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George Catlett Marshall Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier. He was Chief of Staff of the United States
United States
Army
Army
under presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
and Harry S. Truman, and served as Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense under Truman.[3] He was hailed as the "organizer of victory" by Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
for his leadership of the Allied victory in World War II. After the war, in his service as Secretary of State, Marshall advocated a significant U.S. economic and political commitment to post-war European recovery, including the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
that bore his name. In recognition of this work, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953.[4] Born in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, Marshall was a 1901 graduate of the Virginia
Virginia
Military Institute. After serving briefly as commandant of students at the Danville Military Academy in Danville, Virginia, Marshall received his commission as a second lieutenant of Infantry in February, 1902. In the years after the Spanish–American War, he served in the United States
United States
and overseas in positions of increasing rank and responsibility, including platoon leader and company commander in the Philippines
Philippines
during the Philippine–American War. He was the Honor Graduate of his Infantry-Cavalry School Course in 1907, and graduated first in his 1908 Army
Army
Staff College class. In 1916 Marshall was assigned as aide-de-camp to J. Franklin Bell, the commander of the Western Department. After the United States
United States
entered World War I, Marshall served with Bell while Bell commanded the Department of the East. He was assigned to the staff of the 1st Division, and assisted with the organization's mobilization and training in the United States, as well as planning of its combat operations in France. Subsequently, assigned to the staff of the American Expeditionary Forces
American Expeditionary Forces
headquarters, he was a key planner of American operations including the Meuse-Argonne Offensive. After the war, Marshall was assigned as an aide-de-camp to John J. Pershing, who was then serving as the Army's Chief of Staff. He later served on the Army
Army
staff, commanded the 15th Infantry Regiment in China, and was an instructor at the Army
Army
War College. In 1927, he became assistant commandant of the Army's Infantry School, where he modernized command and staff processes, which proved to be of major benefit during World War II. In 1932 and 1933 he commanded the 8th Infantry Regiment and Fort Screven, Georgia. Marshall commanded 5th Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division and Vancouver Barracks from 1936 to 1938, and received promotion to brigadier general. During this command, Marshall was also responsible for 35 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camps in Oregon and southern Washington. In July 1938, Marshall was assigned to the War Plans Division on the War Department staff, and he was subsequently appointed as the Army's Deputy Chief of Staff. When Chief of Staff Malin Craig
Malin Craig
retired in 1939, Marshall became acting Chief of Staff, and then Chief of Staff. He served as Chief of Staff until the end of the war in 1945. As Chief of Staff, Marshall organized the largest military expansion in U.S. history, and received promotion to five-star rank as General of the Army. Marshall coordinated Allied operations in Europe and the Pacific until the end of the war; in addition to being hailed as the organizer of Allied victory by Winston Churchill, Time magazine named Marshall its Man of the Year for 1943. Marshall retired from active service in 1945, but remained on active duty, a requirement for holders of five-star rank.[5] From December 15, 1945 to January 1947 he served as a special envoy to China in an unsuccessful effort to negotiate a coalition government between the Nationalists of Chiang Kai-shek and Communists under Mao Zedong. As Secretary of State from 1947 to 1949, Marshall received credit for the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
for Europe's post-war rebuilding, the success of which was recognized with award of the 1953 Nobel Peace Prize.[6] After resigning as Secretary of State, Marshall served as chairman of American Battle Monuments Commission[7] and president of the American National Red Cross. As Secretary of Defense at the start of the Korean War, Marshall worked to restore the military's confidence and morale at the end of its post- World War II
World War II
demobilization and then its initial buildup for combat in Korea and operations during the Cold War. After resigning as Defense Secretary, Marshall retired to his home in Virginia. He died in 1959 and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Entry into the Army
Army
and the Philippines 3 World War I 4 Between World War I
World War I
and II 5 World War II

5.1 Expands military force fortyfold 5.2 Replacement system criticized 5.3 Planned invasion of Europe

6 Analysis of Pearl Harbor intelligence failure 7 Post War: China 8 Secretary of State and Nobel Peace Prize 9 Secretary of Defense

9.1 Korean War

9.1.1 Relief of General MacArthur

10 Retirement 11 Death and burial 12 Reputation and legacy 13 Family life 14 Fictional portrayals 15 Dates of rank 16 Awards and decorations

16.1 U.S. military honors 16.2 Foreign orders 16.3 Foreign decorations and medals 16.4 Civilian honors 16.5 Namesakes

17 Bibliography 18 See also 19 References

19.1 Primary sources

20 Further reading 21 External links

Early life[edit]

1900 VMI Keydets football
VMI Keydets football
team. Marshall encircled

George Catlett Marshall Jr. was born into a middle-class family in Uniontown, Pennsylvania, the son of George Catlett Marshall Sr. and Laura Emily (née Bradford) Marshall.[8] Marshall was a scion of an old Virginia
Virginia
family, as well as a distant relative of former Chief Justice John Marshall.[9] Marshall graduated from the Virginia Military Institute (VMI),[10] where he was initiated into the Kappa Alpha Order in 1901.[11] He was an All-Southern tackle for the VMI Keydets varsity football team in 1900.[12][13] Entry into the Army
Army
and the Philippines[edit] Following graduation from VMI in 1901, Marshall sat for a competitive examination for a commission in the U.S. Army.[14] While awaiting the results he took the position of Commandant of Students at the Danville Military Institute in Danville, Virginia.[15] Marshall passed the exam and was commissioned a second lieutenant in February, 1902.[16] Prior to World War I, he was posted to various positions in the United States and the Philippines, including serving as an infantry platoon leader and company commander during the Philippine–American War
Philippine–American War
and other guerrilla uprisings.[17] He was schooled in modern warfare, including a tour at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas from 1906 to 1910 as both a student and an instructor.[18] He was the Honor Graduate of his Infantry-Cavalry School Course in 1907, and graduated first in his 1908 Army
Army
Staff College class.[19] After another tour of duty in the Philippines, Marshall returned to the United States
United States
in 1916 to serve as aide-de-camp to the commander of the Western Department, former Army
Army
chief of staff Major General J. Franklin Bell, at the Presidio
Presidio
in San Francisco.[19] After the United States declared war on Germany in April 1917, Marshall relocated with Bell to Governors Island, New York when Bell was reassigned as commander of the Department of the East.[19] Shortly afterwards, Marshall was assigned to help oversee the mobilization of the 1st Division for service in France.[19] World War I[edit] During the Great War, he had roles as a planner of both training and operations. In the summer of 1917, he as assigned as assistant chief of staff for operations on the staff of the 1st Division.[19] After overseeing the division's mobilization and organization in Texas, he departed for France with the division staff in mid-1917.[19] On the long ocean voyage, his roommate was the division's assistant chief of staff for training, Lesley J. McNair;[20] the two formed a personal and professional bond that they maintained for the rest of their careers.[21] After arriving in France, Marshall served with the 1st Division on the St. Mihiel, Picardy, and Cantigny fronts.[19] He won recognition and acclaim for his planning of the attack for the Battle of Cantigny, which took place from May 28 to 31, 1918;[19] its success resulted in the first notable American victory of the war.[22] On May 26, Marshall was injured while travelling to several subordinate units to conduct pre-attack coordination.[23] As he departed the division headquarters area, his horse stumbled, fell, and rolled over;[24] Marshall's left foot was caught in the stirrup, and he sustained a severe sprain and bruise.[24] A physician bound Marshall's injured ankle and foot with adhesive tape so that he could avoid medical evacuation and remain with the division to oversee the Cantigny attack.[25] In mid-1918, he was posted to the headquarters of the American Expeditionary Force, where he worked closely with his mentor, General John Joseph Pershing, and was a key planner of American operations. He was instrumental in the planning and coordination of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, which contributed to the defeat of the German Army
Army
on the Western Front in 1918.[26] Marshall held the permanent rank of captain and the temporary rank of colonel;[27] he was recommended for promotion to temporary brigadier general in October 1918, but the Armistice occurred before the recommendation was acted on.[28] After the war, Marshall reverted to his permanent rank.[28] Between World War I
World War I
and II[edit]

Colonel George Marshall
George Marshall
in France in 1919

In 1919, he became an aide-de-camp to General John J. Pershing. Between 1920 and 1924, while Pershing was Army
Army
Chief of Staff, Marshall worked in a number of positions in the army, focusing on training and teaching modern, mechanized warfare. Between World Wars I and II, he was a key planner and writer in the War Department, commanded the 15th Infantry Regiment for three years in China, and taught at the Army
Army
War College. In 1927, as a lieutenant colonel, he was appointed assistant commandant of the Infantry School at Fort Benning, where he initiated major changes to modernize command and staff processes, which proved to be of major benefit during World War II. Marshall placed Edwin F. Harding
Edwin F. Harding
in charge of the Infantry School's publications, and Harding became editor[29]:41 of Infantry in Battle, a book that codified the lessons of World War I. Infantry in Battle is still used as an officer's training manual in the Infantry Officer's Course and was the training manual for most of the infantry officers and leaders of World War II. From June 1932 to June 1933 he was the commanding officer of the 8th Infantry Regiment at Fort Screven, Georgia. From July 1933 to October 1933 he was commander of Fort Moultrie, South Carolina
South Carolina
and District I of the Civilian Conservation Corps, and he was promoted to colonel in September 1933. He was senior instructor and chief of staff for the Illinois National Guard's 33rd Division from November 1933 to August 1936. Marshall commanded the 5th Brigade of the 3rd Infantry Division and Vancouver Barracks in Vancouver, Washington
Vancouver, Washington
from 1936 to 1938, and was promoted to brigadier general in October 1936. In addition to obtaining a long-sought and significant troop command, traditionally viewed as an indispensable step to the pinnacle of the US Army, Marshall was also responsible for 35 Civilian Conservation Corps
Civilian Conservation Corps
(CCC) camps in Oregon and southern Washington. As post commander Marshall made a concerted effort to cultivate relations with the city of Portland and to enhance the image of the US Army
Army
in the region. With the CCC, he initiated a series of measures to improve the morale of the participants and to make the experience beneficial in their later life. He started a newspaper for the CCC region that proved a vehicle to promote CCC successes, and he initiated a variety of programs that developed their skills and improved their health. Marshall's inspections of the CCC camps gave him and his wife Katherine the chance to enjoy the beauty of the American northwest and made that assignment what he called "the most instructive service I ever had, and the most interesting."[30] In July 1938, Marshall was assigned to the War Plans Division in Washington D.C. and subsequently reassigned as Deputy Chief of Staff. In that capacity, then-Brigadier General Marshall attended a conference at the White House at which President Roosevelt proposed a plan to provide aircraft to England in support of the war effort, lacking forethought with regard to logistical support or training. With all other attendees voicing support of the plan, Marshall was the only person to voice his disagreement. Despite the common belief that he had ended his career, this action resulted in his being nominated by President Franklin Roosevelt to be the Army
Army
Chief of Staff. Upon the retirement of General Malin Craig
Malin Craig
on July 1, 1939, Marshall became acting chief of staff. Marshall was promoted to general and sworn in as chief of staff on September 1, 1939, the same day the German Army launched its invasion of Poland.[31] He would hold this post until the end of the war in 1945. World War II[edit] As Chief of Staff, Marshall organized the largest military expansion in U.S. history, inheriting an outmoded, poorly equipped army of 189,000 men and, partly drawing from his experience teaching and developing techniques of modern warfare as an instructor at the Army War College, coordinated the large-scale expansion and modernization of the U.S. Army. Though he had never actually led troops in combat, Marshall was a skilled organizer with a talent for inspiring other officers.[32] Many of the American generals who were given top commands during the war were either picked or recommended by Marshall, including Dwight D. Eisenhower, Jacob L. Devers, George S. Patton, Terry de la Mesa Allen Sr., Lloyd Fredendall, Lesley McNair, Mark Wayne Clark and Omar Bradley.[33] Expands military force fortyfold[edit] Faced with the necessity of turning an army of former civilians into a force of over eight million soldiers by 1942 (a fortyfold increase within three years), Marshall directed General Lesley J. McNair
Lesley J. McNair
to focus efforts on rapidly producing large numbers of soldiers. With the exception of airborne forces, Marshall approved McNair's concept of an abbreviated training schedule for men entering Army
Army
land forces training, particularly in regard to basic infantry skills, weapons proficiency, and combat tactics.[34][35] At the time, most U.S. commanders at lower levels had little or no combat experience of any kind. Without the input of experienced British or Allied combat officers on the nature of modern warfare and enemy tactics, many resorted to formulaic training methods emphasizing static defense and orderly large-scale advances by motorized convoys over improved roads.[36] In consequence, Army
Army
forces deploying to Africa in Operation Torch
Operation Torch
suffered serious initial reverses when encountering German armored combat units in Africa at Kasserine Pass
Kasserine Pass
and other major battles.[37] Even as late as 1944, U.S. soldiers undergoing stateside training in preparation for deployment against German forces in Europe were not being trained in combat procedures and tactics in use there.[38] Replacement system criticized[edit]

Marshall with Secretary of War Henry Stimson

Originally, Marshall had planned a 265-division Army
Army
with a system of unit rotation such as practiced by the British and other Allies.[39] By mid-1943, however, after pressure from government and business leaders to preserve manpower for industry and agriculture, he had abandoned this plan in favor of a 90-division Army
Army
using individual replacements sent via a circuitous process from training to divisions in combat.[39] The individual replacement system devised by Marshall and implemented by McNair greatly exacerbated problems with unit cohesion and effective transfer of combat experience to newly trained soldiers and officers.[37][40] In Europe, where there were few pauses in combat with German forces, the individual replacement system had broken down completely by late 1944.[41] Hastily trained replacements or service personnel reassigned as infantry were given six weeks' refresher training and thrown into battle with Army
Army
divisions locked in front-line combat. The new men were often not even proficient in the use of their own rifles or weapons systems, and once in combat, could not receive enough practical instruction from veterans before being killed or wounded, usually within the first three or four days.[37][42][43] Under such conditions, many replacements suffered a crippling loss of morale, while veteran soldiers were kept in line units until they were killed, wounded, or incapacitated by battle fatigue or physical illness. Incidents of soldiers AWOL from combat duty as well as battle fatigue and self-inflicted injury rose rapidly during the last eight months of the war with Germany.[37][40][42] As one historian concluded, "Had the Germans been given a free hand to devise a replacement system..., one that would do the Americans the most harm and the least good, they could not have done a better job."[42][44] Marshall's abilities to pick competent field commanders during the early part of the war was decidedly mixed. While he had been instrumental in advancing the career of the able Dwight D. Eisenhower, he had also recommended the swaggering Lloyd Fredendall
Lloyd Fredendall
to Eisenhower for a major command in the American invasion of North Africa during Operation Torch. Marshall was especially fond of Fredendall, describing him as "one of the best" and remarking in a staff meeting when his name was mentioned, "I like that man; you can see determination all over his face." Eisenhower duly picked him to command the 39,000-man Central Task Force (the largest of three) in Operation Torch. Both men would come to regret that decision, as Fredendall was the leader of U.S. Army
Army
forces at the disastrous Battle of the Kasserine Pass.[33] Planned invasion of Europe[edit]

Cover to the book Infantry in Battle, the World War II
World War II
officer's guide to infantry combat operations. Marshall directed production of the book, which is still used as a reference today.

During World War II, Marshall was instrumental in preparing the U.S. Army
Army
and Army
Army
Air Forces for the invasion of the European continent. Marshall wrote the document that would become the central strategy for all Allied operations in Europe. He initially scheduled Operation Overlord for April 1, 1943, but met with strong opposition from Winston Churchill, who convinced Roosevelt to commit troops to Operation Husky for the invasion of Italy. Some authors think that World War II
World War II
could have ended one year earlier if Marshall had had his way; others think that such an invasion would have meant utter failure. It was assumed that Marshall would become the Supreme Commander of Operation Overlord, but Roosevelt selected Dwight Eisenhower
Dwight Eisenhower
as Supreme Commander. While Marshall enjoyed considerable success in working with Congress and President Franklin D. Roosevelt, he refused to lobby for the position. President Roosevelt didn't want to lose his presence in the states. He told Marshall, "I didn't feel I could sleep at ease if you were out of Washington."[45] When rumors circulated that the top job would go to Marshall, many critics viewed the transfer as a demotion for Marshall, since he would leave his position as Chief of Staff of the Army
Army
and lose his seat on the Combined Chiefs of Staff.[46] On December 16, 1944, Marshall became the first American Army
Army
general to be promoted to five-star rank, the newly created General of the Army
Army
– the American equivalent rank to field marshal. He was the second American to be promoted to a five-star rank, as William Leahy was promoted to fleet admiral the previous day. Throughout the remainder of World War II, Marshall coordinated Allied operations in Europe and the Pacific. He was characterized as the organizer of Allied victory by Winston Churchill. Time magazine named Marshall Man of the Year for 1943. Marshall resigned his post of chief of staff in 1945, but did not retire, as regulations stipulate that Generals of the Army
Army
remain on active duty for life.[5] Analysis of Pearl Harbor intelligence failure[edit] After World War II
World War II
ended, the Congressional Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack received testimony on the intelligence failure. It amassed 25,000 pages of documents, 40 volumes, and included nine reports and investigations, eight of which had been previously completed. These reports included criticism of Marshall for delay in sending General Walter Short, the Army
Army
commander in Hawaii, important information obtained from intercepted Japanese diplomatic messages. The report also criticized Marshall's lack of knowledge of the readiness of the Hawaiian Command during November and December 1941. Ten days after the attack, Lt. General Short and Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, commander of the Navy at Pearl Harbor, were both relieved of their duties. The final report of the Joint Committee did not single out or fault Marshall. While the report was critical of the overall situation, the committee noted that subordinates had failed to pass on important information to their superiors, including Marshall.[47][48] A secret report into the Army's role, the Clausen Report was authorised by Secretary Stimson; it was critical of Short and also of Colonel Bratton who, he concluded, arrived later on Sunday morning than he initially claimed during testimony and invented a story about not being able to get in touch with Marshall which "nearly destroyed" Marshall. Post War: China[edit] In December 1945, President Harry Truman
Harry Truman
sent Marshall to China, to broker a coalition government between the Nationalist allies under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and Communists under Mao Zedong. Marshall had no leverage over the Communists, but he threatened to withdraw American aid essential to the Nationalists. Both sides rejected his proposals and the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
escalated, with the Communists winning in 1949. His mission a failure, he returned to the United States
United States
in January 1947.[49][50] Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and some historians later claimed that cease-fire, under pressure of Marshall, saved the Communists from defeat.[51][52] As Secretary of State in 1947–48, Marshall seems to have disagreed with strong opinions in The Pentagon
The Pentagon
and State Department that Chiang's success was vital to American interests, insisting that U.S. troops not become involved. Secretary of State and Nobel Peace Prize[edit]

Medallion issued in 1982 to honor George Marshall's post-war work for Europe

After Marshall's return to the U.S. in early 1947, Truman appointed Marshall Secretary of State. He became the spokesman for the State Department's ambitious plans to rebuild Europe. On June 5, 1947 in a speech[53] at Harvard University, he outlined the American proposal. The European Recovery Program, as it was formally known, became known as the Marshall Plan. Clark Clifford
Clark Clifford
had suggested to Truman that the plan be called the Truman Plan, but Truman immediately dismissed that idea and insisted that it be called the Marshall Plan.[54][55] The Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
would help Europe quickly rebuild and modernize its economy along American lines. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
forbade its satellites to participate.

Marshall during World War II

Marshall was again named Time's Man of the Year for 1947. He received the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
for his post-war work in 1953, the only career officer in the United States
United States
Army
Army
to ever receive this honor. As Secretary of State, Marshall strongly opposed recognizing the state of Israel. Marshall felt that if the state of Israel
Israel
was declared that a war would break out in the Middle East (which it did in 1948 one day after Israel
Israel
declared independence). Marshall saw recognizing the Jewish state as a political move to gain Jewish support in the upcoming election, in which Truman was expected to lose to Dewey. He told President Truman in May 1948, "If you (recognize the state of Israel) and if I were to vote in the election, I would vote against you."[56][57][58] However, Marshall refused to vote in any election as a matter of principle.[59] Marshall resigned from the State Department because of ill health on January 7, 1949, and the same month became chairman of the American Battle Monuments Commission.[7] In September 1949, Marshall was named president of the American National Red Cross. Secretary of Defense[edit] When the early months of the Korean War
Korean War
showed how poorly prepared the Defense Department was, President Truman fired Secretary Louis A. Johnson and named Marshall as Secretary of Defense in September 1950. The appointment required a congressional waiver because the National Security Act of 1947 prohibited a uniformed military officer from serving in the post. This prohibition included Marshall since individuals promoted to General of the Army
Army
are not technically retired, but remain officially on active duty even after their active service has concluded. General Marshall was the first person to be granted such a waiver, with Defense Secretary James Mattis
James Mattis
being the second to receive it. Marshall's main role as Secretary of Defense was to restore confidence and morale while rebuilding the armed forces following their post- World War II
World War II
demobilization. Korean War[edit]

George Marshall
George Marshall
portrait by Thomas E. Stephens
Thomas E. Stephens
(c. 1949)

Marshall worked to provide more manpower to meet the demands of both the Korean War
Korean War
and the Cold War
Cold War
in Europe. To implement his priorities Marshall brought in a new leadership team, including Robert A. Lovett as his deputy and Anna M. Rosenberg, former head of the War Manpower Commission, as assistant secretary of defense for manpower. He also worked to rebuild the relationship between the Defense and State Departments, as well as the relationship between the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Marshall participated in the post-Inchon landing discussion that led to authorizing Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
to conduct operations in North Korea. A secret "eyes only" signal from Marshall to MacArthur on September 29, 1950 declared the Truman administration's commitment: "We want you to feel unhampered strategically and tactically to proceed north of the 38th Parallel".[60] At the same time, Marshall advised against public pronouncements which might lead to United Nations
United Nations
votes undermining or countermanding the initial mandate to restore the border between North and South Korea. Marshall and the Joint Chiefs of Staff were generally supportive of MacArthur because they were of the view that field commanders should be able to exercise their best judgment in accomplishing the intent of their superiors. Following Chinese military intervention in Korea during late November, Marshall and the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Joint Chiefs of Staff
sought ways to aid MacArthur while avoiding all-out war with China. In the debate over what to do about China's increased involvement, Marshall opposed a cease–fire on the grounds that it would make the U.S. look weak in China's eyes, leading to demands for future concessions. In addition, Marshall argued that the U.S. had a moral obligation to honor its commitment to South Korea. When British Prime Minister Clement Attlee
Clement Attlee
suggested diplomatic overtures to China, Marshall opposed, arguing that it was impossible to negotiate with the Communist government. In addition, Marshall expressed concern that concessions to China would undermine confidence in the U.S. among its Asian allies, including Japan and the Philippines. When some in Congress favored expanding the war in Korea and confronting China, Marshall argued against a wider war in Korea, continuing instead to stress the importance of containing the Soviet Union during the Cold War
Cold War
battle for primacy in Europe. Relief of General MacArthur[edit] Main article: President Truman's relief of General Douglas MacArthur Increasingly concerned about public statements from General Douglas MacArthur, commander of United Nations
United Nations
forces fighting in the Korean War, which contradicted President Harry S. Truman's on prosecution of the war, on the morning of 6 April 1951, Truman held a meeting with Marshall, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Omar Bradley, Secretary of State Acheson and advisor W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
to discuss whether MacArthur should be removed from command. Harriman was emphatically in favor of MacArthur's relief, but Bradley opposed it. Marshall asked for more time to consider the matter. Acheson was in favor but did not disclose this, instead warning Truman that if he did it, MacArthur's relief would cause "the biggest fight of your administration." At another meeting the following day, Marshall and Bradley continued to oppose MacArthur's relief. On 8 April, the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Joint Chiefs of Staff
met with Marshall, and each expressed the view that MacArthur's relief was desirable from a "military point of view," suggesting that "if MacArthur were not relieved, a large segment of our people would charge that civil authorities no longer controlled the military." Marshall, Bradley, Acheson and Harriman met with Truman again on 9 April. Bradley informed the President of the views of the Joint Chiefs, and Marshall added that he agreed with them. Truman wrote in his diary that "it is of unanimous opinion of all that MacArthur be relieved. All four so advise."[61] (The Joint Chiefs would later insist that they had only "concurred" with the relief, not "recommended" it.) On April 11, 1951, President Truman directed transmittal of an order to MacArthur, issued over Bradley's signature, relieving MacArthur of his assignment in Korea and directing him to turn over command to Matthew Ridgway. In line with Marshall's view, and those of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, MacArthur's relief was looked upon by proponents as being necessary to reassert the tenet of civilian control of the military. Retirement[edit] Marshall retired in September 1951 to his home, Dodona Manor, in Leesburg, Virginia
Virginia
to tend to his gardens and continue his passion for horseback riding. He was head of the American delegation at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
in 1953. He also served as Chairman of the American Battle Monuments Commission
American Battle Monuments Commission
from 1949 to 1959. Death and burial[edit]

Grave site of George Marshall
George Marshall
at Arlington National Cemetery

Marshall died at Walter Reed Hospital in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
on October 16, 1959 at the age of 78. He is interred at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia
Virginia
in Section 7, Grave 8198. Marshall is buried with his first wife, Elizabeth Carter Coles (1875–1927); his first wife's mother, Elizabeth Pendleton Coles (1849–1929); and his second wife, Katherine Tupper Brown Marshall (1882–1978). Reputation and legacy[edit] Marshall's reputation for excellence as a military organizer and planner was recognized early in his career, and became known throughout the Army. In a performance appraisal prepared while Marshall was a lieutenant in the Philippines, his superior, Captain E. J. Williams responded to the routine question of whether he would want the evaluated officer to serve under his command again by writing of Marshall "Should the exigencies of active service place him in exalted command I would be glad to serve under him." (Emphasis added.)[62] In 1913 General Johnson Hagood, then a lieutenant colonel, completed a written evaluation of Marshall's performance in which he called Marshall a military genius. Responding to the question of whether he would want his subordinate Marshall to serve under him again, Hagood wrote "Yes, but I would prefer to serve under his command." (Emphasis added.)[63] In addition to his military success, Marshall is primarily remembered as the driving force behind the Marshall Plan, which provided billions of dollars in aid to post war Europe to restart the economies of the destroyed countries. In recent years, the cooperation required between former European adversaries as part of the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
has been recognized as one of the earliest factors that led to formation of the European Coal and Steel Community, and eventually the European Union.[64] In a television interview after leaving office, Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
was asked which American he thought had made the greatest contribution of the preceding thirty years. Without hesitation, Truman picked Marshall, adding "I don't think in this age in which I have lived, that there has been a man who has been a greater administrator; a man with a knowledge of military affairs equal to General Marshall."[65] Orson Welles
Orson Welles
said in an interview with Dick Cavett
Dick Cavett
that "Marshall is the greatest man I ever met... I think he was the greatest human being who was also a great man... He was a tremendous gentleman, an old fashioned institution which isn't with us anymore."[66] Family life[edit] George Marshall
George Marshall
was the youngest of three siblings.[67] His older brother Stuart Bradford Marshall (1875–1956) was a graduate of the Virginia
Virginia
Military Institute, and became a manager and executive in several metal production corporations, including the American Manganese Manufacturing Company.[68][69][70] He later worked as a metallurgist and consulting engineer specializing in the production and operation of blast furnaces, coke ovens, and foundries.[71] George and Stuart Marshall were long estranged; according to relatives, George Marshall's first wife, Lily, had dated other VMI cadets before him, and rejected their proposals, to include Stuart Marshall.[68] When Stuart found out George was engaged to Lily, Stuart made unkind remarks about her, and George "cut him off my list".[68] His sister, Marie (1876–1962) was the wife of Dr. John J. Singer, an Army physician who died in 1934.[72] Marshall married Elizabeth Carter Coles, or "Lily", at her mother's home on Letcher Avenue in Lexington, Virginia, on 11 February 1902.[73] She died on 15 September 1927 after thyroid surgery that put significant strain on her weak heart.[74] They did not have children.[75][76] On 15 October 1930, Marshall married Katherine Boyce Tupper (8 October 1882 – 18 December 1978); John J. Pershing
John J. Pershing
served as best man.[77][78][79] Katherine Tupper was the mother of three children with Baltimore
Baltimore
lawyer Clifton Stevenson Brown, who had been murdered by a disgruntled client in 1928.[80][81] The second Mrs. Marshall was a graduate of the American Academy of Dramatic Arts; she later studied at the Comédie-Française, and toured with Frank Benson's English Shakespearean Company.[82] She authored a memoir, 1946's Together: Annals of an Army
Army
Wife.[83] One of Marshall's stepsons, Allen Tupper Brown, was an Army
Army
lieutenant who was killed by a German sniper in Italy on May 29, 1944. Another stepson was Major Clifton Stevenson Brown Jr. (1914–1952). Step-daughter Molly Brown Winn, who was the mother of actress Kitty Winn, was married to US Army
Army
Major James J. Winn, who had been an aide to General Marshall. Marshall was a Freemason, having been made a Mason "at sight" in 1941 by the Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia. [84] George Marshall
George Marshall
maintained a home, known as Dodona Manor and later as The Marshall House, in Leesburg, Virginia.[85] This was his first and only permanent residence owned by Marshall who later said "this is Home...a real home after 41 years of wandering."[86] The restored home and its surrounding gardens are open to the public as a museum. Fictional portrayals[edit] Marshall has been played in film and television by

Keith Andes
Keith Andes
in the 1970 film Tora! Tora! Tora! Ward Costello in the 1977 film MacArthur Dana Andrews
Dana Andrews
in the 1979 film Ike, The War Years. Norman Burton in the 1988 miniseries War and Remembrance. Hal Holbrook
Hal Holbrook
in the 1989 television film Day One. Harris Yulin in the 1995 television movie Truman. Harve Presnell in the 1998 film Saving Private Ryan. Scott Wilson in the 2001 film Pearl Harbor. Donald Eugene McCoy in the 2009 Chinese movie The Founding of a Republic. Richard DuVal in the 2012 Russian mini-series "Chkalov".

Marshall is a character in three different alternate history timelines in novels by Harry Turtledove: Worldwar, Joe Steele, and The Hot War. Dates of rank[edit]

No pin insignia in 1902 Second lieutenant, United States
United States
Army: February 2, 1901 (Appointment accepted on February 2, 1902.)

First lieutenant, United States
United States
Army: March 7, 1907

Captain, United States
United States
Army: July 1, 1916

Major, National Army: August 5, 1917

Lieutenant colonel, National Army: January 5, 1918

Colonel, National Army: August 27, 1918

Captain, Regular Army
Army
(reverted to permanent rank): June 30, 1920

Major, Regular Army : July 1, 1920

Lieutenant colonel, Regular Army: August 21, 1923

Colonel, Regular Army: September 1, 1933

Brigadier general, Regular Army: October 1, 1936

Major general, Regular Army: September 1, 1939

General, temporary, for service as Army
Army
Chief of Staff: September 1, 1939 [87]

General of the Army, Army
Army
of the United States: December 16, 1944

General of the Army
Army
rank made permanent in the Regular Army: April 11, 1946

[88] Awards and decorations[edit] U.S. military honors[edit]

Distinguished Service Medal with one Oak Leaf Cluster

Silver Star

Philippine Campaign Medal

World War I
World War I
Victory Medal with four campaign clasps

Army
Army
of Occupation of Germany Medal

American Defense Service Medal

American Campaign Medal

World War II
World War II
Victory Medal

National Defense Service Medal

Foreign orders[edit]

Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Order of the Bath
(United Kingdom)

Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour
Legion of Honour
(France)

Grand Cross of the Order of Military Merit (Brazil)
Order of Military Merit (Brazil)
(Presented by General Francisco José Pinto on behalf of President Getulio Vargas on 3 June 1939)[89]

Grand Cross of the Order of Merit (Chile)

Grand Cross of the Order of Boyacá Cherifien (Colombia) (Given by President Ospina Perez as he opened the IX Panamerican Conference, March 1948)

Member 1st Class of the Order of Military Merit (Cuba)

Member 1st Class of the Order of Abdon Calderon
Order of Abdon Calderon
(Ecuador)

Knight Grand Cross with swords of the Order of George I (Greece)

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus
(Italy)

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy
Order of the Crown of Italy
(Italy)

Grand Cross of the Order of Ouissam Alaouite
Order of Ouissam Alaouite
(Morocco)

Knight Grand Cross with swords of the Order of Orange-Nassau (Netherlands)

Grand Officer of the Order of the Sun (Peru)

Member 1st Class of the Order of Suvorov
Order of Suvorov
(Soviet Union)

Foreign decorations and medals[edit]

Croix de Guerre
Croix de Guerre
1914-1918 with bronze palm (France, WWI)

Medal for the Centennial of the Republic of Liberia

Silver Medal for Bravery (Montenegro)

Medal of Solidarity, 2nd Class (Panama)

Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
Coronation Medal (United Kingdom)

Civilian honors[edit]

1943 - Awarded the American Legion's Distinguished Service Medal. October 16, 1945 - presented with permanent membership in the Reserve Officers Association by President Harry Truman. 1946 - awarded the United States
United States
Congressional Gold Medal.[90] 1948 - awarded the Grand Lodge of New York's Distinguished Achievement Award for his role and contributions during and after World War II. 1953 - Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
for the Marshall Plan. 1959 - Karlspreis (International Charlemagne Prize
Charlemagne Prize
of the city of Aachen). 1965–1978 - The United States
United States
Postal Service honored him with a Prominent Americans series
Prominent Americans series
20¢ postage stamp.

Namesakes[edit]

1960 George C. Marshall Space Flight Center, originally the Army Ballistic Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, became a NASA field center and was renamed. The British Parliament established the Marshall Scholarship
Marshall Scholarship
in recognition of Marshall's contributions to Anglo-American relations. Many buildings and streets throughout the U.S. and other nations are named in his honor. George C. Marshall Award, the highest award given to a chapter in Kappa Alpha Order. George C. Marshall High School, founded in 1962 and located in Falls Church, Virginia, is the only public high school in the United States named for Marshall. The nickname of the school – "The Statesmen" – appropriately reflects his life and contributions. George C. Marshall International Center, a non-profit organization that oversees Marshall's Leesburg home as a museum and works to interpret Marshall's legacy. The Marshall Elementary School is in the Laurel Highlands School District, Uniontown, Pennsylvania. George C. Marshall Elementary School: located in Vancouver, Washington. The George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies
George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies
in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany George Catlett Marshall Medal, awarded by the Association of the United States
United States
Army. Awarded to Bob Hope
Bob Hope
in 1972. The George C. Marshall Award, awarded to a citizen of Leesburg, Virginia
Virginia
who has demonstrated an exemplary commitment to the community.

Bibliography[edit]

Behrman, Greg. The Most Noble Adventure: The Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
and How America Helped Rebuild Europe. New York: Free Press, 2008. Cray, Ed. General of the Army: George C. Marshall, Soldier and Statesman. Norton, 1990. 847 pp. Harold I. Gullan; "Expectations of Infamy: Roosevelt and Marshall Prepare for War, 1938–41." Presidential Studies Quarterly Volume: 28#3 1998. pp. 510+ online edition Hein, David. "In War for Peace: General George C. Marshall's Core Convictions and Ethical Leadership". Touchstone 26, no. 2 (March/April 2013): 41–48. Hein, David. "General George C. Marshall: Why He Still Matters." Marshall magazine (George C. Marshall Foundation, Lexington, VA), Fall 2016, pp. 12–17. Jordan, Jonathan W., American Warlords: How Roosevelt's High Command Led America to Victory in World War II
World War II
(NAL/Caliber 2015). May, Ernest R. "1947–48: When Marshall Kept the U.S. Out of War in China". Journal of Military History 2002 66(4): 1001–10. ISSN 0899-3718 Levine, Steven I. "A New Look at American Mediation in the Chinese Civil War: the Marshall Mission
Marshall Mission
and Manchuria." Diplomatic History 1979 3(4): 349–375. ISSN 0145-2096 Parrish, Thomas. Roosevelt and Marshall: Partners in Politics and War. 1989. 608 pp. Forrest Pogue, Viking, (1963–87) Four-volume authorized biography: complete text is online

George C. Marshall: Education of a General, 1880–1939 George C Marshall: Ordeal and Hope, 1939–1943 George C. Marshall: Organizer of Victory 1943–1945 George C. Marshall: Statesman 1945–1959

Steele, Richard W. The First Offensive, 1942: Roosevelt, Marshall, and the Making of American Strategy. 1973. 239 pp. Mark C. Stoler, George C. Marshall: Soldier-Statesman of the American Century. (1989) 252pp Unger, Debi and Irwin with Stanley Hirshson. George Marshall: a Biography. Harper, 2014. ISBN 9780060577193

See also[edit]

Biography portal World War I
World War I
portal World War II
World War II
portal United States
United States
Army
Army
portal

German Marshall Fund George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies George C. Marshall Foundation USS George C. Marshall (SSBN-654)

References[edit]

^ Marshall Papers Pentagon Office Selected Correspondence Box 69 Folder 18 George C. Marshall Foundation http://www.marshallfoundation.org ^ U.S. officers holding five-star rank never retire; they draw full active duty pay for life.Spencer C. Tucker (2011). The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 1685. ISBN 978-1-85109-961-0.  ^ "George C. Marshall – Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
Administration". Office of the Secretary of Defense – Historical Office.  ^ "George Catlett Marshall, U.S. Army
Army
Chief of Staff, Secretary of State". CNN. Archived from the original on 2007-11-13. Retrieved 2007-12-12.  ^ a b "General George C Marshall". general-wedemeyer.com. Retrieved 7 September 2015.  ^ W. Del Testa, David; Florence Lemoine; John Strickland (2001). Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists. p. 120.  ^ a b New York Times: January 8, 1949, p. 1. ^ George Marshall
George Marshall
Childhood ^ Higginbotham, Don (1985). George Washington
George Washington
and the American Military Tradition. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-8203-2400-5.  ^ Uldrich, Jack (2005). Soldier, Statesman, Peacemaker: Leadership Lessons From George C. Marshall. pp. 14–15.  ^ Groom, Winston (2015). The Generals: Patton, MacArthur, Marshall, and the Winning of World War II. Washington, DC: National Geographic. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4262-1549-0.  ^ "All-Southern Football Team". The Times. February 10, 1901. p. 10. Retrieved March 10, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  ^ W. H. Hoge (1901). "All Southern Football Team". Spalding's Football Guide: 123. Retrieved March 10, 2015 – via Google books.  ^ Risjord, Norman K. (2006). Giants in Their Time: Representative Americans from the Jazz Age to the Cold War. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-7425-2784-3.  ^ Pops, Gerald M. (2009). Ethical Leadership in Turbulent Times: Modeling the Public Career of George. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 307. ISBN 978-0-7391-2476-5.  ^ Axelrod, Alan; Kingston, Jack A. (2007). Encyclopedia of World War II. 1. New York, NY: Facts on File. p. 547. ISBN 978-0-8160-6022-1.  ^ "George Catlett Marshall: A Chronology". Biography: George C. Marshall. Lexington, VA: The George C. Marshall Foundation. Retrieved August 24, 2016.  ^ Stoler, Mark (1989). George C. Marshall: Soldier-Statesman of the American Century. pp. 21–25.  ^ a b c d e f g h "George C. Marshall: Timeline". ^ Calhoun, Mark T. (2012). "General Lesley J. McNair: Little-Known Architect of the U.S. Army" (PDF). kuscholarworks.ku.edu/. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas. p. 43.  ^ "General Lesley J. McNair: Little-Known Architect of the U.S. Army", p. 43. ^ Davenport, Matthew J. (2015). First Over There. New York: St. Martins. ISBN 1250056446.  ^ Marshall, George C. (1976). Memoirs of My Services in the World War, 1917–1918 (PDF). New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-395-20725-3.  ^ a b Memoirs of My Services in the World War, 1917–1918, p. 93. ^ Memoirs of My Services in the World War, 1917–1918, pp. 93–94. ^ Lengel, Edward G. (2008). To Conquer Hell. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-7931-9.  ^ Tucker, Spencer; Roberts, Priscilla Mary (2006). World War I: A Student Encyclopedia. I, A–D. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 1186. ISBN 978-1-85109-879-8.  ^ a b World War I: A Student Encyclopedia, p. 1186. ^ Campbell, James (September 30, 2008). The Ghost Mountain Boys: Their Epic March and the Terrifying Battle for New Guinea – The Forgotten War of the South Pacific. Three Rivers Press. p. 400. ISBN 978-0-307-33597-5.  ^ "Home". www.georgecmarshall.org. Retrieved 2016-07-04.  ^ George C. Marshall's Early Career. georgecmarshall.org ^ , Bland, Larry I., George C. Marshall and the Education of Army Leaders, Military Review 68 (October 1988) 27–51, Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas ^ a b Ossad, Steven L., Command Failures: Lessons Learned from Lloyd R. Fredendall, Army
Army
Magazine, March 2003 ^ Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers: The U.S. Army
Army
from the Normandy Beaches to the Bulge to the Surrender of Germany June 7, 1944 – May 7, 1945, New York: Simon & Schuster (1997), pp. 271–84 ^ Keast, William R. (Maj), Provision of Enlisted Replacements, Army Ground Forces Study No. 7, Washington, D.C.: Historical Section – Headquarters Army
Army
Ground Forces, 314.7(1 Sept 1946)GNHIS September 1, 1945 ^ George, John B. (Lt. Col), Shots Fired In Anger, NRA Press (1981), ISBN 0-935998-42-X, pp. 13–21 ^ a b c d Keast, William R. (Maj), Provision of Enlisted Replacements ^ Hanford, William B., A Dangerous Assignment, Stackpole Books, ISBN 978-0-8117-3485-1, p. viii ^ a b Vandergriff, Donald E., Seven Wars and a Century Later, a Failed System, Article ^ a b Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers, pp. 277–84 ^ Henry, Mark R., The US Army
Army
in World War II: Northwest Europe, Osprey Publishing (2001), ISBN 1-84176-086-2, ISBN 978-1-84176-086-5, pp. 12–14 ^ a b c Henry, Mark R., The US Army
Army
in World War II: Northwest Europe, Osprey Publishing (2001), ISBN 1-84176-086-2, ISBN 978-1-84176-086-5, pp. 12–14 ^ Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers, pp. 271–84 ^ Ambrose, Stephen, Citizen Soldiers, p. 277 ^ Buell, Thomas B.; John H. Bradley. The Second World War: Europe and the Mediterranean. p. 258.  ^ Pogue, Forrest C. "The Supreme Commander". ibiblio.org. OFFICE OF THE CHIEF OF MILITARY HISTORY. Retrieved 9 September 2015.  ^ Hearings before the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Congress of the United States, Seventy-Ninth Congress (Washington, D.C.), Part 39, pp. 144–45. ^ Conclusions and Recommendations of the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Congress of the United States, Seventy-Ninth Congress (Washington, D.C.) pp. 252, 265 ^ Stoler, Mark A. (1989). George C. Marshall. pp. 145–51.  ^ Tsou, Tang (1963). America's Failure in China, 1941–50.  ^ Harold M. Tanner (18 March 2013). The Battle for Manchuria and the Fate of China: Siping, 1946. Indiana University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-253-00734-6.  ^ "蔣介石敗退台灣最恨誰?日記顯示並非毛澤東" [Who did Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
hate most with his withdraw to Taiwan? Diary says it's not Mao Zedong]. Xin Hua Net. July 31, 2013.  ^ "The Marshall Plan". georgecmarshall.org. Archived from the original on January 9, 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-17.  ^ McCullough, David (1992). Truman. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 717. ISBN 0-671-86920-5.  ^ Behrman, Greg (2007). The Most Noble Adventure: The Marshall Plan and the Time When America Helped Save Europe. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-8263-9.  ^ "President Truman's Decision to Recognize Israel". Retrieved 2009-02-17.  ^ "Truman Adviser Recalls May 14, 1948 US Decision to Recognize Israel". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. May–June 1991. p. 17. Retrieved 2009-02-17.  ^ "Recognition of Israel". The Truman Library. Retrieved 2009-02-17.  ^ Uldrich, Jack (2005). Soldier, Statesman, Peacemaker: Leadership Lessons from George C. Marshall. AMACOM Books. ISBN 9780814415962. Marshall even went to great lengths to prevent himself from falling prey to the allures of power. He had always refused to vote because he subscribed to the belief that a professional soldier should remain above politics, but he took a number of other steps to insulate himself from the corrupting influence of power once he became chief of staff.  ^ Lewis, Adrian (2012). The American Culture of War: The History of US Military Force from World War II
World War II
to Operation Enduring Freedon. Routledge. p. 104. ISBN 978-0415890199.  ^ "Diary entries, 6–7, April 1951, Truman Papers". Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. Retrieved 5 June 2011.  ^ "1-070, Editorial Note on Becoming General Liggett's Aide, February 1915". marshallfoundation.org. George C. Marshall Foundation. Retrieved July 4, 2016.  ^ Puryear, Edgar F. Jr. (2000). American Generalship: Character Is Everything: The Art of Command. New York, NY: Random House. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-89141-770-5.  ^ "History of the Marshall Plan". marshallfoundation.org. George C. Marshall Foundation. Retrieved July 4, 2016.  ^ Farinacci, Donald J. (2010). Truman and MacArthur: Adversaries for a Common Cause. Bennington, VT: Merriam Press. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-557-40902-0.  ^ " Orson Welles
Orson Welles
talks about Cornelia Lunt". YouTube.  ^ Jeffers, H. Paul; Axelrod, Alan (2010). Marshall: Lessons in Leadership. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press. pp. 6–8, 10, 12. ISBN 978-0-230-11425-8.  ^ a b c Marshall: Lessons in Leadership, pp. 6–8, 10, 12. ^ Parmelee, H. C. (August 15, 1918). "Personal: Mr. Stuart B. Marshall". Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering. Vol. XIX no. 4. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Company. p. 214.  ^ Glenn, Justin (2014). The Washingtons: A Family History. 5 (Part One). El Dorado, CA: Savas Publishing. p. 568. ISBN 978-1-940669-30-4.  ^ Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering, p. 214. ^ "A Greenburg Resident: General Marshall's Sister Dies at 85". Pittsburgh Press. Pittsburgh, PA. June 12, 1962. p. 22. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Stevens, Sharon Ritenour; Williams, Alice Trump (2009). Images of America: Lexington. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-7385-6818-8.  ^ Mullins, Richard J. (January 1, 2017). "The General's Goiter: The Outcome of a Subtotal Thyroidectomy Performed on United States
United States
Army General George Catlett Marshall". Journal of the American College of Surgeons. New York, NY: American College of Surgeons. p. 79.  ^ Brooks, David (2015). The Road to Character. New York, NY: Random House. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-8129-9325-7.  ^ https://gw.geneanet.org/tdowling?lang=en&p=george+catlett&n=marshall&oc=1 ^ "Pershing is Best Man for His Former Aide". The Morning News. Wilmington, DE. Associated Press. October 16, 1930. p. 9. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ http://www.podles.org/dialogue/katherine-boyce-tupper-wife-of-a-murder-victim-and-wife-of-a-general-3074.htm ^ [1] ^ "Pershing is Best Man for His Former Aide". ^ Pearson, Richard (December 20, 1978). "Katherine Marshall, 96, Dies". Washington Post. Washington, DC.  ^ "Katherine Marshall, 96, Dies". ^ Marshall, Katherine Tupper (1946). Together: Annals of an Army
Army
Wife. New York, NY: Tupper and Love. p. Title.  ^ "Famous Masons". MWGLNY. January 2014. Archived from the original on 2013-11-10.  ^ "The Marshall House". www.georgecmarshall.org. Retrieved 11 July 2016.  ^ Wheeler, Linda (20 February 2015). "Restoration of Marshall House in Leesburg Enters Home Stretch". www.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 11 July 2016.  ^ From 1917 to 1945 Chiefs of Staff of the U.S. Army
Army
were usually promoted to the rank of general (O-10) temporarily for their term of office. ^ Official Register of Commissioned Officers of the United States Army. 1948. Vol. 1. ^ "Homenagem á Missão Militar Norte Americana". Correio Paulistano. VASP. 4 June 1939. Retrieved 13 October 2015.  ^ Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives Archived July 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.

Primary sources[edit]

The Papers of George Catlett Marshall: (Larry I. Bland and Sharon Ritenour Stevens, eds.)

Vol. 1: The Soldierly Spirit," December 1880 – June 1939. (1981) Vol. 2: "We Cannot Delay," July 1, 1939 – December 6, 1941. (1986) Vol. 3: The Right Man for the Job, December 7, 1941 – May 31, 1943. (1991) Vol. 4: "Aggressive and Determined Leadership," June 1, 1943 – December 31, 1944. (1996) Vol. 5: "The Finest Soldier," January 1, 1945 – January 7, 1947. (2003) Vol. 6: "The Whole World Hangs in the Balance," January 8, 1947 – September 30, 1949. (2012) Vol. 7: "The Man of the Age," October 1, 1949 – October 16, 1959. (2016), xxxviii, 1046 pp.

Bland, Larry; Jeans, Roger B.; and Wilkinson, Mark, ed. George C. Marshall's Mediation Mission to China, December 1945 – January 1947. Lexington, Va.: George C. Marshall Found., 1998. 661 pp. Marshall, George C. George C. Marshall: Interviews and Reminiscences for Forrest C. Pogue. Lexington, Va.: George C. Marshall Found., 1991. 698 pp. online edition George Catlett Marshall. Memoirs of My Services in the World War, 1917–1918 (1976) Thompson, Rachel Yarnell. Marshall – A Statesman Shaped in the Crucible of War. George C. Marshall International Center, 2014.

Further reading[edit]

The Infantry Journal Incorporated (1939). Infantry in Battle (PDF). Washington, DC: Garrett and Massey. ISBN 0-940328-04-6. [permanent dead link]

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: George Marshall

Wikimedia Commons has media related to George Marshall.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: George Marshall

Brief biography at the official Nobel Prize site The Marshall Foundation George C. Marshall Center, Garmisch Germany The Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
Speech MP3 The Marshall Films Collection Marshall Scholarships The Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
Speech[permanent dead link] The Marshall House
The Marshall House
(Dodona Manor) "George C. Marshall: Soldier of Peace" (Smithsonian Institution) Annotated bibliography for George Marshall
George Marshall
from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues The Last Salute: Civil and Military Funeral, 1921–1969, Chapter XIX, General of the Army
Army
George C. Marshall, Special
Special
Military Funeral, 16 – October 20, 1959 by B. C. Mossman and M. W. Stark. United States
United States
Army
Army
Center of Military History, 1991. CMH Pub 90-1. The George C. Marshall Index at the Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Presidential Library and Museum, Part 1 and Part 2 "General George C. Marshall and Vancouver". City of Vancouver Washington. Retrieved January 25, 2017.  Task Force Marshall Information Page Joint Committee on The Investigation of Pearl Harbor, 79th Congress The short film Big Picture: The General Marshall Story is available for free download at the Internet Archive Rachel Yarnell Thompson's Marshall Biography: Marshall – A Statesman Shaped in the Crucible of War George Marshall
George Marshall
on IMDb Newspaper clippings about George Marshall
George Marshall
in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
German National Library of Economics
(ZBW).

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Military offices

Preceded by Stanley Dunbar Embick Deputy Chief of Staff of the United States
United States
Army 1938–1939 Succeeded by Lorenzo D. Gasser

Preceded by Malin Craig Chief of Staff of the United States
United States
Army 1939–1945 Succeeded by Dwight D. Eisenhower

Political offices

Preceded by James F. Byrnes U.S. Secretary of State Served under: Harry S. Truman 1947–1949 Succeeded by Dean Acheson

Preceded by Louis A. Johnson U.S. Secretary of Defense Served under: Harry S. Truman 1950–1951 Succeeded by Robert A. Lovett

Awards and achievements

Preceded by Prince Konoye Cover of Time Magazine July 29, 1940 Succeeded by Sir Alan F. Brooke

Preceded by Ed Flynn Cover of Time Magazine October 19, 1942 Succeeded by John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort

Preceded by Patriarch Sergius I of Moscow Cover of Time Magazine January 3, 1944 Succeeded by Erich von Manstein

Preceded by Francisco Franco Cover of Time Magazine March 25, 1946 Succeeded by Omar Bradley

Preceded by King George II of Greece Cover of Time Magazine March 10, 1947 Succeeded by Arnold J. Toynbee

Preceded by "Madonna and Child" by Alesso Baldovinetti Cover of Time Magazine January 5, 1948 Succeeded by Gregory Peck

Preceded by Lilli Palmer
Lilli Palmer
and Rex Harrison Cover of Life Magazine December 18, 1950 Succeeded by Christmas Children Special

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Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September
Black September
in Jordan Corrective Movement (Syria) Cambodian Civil War Koza riot Realpolitik Ping-pong diplomacy Ugandan-Tanzanian War 1971 Turkish military memorandum Corrective Revolution (Egypt) Four Power Agreement on Berlin Bangladesh Liberation War 1972 Nixon visit to China North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972 Yemenite War of 1972 NDF Rebellion Eritrean Civil Wars 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War 1973 oil crisis Carnation Revolution Spanish transition Metapolitefsi Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Rhodesian Bush War Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Oromo conflict Ogaden War Ethiopian Civil War Lebanese Civil War Sino-Albanian split Cambodian–Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Operation Condor Dirty War
Dirty War
(Argentina) 1976 Argentine coup d'état Korean Air Lines Flight 902 Yemenite War of 1979 Grand Mosque seizure Iranian Revolution Saur Revolution New Jewel Movement 1979 Herat uprising Seven Days to the River Rhine Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union

1980s

Soviet–Afghan War 1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts 1980 Turkish coup d'état Peruvian conflict Casamance conflict Ugandan Bush War Lord's Resistance Army
Army
insurgency Eritrean Civil Wars 1982 Ethiopian–Somali Border War Ndogboyosoi War United States
United States
invasion of Grenada Able Archer 83 Star Wars Iran–Iraq War Somali Rebellion 1986 Black Sea incident 1988 Black Sea bumping incident South Yemen Civil War Bougainville Civil War 8888 Uprising Solidarity

Soviet reaction

Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 People Power Revolution Glasnost Perestroika Nagorno-Karabakh War Afghan Civil War United States
United States
invasion of Panama 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Velvet Revolution Romanian Revolution Peaceful Revolution Die Wende

1990s

Mongolian Revolution of 1990 German reunification Yemeni unification Fall of communism in Albania Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts

Abkhazia China-Taiwan Korea Nagorno-Karabakh South Ossetia Transnistria Sino-Indian border dispute North Borneo dispute

Foreign policy

Truman Doctrine Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Hallstein Doctrine Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies

Capitalism

Chicago school Keynesianism Monetarism Neoclassical economics Reaganomics Supply-side economics Thatcherism

Communism

Marxism–Leninism Castroism Eurocommunism Guevarism Hoxhaism Juche Maoism Trotskyism Naxalism Stalinism Titoism

Other

Fascism Islamism Liberal democracy Social democracy Third-Worldism White supremacy Apartheid

Organizations

ASEAN CIA Comecon EEC KGB MI6 Non-Aligned Movement SAARC Safari Club Stasi

Propaganda

Active measures Crusade for Freedom Izvestia Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare TASS Voice of America Voice of Russia

Races

Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race

See also

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Soviet espionage in the United States Soviet Union– United States
United States
relations USSR–USA summits Russian espionage in the United States American espionage in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Federation Russia– NATO
NATO
relations Brinkmanship CIA and the Cultural Cold War Cold War
Cold War
II

Category Commons Portal Timeline List of conflicts

v t e

Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

1901–1925

1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy 1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat 1903 Randal Cremer 1904 Institut de Droit International 1905 Bertha von Suttner 1906 Theodore Roosevelt 1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault 1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer 1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant 1910 International Peace Bureau 1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried 1912 Elihu Root 1913 Henri La Fontaine 1914 1915 1916 1917 International Committee of the Red Cross 1918 1919 Woodrow Wilson 1920 Léon Bourgeois 1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange 1922 Fridtjof Nansen 1923 1924 1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

1926–1950

1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann 1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde 1928 1929 Frank B. Kellogg 1930 Nathan Söderblom 1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler 1932 1933 Norman Angell 1934 Arthur Henderson 1935 Carl von Ossietzky 1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas 1937 Robert Cecil 1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 International Committee of the Red Cross 1945 Cordell Hull 1946 Emily Balch / John Mott 1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee 1948 1949 John Boyd Orr 1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975

1951 Léon Jouhaux 1952 Albert Schweitzer 1953 George Marshall 1954 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1955 1956 1957 Lester B. Pearson 1958 Georges Pire 1959 Philip Noel-Baker 1960 Albert Lutuli 1961 Dag Hammarskjöld 1962 Linus Pauling 1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies 1964 Martin Luther King Jr. 1965 UNICEF 1966 1967 1968 René Cassin 1969 International Labour Organization 1970 Norman Borlaug 1971 Willy Brandt 1972 1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger 1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō 1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000

1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present

2001 United Nations / Kofi Annan 2002 Jimmy Carter 2003 Shirin Ebadi 2004 Wangari Maathai 2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei 2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus 2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2008 Martti Ahtisaari 2009 Barack Obama 2010 Liu Xiaobo 2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman 2012 European Union 2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons 2014 Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai 2015 Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet 2016 Juan Manuel Santos 2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

v t e

Cabinet of President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945–53)

Vice President

None (1945–49) Alben W. Barkley
Alben W. Barkley
(1949–53)

Secretary of State

Edward R. Stettinius Jr. (1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1945–47) George C. Marshall (1947–49) Dean G. Acheson (1949–53)

Secretary of the Treasury

Henry Morgenthau Jr.
Henry Morgenthau Jr.
(1945) Fred M. Vinson
Fred M. Vinson
(1945–46) John W. Snyder (1946–53)

Secretary of War

Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
(1945) Robert P. Patterson
Robert P. Patterson
(1945–47) Kenneth C. Royall (1947)

Secretary of Defense

James V. Forrestal (1947–49) Louis A. Johnson
Louis A. Johnson
(1949–50) George C. Marshall (1950–51) Robert A. Lovett
Robert A. Lovett
(1951–53)

Attorney General

Francis B. Biddle (1945) Tom C. Clark
Tom C. Clark
(1945–49) J. Howard McGrath
J. Howard McGrath
(1949–52) James P. McGranery (1952–53)

Postmaster General

Frank C. Walker (1945) Robert E. Hannegan
Robert E. Hannegan
(1945–47) Jesse Monroe Donaldson (1947–53)

Secretary of the Navy

James V. Forrestal (1945–47)

Secretary of the Interior

Harold L. Ickes
Harold L. Ickes
(1945–46) Julius A. Krug (1946–49) Oscar Littleton Chapman (1949–53)

Secretary of Agriculture

Claude Raymond Wickard (1945) Clinton P. Anderson (1945–48) Charles F. Brannan
Charles F. Brannan
(1948–53)

Secretary of Commerce

Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1945–46) W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
(1946–48) Charles Sawyer (1948–53)

Secretary of Labor

Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
(1945) Lewis B. Schwellenbach
Lewis B. Schwellenbach
(1945–48) Maurice J. Tobin
Maurice J. Tobin
(1948–53)

v t e

Recipients of the Charlemagne Prize

1950–1975

1950 Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi 1951 Hendrik Brugmans 1952 Alcide De Gasperi 1953 Jean Monnet 1954 Konrad Adenauer 1955 1956 Winston Churchill 1957 Paul-Henri Spaak 1958 Robert Schuman 1959 George Marshall 1960 Joseph Bech 1961 Walter Hallstein 1962 1963 Edward Heath 1964 Antonio Segni 1965 1966 Jens Otto Krag 1967 Joseph Luns 1968 1969 European Commission 1970 François Seydoux de Clausonne 1971 1972 Roy Jenkins 1973 Salvador de Madariaga 1974 1975

1976–2000

1976 Leo Tindemans 1977 Walter Scheel 1978 Konstantinos Karamanlis 1979 Emilio Colombo 1980 1981 Simone Veil 1982 King Juan Carlos I 1983 1984 1985 1986 People of Luxembourg 1987 Henry Kissinger 1988 François Mitterrand / Helmut Kohl 1989 Brother Roger 1990 Gyula Horn 1991 Václav Havel 1992 Jacques Delors 1993 Felipe González 1994 Gro Harlem Brundtland 1995 Franz Vranitzky 1996 Queen Beatrix 1997 Roman Herzog 1998 Bronisław Geremek 1999 Tony Blair 2000 Bill Clinton

2001–present

2001 György Konrád 2002 Euro 2003 Valéry Giscard d'Estaing 2004 Pat Cox / Pope John Paul II1 2005 Carlo Azeglio Ciampi 2006 Jean-Claude Juncker 2007 Javier Solana 2008 Angela Merkel 2009 Andrea Riccardi 2010 Donald Tusk 2011 Jean-Claude Trichet 2012 Wolfgang Schäuble 2013 Dalia Grybauskaitė 2014 Herman Van Rompuy 2015 Martin Schulz 2016 Pope Francis 2017 Timothy Garton Ash

1 Received extraordinary prize.

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 66479870 LCCN: n79109883 ISNI: 0000 0001 2281 1128 GND: 118731211 SELIBR: 307272 SUDOC: 027543773 BNF: cb12021217c (data) MusicBrainz: 3b2187ab-0d81-414f-b985-fe03dfeabc42 NLA: 36307042 NDL: 00524183 NKC: jn20000701

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