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George Simon Kaufman (November 16, 1889 – June 2, 1961) was an American playwright, theatre director and producer, humorist, and drama critic. In addition to comedies and political satire, he wrote several musicals, notably for the Marx Brothers. One play and one musical that he wrote won the Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
for Drama: You Can't Take It with You (1937, with Moss Hart), and Of Thee I Sing
Of Thee I Sing
(1932, with Morrie Ryskind and Ira Gershwin). He also won the Tony Award
Tony Award
as a Director, for the musical Guys and Dolls.

Contents

1 Early years 2 Career

2.1 Theatre

2.1.1 Musical theatre 2.1.2 Directing and producing

2.2 Film and television 2.3 Bridge

3 Personal life 4 Portrayals 5 References 6 External links

Early years[edit] George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
was born to Joseph S. Kaufman, a hatband manufacturer,[1] and Nettie Meyers[2] in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He had a younger sister, Ruth.[3] He graduated from high school in 1907 and studied law for three months. He grew disenchanted and took on a series of odd jobs,[4] selling silk[5] and working in wholesale ribbon sales.[6] Career[edit] Kaufman began contributing humorous material to the column that Franklin P. Adams
Franklin P. Adams
wrote for the New York Mail. He became close friends with F.P.A., who helped him get his first newspaper job—humor columnist for The Washington Times—in 1912. By 1915 he was a drama reporter on The New York Tribune, working under Heywood Broun. In 1917 Kaufman joined The New York Times, becoming drama editor and staying with the newspaper until 1930.[6] Kaufman took his editorial responsibilities seriously. According to legend, on one occasion a press agent asked: "How do I get our leading lady's name in the Times?" Kaufman: "Shoot her."[7] Theatre[edit]

George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
and Moss Hart
Moss Hart
in 1937

Kaufman's Broadway debut was September 4, 1918 at the Knickerbocker Theatre, with the premiere of the melodrama Someone in the House.[8][9] He coauthored the play with Walter C. Percival, based on a magazine story written by Larry Evans.[10] The play opened on Broadway (running for only 32 performances) during that year's serious flu epidemic, when people were being advised to avoid crowds. With "dour glee", Kaufman suggested that the best way to avoid crowds in New York City was to attend his play.[11] In every Broadway season from 1921 through 1958, there was a play written or directed by Kaufman. Since Kaufman's death in 1961,[11] there have been revivals of his work on Broadway in the 1960s, the 1970s, the 1980s, the 2000s and the 2010s.[9] Kaufman wrote only one play alone, The Butter and Egg Man
The Butter and Egg Man
in 1925.[12] With Marc Connelly, he wrote Merton of the Movies, Dulcy, and Beggar on Horseback; with Ring Lardner he wrote June Moon; with Edna Ferber
Edna Ferber
he wrote The Royal Family, Dinner at Eight, and Stage Door; with John P. Marquand
John P. Marquand
he wrote a stage adaptation of Marquand's novel The Late George Apley; and with Howard Teichmann he wrote The Solid Gold Cadillac. According to his biography on PBS, "he wrote some of the American theater's most enduring comedies" with Moss Hart.[13] Their work includes Once in a Lifetime (in which he also performed), Merrily We Roll Along, The Man Who Came to Dinner and You Can't Take It with You, which won the Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
in 1937.[14] For a period, Kaufman lived at 158 West 58th Street in New York City. The building later would be the setting for Stage Door.[15] It is now the Park Savoy Hotel and for many years was considered a single room occupancy hotel.[16] Musical theatre[edit] Despite his claim that he knew nothing about music and hated it in the theatre, Kaufman collaborated on many musical theatre projects. His most successful of such efforts include two Broadway shows crafted for the Marx Brothers, The Cocoanuts, written with Irving Berlin, and Animal Crackers, written with Morrie Ryskind, Bert Kalmar, and Harry Ruby. According to Charlotte Chandler, "By the time Animal Crackers opened ... the Marx Brothers
Marx Brothers
were becoming famous enough to interest Hollywood. Paramount signed them to a contract".[17] Kaufman was one of the writers who excelled in writing intelligent nonsense for Groucho Marx, a process that was collaborative, given Groucho's skills at expanding upon the scripted material. Though the Marx Brothers
Marx Brothers
were notoriously critical of their writers, Groucho and Harpo Marx expressed admiration and gratitude towards Kaufman. Dick Cavett, introducing Groucho onstage at Carnegie Hall
Carnegie Hall
in 1972, told the audience that Groucho considered Kaufman to be "his god". While The Cocoanuts
The Cocoanuts
was being developed in Atlantic City, Irving Berlin was hugely enthusiastic about a song he had written for the show. Kaufman was less enthusiastic, and refused to rework the libretto to include this number. The discarded song was "Always", ultimately a huge hit for Berlin, recorded by many popular performers. According to Laurence Bergreen, "Kaufman's lack of enthusiasm caused Irving to lose confidence in the song, and 'Always' was deleted from the score of The Cocoanuts
The Cocoanuts
– though not from its creators memory. ... Kaufman, a confirmed misogynist, had had no use for the song in The Cocoanuts
The Cocoanuts
but his disapproval did not deter Berlin from saving it for a more important occasion."[18] The Cocoanuts
The Cocoanuts
would remain Irving Berlin's only Broadway musical – until his last one, Mr. President – that did not include at least one eventual hit song. Humor derived from political situations was of particular interest to Kaufman. He collaborated on the hit musical Of Thee I Sing, which won the 1932 Pulitzer Prize, the first musical so honored,[14] and its sequel Let 'Em Eat Cake, as well as one troubled but eventually successful satire that had several incarnations, Strike Up the Band. Working with Kaufman on these ventures were Ryskind, George Gershwin, and Ira Gershwin. Also, Kaufman, with Moss Hart, wrote the book to I'd Rather Be Right, a musical starring George M. Cohan
George M. Cohan
as Franklin Delano Roosevelt (the U.S. President at the time), with songs by Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart. He also co-wrote the 1935 comedy-drama First Lady. In 1945, Kaufman adapted H.M.S. Pinafore
H.M.S. Pinafore
into Hollywood Pinafore. Kaufman also contributed to major New York revues, including The Band Wagon (which shared songs but not plot with the 1953 film version) with Arthur Schwartz
Arthur Schwartz
and Howard Dietz. His often anthologized sketch "The Still Alarm" from the revue The Little Show
The Little Show
lasted long after the show closed. Another well-known sketch of his is "If Men Played Cards As Women Do." There have also been musicals based on Kaufman properties, such as the 1981 musical version of Merrily We Roll Along, adapted by George Furth and Stephen Sondheim.[19] The musical Sherry! (1967) was based on his play The Man Who Came to Dinner.[20] Directing and producing[edit]

The Front Page
The Front Page
(1928)

Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
(1937), with Wallace Ford
Wallace Ford
and Broderick Crawford

Kaufman directed the original or revival stage productions of many plays and musicals, including The Front Page
The Front Page
by Charles MacArthur and Ben Hecht
Ben Hecht
(1928), Of Thee I Sing
Of Thee I Sing
(1931 and 1952), Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
by John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
(1937), My Sister Eileen by Joseph Fields and Jerome Chodorov (1940), Hollywood Pinafore (1945), The Next Half Hour (1945), Park Avenue (1946, also co-wrote the book), Town House (1948), Bravo! (1948, also co-wrote the script), Metropole (1949), the Frank Loesser musical Guys and Dolls, for which he won the 1951 Best Director Tony Award, The Enchanted (1950), The Small Hours (1951, also co-wrote the script), Fancy Meeting You Again (1952, also co-wrote the script), The Solid Gold Cadillac (1953, also co-wrote the script), and Romanoff and Juliet by Peter Ustinov
Peter Ustinov
(1957).[9] Kaufman produced many of his own plays as well as those of other writers. For a short time, approximately from 1940 to circa 1946, Kaufman, with Moss Hart
Moss Hart
and Max Gordon, owned and operated the Lyceum Theatre.[21] Film and television[edit] Many of Kaufman's plays were adapted into Hollywood films. Among the more well-received were Dinner At Eight, Stage Door
Stage Door
(almost completely rewritten by others for the film version) and You Can't Take It with You (changed significantly by others for the film version), which won the Best Picture Oscar in 1938. He also occasionally wrote directly for the movies, most significantly the screenplay for A Night at the Opera for the Marx Brothers. His only credit as a film director was The Senator Was Indiscreet (1947) starring William Powell. From 1949 until midway through the 1952–1953 season, he appeared as a panelist on the CBS
CBS
television series This Is Show Business.[22][23] On the December 21, 1952 episode of the show—telecast live—Kaufman made an offhand remark about the excessive airing of "Silent Night" during the Christmas
Christmas
season. "Let's make this one program," he said, "on which no one sings 'Silent Night'." The resulting public outcry prompted his dismissal by CBS.[24] In response, Fred Allen
Fred Allen
said, "There were only two wits on television: Groucho Marx
Groucho Marx
and George S. Kaufman. Without Kaufman, television has reverted to being half-witted."[25] It would be more than a year before Kaufman appeared on TV again.[24] Bridge[edit] Kaufman was a prominent player of bridge, probably both auction bridge and contract bridge. The New Yorker
The New Yorker
published many of his humorous items about the card game; at least some have been reprinted more than once, including:

"Kibitzers' Revolt"[when?] and the suggestion that bridge clubs should post notice whether the North–South or the East–West pairs are holding good cards.[26] Kaufman was notoriously impatient with poor players. One such partner asked permission to use the men's room, according to legend, and Kaufman replied: "Gladly. For the first time today I'll know what you have in your hand."[26][27] On sitting South: (1) "No matter who writes the books or articles, South holds the most terrific cards I ever saw. There is a lucky fellow if ever I saw one." [28] (2) Oswald Jacoby reported a deal that Kaufman played marvelously in 1952, after which he cracked, "I'd rather sit South than be the President."[26] On coffeehousing, "I'd like a review of the bidding with all the original inflections."[29]

His first wife Beatrice Bakrow Kaufman was also an avid bridge player, and an occasional poker player with Algonquin men, who wrote at least one New Yorker article on bridge herself, in 1928.[30] Personal life[edit] In the 1920s, Kaufman was a member of the Algonquin Round Table, a circle of writers and show business people. From the 1920s through the 1950s, Kaufman was as well known for his personality as he was for his writing.[citation needed] In the Moss Hart
Moss Hart
autobiography Act One, Hart portrayed Kaufman as a morose and intimidating figure, uncomfortable with any expressions of affection between human beings—in life or on the page. Hart writes that Max Siegel said: "Maybe I should have warned you. Mr Kaufman hates any kind of sentimentality--can't stand it!"[31] This perspective, along with a number of taciturn observations made by Kaufman himself, led to a simplistic but commonly held belief that Hart was the emotional soul of the creative team while Kaufman was a misanthropic writer of punchlines. Kaufman preferred never to leave Manhattan. He once said: "I never want to go any place where I can't get back to Broadway and 44th by midnight."[32] Called "Public Lover Number One", he "dated some of the most beautiful women on Broadway".[33] Kaufman found himself in the center of a scandal in 1936 when, in the midst of a child custody suit, the former husband of actress Mary Astor
Mary Astor
threatened to publish one of Astor's diaries purportedly containing extremely explicit details of an affair between Kaufman and the actress.[33] The diary was eventually destroyed unread by the courts in 1952, but details of the supposed contents were published in Confidential magazine, Hollywood Babylon
Hollywood Babylon
by Kenneth Anger, and various other scandal sheets. Some of the sexually explicit portion, involving Kaufman, were reprinted in New York magazine in 2012 and Vanity Fair magazine in 2016.[34][35] Kaufman had an affair with actress Natalie Schafer
Natalie Schafer
during the 1940s.[36] Kaufman joined the famous theatre club, The Lambs, in 1944.[37] Kaufman was married to his first wife Beatrice from 1917 until her death in 1945.[30][38] They had one daughter, Anne Kaufman (Booth).[30] Four years later, he married actress Leueen MacGrath on May 26, 1949,[39] with whom he collaborated on a number of plays before their divorce in August 1957. Kaufman died in New York City on June 2, 1961, at the age of 71.[6] His granddaughter, Beatrice Colen, was an actress who had recurring appearances on both Happy Days
Happy Days
and Wonder Woman.[40] In 1979, Donald Oliver compiled and edited a collection of Kaufman's humorous pieces, with a foreword by Dick Cavett.[41] Portrayals[edit] Kaufman was portrayed by the actor David Thornton in the 1994 film Mrs. Parker and the Vicious Circle[42] and by Jason Robards
Jason Robards
in the 1963 film Act One. In the 2014 Broadway adaptation of the latter by James Lapine, he was played by Tony Shalhoub. References[edit]

^ 1910 United States Federal Census ^ U.S., Social Security Applications and Claims Index, 1936-2007 ^ 1910 United States Federal Census ^ Wallace, Irving, Amy Wallace, David Wallechinsky and Sylvia Wallace (2008). The Intimate Sex Lives of Famous People. Feral House, ISBN 1-932595-29-5, p. 173. ^ 1910 United States Federal Census ^ a b c " George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
Dies at 71". The New York Times. June 3, 1961. Retrieved 2018-03-14.  ^ Herrmann, Dorothy (1982). With Malice Toward All. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. p. 58.  ^ "The September Line-up". The New York Times. August 25, 1918. Retrieved 2010-11-13.  (abstract) (subscription required) ^ a b c "George S. Kaufman". Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
(ibdb.com). Retrieved 2010-11-13. ^ White, Matthew, Jr. (November 1918). "The Stage". Munsey's Magazine. New York: F.A. Munsey & Co. LXV (2): 356–371. Retrieved 2011-10-20.  ^ a b "Broadway: One Man's Mede". TIME. June 9, 1961. Retrieved 2010-11-13.  ^ Londré, Felicia Hardison (2005). Words at Play:Creative Writing and Dramaturgy. SIU Press, ISBN 0-8093-2679-5, p. 47. ^ Larkin, Colin, ed. (2004). "Stars Over Broadway: Biography, Excerpted from the Encyclopedia of Popular Music". pbs.org. Retrieved 2010-11-13. ^ a b "The Pulitzer Prizes, Drama". pulitzer.org. Retrieved 2011-03-06. ^ Teichmann, Howard (1972). George S. Kaufman; An Intimate Portrait. New York: Atheneum. OCLC 400765.  ^ Okane, Laurence (1965-01-24). "Adjunct Garages Irk City Planners; Loophole in Zoning Permits All Comers to Use Space". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-13.  (abstract) (subscription required) ^ Chandler, Charlotte (2007). Hello, I Must Be Going: Groucho and His Friends, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 1-4165-6521-3. ^ Bergreen, Laurence (1996). As Thousands Cheer: The Life of Irving Berlin, Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-306-80675-4, pp. 249, 264. ^ Rich, Frank (November 17, 1981). "Stage: A New Sondheim, Merrily We Roll Along". The New York Times. ^ "Sherry!". Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
(ibdb.com). Retrieved 2010-11-13. ^ Bloom, Ken (2007). "Lyceum Theatre". The Routledge Guide To Broadway, CRC Press, ISBN 0-415-97380-5, p. 158. ^ McNeil, Alex. Total Television: Revised Edition. Penguin Books (1996), pp. 830-1. ISBN 0140249168 ^ "Radio: The Troubled Air". TIME, January 12, 1953. ^ a b McNeil, Alex. Total Television: Revised Edition. Penguin Books (1996), p. 832. ISBN 0140249168 ^ Kaufman, GS. By George: A Kaufman Collection. St. Martins Press (1979), pp. ix-x. ISBN 0312111010 ^ a b c "ACBL Bridge Beat #121: George Kaufman". Not Just the ACBL Story – but History. November 5, 2012. American Contract Bridge League (75th Anniversary contributions by anonymous members?). Retrieved 2014-06-13. ^ Hall, Donald, ed. (1981). The Oxford Book of American Literary Anecdotes. New York: Oxford. p. 234.  ^ Johnson, Jared (1989). Classic Bridge Quotes. Louisville, KY: Devyn Press Inc. p. 61. ISBN 0-910791-66-X.  ^ Johnson, Jared (1989). Classic Bridge Quotes. Louisville, KY: Devyn Press Inc. p. 41. ISBN 0-910791-66-X.  ^ a b c Galchinsky, Michael (March 1, 2009). "Beatrice Kaufman 1895–1945". Jewish Women: A Comprehensive Historical Encyclopedia. Jewish Women's Archive (jwa.org). Retrieved 2014-06-13. ^ Hart, Moss (1989). Act one: an autobiography. Macmillan, ISBN 0-312-03272-2, p. 274. ^ Meryman, Richard (1978). Mank: The Wit, World, and Life of Herman Mankiewicz. New York: William Morrow. p. 100.  ^ a b Wallace 2008, p. 174. ^ " Mary Astor
Mary Astor
Blushes When Her Filthy Diary Leaks". New York: 44. April 9, 2012. Retrieved 2016-09-26.  ^ Sorel, Edward (October 2016). "Inside the Trial of Actress Mary Astor, Old Hollywood's Juiciest Sex Scandal". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2016-09-26.  ^ Brozan, Nadine (February 13, 1995). "Chronicle". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-03-14.  ^ "Member Roster". The Lambs. Retrieved 2018-03-14.  ^ "Beatrice Kaufman, Story Editor, Dies". The New York Times. October 7, 1945. Retrieved 2018-03-14.  ^ " George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
Weds". The New York Times. May 27, 1949. Retrieved 2018-03-14.  ^ Beatrice Colen
Beatrice Colen
profile. Wonderland: The Ultimate Lynda Carter Site; retrieved June 13, 2014. ^ Kaufman, George S. (Donald Oliver, compiler/editor) (1979). By George: A Kaufman Collection. New York: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-11101-0. ^ "Mrs. Parker and the Vicious Circle". Internet Movie Database (imdb.com).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to George S. Kaufman.

Biography portal Pittsburgh portal Theater portal

George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
at the Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
at Internet Off-Broadway Database George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
at Find a Grave George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
on IMDb Works by George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
at Faded Page (Canada) George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
Papers at the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
Papers at the Library of Congress George S. Kaufman.com George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
at doollee.com, The Playwrights Database Dick Cavett
Dick Cavett
(October 8, 2010). "The Titan and the Pfc". Opinionator. The New York Times.  (a tribute to Kaufman) George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
at Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Authorities, with 158 catalog records

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George S. Kaufman

Plays and musicals

Some One in the House
Some One in the House
(1918) Dulcy (1921) To the Ladies (1922) The '49ers (1922) Merton of the Movies (1922) Helen of Troy, New York (1923) The Deep Tangled Wildwood (1923) Beggar on Horseback (1924) Be Yourself (1924) Minick (1924) The Butter and Egg Man
The Butter and Egg Man
(1925) The Cocoanuts
The Cocoanuts
(1925) The Good Fellow (1926) The Royal Family (1927) Animal Crackers (1928) June Moon
June Moon
(1929) The Channel Road (1929) Once in a Lifetime (1930) The Band Wagon (1931) Of Thee I Sing
Of Thee I Sing
(1931) Dinner at Eight (1932) Let 'Em Eat Cake (1933) The Dark Tower (1933) Merrily We Roll Along (1934) First Lady (1935) Stage Door
Stage Door
(1936) You Can't Take It with You (1936) I'd Rather Be Right
I'd Rather Be Right
(1937) The Fabulous Invalid (1938) The American Way (1939) The Man Who Came to Dinner
The Man Who Came to Dinner
(1939) George Washington Slept Here (1940) The Land Is Bright (1941) The Late George Apley
The Late George Apley
(1944) Seven Lively Arts (1944) Hollywood Pinafore (1945) Bravo! (1948) The Small Hours (1951) Fancy Meeting You Again (1952) The Solid Gold Cadillac
The Solid Gold Cadillac
(1953) Silk Stockings
Silk Stockings
(1955)

Musicals based on his plays

Sherry!
Sherry!
(1967) Merrily We Roll Along (1981)

Films

Someone Must Pay (1919) Someone in the House (1920) Dulcy (1923) To the Ladies (1923) Merton of the Movies (1924) Welcome Home (1925) Beggar on Horseback (1925) The Butter and Egg Man
The Butter and Egg Man
(1928) The Cocoanuts
The Cocoanuts
(1929) Not So Dumb
Not So Dumb
(1930) Animal Crackers (1930) The Royal Family of Broadway
The Royal Family of Broadway
(1930) June Moon
June Moon
(1931) The Expert (1932) The Tenderfoot (1932) Make Me a Star (1932) Once in a Lifetime (1932) Dinner at Eight (1933) Roman Scandals
Roman Scandals
(1933) The Man with Two Faces (1934) You Can't Take It with You (1938)

v t e

Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
for Drama: Authors

Jesse Lynch Williams (1918) Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
(1920) Zona Gale
Zona Gale
(1921) Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
(1922) Owen Davis
Owen Davis
(1923) Hatcher Hughes (1924) Sidney Howard
Sidney Howard
(1925) George Kelly (1926) Paul Green (1927) Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
(1928) Elmer Rice
Elmer Rice
(1929) Marc Connelly
Marc Connelly
(1930) Susan Glaspell
Susan Glaspell
(1931) George S. Kaufman, Morrie Ryskind and Ira Gershwin
Ira Gershwin
(1932) Maxwell Anderson
Maxwell Anderson
(1933) Sidney Kingsley
Sidney Kingsley
(1934) Zoe Akins
Zoe Akins
(1935) Robert E. Sherwood
Robert E. Sherwood
(1936) Moss Hart
Moss Hart
and George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
(1937) Thornton Wilder
Thornton Wilder
(1938) Robert E. Sherwood
Robert E. Sherwood
(1939) William Saroyan
William Saroyan
(1940) Robert E. Sherwood
Robert E. Sherwood
(1941) Thornton Wilder
Thornton Wilder
(1943) Mary Chase (1945) Russel Crouse and Howard Lindsay (1946) Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
(1948) Arthur Miller
Arthur Miller
(1949) Richard Rodgers, Oscar Hammerstein II
Oscar Hammerstein II
and Joshua Logan (1950) Joseph Kramm (1952) William Inge
William Inge
(1953) John Patrick (1954) Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
(1955) Albert Hackett
Albert Hackett
and Frances Goodrich (1956) Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
(1957) Ketti Frings (1958) Archibald MacLeish
Archibald MacLeish
(1959) Jerome Weidman, George Abbott, Jerry Bock
Jerry Bock
and Sheldon Harnick
Sheldon Harnick
(1960) Tad Mosel
Tad Mosel
(1961) Frank Loesser
Frank Loesser
and Abe Burrows
Abe Burrows
(1962) Frank D. Gilroy (1965) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(1967) Howard Sackler (1969) Charles Gordone (1970) Paul Zindel
Paul Zindel
(1971) Jason Miller (1973) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(1975) Michael Bennett, Nicholas Dante, James Kirkwood Jr., Marvin Hamlisch and Edward Kleban (1976) Michael Cristofer
Michael Cristofer
(1977) Donald L. Coburn (1978) Sam Shepard
Sam Shepard
(1979) Lanford Wilson
Lanford Wilson
(1980) Beth Henley (1981) Charles Fuller (1982) Marsha Norman
Marsha Norman
(1983) David Mamet
David Mamet
(1984) James Lapine
James Lapine
and Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(1985) August Wilson
August Wilson
(1987) Alfred Uhry
Alfred Uhry
(1988) Wendy Wasserstein
Wendy Wasserstein
(1989) August Wilson
August Wilson
(1990) Neil Simon
Neil Simon
(1991) Robert Schenkkan
Robert Schenkkan
(1992) Tony Kushner
Tony Kushner
(1993) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(1994) Horton Foote (1995) Jonathan Larson (1996) Paula Vogel
Paula Vogel
(1998) Margaret Edson (1999) Donald Margulies
Donald Margulies
(2000) David Auburn (2001) Suzan-Lori Parks
Suzan-Lori Parks
(2002) Nilo Cruz
Nilo Cruz
(2003) Doug Wright (2004) John Patrick Shanley
John Patrick Shanley
(2005) David Lindsay-Abaire (2007) Tracy Letts
Tracy Letts
(2008) Lynn Nottage
Lynn Nottage
(2009) Tom Kitt and Brian Yorkey (2010) Bruce Norris (2011) Quiara Alegría Hudes (2012) Ayad Akhtar
Ayad Akhtar
(2013) Annie Baker
Annie Baker
(2014) Stephen Adly Guirgis (2015) Lin-Manuel Miranda
Lin-Manuel Miranda
(2016) Lynn Nottage
Lynn Nottage
(2017)

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Tony Award
Tony Award
for Best Direction of a Musical

1950s

Joshua Logan (1950) George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
(1951) Moss Hart
Moss Hart
(1957)

1960s

George Abbott
George Abbott
(1960) Gower Champion
Gower Champion
(1961) Abe Burrows
Abe Burrows
(1962) George Abbott
George Abbott
(1963) Gower Champion
Gower Champion
(1964) Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1965) Albert Marre (1966) Harold Prince (1967) Gower Champion
Gower Champion
(1968) Peter H. Hunt (1969)

1970s

Ron Field (1970) Harold Prince (1971) Harold Prince and Michael Bennett (1972) Bob Fosse
Bob Fosse
(1973) Harold Prince (1974) Geoffrey Holder
Geoffrey Holder
(1975) Michael Bennett (1976) Gene Saks (1977) Richard Maltby Jr. (1978) Harold Prince (1979)

1980s

Harold Prince (1980) Wilford Leach (1981) Tommy Tune
Tommy Tune
(1982) Trevor Nunn (1983) Arthur Laurents
Arthur Laurents
(1984) Des McAnuff (1985) Wilford Leach (1986) Trevor Nunn and John Caird (1987) Harold Prince (1988) Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1989)

1990s

Tommy Tune
Tommy Tune
(1990) Tommy Tune
Tommy Tune
(1991) Jerry Zaks
Jerry Zaks
(1992) Des McAnuff (1993) Nicholas Hytner (1994) Harold Prince (1995) George C. Wolfe
George C. Wolfe
(1996) Walter Bobbie (1997) Julie Taymor
Julie Taymor
(1998) Matthew Bourne
Matthew Bourne
(1999)

2000s

Michael Blakemore (2000) Susan Stroman
Susan Stroman
(2001) John Rando (2002) Jack O'Brien (2003) Joe Mantello
Joe Mantello
(2004) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(2005) John Doyle (2006) Michael Mayer (2007) Bartlett Sher (2008) Stephen Daldry
Stephen Daldry
(2009)

2010s

Terry Johnson (2010) Casey Nicholaw and Trey Parker
Trey Parker
(2011) John Tiffany (2012) Diane Paulus (2013) Darko Tresnjak (2014) Sam Gold (2015) Thomas Kail (2016) Christopher Ashley (2017)

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Contract bridge

Overview

General

Auction bridge Bridge ethics Bridge-O-Rama Bridge maxims Bridge Murder case Bridge scoring Bridge whist Bridgette Cheating in bridge Chicago Computer bridge Contract bridge Contract bridge
Contract bridge
diagram Duplicate bridge Duplicate bridge
Duplicate bridge
movements Five-suit bridge Goulash Glossary of contract bridge terms High card by suit History of contract bridge Laws of Duplicate Bridge Masterpoints Minibridge Neuberg formula Rubber bridge Screen Singaporean bridge Suit Traveling scoreslip Trump Vugraph

Bidding

General

Balanced hand Balancing (bridge) Bidding box Bidding system Board (bridge) Bridge convention Brown sticker Convention card Cue bid Five-card majors Forcing bid Forcing pass Game try Hand evaluation Honor point count Inverted minors Law of total tricks Losing-Trick Count Major suit Minor suit Optimum contract and par contract Overcall Preempt Prepared opening bid Principle of fast arrival Psychic bid Quantitative no trump bids Reverse (bridge) Sacrifice (bridge) Shooting (bridge) Single suiter Strong pass Takeout double Three suiter Two suiter Useful space principle Void (cards) Weak two bid Zar Points

Systems

List of bidding systems 2/1 game forcing Acol Bidding system Blue Club Boring Club Bridge Base Basic Bridge World Standard Canapé (bridge) Carrot Club EHAA Fantunes Highly unusual method Kaplan–Sheinwold Little Major Moscito OKbridge 2/1 Polish Club Precision Club Roman Club Romex system Säffle Spade Standard American Strong club system

Conventions

List of bidding conventions

Card play

General

List of play techniques Avoidance play Beer card Caddy Card reading Duck Endplay Entry Grosvenor gambit Hold up Percentage play Pin (bridge) Principle of restricted choice Probabilities Revoke Ruff Shooting Smother play Tempo Trump promotion Uppercut Vacant Places

Declarer play

Basic: Finesse Safety play Coups: Alcatraz coup Bath coup Belladonna coup Coup Coup en passant Crocodile coup Deschapelles coup Devil's coup Loser on loser Merrimac coup Morton's fork coup Scissors coup Trump coup Vienna coup Squeezes: Backwash squeeze Cannibal squeeze Clash squeeze Compound squeeze Criss-cross squeeze Double squeeze Entry squeeze Entry-shifting squeeze Guard squeeze Knockout squeeze Non-simultaneous double squeeze Progressive squeeze Pseudo-squeeze Saturated squeeze Simple squeeze Simultaneous double squeeze Single-suit squeeze Squeeze play Stepping-stone squeeze Strip squeeze Triple squeeze Trump squeeze Vice squeeze Winkle squeeze Suit combinations: Suit combination Suit combination – J missing Suit combination – 10 missing Suit combinations – K10 missing

Defender play

Forcing defense Journalist leads Opening lead Rule of 10-12 Rule of 11 Rusinow leads Signal Smith signal

People and organizations

General

ACBL Youngest Life Master List of contract bridge people List of nationality transfers in sport

Players by country

Australia Austria Brazil Britain Bulgaria Canada China Denmark Netherlands Egypt Fiction France Germany Hungary India Ireland Israel Italy Jewish players Mexico Monaco New Zealand Norway Pakistan Poland Russia Sweden Switzerland Taiwan United States

Other lists

Alphabetical list of contract bridge people with (english) articles List of bridge administrators List of bridge writers

Teams

Blue Team Dallas Aces Four Aces

Clubs

Bridge Club Brașov Cavendish Club Crockford's Galatasaray Bridge Team Melville Bridge Club Portland Club (London) Savoy Club Young Chelsea Bridge Club

Governing bodies

American Bridge Association American Contract Bridge League Austrian Bridge Federation Brazilian Bridge Federation British Bridge League Canadian Bridge Federation Dutch Bridge Federation English Bridge Union European Bridge League Hungarian Bridge Federation International Mind Sports Association List of bridge governing bodies Norwegian Bridge Federation South African Bridge Federation United States Bridge Federation World Bridge Federation

Championships

General

List of bridge competitions and awards

World

Bermuda Bowl Bridge at the 2008 World Mind Sports Games Bridge at the 2012 World Mind Sports Games Cavendish Invitational Computer Olympiad McConnell Cup Rosenblum Cup Senior Bowl (bridge) Triple crown of bridge Venice Cup WBF Youth Award World Bridge Championships World IMP Pairs Championship World Junior Pairs Championship World Junior Teams Championship World Mind Sports Games World Mixed Pairs Championship World Mixed Teams Championship World Open Pairs Championship World Senior Pairs Championship World Senior Teams Championship World Team Olympiad World Transnational Open Teams Championship World Women Pairs Championship

National and Zonal

Buffett Cup Camrose Trophy Commonwealth Nations Bridge Championships European Universities Bridge Championships Gold Cup (bridge) North American bridge Championships: ACBL King or Queen of Bridge Blue Ribbon Pairs Bruce LM-5000 Pairs Chicago Mixed Board-a-Match Fall National Open Pairs Fast Open Pairs Fishbein Trophy Goren Trophy Grand National Teams Hilliard Mixed Pairs Jacoby Open Swiss Teams Keohane North American Swiss Teams Lebhar IMP Pairs Leventritt Silver Ribbon Pairs Machlin Women's Swiss Teams Manfield Non-Life Master Pairs Marcus Cup Master Individual Mini-Blue Ribbon Pairs Mini-Spingold Mitchell Board-a-Match Teams Mott-Smith Trophy Nail Life Master Open Pairs National 199er Pairs National 49er Pairs National 99er Pairs Non-Life Master Swiss Teams Norman Kay Platinum Pairs North American Bridge Championships North American Pairs Red Ribbon Pairs Reisinger Rockwell Mixed Pairs Roth Open Swiss Teams Senior Knockout Teams Silodor Open Pairs Smith Life Master Women's Pairs Spingold Sternberg Women's Board-a-Match Teams Truscott Senior Swiss Teams Vanderbilt Trophy Von Zedtwitz Life Master Pairs Wagar Women's Knockout Teams Wernher Open Pairs Whitehead Women's Pairs Young LM-1500 Pairs

Publications and resources

Books

List of contract bridge books 25 Bridge Conventions You Should Know Bridge Squeezes Complete The Cardturner Design for Bidding Contract Bridge for Beginners Edwin Kantar bibliography Master Point Press Planning the Play of a Bridge Hand Terence Reese bibliography The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge Tickets to the Devil

Magazines

List of bridge magazines Bridge d'Italia Bridge Magazine The Bridge World

External links

Bridge Base Basic Bridge Base Inc. OK bridge 2/1

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 32098387 LCCN: n79063710 ISNI: 0000 0001 1023 8045 GND: 118776886 SUDOC: 027325938 BNF: cb12478440v (data) BNE: XX973796 SN

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