mayr, Ernst 1981. The Growth of Biological Thought. Cambridge: Harvard. p 330 ^ Fellows, Otis E. and Stephen F. Milliken 1972. Buffon. New York: Twayne. pp 149–54 ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte de", Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Biographies Plus Illustrated, H.W. Wilson Company, 2001. vnweb.hwwilsonweb.com (Accessed December 26, 2005) ^ Roger, Jacques 1989. Buffon: un philosophe au Jardin du Roi
Jardin du Roi
Paris: Fayard. pp 434–5 ^ Cloyd E.L. 1972. James Burnett, Lord Monboddo
James Burnett, Lord Monboddo
(Oxford: Clarendon Press. ^ Bryson, Bill 2004. A Short History of Nearly Everything. New York: Broadway Books. p 81 ^ L’Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roi ^ Jean Stengers 1974. "Buffon et la Sorbonne" in Etudes sur le XVIIIe siecle, ed. Roland Mortier and Hervé Hasquin. Brussels: Université de Bruxelles. pp 113–24 ^ a b Marvin Harris, The Rise of Anthropological Theory: A History of Theories of Culture, 2001, p. 84 ^ Harris, Rise of Anthropological Theory, 2001, p. 86 ^ Human Evolution: a guide to the debates, Brian Regal, p. 72 ^ Darwin, Charles 1861. On the Origin of Species, An historical sketch: 3rd edition. xiii. 4th edition of 1866 xiii. ^ Mason, P.H. (2010) Degeneracy at multiple levels of complexity, Biological Theory: Integrating Development, Evolution and Cognition, 5(3), 277-288. ^ Zirkle, Conway (25 April 1941), "Natural Selection before the Origin of Species", Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 84 (1): 71–123, doi:10.2307/984852, retrieved 2 December 2015  ^ Hull, David L. (1988). Science
Science
as a Process: An Evolutionary Account of the Social and Conceptual Development of Science. University of Chicago Press. p. 86. ISBN 0-226-36051-2 "As Darwin was to discover many years later, Buffon had devised a system of heredity not all that different from his own theory of pangenesis." ^ Zirkle, Conway (1935). "The Inheritance of Acquired Characters and the Provisional Hypothesis of Pangenesis". The American Naturalist. 69: 417–445. doi:10.1086/280617. 

Recent editions[edit] Buffon, Œuvres, ed. S. Schmitt and C. Crémière, Paris: Gallimard, 2007. Complete Works

Vol 1. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roy. Tome I (1749). Texte établi, introduit et annoté par Stéphane Schmitt avec la collaboration de Cédric Crémière, Paris: Honoré Champion, 2007, 1376 p. (ISBN 978-2-7453-1601-1) Vol 2. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière avec la participation du Cabinet du Roy. Tome II. Texte établi, introduit et annoté par Stéphane Schmitt, avec la collaboration de Cédric Crémière, Paris: Honoré Champion, 2008, 808 p. (ISBN 978-2-7453-1729-2) Vol 3. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roy. Texte établi, introduit et annoté par Stéphane Schmitt avec la collaboration de Cédric Crémière. Tome III (1749), Paris: Honoré Champion, 2009, 776 p. (ISBN 978-2-7453-1730-8) Vol 4. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roi. Texte établi, introduit et annoté par Stéphane Schmitt avec la collaboration de Cédric Crémière. Tome IV (1753), Paris: Honoré Champion, 2010. 1 vol., 864 p. (ISBN 978-2-7453-1928-9) Vol 5. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roi. Texte établi, introduit et annoté par Stéphane Schmitt avec la collaboration de Cédric Crémière. Tome V (1755), Paris: Honoré Champion, 2010. 1 vol., 536 p. (ISBN 978-2-7453-2057-5) Vol 6. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roi. Texte établi, introduit et annoté par Stéphane Schmitt avec la collaboration de Cédric Crémière. Tome VI (1756), Paris: Honoré Champion, 2011. 1 vol., 504 p. (ISBN 978-2-7453-2150-3) Vol. 7. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roi. Texte établi, introduit et annoté par Stéphane Schmitt avec la collaboration de Cédric Crémière. Tome VII (1758), Paris: Honoré Champion, 2011. 1 vol., 544 p. (ISBN 978-2-7453-2239-5) Vol. 8. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roi. Texte établi, introduit et annoté par Stéphane Schmitt avec la collaboration de Cédric Crémière. Tome VIII (1760), Paris: Honoré Champion, 2014, 640 p. (ISBN 978-2-7453-2615-7) Vol. 9. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roi. Texte établi, introduit et annoté par Stéphane Schmitt avec la collaboration de Cédric Crémière. Tome IX (1761), Paris: Honoré Champion, 2016, 720 p. (ISBN 978-2-7453-2994-3) Vol. 10. Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roi. Texte établi, introduit et annoté par Stéphane Schmitt avec la collaboration de Cédric Crémière. Tome X (1763), Paris: Honoré Champion, 2017, 814 p. (ISBN 978-2-7453-3456-5)

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Buffon, George Louis Leclerc, Comte de.

Works by Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
at Project Gutenberg Works by Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Works by or about Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
at Internet Archive (in French) The Buffon project : L'histoire naturelle

The same, in English: L'histoire naturelle

Buffon's View of Domestic Cats Digital text Kyoto University O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews . Buffon's American Degeneracy, from The Academy of Natural Sciences William Smellie's English Translation of Buffon's Natural History, General and Particular, 3rd Edition (in French) Discours sur le Style – at athena.unige.ch Gaedike, R.; Groll, E. K. & Taeger, A. 2012: Bibliography of the entomological literature from the beginning until 1863 : online database - version 1.0 - Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut. A collection of high-resolution scans of animal illustrations from several books by Buffon, from the Linda Hall Library Buffon's Histoire naturelle
Histoire naturelle
des époches de la nature, (this ed. published as Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière, avec la description du cabinet du roy, suppl. vol. 5. in 1778) - digital facsimile from the Linda Hall Library "Dissertation sur les couleurs accidentelles" (PDF). Mémoire de l'Académie royale des sciences —- Année 1743: 147—158. 1746. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-14. 

v t e

Académie française
Académie française
seat 1

Pierre Séguier
Pierre Séguier
(1635) Claude Bazin de Bezons (1643) Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux
Nicolas Boileau-Despréaux
(1684) Jean d'Estrées
Jean d'Estrées
(1711) Marc-René d'Argenson (1718) Jean-Joseph Languet de Gergy
Jean-Joseph Languet de Gergy
(1721) George-Louis Leclerc, comte de Buffon (1753) Félix Vicq-d'Azyr
Félix Vicq-d'Azyr
(1788) François-Urbain Domergue (1803) Ange-François Fariau
Ange-François Fariau
(1810) François-Auguste Parseval-Grandmaison (1811) Narcisse-Achille de Salvandy
Narcisse-Achille de Salvandy
(1835) Émile Augier
Émile Augier
(1857) Charles de Freycinet
Charles de Freycinet
(1890) Émile Picard
Émile Picard
(1924) Louis de Broglie
Louis de Broglie
(1944) Michel Debré
Michel Debré
(1988) François Furet (1997) René Rémond (1998) Claude Dagens (2008)

v t e

The Age of Enlightenment

Topics

Atheism Capitalism Civil liberties Counter-Enlightenment Critical thinking Deism Democracy Empiricism Encyclopédistes Enlightened absolutism Free markets Haskalah Humanism Human rights Liberalism Liberté, égalité, fraternité Methodological skepticism Nationalism Natural philosophy Objectivity Rationality Rationalism Reason Reductionism Sapere aude Science Scientific method Socialism Universality Weimar Classicism

Thinkers

France

Jean le Rond d'Alembert Étienne Bonnot de Condillac Marquis de Condorcet Denis Diderot Claude Adrien Helvétius Baron d'Holbach Georges-Louis Leclerc Montesquieu François Quesnay Jean-Jacques Rousseau Marquis de Sade Voltaire

Germany

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Georg Hamann Johann Gottfried von Herder Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi Immanuel Kant Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Moses Mendelssohn Friedrich Schiller Thomas Wizenmann

Greece

Neophytos Doukas Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Theophilos Kairis Adamantios Korais

Ireland

Robert Boyle Edmund Burke

Italy

Cesare Beccaria Gaetano Filangieri Antonio Genovesi Pietro Verri

The Netherlands

Spinoza Hugo Grotius Balthasar Bekker Bernard Nieuwentyt Frederik van Leenhof Christiaan Huygens Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Jan Swammerdam

Poland

Tadeusz Czacki Hugo Kołłątaj Stanisław Konarski Ignacy Krasicki Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz Stanisław August Poniatowski Jędrzej Śniadecki Stanisław Staszic Józef Wybicki Andrzej Stanisław Załuski Józef Andrzej Załuski

Portugal

Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo

Russia

Catherine II

Spain

Charles III Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro

United Kingdom (Scotland)

Francis Bacon Jeremy Bentham Joseph Black James Boswell Adam Ferguson Edward Gibbon Robert Hooke David Hume Francis Hutcheson Samuel Johnson John Locke Isaac Newton Thomas Reid Adam Smith Mary Wollstonecraft

United States

Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson James Madison George Mason Thomas Paine

v t e

Natural history

Pioneering naturalists

Classical antiquity

Aristotle
Aristotle
(History of Animals) Theophrastus
Theophrastus
(Historia Plantarum) Aelian (De Natura Animalium) Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(Natural History) Dioscorides (De Materia Medica)

Renaissance

Gaspard Bauhin
Gaspard Bauhin
(Pinax theatri botanici) Otto Brunfels Hieronymus Bock Andrea Cesalpino Valerius Cordus Leonhart Fuchs Conrad Gessner
Conrad Gessner
(Historia animalium) Frederik Ruysch William Turner (Avium Praecipuarum, New Herball) John Gerard
John Gerard
(Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes)

Enlightenment

Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
(Micrographia) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek William Derham Hans Sloane Jan Swammerdam Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
(Systema Naturae) Georg Steller Joseph Banks Johan Christian Fabricius James Hutton John Ray
John Ray
(Historia Plantarum) Comte de Buffon (Histoire Naturelle) Bernard Germain de Lacépède Gilbert White
Gilbert White
(The Natural History of Selborne) Thomas Bewick
Thomas Bewick
(A History of British Birds) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
(Philosophie Zoologique)

19th century

George Montagu (Ornithological Dictionary) Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
(Le Règne Animal) William Smith Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
(On the Origin of Species) Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace
(The Malay Archipelago) Henry Walter Bates
Henry Walter Bates
(The Naturalist on the River Amazons) Alexander von Humboldt John James Audubon
John James Audubon
(The Birds of America) William Buckland Charles Lyell Mary Anning Jean-Henri Fabre Louis Agassiz Philip Henry Gosse Asa Gray William Jackson Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker William Jardine (The Naturalist's Library) Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
(Kunstformen der Natur) Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker
(The Royal Natural History)

20th century

Abbott Thayer (Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom) Hugh B. Cott
Hugh B. Cott
(Adaptive Coloration in Animals) Niko Tinbergen (The Study of Instinct) Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
(On Aggression) Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
(The Dancing Bees) Ronald Lockley
Ronald Lockley
(Shearwaters)

Topics

Natural history
Natural history
museums (List) Parson-naturalists (List) Natural History Societies List of natural history dealers

v t e

Historical race concepts

By color

Black Bronze Brown Red White Yellow

Anthropological

Australoid Capoid Caucasoid Mongoloid Negroid

Sub-types

Alpine Arabid Armenoid Atlantid Borreby Brunn Caspian Dinaric East Baltic Ethiopid Hamitic Dravidian Irano-Afghan Japhetic Malay Mediterranean Neo-Mongoloid Neo-Danubian Nordic Northcaucasian Ladogan Lappish Pamirid Proto-Mongoloid Semitic Turanid

Multiracial

Miscegenation Ethnogenesis List of racially mixed groups

Writers

Louis Agassiz John Baker Erwin Baur John Beddoe Robert Bennett Bean François Bernier Renato Biasutti Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Franz Boas Paul Broca Alice Mossie Brues Halfdan Bryn Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon Charles Caldwell Petrus Camper Samuel A. Cartwright Houston Stewart Chamberlain Sonia Mary Cole Carleton S. Coon Georges Cuvier Jan Czekanowski Charles Davenport Joseph Deniker Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt Anténor Firmin Eugen Fischer John Fiske Francis Galton Stanley Marion Garn Reginald Ruggles Gates George Gliddon Arthur de Gobineau Madison Grant John Grattan Hans F. K. Günther Ernst Haeckel Frederick Ludwig Hoffman Earnest Hooton Julian Huxley Thomas Henry Huxley Calvin Ira Kephart Robert Knox Robert E. Kuttner Georges Vacher de Lapouge Fritz Lenz Carl Linnaeus Cesare Lombroso Bertil Lundman Felix von Luschan Dominick McCausland John Mitchell Ashley Montagu Lewis H. Morgan Samuel George Morton Josiah C. Nott Karl Pearson Oscar Peschel Isaac La Peyrère Charles Pickering Ludwig Hermann Plate Alfred Ploetz James Cowles Prichard Otto Reche Gustaf Retzius William Z. Ripley Alfred Rosenberg Benjamin Rush Henric Sanielevici Heinrich Schmidt Ilse Schwidetzky Charles Gabriel Seligman Giuseppe Sergi Samuel Stanhope Smith Herbert Spencer Morris Steggerda Lothrop Stoddard William Graham Sumner Thomas Griffith Taylor Paul Topinard John H. Van Evrie Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer Rudolf Virchow Voltaire Alexander Winchell Ludwig Woltmann

Writings

An Essay upon the Causes of the Different Colours of People in Different Climates (1744) The Outline of History of Mankind (1785) Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question (1849) An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races
(1855) The Races of Europe (Ripley, 1899) The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899) Race Life of the Aryan Peoples
Race Life of the Aryan Peoples
(1907) Heredity
Heredity
in Relation to Eugenics
Eugenics
(1911) Castes in India: Their Mechanism, Genesis and Development (1916) The Passing of the Great Race
The Passing of the Great Race
(1916) The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy
(1920) The Myth of the Twentieth Century
The Myth of the Twentieth Century
(1930) Annihilation of Caste
Annihilation of Caste
(1936) The Races of Europe (Coon, 1939) An Investigation of Global Policy with the Yamato Race as Nucleus (1943) The Race Question
The Race Question
(1950)

Theories

Eugenics Great chain of being Monogenism Polygenism Pre-Adamite

Related

History of anthropometry Racial categorization

in India in Latin America

in Brazil in Colombia

in Singapore in the United States

Scientific racism

Nazism and race

Racial hygiene Olive skin Whiteness

in the United States

Whitening

Branqueamento/Blanqueamiento

Passing Racial stereotypes Martial race Master race Color names

Colorism

Négritude

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 36915547 LCCN: n50041361 ISNI: 0000 0001 2100 6442 GND: 118517252 SELIBR: 179627 SUDOC: 02675830X BNF: cb11894464v (data) NLA: 35023492 NDL: 00463971 NKC: jn19990210135 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV23974 RLS: 000038479 Botanist: Buffon BNE: XX1788788 RKD: 424966 SN

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