The Info List - George S. Boutwell

George Sewall Boutwell (January 28, 1818 – February 27, 1905) was an American politician, lawyer, and statesman from Massachusetts. He served as Secretary of the Treasury
Secretary of the Treasury
under President Ulysses S. Grant, the 20th Governor of Massachusetts, a Senator and Representative from Massachusetts
and the first Commissioner of Internal Revenue
Commissioner of Internal Revenue
under President Abraham Lincoln. He was a leader in the impeachment of Andrew Johnson. Boutwell, an abolitionist, is primarily known for his leadership in the formation of the Republican Party, and his championship of African American citizenship and suffrage rights during Reconstruction. As U.S. Representative, he was instrumental in the construction and passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. As Secretary of Treasury, he made needed reforms in the Treasury Department after the chaos of the American Civil War and the impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson. He controversially reduced the national debt by selling Treasury gold and using greenbacks to buy up Treasury bonds, a process that created a cash shortage. Boutwell and President Grant thwarted an attempt to corner the gold market in September 1869 by releasing $4,000,000 of gold into the economy. As U.S. Senator, Boutwell sponsored the Civil Rights Act of 1875. In 1877, President Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes
appointed Boutwell commissioner to codify the Revised Statutes of the United States
United States
and in 1880 to serve as United States
United States
counsel before the French and American Claims Commission. He also practiced international law in other diplomatic fora. At the turn of the 20th century, he abandoned the Republican Party, opposed the acquisition of the Philippines, and supported William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan
for President.


1 Early life 2 Political career (1839–1861)

2.1 Massachusetts
Governor 2.2 Constitutional Convention and Republican Party

3 Early Civil War years 4 U.S. Congressman

4.1 African-American civil rights 4.2 Impeachment of Andrew Johnson

5 U.S. Secretary of Treasury

5.1 Reforms (1869) 5.2 Gold panic (1869) 5.3 National debt
National debt
(1870) 5.4 Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
bill (1871)

6 U.S. Senator 7 Later career 8 Death 9 Publications 10 Notes 11 Sources 12 Further reading 13 External links

Early life[edit] George S. Boutwell
George S. Boutwell
was born on January 28, 1818 in Brookline, Massachusetts.[1][2] According to his autobiographical memoir, Boutwell was raised on his family's farm in Lunenburg and attended public schools until the age of seventeen.[3] During the summer months he worked barefooted, tending oxen and picking chestnuts.[4] Boutwell was educated in arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and Latin grammar.[5] From 1830 to 1835, Boutwell worked as an apprentice and clerk for Simeon Heywood, who owned a palm leaf hat store.[6] While completing his education, Boutwell worked briefly as a teacher in Pound Hill.[7] Boutwell finished his primary school education in February 1835.[8] From 1835 to 1838, Boutwell worked as a clerk and shopkeeper in Groton, Massachusetts.[2][9] In 1836, he began to study law under attorney Bradford Russell, whose office was above the store where he clerked. Boutwell did not take the bar exam or enter into active practice until many years later.[2][10] In 1838, the shop owner offered Boutwell a partnership in the shop.[11] While Boutwell ran the store, he began a personal regimen of reading and writing in an effort to make up for having chosen not to attend college.[2][12] Boutwell made his public career debut in 1839, when he served as a pension agent for widows of the American Revolutionary War, which had ended in 1783. He traveled to Washington D.C.
Washington D.C.
and was impressed after seeing Daniel Webster. After talking with a black slave woman whose youngest child had been sold to Louisiana, Boutwell became dedicated to the anti-slavery cause.[13] Boutwell married Sarah Adelia Thayer on July 8, 1841. Sarah was the daughter of Nathan Hayler from Hollis, New Hampshire. Their marriage produced two children: Georgianna (May 18, 1843) and Francis (February 26, 1847).[14] Political career (1839–1861)[edit] Entering politics as a Democrat and supporter of Martin Van Buren, Boutwell was appointed head of the Groton post office by his business partner, who had been appointed postmaster. Boutwell's first entry into elective politics was a successful run for the Groton School Committee as a Temperance Party candidate; he would sit on that committee for many years. The success prompted him to run for the state legislature on the same party's ticket; because the party was a small third party, he lost badly.[15] In 1840, he won the Democratic Party nomination, despite temperance opinions that were "offensive to many", but lost in a Whig landslide.[16] He finally won on the third try, defeating incumbent John Boynton in 1841.[17] He won reelection twice before being defeated in 1844. Although he also lost in 1845, he was returned to the state legislature in the 1846 election, serving from 1847 to 1850.[18] His elective successes, sometimes in the face of major Whig victories statewide, highlighted Boutwell's potential, and brought him into the Democratic Party's leadership circles.[19] He sat on the judiciary and finance committees, where he gained a reputation for thorough research into legislation, and advocated positions favoring free trade, restraint of the money supply, and increased taxes for spending on education and other reforms.[20] He supported the Mexican-American War, which (unlike others) he did not view as a major slavery-related issue.[21] While in the state House of Representatives, Boutwell ran three times for United States
United States
House of Representatives, losing by significant margins to his Whig opponents.[22] In 1848, he was considered for the Democratic nomination for governor, placing third in the nominating convention.[23] In 1849, he was appointed state banking commissioner by Whig Governor George N. Briggs, a position in which he inspected bank charters that were subject to renewal. In this position, he gained a wealth of experience in matters of banking and finance.[24] Massachusetts

Boutwell circa 1851. Daguerreotype
by Southworth & Hawes

Throughout the 1840s, the issue of the abolition of slavery grew to become a significant force in Massachusetts
politics. Outrage over the extension of slavery into territories acquired in the Mexican-American War increased the popularity of the Free Soil Party, but they and the Democrats were unable to unite to unseat the Whigs who dominated state politics until 1850.[25] In 1849, Boutwell won the Democratic nomination for governor. Because no candidate won a majority, the Whig-controlled legislature decided the election, choosing the incumbent Briggs. The campaign brought Boutwell into close contact with Charles Sumner
Charles Sumner
and Henry Wilson, leaders of the state Free Soil Party. The parties flirted with the idea of a coalition, with the Democrats adopting an antislavery platform.[26] In 1850, passage of the Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
(in particular, the Fugitive Slave Act) sparked further outrage, and the Democrats and Free Soilers were able to agree to a coalition. On the Democratic side, Boutwell and Nathaniel Prentice Banks
Nathaniel Prentice Banks
agreed with Free Soilers Sumner and Wilson on a division of offices should the coalition win. The key to their success was control of the state legislature, which would decide the election if no gubernatorial candidate won a majority of the popular vote.[27] Both parties worked to bring out the vote in rural areas sympathetic to their cause. Although Governor Briggs won a plurality of the popular vote (57,000 out of 120,000 votes cast), he did not win a majority, and the legislature was controlled by the coalition. Pursuant to the terms of the deal, Boutwell was elected governor, Banks was made Speaker of the House, and Wilson was elected Senate President. Sumner's election to the U.S. Senate, also part of the bargain, was contested by conservative Democrats, but the coalition eventually prevailed in choosing him.[28] Boutwell was criticized by Free Soilers for taking a hands-off approach to the contentious election of Sumner, neither supporting nor opposing him during the balloting in the state senate. Sumner later accused Boutwell of preventing a more permanent fusion of the two parties.[29] In the 1851 election, the results were similar, despite efforts by the Whigs to drive wedges between the coalition members, and Boutwell was again elected by the legislature after the Whig candidate won a plurality.[30] That election exposed cracks in the coalition, principally on slavery, so Boutwell decided not stand for reelection in 1852;[31] the Whigs regained control of the legislature, and were able to elect John H. Clifford
John H. Clifford
to the governor's chair.[32] On May 26, 1851, Boutwell was elected as a member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts.[33] In Boutwell's first term, both houses of the legislature were controlled by the coalition, and a substantial reform agenda was passed. Election by secret ballot was enacted (although the terms did not satisfy all of the secrecy rules of an Australian ballot), as was plurality voting under some conditions.[34] The state legislature's seats were changed from town-based allocations to legislative districts that were not based on town boundaries.[35] Laws governing the issuance of bank charters were streamlined, and the Harvard Board of Overseers was reorganized. Boutwell also engaged in a wholesale reassignment of patronage jobs in the state, which had all been filled with Whigs.[34] In his second term, Whigs controlled the House of Representatives, and were thus able to thwart most of the reform agenda. Boutwell's call to increase taxes for spending on education, prisons, and mental hospitals went unheeded, but the legislature was able to pass a call for a constitutional convention to discuss long-standing demands for changes to the state constitution. A "Maine law" temperance reform bill was also approved, but Boutwell was criticized by the Whigs for vetoing the first version of it and then signing the second, allegedly under pressure from Free Soilers.[36] Constitutional Convention and Republican Party[edit] Boutwell was elected a delegate to the Massachusetts
Constitutional Convention of 1853. He opposed the election of judges and the abolition of the Governor's Council, and supported the elimination of any poll tax requirements for voting. He served on the committee responsible for drafting the proposals that were submitted to the voters for approval, and was disappointed when all of those proposals were rejected in the statewide referendum that followed the convention.[37]

The triumph of slavery will perpetuate confusion and discord among the states, civil war in the territories ...

— Boutwell in the 1860 Massachusetts
Republican Convention's Address To The People[38]

After the convention, Boutwell took up the study of law in the office of Joel Giles, a patent lawyer from Groton. He was retained by Middlesex County to oppose the formation of a new county out of parts of western Middlesex and northern Worcester Counties. He helped found the Groton Public Library, and continued to be active on the Groton School Committee. In 1855, he was appointed secretary of the state Board of Education, a post he would hold for five years.[39] Boutwell's law studies concluded when he was admitted to the Massachusetts
bar in 1862.[40] In the aftermath of the coalition breakup in 1852 and the failure of the 1853 convention, Massachusetts
political parties broke down into factional interests. In August 1855, four major factions were holding meetings in a Boston hotel, attempting to find common ground for the upcoming state election. Boutwell convinced the groups to attend a grand meeting, at which he argued that they should form a "union against slavery". Out of this and related activity the state's Republican Party was born.[41] Despite his role in its early formation, Boutwell remained somewhat apart from the organization because of his job at the Board of Education. He did however continue to speak out against slavery, noting that the nation was embarking on a "period of intense trial", and that "people will make war" over slavery.[42] In 1860 he chaired the Republican state convention, and openly supported Republican candidates for office.[43] Early Civil War years[edit] Boutwell attended the Peace Conference of 1861
Peace Conference of 1861
in Washington, D.C. which attempted to prevent the impending Civil War, and served as a liaison between the federal government and Massachusetts
Governor John Albion Andrew in April 1861.[44] In the peace conference, he angrily rejected Southern proposals favoring the extension of slavery and its enforcement in northern states, arguing that "the Union is not worth preserving" if such measures are needed to do so.[45] In June and July 1862, Boutwell served on a military commission in the Department of War, investigating irregularities in the quartermaster's department of General John C. Frémont, who commanded the Union Army's Department of the West. Assistant Quartermaster Reuben Hatch, whose brother was a political supporter of President Abraham Lincoln, had been defrauding the department, and the commission was established on Lincoln's order to forestall a court martial.[46] Boutwell spent two months in the army camp at Cairo, Illinois, under conditions he described as "disagreeable to an extent that cannot be realized easily" because of flooding and unsanitary conditions.[47] The commission cleared Hatch.[48] In July 1862, while he was still in Cairo, Boutwell was appointed the first Commissioner of Internal Revenue
Commissioner of Internal Revenue
by President Lincoln. He spent his eight months in that post organizing the new Internal Revenue Bureau.[49] He was described by Secretary of the Treasury
Secretary of the Treasury
Salmon P. Chase as having the "highest obtainable ability and integrity", and oversaw the growth of the bureau to some 4,000 employees; it was the largest single office department in the government.[50] Boutwell decided in 1862 to run for the United States
United States
Congress. The campaign was dominated by the issue of emancipation, which Boutwell strongly advocated. He won a comfortable (55%-40%) victory over Charles R. Train, a conservative former Republican. He resigned as internal revenue commissioner early in 1863.[51] U.S. Congressman[edit]

The Johnson Impeachment Committee, c. 1868 (photo by Mathew Brady

Boutwell came to the House of Representatives already celebrated for his financial expertise, and quickly gained a national reputation as a Radical Republican.[49] A reporter noted that with his first day of service on a committee, he became recognized as one of the most promising freshmen. "A practical matter-of-fact man," the journalist wrote. "A dark skinned man, dark-eyed, dark-haired, thin in the flank, vigilant, self-contained, quiet; giving you the impression that he would wake up quick and in strength. A speech from him is premeditated logic of inwoven facts and figures, delivered in a magnetic current which flows to the nerves of every man in his audience, however great he may be, and which penetrates through and through. It is impossible to escape impression from Boutwell's debate. As an adversary he would be fatal to a bad cause, formidable to a good one -- as an ally he is a tower of strength."[52] African-American civil rights[edit] In July 1862, during a period when Northern antipathy toward the prospect of northward migration of freed slaves was at its height,[53] Boutwell gave a speech on the capitol grounds in which he advocated freedom for African-American slaves because it would keep them out of the North. He even urged Lincoln to dedicate the states of South Carolina and Florida
for American blacks: "I have heard that in the city of Brooklyn...there was a riot between the free white laborers and colored men...What is the solution to this difficulty?...Freedom to the blacks. Then will they go from the North to the free territories of the South, to which by nature they belong. [Lincoln] should have made South Carolina
South Carolina
and Florida
free...I would praise God...if to-night I could hear, by the President's proclamation, that South Carolina
South Carolina
and Florida
were free and dedicated to the black population of the country. The competition with the white laborers of the North would cease."[54] On July 4, 1865, after the Civil War ended, Boutwell gave a speech that advocated African American
African American
suffrage, echoing Thomas Jefferson's principal view from the Declaration of Independence that "all men are created equal."[55] He envisioned the postwar United States
United States
as a nation of equality where both whites and blacks could have the vote side by side, and believed that African American
African American
suffrage would secure the nation as well as protect African Americans.[56] Boutwell served on the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, which framed the Fourteenth Amendment that gave African American
African American
freedmen citizenship and established the inviolability of the United States Public Debt. He advocated the Fifteenth Amendment that gave full suffrage rights to male African Americans.[49] "Mr. Boutwell is the last survivor of the Puritans of a bygone age," the French reporter Georges Clemenceau
Georges Clemenceau
informed his readers, "a man after the heart of John Bunyan, too much of a fanatic to command the attention of the Senate, but too honest and sincere for his opinions to be ignored by his party."[57] Impeachment of Andrew Johnson[edit] Boutwell opposed the Reconstruction policies of President Andrew Johnson from the first weeks of his administration. Arguing that any remaking of the former Confederate governments must begin with steps to open the electorate to blacks as well as whites, he warned that black rights and loyal Unionists' safety could be protected in no other way. In time, he turned into one of the most militant advocates of Johnson's impeachment,[49] and by far the most respected of them. Unlike his colleagues, a hostile observer wrote, he brought to the cause "the advantage of a cultivated mind, an extensive reading and a scholarly acquaintance with all of history that could be mustered into such a service."[58] In December 1867, he made the case for impeaching the president without charging him with having committed actual crimes — contending, in effect, that impeachment was a political, and not just a judicial process.[59] (He did not expect impeachment to pass and did not foresee the Senate convicting Johnson; what he hoped for, instead, was a statement on the House's part that the president had committed high crimes and misdemeanors, in effect a resolution of censure).[60] The House did not agree, but two months later, in February 1868, Johnson's removal of Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton (in contravention of a law drafted by Stanton and Boutwell requiring Senate confirmation of such acts) united Republicans behind a resolution of impeachment. Boutwell chaired the committee that drafted the articles of impeachment,[49] and presented them to the House for debate.[61] He was chosen as one of the managers of the impeachment proceedings that followed.[62] The bulk of the trial work was handled by fellow Massachusetts Congressman Benjamin F. Butler, although all seven managers were involved in developing the case against Johnson.[63] Boutwell was given the honor of giving the first closing speech (all seven managers, and five defense lawyers, spoke). His speech was not particularly notable for its rhetoric, but defense lawyer William Evarts seized on Boutwell's strained analogy of casting Johnson into deep space to provoke significant laughter and applause.[64] The impeachment failed by a single vote.[65] U.S. Secretary of Treasury[edit]

President Grant 1869

Boutwell was given serious consideration for a place in the cabinet of President-elect Ulysses S. Grant, and is reported to have declined the Interior Department. Within a week of the inauguration in 1869, Grant's first choice for the Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander T. Stewart, was found ineligible, and the President had to look for a replacement. Republicans on Capitol Hill, feeling that the cabinet as a whole was weak in members combining Washington experience with solid party credentials, joined to urge him to accept Boutwell, and, tendered the Treasury portfolio, Boutwell accepted.[66] (His selection caused some embarrassment to Grant's Attorney General, Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar, who was himself from Massachusetts: by custom, no state was allowed more than one Cabinet seat, and Hoar offered to retire. Grant refused the offer, but a year later, without warning or explanation, sent a messenger demanding his resignation).[67][68] The business community hailed Boutwell's selection. The news of his appointment created an immediate jump in government bonds on the money markets. "Nor is this to be wondered at," the Commercial and Financial Chronicle commented, "for Mr. Boutwell is well known as an earnest advocate of conservative financial reform. That he is an able administrative officer he gave conspicuous proofs when in 1862 he was entrusted with the organization of the new Internal Revenue Bureau."[69] Boutwell, at that time popular for his two impeachment attempts of President Johnson, was easily confirmed by the Republican-controlled Senate. Secretary Boutwell often acted independently of President Grant and took on a haughty attitude toward other Cabinet members.[70] Secretary of State Hamilton Fish
Hamilton Fish
noted that Boutwell was frequently evasive, noncommittal, and gave "no reasons, and rarely indicates or explains anything of his policy."[71]

Bureau of Engraving and Printing
Bureau of Engraving and Printing
portrait of Boutwell as Secretary of the Treasury.

Reforms (1869)[edit] After the chaos of the Civil War, the Treasury Department was disorganized and needed reform. The controversy between President Johnson over Reconstruction and the impeachment trial in the Senate in 1868, forestalled any reforms in the Treasury Department. As Treasury Secretary, Boutwell's primary achievements were reorganizing and reforming the Treasury Department, improving bookkeeping by customs houses, incorporating the United States
United States
Mint into the Treasury and reducing the national debt. Gold panic (1869)[edit] Following in line with the Republican Party national platform of 1868, Secretary Boutwell advocated reduction of national debt and the return of the nation's economy to one based on gold. Boutwell believed that the stabilization of the currency and the reduction of the national debt was more important than risking a depression by withdrawing greenbacks from the economy. On his own, without approval or knowledge of either President Grant or other Cabinet members, Boutwell began to release gold from the Treasury and sell government bonds, in order to reduce the supply of greenbacks (paper currency) in the economy. The result of this policy was that gold prices declined and the national debt was reduced. However, it also created a deflationary economy, in which farmers had trouble obtaining needed cash to pay for their farming activity.[72] During the summer of 1869, two gold speculators, Jay Gould
Jay Gould
and James Fisk plotted to corner the gold market, by buying it, and by influencing President Grant to stop Boutwell's gold releases. Gould and Fisk initially told Grant that a higher gold price would help farmers sell more goods overseas, but Grant was not convinced.[73] However, when harvests were reported to be good, Grant changed his mind, telling Boutwell to stop releasing gold at the beginning of September 1869.[74] Gould successfully maneuvered an informant, Daniel Butterfield, into a post as assistant to Boutwell, and began buying gold in earnest, sending the price up.[75] Grant was alerted to the attempt to corner the market by a courier-delivered letter from his brother-in-law Abel Corbin, who was in the gold ring, urging that the government refrain from selling gold.[76] Grant met with Boutwell on Thursday, September 22, and they decided the government should step in.[77] On September 23, 1869, the Gold Panic reached its climax: Secretary Boutwell ordered the release of $4 million of Treasury gold, but not before Jay Gould
Jay Gould
(alerted via First Lady Julia Grant
Julia Grant
and Corbin) had managed to sell off some of his holdings. The price rapidly dropped from $160 to $135, creating panic among gold speculators.[78] Brokerage houses were bankrupted and personal fortunes were lost, and the stock market was skittish for a year afterward.[79] An investigation by Congress headed by Representative James A. Garfield
James A. Garfield
exonerated both Grant and Boutwell in 1870. Boutwell's assistant, Daniel Butterfield, was fired by President Grant for releasing inside information to Gould concerning the Treasury Department's releases of gold. National debt
National debt
(1870)[edit] Boutwell opposed a rapid lowering of taxes and favored using surplus revenues to make a large reduction of the national debt. At his recommendation, Congress in 1870 passed an act providing for the funding of the national debt and authorizing the selling of certain bonds, but did not authorize an increase of the debt. In order to implement the restrictive law, Boutwell set up a banking syndicate to buy newly issued bonds at 4% and 5% in order to pay back Civil War bonds initially sold at 6%; that would alleviate the national debt.[80] In order to implement the banking syndicate, Boutwell had to temporarily raise the national debt more than half of one per cent, for which he was accused of technically violating the law. The House Committee of Ways and Means afterward absolved him of this charge.[2] Boutwell had sought finance some of the debt reduction through the placement of loans in Europe.[81] This idea was complicated by Civil War claims against the United Kingdom (the so-called Alabama Claims emanating from British support for the CSS Alabama
CSS Alabama
and other Confederate privateers), and then by the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
shortly after the financing bill was passed.[82] The latter prevented placement of offers in mainland European financial centers, and the unresolved Alabama issues prevented their placement in London.[83] Political pressure on both sides of the Atlantic resulted in the 1871 Treaty of Washington, after which Boutwell floated a loan in London.[84] The first loan offer unravelled, however, because Boutwell offered it to too many banks, but a second, reorganized attempt led by financier Jay Cooke
Jay Cooke
succeeded in raising over $100 million. It was the first time an American bank successfully engaged in this type of international transaction.[85] Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
bill (1871)[edit]

Mississippi Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
in costume arrested in 1871

Secretary Boutwell did not forget the plight of African Americans in the South who were subject to violence perpetrated by white Southerners, particularly the Ku Klux Klan. African Americans and loyal white Republicans were under attack in several Reconstructed states by the Klan. Congress responded, under the leadership of Benjamin Butler in the House of Representatives, and passed what was known as the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
Act in 1871. Grant had signed two previous "force bills" to protect African Americans and having found that violence in the South continued to be rampant he decided to sign the third force bill that gave the President the power to suspend habeas corpus. Grant was initially reluctant to sign the bill, fearing he would acquire a reputation as a military dictator in the South.[86] However, Secretary Boutwell, while traveling with President Grant to Capitol Hill, encouraged Grant to sign the bill, pointing out the many violent atrocities taking place in the South.[86] Grant promoted passage of the bill, and then signed it into law.[86] He afterwards used the law to suspend habeas corpus in nine South Carolina
South Carolina
counties, and ordered the arrest and prosecution of Klan members.[87] U.S. Senator[edit] In 1873, when Massachusetts
Senator Henry Wilson
Henry Wilson
was elected to the vice presidency, Boutwell announced his intention to resign as Treasury Secretary, and made himself a candidate for the Senate vacancy. With support from Benjamin Butler and federal appointees working for Butler's machine, Boutwell defeated the candidate from the western end of the state, moderate Congressman Henry Laurens Dawes.[88] A major campaign issues between Boutwell and Dawes was the Credit Mobilier scandal, in which both Boutwell and Dawes were accused of receiving undervalued stock from Congressman and financier Oakes Ames.[89][90] Both men had received shares, but Dawes returned his along with most of the realized profits. The support of Boutwell by Butler was also disliked by the Massachusetts
Republican establishment, which had come to despise Butler's tactics and politics. Butler, who was hoping to run for governor in the fall of 1873, assumed that he could count on Boutwell's support. However, the senator refused to involve himself in the governor's race, and Butler was beaten for the Republican nomination after a bitter campaign. The following winter, the president nominated Butler's ally William Simmons for the Collectorship of the Port of Boston, the most powerful federal patronage position in Massachusetts, Boutwell at first promised to fight it and then caved in under pressure from the Grant administration, permitting confirmation.[91] This deal guaranteed that Massachusetts
Republicans most opposed to Butler and what they called "Butlerism" would keep Boutwell from being re-elected in 1877. In the Senate, Boutwell served as chairman of the Committee on the Revision of the Laws in the 44th Congress. He took a strong stand for "honest money," a currency not re-flated with paper money, and voted against the so-called Inflation Bill of 1874. He also remained a strong supporter of federal protection for black voters in the South, backing the 1875 Civil Rights Law, which banned discrimination by common carriers and in public accommodations. He also favored high tariffs, a position of mixed favor in Massachusetts, which had some dependence on imports but also exported manufactured goods. Boutwell was appointed in 1876 to head a special Senate committee to investigate the Mississippi elections of 1875. These elections were accompanied by significant orchestrated violence aimed at preventing African Americans from voting, and resulted in the return of Democrats to power there. Boutwell's commission documented the violence and atrocities that took place, but no federal action was taken to prevent a recurrence in the 1876 elections.[92] Later career[edit] After leaving the Senate, President Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford B. Hayes
appointed Boutwell in 1877 to prepare an updated edition of the Revised Statutes of the United States. This work entailed updating the law books to reflect changes made since 1873; Boutwell also reflected changes to the laws implied by all of the United States
United States
Supreme Court decisions to date. The updated work was published in 1878.[93] Boutwell during the 1880s and 1890s practiced international and patent law from offices in Boston and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
His business included working for the United States
United States
and other national governments as counsel to several bilateral diplomatic commissions. In the first, running from 1880 to 1884, he represented the US in regard to claims involving France
which mostly emanated from the Civil War. He next served as counsel for Haiti
(1885), and then again for the US on a commission with Chile
(1893–94), which addressed claims against both governments most of whose origins were in either the War of the Pacific or the Chilean Civil War of 1891.[94] In 1881, Boutwell turned down the appointment of Secretary of the Treasury
Secretary of the Treasury
from President Chester A. Arthur. He served for a time as a legal representative for the Kingdom of Hawaii, whose acquisition by the US he opposed.[95] In the late 1890s, Boutwell became increasingly disenchanted with the imperialist foreign policy of President William McKinley, and left the Republican Party after the annexation of the Philippines
following the 1898 Spanish–American War.[96] He was a founder and the first president of the American Anti-Imperialist League, an organization opposed to American expansion. He campaigned against McKinley in the 1900, and was a presidential elector for the Democratic ticket of William Jennings Bryan.[97][98] He would promote Philippine independence until his death.[99] Death[edit]

Gov. George S. Boutwell
George S. Boutwell
House, Groton

Boutwell died in Groton on February 27, 1905, and is buried at Groton Cemetery.[99][100] He was memorialized in a major celebration at Faneuil Hall, Boston, on April 18, 1905.[99] His house in the center of Groton, built in 1851 while he was governor, was given to the Groton Historical Society by his daughter, Georgianna. It now serves as the society's headquarters and is open in the summer as a museum. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
as the Gov. George S. Boutwell
George S. Boutwell
House.[35] Publications[edit] Boutwell published several books on education, taxation and political economy. His works include the following:

Educational Topics and Institutions (Boston, 1859) Manual of the United States
United States
Direct and Revenue Tax (1863) Decisions on the Tax Law (New York, 1863) Tax-Payer's Manual (Boston, 1865) Speeches and Papers (1867) Why I am a Republican (Hartford, Conn., 1884) The Constitution of the United States
United States
at the End of the First Century (1895) Reminiscences of Sixty Years in Public Affairs (2 vols., New York, 1902)


^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, p. 1 ^ a b c d e Appletons (1900) ^ Boutwell (1902), pp. 2, 7, 19 ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, p. 7 ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, pp. 18-19 ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, p. 20 ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, pp. 31-32 ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, pp. 24-32 ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, p. 33 ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, p. 40 ^ Boutwell (1902), vol 1., p. 47 ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, p. 48 ^ Boutwell (1902), vol 1., pp. 50-54 ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, p. xxiii ^ Brown, p. 15 ^ Brown, p. 16 ^ Brown, p. 17 ^ Brown, pp. 19–23 ^ Brown, pp. 21–22 ^ Brown, pp. 22–23, 25 ^ Brown, p. 24 ^ Brown, pp. 22–25 ^ Brown, p. 25 ^ Brown, p. 26 ^ Hart, pp. 4:336–340, 473 ^ Brown, pp. 27–28 ^ Hart, pp. 4:473–476 ^ Hart, pp. 4:476–478 ^ Brown, pp. 36–37 ^ Hart, p. 4:481 ^ Brown, pp. 39–40 ^ Holt, p. 762 ^ Massachusetts, Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of (1893). Annual Record of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts.  ^ a b Brown, p. 38 ^ a b "NRHP nomination for Gov. George S. Boutwell
George S. Boutwell
House". Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved 2013-09-17.  ^ Brown, pp. 40–42 ^ Brown, pp. 47–48 ^ Brown, p. 53 ^ Brown, pp. 49–50 ^ Cicarelli, p. 31 ^ Brown, p. 50 ^ Brown, p. 51 ^ Brown, pp. 52–53 ^ Pearson, p. 1:202 ^ Brown, pp. 58–59 ^ Potter, pp. 32–37 ^ Boutwell (1902), vol. 1, p. 293 ^ Potter, p. 37 ^ a b c d e Cicarelli, p. 32 ^ Brown, pp. 61–62 ^ Brown, pp. 62–63 ^ New York Tribune,July 8, 1864. ^ Voegele, pp. 768-769 ^ Boutwell (1867), pp. 176-177 ^ Boutwell (1867), p. 372 ^ Boutwell (1867), pp. 372-402 ^ Clemenceau, p. 178 ^ "Mack," Cincinnati Commercial, December 11, 1867. ^ "D. W. B.," New York Independent, December 12, 1867. ^ Cincinnati Gazette, December 6, 1867. ^ Stewart, pp. 75, 109–111, 135–158 ^ Stewart, p. 159 ^ Stewart, pp. 181–218 ^ Stewart, pp. 230–235 ^ Stewart, pp. 273–278 ^ Ackerman, pp. 88-92 ^ Storey & Emerson, pp. 165-171 ^ McFeely, p. 365 ^ New York Commercial and Financial Chronicle, March 13, 1869. ^ Ackerman, p. 90 ^ Brown, p. 91 ^ Ackerman, pp. 90-91 ^ Craughwell, pp. 58-59 ^ Craughwell, p. 61 ^ Craughwell, pp. 61-63 ^ Craughwell, pp. 61-62 ^ Craughwell, p. 63 ^ Craughwell, pp. 63-65 ^ Craughwell, pp. 67-68 ^ Strouse, p. 148 ^ Sexton, p. 201 ^ Sexton, pp. 202, 206–209 ^ Sexton, p. 211 ^ Sexton, pp. 212–217 ^ Sexton, pp. 217–220 ^ a b c Cicarelli, p. 33 ^ Williams, p. 46 ^ Brown, p. 96 ^ Rhodes, p. 9 ^ Josephson, pp. 92-93 ^ Rhodes, p. 24 ^ Jenkins and Stauffer, pp. 276–278 ^ Wang, pp. 207–208 ^ Brown, p. 109 ^ Brown, pp. 107, 109 ^ Brown, pp. 115–116 ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Boutwell, George Sewall". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ Brown, p. 117 ^ a b c Brown, p. 119 ^ Commemorative Exercises, p. 2


Ackerman, Kenneth (2011) [1988]. The gold ring : Jim Fisk, Jay Gould, and Black Friday, 1869. Falls Church, VA: Viral History Press. ISBN 9781619450059. OCLC 858981508.  Boutwell, George S (1867). Speeches and Papers relating to the Rebellion and the Overthrow of Slavery. Boston: Little, Brown. OCLC 85888253.  Boutwell, George S (1902). Reminiscences of Sixty Years in Public Affairs. New York: McLure, Phillips & Co. OCLC 497975.  (Volume 1, Volume 2) Brown, Thomas H (1989). George Sewall Boutwell, Human Rights Advocate. Groton, MA: Groton Historical Society. ISBN 9780866100687. OCLC 21376428.  Cicarelli, Julianne (1996). "George S. Boutwell". Biographical Dictionary of the United States
United States
Secretaries of the Treasury: 1789–1995. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 539–541. ISBN 9780313280122. OCLC 243857795.  Clemenceau, Georges (1969) [1928]. American Reconstruction. New York: Da Capo. OCLC 300281122.  Commemorative Exercises in Connection with the Erection of a Memorial Tablet to George Sewall Boutwell in Groton Cemetery May Fifteenth, 1908. Boston: unknown. 1908. OCLC 820622.  Craughwell, Thomas (2013). Presidential payola : the true stories of monetary scandals in the Oval Office that robbed tax payers to grease palms, stuff pockets, and pay for undue influence from Teapot Dome to Halliburton. Beverly, MA: Fair Winds Press.  Hart, Albert Bushnell (ed) (1927). Commonwealth History of Massachusetts. New York: The States History Company. OCLC 1543273. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) (five volume history of Massachusetts
until the early 20th century) Holt, Michael (1999). The Rise and Fall of the American Whig Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195055443. OCLC 231788473.  Jenkins, Sally; Stauffer, John (2010). The State of Jones: The Small Southern County that Seceded from the Confederacy. New York: Anchor Books. ISBN 9780767929462. OCLC 637127345.  Josephson, Matthew. The Robber Barons. New York: Harcourt Brace. ISBN 9780547544366. OCLC 556756268.  McFeely, William S (1981). Grant: A Biography. New York: W W Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-01372-3.  Pearson, Henry (1904). The Life of John Albion Andrew. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. OCLC 1453615.  Potter, Jerry (1992). The Sultana Tragedy: America's Greatest Maritime Disaster. Gretna, LA: Pelican Publishing. ISBN 9780882898612. OCLC 24318094.  Rhodes, James Ford (1910). History of the United States: from the compromise of 1850 to the final restoration of home rule at the south in 1877, Volume 7. New York: Macmillan.  Sexton, Jay (2005). Debtor Diplomacy: Finance and American Foreign Relations in the Civil War Era, 1837–1873. Oxford: Clarendon. ISBN 9781429470940. OCLC 138700962.  Smith, Jean Edward (2001). Grant. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-84927-5.  Stewart, David (2009). Impeached: The Trial of President Andrew Johnson and the Fight for Lincoln's Legacy. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781416547495.  Storey, Moorfield; Emerson, Edward W (1911). Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar: A Memoir. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin. OCLC 2040488.  Strouse, Jeane (1999). Morgan: American Financier. New York: Random House. ISBN 9780375501661. OCLC 39484870. 

Voegele, V. Jacque (November 2003). "A Rejected Alternative: Union Policy and the Relocation of Southern "Contrabands" at the Dawn of Emancipation". Journal of Southern History (Volume 69, No. 4): 765–790. JSTOR 30040096. 

Wang, Xi (1997). The Trial of Democracy: Black Suffrage and Northern Republicans, 1860–1910. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 9780820318370. OCLC 33442896.  Williams, Lou Faulkner (2004). The great South Carolina
South Carolina
Ku Klux Klan trials, 1871-1872. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 9780820326597. OCLC 56639465.   Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1900). "Boutwell, George Sewall". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton. 

Further reading[edit]

Domer, Thomas (December 1976). "The Role of George S. Boutwell
George S. Boutwell
in the Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson". New England Quarterly (49): 596–617. JSTOR 364736.  "George Sewall Boutwell". Dictionary of American Biography. New York, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1936. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to George S. Boutwell.

Biography portal

Works by George Sewall Boutwell at Project Gutenberg Works by or about George S. Boutwell
George S. Boutwell
at Internet Archive  "Boutwell, George Sewall". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.   "Boutwell, George Sewell". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.   "Boutwell, George Sewall". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

United States
United States
Congress. " George S. Boutwell
George S. Boutwell
(id: B000674)". Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress. . Includes Guide to Research Collections where his papers are located. Anti-Imperialism and Liberty by M. Patrick Cullinane, Biography and Documents pertaining to George Boutwell. Barnes, William H. History of the Thirty-Ninth Congress of the United States. New York: Harper, 1868. Page 581

Political offices

Preceded by George N. Briggs Governor of Massachusetts January 11, 1851 – January 14, 1853 Succeeded by John H. Clifford

Preceded by Hugh McCulloch U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Served under: Ulysses S. Grant March 12, 1869 – March 16, 1873 Succeeded by William A. Richardson

Government offices

New title Commissioner of Internal Revenue July 17, 1862 – March 4, 1863 Succeeded by Joseph J. Lewis

U.S. House of Representatives

Preceded by Daniel W. Gooch Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts's 7th congressional district March 4, 1863 – March 12, 1869 Succeeded by George M. Brooks

U.S. Senate

Preceded by Henry Wilson U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Massachusetts March 17, 1873 – March 3, 1877 Served alongside: Charles Sumner, William B. Washburn
William B. Washburn
and Henry L. Dawes Succeeded by George F. Hoar

v t e

Governors of Massachusetts

Colony (1629–86)

Endecott Winthrop T. Dudley Haynes Vane Winthrop T. Dudley Bellingham Winthrop Endecott T. Dudley Winthrop Endecott T. Dudley Endecott Bellingham Endecott Bellingham Leverett Bradstreet

Dominion (1686–89)

J. Dudley Andros Bradstreet

Province (1692–1776)

W. Phips Stoughton Bellomont Stoughton Governor's Council J. Dudley Governor's Council J. Dudley Tailer Shute Dummer Burnet Dummer Tailer Belcher Shirley S. Phips Shirley S. Phips Governor's Council Pownall Hutchinson Bernard Hutchinson Gage

Commonwealth (since 1776)

Hancock Cushing Bowdoin Hancock Adams Sumner Gill Governor's Council Strong Sullivan Lincoln Sr. Gore Gerry Strong Brooks Eustis Morton Lincoln Jr. Davis Armstrong Everett Morton Davis Morton Briggs Boutwell Clifford E. Washburn Gardner Banks Andrew Bullock Claflin W. Washburn Talbot Gaston Rice Talbot Long Butler Robinson Ames Brackett Russell Greenhalge Wolcott Crane Bates Douglas Guild Draper Foss Walsh McCall Coolidge Cox Fuller Allen Ely Curley Hurley Saltonstall Tobin Bradford Dever Herter Furcolo Volpe Peabody Volpe Sargent Dukakis King Dukakis Weld Cellucci Swift Romney Patrick Baker

Italics indicate acting officeholders

v t e

United States
United States
Secretaries of the Treasury

18th century

Hamilton Wolcott Dexter

19th century

Gallatin Campbell Dallas Crawford Rush Ingham McLane Duane Taney Woodbury Ewing Forward Spencer Bibb Walker Meredith Corwin Guthrie Cobb Thomas Dix Chase Fessenden McCulloch Boutwell Richardson Bristow Morrill Sherman Windom Folger Gresham McCulloch Manning Fairchild Windom Foster Carlisle Gage

20th century

Shaw Cortelyou MacVeagh McAdoo Glass Houston Mellon Mills Woodin Morgenthau Vinson Snyder Humphrey Anderson Dillon Fowler Barr Kennedy Connally Shultz Simon Blumenthal Miller Regan Baker Brady Bentsen Rubin Summers

21st century

O'Neill Snow Paulson Geithner Lew Mnuchin

v t e

United States
United States
Senators from Massachusetts

Class 1

Dalton Cabot Goodhue Mason Adams Lloyd Gore Ashmun Mellen Mills Webster Choate Webster Winthrop Rantoul Sumner Washburn Dawes Lodge, Sr. Butler Walsh Lodge J. Kennedy Smith E. Kennedy Kirk Brown Warren

Class 2

Strong Sedgwick Dexter Foster Pickering Varnum Otis Lloyd Silsbee Davis Bates Davis Everett Rockwell Wilson Boutwell Hoar Crane J. Weeks Walsh Gillett Coolidge Lodge S. Weeks Saltonstall Brooke Tsongas Kerry Cowan Markey

v t e

Members of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts

1st district

F. Ames Dexter Goodhue Holten Sedgwick Skinner Sedgwick J. Bacon Eustis Quincy Ward Jr. Mason Gorham Webster Gorham N. Appleton Gorham A. Lawrence Fletcher A. Lawrence Winthrop N. Appleton Winthrop S. Eliot W. Appleton Scudder T. D. Eliot Hall T. D. Eliot Buffington Crapo R. Davis Randall Wright G. Lawrence Treadway Heselton Conte Olver Neal

2nd district

Goodhue Foster W. Lyman Sedgwick Ward Sr. W. Lyman Shepard J. Crowninshield Story Pickman W. Reed Pickering Silsbee Barstow B. Crowninshield Choate Phillips Saltonstall D. King Rantoul Fay Crocker Buffington O. Ames Harris Long E. Morse Gillett Churchill Bowles Kaynor Granfield Clason Furcolo Boland Neal McGovern

3rd district

Gerry Bourne Coffin Lyman Mattoon Cutler Nelson Livermore White Pickering Nelson Varnum Nelson Osgood Cushing A. Abbott Duncan Edmands Damrell C. Adams Thomas A. Rice Twichell Whiting I Pierce Field B. Dean Field Ranney L. Morse J. Andrew Walker J. R. Thayer R. Hoar C. Washburn J. A. Thayer Wilder Paige F. Foss Casey Philbin Drinan Donohue Early Blute McGovern N. Tsongas

4th district

Sedgwick Dearborn G. Thatcher Wadsworth Foster L. Lincoln Sr. Hastings Varnum W. Richardson Dana Stearns Fuller E. Everett Sa. Hoar Parmenter Thompson Palfrey Thompson Sabine Walley Comins A. Rice Hooper Frost J. Abbott L. Morse Collins O'Neil Apsley Weymouth Tirrell Mitchell Wilder Winslow Stobbs P. Holmes Donohue Drinan Frank Kennedy III

5th district

Partridge Bourne Freeman L. Williams T. Dwight Ely Mills Lathrop Sibley J. Davis L. Lincoln Jr. Hudson C. Allen W. Appleton Burlingame W. Appleton Hooper Alley Butler Gooch Banks Bowman L. Morse Hayden Banks Sh. Hoar Stevens Knox B. Ames J. Rogers E. Rogers B. Morse Cronin P. Tsongas Shannon Atkins Meehan N. Tsongas Markey Clark

6th district

G. Thatcher Leonard J. Reed Sr. J. Smith Taggart S. Allen Locke Kendall Grennell Alvord Baker Ashmun G. Davis Upham T. Davis Alley Gooch Banks Butler Thompson Loring Stone Lovering Lodge Cogswell Moody Gardner Lufkin A. Andrew G. Bates W. Bates Harrington Mavroules Torkildsen Tierney Moulton

7th district

Leonard Ward Sr. Leonard Bullock Bishop Mitchell Barker Baylies Turner Baylies Hulbert Shaw H. Dwight S. Allen Grennell Briggs J. Rockwell Goodrich Banks Gooch Boutwell Brooks Esty E. Hoar Tarbox Butler W. Russell Stone Cogswell W. Everett Barrett Roberts Phelan Maloney W. Connery L. Connery Lane Macdonald Markey Capuano

8th district

Grout G. Thatcher F. Ames Otis Eustis L. Williams Green Gardner Green J. Reed Jr. Baylies Sampson Hobart Lathrop Bates Calhoun J. Adams Mann Wentworth Knapp Train Baldwin G. Hoar J. M. S. Williams Warren Claflin Candler W Russell C. H. Allen Greenhalge Stevens McCall Deitrick Dallinger H. Thayer Dallinger Healey Goodwin Macdonald O'Neill Kennedy II Capuano Lynch

9th district

Varnum Bishop J. Dean Wheaton J. Reed Jr. Folger J. Reed Jr. H. Dwight Briggs Jackson Hastings H. Williams Hale Fowler Little De Witt E. Thayer Bailey A. Walker W. Washburn Crocker G. Hoar W. Rice T. Lyman Ely Burnett Candler G. Williams O'Neil Fitzgerald Conry Keliher Murray Roberts Fuller Underhill Luce R. Russell Luce T. H. Eliot Gifford Nicholson Keith McCormack Hicks Moakley Lynch Keating

10th district

Goodhue Sewall Read Hastings Upham J. Allen Brigham Wheaton Morton F Baylies Bailey H. A. S. Dearborn W. Baylies Borden H. Williams Borden Burnell Grinnell Scudder Dickinson Chaffee Delano Dawes Crocker Stevens Seelye Norcross W. Rice J. E. Russell J. Walker McEttrick Atwood Barrows Naphen McNary O'Connell Curley Murray Tague Fitzgerald Tague Douglass Tinkham Herter Curtis Martin Heckler Studds Delahunt Keating

11th district

Bradbury Bartlett Cutler Stedman A. Bigelow Brigham B. Adams J. Russell Hobart J. Richardson J. Adams J. Reed Jr. Burnell Goodrich Trafton Dawes Chapin Robinson Whiting II Wallace Coolidge Draper Sprague Powers Sullivan Peters Tinkham Douglass Higgins Flaherty Curley Kennedy O'Neill Burke Donnelly

12th district

H. Dearborn I. Parker Lee S. Thatcher Skinner Larned Bidwell Bacon Dewey Hulbert Strong Kendall L. Bigelow Baylies Hodges J. Adams Robinson F. Rockwell Crosby E. Morse Lovering Powers Weeks Curley Gallivan McCormack Keith Studds

13th district

Wadsworth Seaver Ruggles Dowse Eustis J. Reed Jr. Randall Simpkins Greene Weeks Mitchell Carter Luce Wigglesworth Burke

14th district

G. Thatcher Cutts C. King J. Holmes Lovering E. Foss Harris Gilmore Olney Frothingham Wigglesworth Martin

15th district

Wadsworth Ilsley Whitman Widgery Bradbury Whitman Greene Leach Martin Gifford

16th district

S. Thatcher Cook Tallman S. Davis Brown Orr Hill Thacher Walsh Gifford

17th district

Bruce Chandler Gannett F. Carr Wood J. Carr Wilson Kinsley

18th district

Wilson T. Rice J. Parker

19th district

J. Parker Conner Gage Cushman

20th district

Hubbard Parris E. Lincoln



v t e

Cabinet of President Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant

Secretary of State

Elihu B. Washburne
Elihu B. Washburne
(1869) Hamilton Fish
Hamilton Fish

Secretary of the Treasury

George S. Boutwell
George S. Boutwell
(1869–73) William A. Richardson (1873–74) Benjamin H. Bristow (1874–76) Lot M. Morrill
Lot M. Morrill

Secretary of War

John A. Rawlins (1869) William W. Belknap
William W. Belknap
(1869–76) Alphonso Taft
Alphonso Taft
(1876) J. Donald Cameron
J. Donald Cameron

Attorney General

Ebenezer R. Hoar
Ebenezer R. Hoar
(1869–70) Amos T. Akerman
Amos T. Akerman
(1870–71) George H. Williams (1871–75) Edwards Pierrepont
Edwards Pierrepont
(1875–76) Alphonso Taft
Alphonso Taft

Postmaster General

John A. J. Creswell (1869–74) James W. Marshall (1874) Marshall Jewell
Marshall Jewell
(1874–76) James N. Tyner (1876–77)

Secretary of the Navy

Adolph E. Borie
Adolph E. Borie
(1869) George M. Robeson
George M. Robeson

Secretary of the Interior

Jacob D. Cox (1869–70) Columbus Delano
Columbus Delano
(1870–75) Zachariah Chandler
Zachariah Chandler

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 15148408 LCCN: n85329279 ISNI: 0000 0000 8359 4916 GND: 1055270868 SUDOC: 09026116X NLA: 36034772 NDL: 00767041 US Congress: B000674 CiNii: DA0714614X SN