GEORGE BERNARD SHAW (/ˈdʒɔːrdʒ ˈbɜːrˌnərd ʃɔː/ ; 26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as BERNARD SHAW, was an Irish playwright, critic and polemicist whose influence on Western theatre, culture and politics extended from the 1880s to his death and beyond. He wrote more than sixty plays, including major works such as Man and Superman (1902), Pygmalion (1912) and Saint Joan (1923). With a range incorporating both contemporary satire and historical allegory, Shaw became the leading dramatist of his generation, and in 1925 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature .
Shaw's expressed views were often contentious; he promoted eugenics
and alphabet reform, and opposed vaccination and organised religion.
He courted unpopularity by denouncing both sides in the First World
War as equally culpable, and although not a republican , castigated
British policy on Ireland in the postwar period. These stances had no
lasting effect on his standing or productivity as a dramatist; the
inter-war years saw a series of often ambitious plays, which achieved
varying degrees of popular success. In 1938 he provided the screenplay
for a filmed version of Pygmalion for which he received an Academy
Award . His appetite for politics and controversy remained
undiminished; by the late 1920s he had largely renounced Fabian
gradualism and often wrote and spoke favourably of dictatorships of
the right and left—he expressed admiration for both Mussolini and
Stalin . In the final decade of his life he made fewer public
statements, but continued to write prolifically until shortly before
his death, aged ninety-four, having refused all state honours
Order of Merit
Since Shaw's death scholarly and critical opinion has varied about his works, but he has regularly been rated as second only to Shakespeare among British dramatists; analysts recognise his extensive influence on generations of English-language playwrights. The word "Shavian" has entered the language as encapsulating Shaw's ideas and his means of expressing them.
* 1 Life
* 1.1 Early years
* 1.2 London
* 1.3 Political awakening: Marxism, socialism,
* 1.4 Novelist and critic
* 2 Works
* 2.1 Plays
* 2.1.1 Early works * 2.1.2 1900–1909 * 2.1.3 1910–1919 * 2.1.4 1920–1950
* 2.2 Music and drama reviews
* 2.2.1 Music * 2.2.2 Drama
* 2.3 Political and social writings * 2.4 Fiction * 2.5 Letters and diaries * 2.6 Miscellaneous and autobiographical
* 3 Beliefs and opinions
* 4 Legacy and influence
* 4.1 Theatrical * 4.2 General
* 5 Notes
* 6 References
* 6.1 Citations
* 6.2 Sources
* 6.2.1 Books * 6.2.2 Shaw\'s writings * 6.2.3 Journals * 6.2.4 Newspapers * 6.2.5 Online
* 7 External links
Shaw's birthplace (2012 photograph). The plaque reads "Bernard Shaw, author of many plays, was born in this house, 26 July 1856".
Shaw was born at 3 Upper Synge Street in Portobello , a
lower-middle-class part of
By the time of Shaw's birth, his mother had become close to George John Lee, a flamboyant figure well known in Dublin's musical circles. Shaw retained a lifelong obsession that Lee might have been his biological father; there is no consensus among Shavian scholars on the likelihood of this. The young Shaw suffered no harshness from his mother, but he later recalled that her indifference and lack of affection hurt him deeply. He found solace in the music that abounded in the house. Lee was a conductor and teacher of singing; Bessie had a fine mezzo-soprano voice and was much influenced by Lee's unorthodox method of vocal production. The Shaws' house was often filled with music, with frequent gatherings of singers and players.
In 1862, Lee and the Shaws agreed to share a house, No. 1 Hatch
Street, in an affluent part of Dublin, and a country cottage on Dalkey
Hill , overlooking
Between 1865 and 1871, Shaw attended four schools, all of which he
hated. His experiences as a schoolboy left him disillusioned with
formal education: "Schools and schoolmasters", he later wrote, were
"prisons and turnkeys in which children are kept to prevent them
disturbing and chaperoning their parents." In October 1871 he left
school to become a junior clerk in a
In June 1873, Lee left
Early in 1876 Shaw learned from his mother that Agnes was dying of tuberculosis . He resigned from the land agents, and in March travelled to England to join his mother and Lucy at Agnes's funeral. He never again lived in Ireland, and did not visit it for twenty-nine years. Shaw in 1879
Initially, Shaw refused to seek clerical employment in London. His mother allowed him to live free of charge in her house in South Kensington , but he nevertheless needed an income. He had abandoned a teenage ambition to become a painter, and had no thought yet of writing for a living, but Lee found a little work for him, ghost-writing a musical column printed under Lee's name in a satirical weekly, The Hornet. Lee's relations with Bessie deteriorated after their move to London. Shaw maintained contact with Lee, who found him work as a rehearsal pianist and occasional singer.
Eventually Shaw was driven to applying for office jobs. In the
interim he secured a reader's pass for the
For the next four years Shaw made a negligible income from writing, and was subsidised by his mother. In 1881, for the sake of economy, and increasingly as a matter of principle, he became a vegetarian . He grew a beard to hide a facial scar left by smallpox . In rapid succession he wrote two more novels: The Irrational Knot (1880) and Love Among the Artists (1881), but neither found a publisher; each was serialised a few years later in the socialist magazine Our Corner.
In 1880 Shaw began attending meetings of the Zetetical Society, whose
objective was to "search for truth in all matters affecting the
interests of the human race". Here he met
Shaw's next attempt at drama was a one-act playlet in French, Un Petit Drame, written in 1884 but not published in his lifetime. In the same year the critic William Archer suggested a collaboration, with a plot by Archer and dialogue by Shaw. The project foundered, but Shaw returned to the draft as the basis of Widowers\' Houses in 1892, and the connection with Archer proved of immense value to Shaw's career.
POLITICAL AWAKENING: MARXISM, SOCIALISM, FABIAN SOCIETY
On 5 September 1882 Shaw attended a meeting at the Memorial Hall,
Farringdon , addressed by the political economist
After reading a tract, Why Are The Many Poor?, issued by the recently
Fabian Society , Shaw went to the society's next advertised
meeting, on 16 May 1884. He became a member in September, and before
the year's end had provided the society with its first manifesto,
published as Fabian Tract No. 2. He joined the society's executive
committee in January 1885, and later that year recruited Webb and also
From 1885 to 1889 Shaw attended the fortnightly meetings of the British Economic Association ; it was, Holroyd observes, "the closest Shaw had ever come to university education." This experience changed his political ideas; he moved away from Marxism and became an apostle of gradualism . When in 1886–87 the Fabians debated whether to embrace anarchism , as advocated by Charlotte Wilson , Besant and others, Shaw joined the majority in rejecting this approach. After a rally in Trafalgar Square addressed by Besant was violently broken up by the authorities on 13 November 1887 ("Bloody Sunday" ), Shaw became convinced of the folly of attempting to challenge police power. Thereafter he largely accepted the principle of "permeation" as advocated by Webb: the notion whereby socialism could best be achieved by infiltration of people and ideas into existing political parties.
Throughout the 1880s the Fabian Society remained small, its message of moderation frequently unheard among more strident voices. Its profile was raised in 1889 with the publication of Fabian Essays in Socialism, edited by Shaw who also provided two of the essays. The second of these, "Transition", details the case for gradualism and permeation, asserting that "the necessity for cautious and gradual change must be obvious to everyone". In 1890 Shaw produced Tract No. 13, What Socialism Is, a revision of an earlier tract in which Charlotte Wilson had defined socialism in anarchistic terms. In Shaw's new version, readers were assured that "socialism can be brought about in a perfectly constitutional manner by democratic institutions".
NOVELIST AND CRITIC
The mid-1880s marked a turning point in Shaw's life, both personally and professionally: he lost his virginity, had two novels published, and began a career as a critic. He had been celibate until his twenty-ninth birthday, when his shyness was overcome by Jane (Jenny) Patterson, a widow some years his senior. Their affair continued, not always smoothly, for eight years. Shaw's sex life has caused much speculation and debate among his biographers, but there is a consensus that the relationship with Patterson was one of his few non-platonic romantic liaisons.
The published novels, neither commercially successful, were his two final efforts in this genre: Cashel Byron's Profession written in 1882–83, and An Unsocial Socialist, begun and finished in 1883. The latter was published as a serial in ToDay magazine in 1884, although it did not appear in book form until 1887. Cashel Byron appeared in magazine and book form in 1886. William Morris (left) and John Ruskin : important influences on Shaw's aesthetic views
In 1884 and 1885, through the influence of Archer, Shaw was engaged
to write book and music criticism for London papers. When Archer
resigned as art critic of The World in 1886 he secured the succession
for Shaw. The two figures in the contemporary art world whose views
Shaw most admired were
William Morris and
Of Shaw's various reviewing activities in the 1880s and 1890s it was as a music critic that he was best known. After serving as deputy in 1888, he became musical critic of The Star in February 1889, writing under the pen-name Corno di Bassetto. In May 1890 he moved back to The World, where he wrote a weekly column as "G.B.S." for more than four years. In the 2016 version of the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians , Robert Anderson writes, "Shaw's collected writings on music stand alone in their mastery of English and compulsive readability." Shaw ceased to be a salaried music critic in August 1894, but published occasional articles on the subject throughout his career, his last in 1950.
From 1895 to 1898, Shaw was the theatre critic for The Saturday Review , edited by his friend Frank Harris . As at The World, he used the by-line "G.B.S." He campaigned against the artificial conventions and hypocrisies of the Victorian theatre and called for plays of real ideas and true characters. By this time he had embarked in earnest on a career as a playwright: "I had rashly taken up the case; and rather than let it collapse I manufactured the evidence".
PLAYWRIGHT AND POLITICIAN: 1890S
After using the plot of the aborted 1884 collaboration with Archer to complete Widowers' Houses (it was staged twice in London, in December 1892), Shaw continued writing plays. At first he made slow progress; The Philanderer , written in 1893 but not published until 1898, had to wait until 1905 for a stage production. Similarly, Mrs Warren\'s Profession (1893) was written five years before publication and nine years before reaching the stage. Shaw in 1894 at the time of Arms and the Man
Shaw's first box-office success was Arms and the Man (1894), a mock-Ruritanian comedy satirising conventions of love, military honour and class. The press found the play overlong, and accused Shaw of mediocrity, sneering at heroism and patriotism, heartless cleverness, and copying W. S. Gilbert 's style. The public took a different view, and the management of the theatre staged extra matinée performances to meet the demand. The play ran from April to July, toured the provinces and was staged in New York. Among the cast of the London production was Florence Farr , with whom Shaw had a romantic relationship between 1890 and 1894, much resented by Jenny Patterson.
The success of
Arms and the Man was not immediately replicated.
Candida , which presented a young woman making a conventional romantic
choice for unconventional reasons, received a single performance in
South Shields in 1895; in 1897 a playlet about
In January 1893, as a Fabian delegate, Shaw attended the Bradford
conference which led to the foundation of the Independent Labour Party
. He was sceptical about the new party, and scorned the likelihood
that it could switch the allegiance of the working class from sport to
politics. He persuaded the conference to adopt resolutions abolishing
indirect taxation, and taxing unearned income "to extinction". Back
in London, Shaw produced what
Margaret Cole , in her Fabian history,
terms a "grand philippic" against the minority Liberal administration
that had taken power in 1892. To Your Tents, O Israel excoriated the
government for ignoring social issues and concentrating solely on
Irish Home Rule , a matter Shaw declared of no relevance to socialism.
In 1894 the
Fabian Society received a substantial bequest from a
sympathiser, Henry Hunt Hutchinson—Holroyd mentions £10,000. Webb,
who chaired the board of trustees appointed to supervise the legacy,
proposed to use most of it to found a school of economics and
politics. Shaw demurred; he thought such a venture was contrary to the
specified purpose of the legacy. He was eventually persuaded to
support the proposal, and the
London School of Economics
By the later 1890s Shaw's political activities lessened as he concentrated on making his name as a dramatist. In 1897 he was persuaded to fill an uncontested vacancy for a "vestryman" (parish councillor ) in London's St Pancras district. At least initially, Shaw took to his municipal responsibilities seriously; when London government was reformed in 1899 and the St Pancras vestry became the Metropolitan Borough of St Pancras , he was elected to the newly formed borough council.
In 1898, as a result of overwork, Shaw's health broke down. He was
Charlotte Payne-Townshend , a rich Anglo-Irish woman whom he
had met through the Webbs. The previous year she had proposed that she
and Shaw should marry. He had declined, but when she insisted on
nursing him in a house in the country, Shaw, concerned that this might
cause scandal, agreed to their marriage. The ceremony took place on 1
June 1898, in the register office in
STAGE SUCCESS: 1900–1914
Gertrude Elliott and Johnston Forbes-Robertson in Caesar and Cleopatra , New York, 1906
During the first decade of the twentieth century, Shaw secured a firm
reputation as a playwright. In 1904 J. E. Vedrenne and Harley
Granville-Barker established a company at the
Royal Court Theatre
Man and Superman , completed in 1902, was a success both at the Royal
Court in 1905 and in
Robert Loraine 's New York production in the same
year. Among the other Shaw works presented by Vedrenne and
Now prosperous and established, Shaw experimented with unorthodox
theatrical forms described by his biographer
Stanley Weintraub as
"discussion drama" and "serious farce ". These plays included Getting
Married (premiered 1908),
The Shewing-Up of Blanco Posnet
Androcles and the Lion (1912), a less heretical study of true and false religious attitudes than Blanco Posnet, ran for eight weeks in September and October 1913. It was followed by one of Shaw's most successful plays, Pygmalion , written in 1912 and staged in Vienna the following year, and in Berlin shortly afterwards. Shaw commented, "It is the custom of the English press when a play of mine is produced, to inform the world that it is not a play—that it is dull, blasphemous, unpopular, and financially unsuccessful. ... Hence arose an urgent demand on the part of the managers of Vienna and Berlin that I should have my plays performed by them first." The British production opened in April 1914, starring Sir Herbert Tree and Mrs Patrick Campbell as, respectively, a professor of phonetics and a cockney flower-girl. There had earlier been a romantic liaison between Shaw and Campbell that caused Charlotte Shaw considerable concern, but by the time of the London premiere it had ended. The play attracted capacity audiences until July, when Tree insisted on going on holiday, and the production closed. His co-star then toured with the piece in the US.
FABIAN YEARS: 1900–1913
Shaw in 1914 aged 57
In 1899, when the Boer War began, Shaw wished the Fabians to take a
neutral stance on what he deemed, like Home Rule , to be a
"non-Socialist" issue. Others, including the future Labour prime
As the new century began, Shaw became increasingly disillusioned by the limited impact of the Fabians on national politics. Thus, although a nominated Fabian delegate, he did not attend the London conference at the Memorial Hall, Farringdon Street in February 1900, that created the Labour Representation Committee —precursor of the modern Labour Party . By 1903, when his term as borough councillor expired, he had lost his earlier enthusiasm, writing: "After six years of Borough Councilling I am convinced that the borough councils should be abolished". Nevertheless, in 1904 he stood in the London County Council elections. After an eccentric campaign, which Holroyd characterises as " absolutely certain of not getting in", he was duly defeated. It was Shaw's final foray into electoral politics. Nationally, the 1906 general election produced a huge Liberal majority and an intake of 29 Labour members. Shaw viewed this outcome with scepticism; he had a low opinion of the new prime minister, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman , and saw the Labour members as inconsequential: "I apologise to the Universe for my connection with such a body".
In the years after the 1906 election, Shaw felt that the Fabians
needed fresh leadership, and saw this in the form of his fellow-writer
H. G. Wells
In 1912 Shaw invested £1,000 for a one-fifth share in the Webbs' new publishing venture, a socialist weekly magazine called The New Statesman , which appeared in April 1913. He became a founding director, publicist, and in due course a contributor, mostly anonymously. He was soon at odds with the magazine's editor, Clifford Sharp , who by 1916 was rejecting his contributions—"the only paper in the world that refuses to print anything by me", according to Shaw.
FIRST WORLD WAR
"I see the Junkers and Militarists of England and Germany jumping at the chance they have longed for in vain for many years of smashing one another and establishing their own oligarchy as the dominant military power of the world." Shaw: Common Sense About the War (1914).
First World War
Despite his errant reputation, Shaw's propagandist skills were recognised by the British authorities, and early in 1917 he was invited by Field Marshal Haig to visit the Western Front battlefields. Shaw's 10,000-word report, which emphasised the human aspects of the soldier's life, was well received, and he became less of a lone voice. In April 1917 he joined the national consensus in welcoming America\'s entry into the war: "a first class moral asset to the common cause against junkerism".
Three short plays by Shaw were premiered during the war. The Inca of Perusalem , written in 1915, encountered problems with the censor for burlesquing not only the enemy but the British military command; it was performed in 1916 at the Birmingham Repertory Theatre . O\'Flaherty V.C. , satirising the government's attitude to Irish recruits, was banned in the UK and was presented at a Royal Flying Corps base in Belgium in 1917. Augustus Does His Bit , a genial farce, was granted a licence; it opened at the Royal Court in January 1917.
Shaw had long supported the principle of Irish Home Rule within the
In the postwar period, Shaw despaired of the British government's
coercive policies towards Ireland, and joined his fellow-writers
The rotating hut in the garden of Shaw's Corner, Ayot St Lawrence , where Shaw wrote most of his works after 1906
Shaw's first major work to appear after the war was Heartbreak House , written in 1916–17 and performed in 1920. It was produced on Broadway in November, and was coolly received; according to The Times: "Mr Shaw on this occasion has more than usual to say and takes twice as long as usual to say it". After the London premiere in October 1921 The Times concurred with the American critics: "As usual with Mr Shaw, the play is about an hour too long", although containing "much entertainment and some profitable reflection". Ervine in The Observer thought the play brilliant but ponderously acted, except for Edith Evans as Lady Utterword.
Shaw's largest-scale theatrical work was Back to Methuselah , written in 1918–20 and staged in 1922. Weintraub describes it as "Shaw's attempt to fend off 'the bottomless pit of an utterly discouraging pessimism'". This cycle of five interrelated plays depicts evolution, and the effects of longevity, from the Garden of Eden to the year 31,920 AD. Critics found the five plays strikingly uneven in quality and invention. The original run was brief, and the work has been revived infrequently. Shaw felt he had exhausted his remaining creative powers in the huge span of this "Metabiological Pentateuch". He was now sixty-seven, and expected to write no more plays.
This mood was short-lived. In 1920
Joan of Arc
After Saint Joan, it was five years before Shaw wrote a play. From
1924, he spent four years writing what he described as his "magnum
opus", a political treatise entitled The Intelligent Woman's Guide to
Socialism and Capitalism. The book was published in 1928 and sold
well. At the end of the decade Shaw produced his final Fabian tract,
a commentary on the
League of Nations
Shaw returned to the theatre with what he called "a political
The Apple Cart , written in late 1928. It was, in
Ervine's view, unexpectedly popular, taking a conservative,
monarchist, anti-democratic line that appealed to contemporary
audiences. The premiere was in Warsaw in June 1928, and the first
British production was two months later, at Sir Barry Jackson 's
inaugural Malvern Festival . The other eminent creative artist most
closely associated with the festival was Sir
During the 1920s Shaw began to lose faith in the idea that society
could be changed through Fabian gradualism, and became increasingly
fascinated with dictatorial methods. In 1922 he had welcomed Mussolini
's accession to power in Italy, observing that amid the "indiscipline
and muddle and Parliamentary deadlock", Mussolini was "the right kind
of tyrant". Shaw was prepared to tolerate certain dictatorial
excesses; Weintraub in his ODNB biographical sketch comments that
Shaw's "flirtation with authoritarian inter-war regimes" took a long
time to fade, and
"We the undersigned are recent visitors to the USSR ... We desire to record that we saw nowhere evidence of economic slavery, privation, unemployment and cynical despair of betterment. ... Everywhere we saw hopeful and enthusiastic working-class ... setting an example of industry and conduct which would greatly enrich us if our systems supplied our workers with any incentive to follow it." Letter to The Manchester Guardian, 2 March 1933, signed by Shaw and 20 others.
Shaw's enthusiasm for the
Shaw's admiration for Mussolini and Stalin demonstrated his growing
belief that dictatorship was the only viable political arrangement.
Shaw's first play of the decade was
Too True to be Good , written in
1931 and premiered in
During the decade Shaw travelled widely and frequently. Most of his
journeys were with Charlotte; she enjoyed voyages on ocean liners, and
he found peace to write during the long spells at sea. Shaw met an
enthusiastic welcome in South Africa in 1932, despite his strong
remarks about the racial divisions of the country. In December 1932
the couple embarked on a round-the-world cruise. In March 1933 they
Despite his contempt for
Shaw's final plays of the 1930s were Cymbeline Refinished (1936), Geneva (1936) and In Good King Charles\'s Golden Days (1939). The first, a fantasy reworking of Shakespeare, made little impression, but the second, a satire on European dictators, attracted more notice, much of it unfavourable. In particular, Shaw's parody of Hitler as "Herr Battler" was considered mild, almost sympathetic. The third play, an historical conversation piece first seen at Malvern, ran briefly in London in May 1940. James Agate commented that the play contained nothing to which even the most conservative audiences could take exception, and though it was long and lacking in dramatic action only "witless and idle" theatregoers would object. After their first runs none of the three plays were seen again in the West End during Shaw's lifetime.
Towards the end of the decade, both Shaws began to suffer ill health. Charlotte was increasingly incapacitated by Paget\'s disease of bone , and he developed pernicious anaemia . His treatment, involving injections of concentrated animal liver, was successful, but this breach of his vegetarian creed distressed him and brought down condemnation from militant vegetarians.
SECOND WORLD WAR AND FINAL YEARS
Although Shaw's works since
The Apple Cart had been received without
great enthusiasm, his earlier plays were revived in the West End
throughout the Second World War, starring such actors as Edith Evans,
Following the outbreak of war on 3 September 1939 and the rapid
conquest of Poland , Shaw was accused of defeatism when, in a New
Statesman article, he declared the war over and demanded a peace
conference. Nevertheless, when he became convinced that a negotiated
peace was impossible, he publicly urged the neutral United States to
join the fight. The London blitz of 1940–41 led the Shaws, both in
their mid-eighties, to live full-time at Ayot St Lawrence. Even there
they were not immune from enemy air raids, and stayed on occasion with
Nancy Astor at her country house,
Shaw's final political treatise, Everybody's Political What's What, was published in 1944. Holroyd describes this as "a rambling narrative ... that repeats ideas he had given better elsewhere and then repeats itself". The book sold well—85,000 copies by the end of the year. After Hitler's suicide in May 1945, Shaw approved of the formal condolences offered by the Irish Taoiseach , Éamon de Valera , at the German embassy in Dublin. Shaw disapproved of the postwar trials of the defeated German leaders , as an act of self-righteousness: "We are all potential criminals".
Pascal was given a third opportunity to film Shaw's work with Caesar and Cleopatra (1945). It cost three times its original budget and was rated "the biggest financial failure in the history of British cinema". The film was poorly received by British critics, although American reviews were friendlier. Shaw thought its lavishness nullified the drama, and he considered the film "a poor imitation of Cecil B. de Mille ". Garden of Shaw's Corner
In 1946, the year of Shaw's ninetieth birthday, he accepted the
Shaw continued to write into his nineties. His last plays were Buoyant Billions (1947), his final full-length work; Farfetched Fables (1948) a set of six short plays revisiting several of his earlier themes such as evolution; a comic play for puppets, Shakes versus Shav (1949), a ten-minute piece in which Shakespeare and Shaw trade insults; and Why She Would Not (1950), which Shaw described as "a little comedy", written in one week shortly before his ninety-fourth birthday.
During his later years, Shaw enjoyed tending the gardens at Shaw\'s Corner . He died at the age of ninety-four of renal failure precipitated by injuries incurred when falling while pruning a tree. He was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium on 6 November 1950. His ashes, mixed with those of Charlotte, were scattered along footpaths and around the statue of Saint Joan in their garden.
See also: List of works by George Bernard Shaw
Shaw published a collected edition of his plays in 1934, comprising forty-two works. He wrote a further twelve in the remaining sixteen years of his life, mostly one-act pieces. Including eight earlier plays that he chose to omit from his published works, the total is sixty-two.
Shaw's first three full-length plays dealt with social issues. He later grouped them as "Plays Unpleasant". Widower's Houses (1892) concerns the landlords of slum properties, and introduces the first of Shaw's New Women —a recurring feature of later plays. The Philanderer (1893) develops the theme of the New Woman, draws on Ibsen, and has elements of Shaw's personal relationships, the character of Julia being based on Jenny Patterson. In a 2003 study Judith Evans describes Mrs Warren's Profession (1893) as "undoubtedly the most challenging" of the three Plays Unpleasant, taking Mrs Warren's profession—prostitute and, later, brothel-owner—as a metaphor for a prostituted society.
Shaw followed the first trilogy with a second, published as "Plays Pleasant". Arms and the Man (1894) conceals beneath a mock-Ruritanian comic romance a Fabian parable contrasting impractical idealism with pragmatic socialism. The central theme of Candida (1894) is a woman's choice between two men; the play contrasts the outlook and aspirations of a Christian Socialist and a poetic idealist. The third of the Pleasant group, You Never Can Tell (1896), portrays social mobility, and the gap between generations, particularly in how they approach social relations in general and mating in particular.
The "Three Plays for Puritans"—comprising The Devil's Disciple
(1896), Caesar and Cleopatra (1898) and Captain Brassbound's
Conversion (1899)—all centre on questions of empire and imperialism,
a major topic of political discourse in the 1890s. The three are set,
respectively, in 1770s America , Ancient Egypt, and 1890s Morocco .
The Gadfly, an adaptation of the popular novel by
Ethel Voynich , was
unfinished and unperformed.
The Man of Destiny (1895) is a short
curtain raiser about
The Admirable Bashville
How He Lied to Her Husband
Passion, Poison, and Petrifaction
The Shewing-Up of Blanco Posnet
Shaw's major plays of the first decade of the twentieth century
address individual social, political or ethical issues. Man and
Superman (1902) stands apart from the others in both its subject and
its treatment, giving Shaw's interpretation of creative evolution in a
combination of drama and associated printed text. The Admirable
Bashville (1901), a blank verse dramatisation of Shaw's novel Cashel
Byron's Profession, focuses on the imperial relationship between
Britain and Africa .
John Bull's Other Island (1904), comically
depicting the prevailing relationship between Britain and Ireland, was
popular at the time but fell out of the general repertoire in later
Getting Married (1908) and Misalliance (1909)—the latter seen by Judith Evans as a companion piece to the former—are both in what Shaw called his "disquisitionary" vein, with the emphasis on discussion of ideas rather than on dramatic events or vivid characterisation. Shaw wrote seven short plays during the decade; they are all comedies, ranging from the deliberately absurd Passion, Poison, and Petrifaction (1905) to the satirical Press Cuttings (1909).
In the decade from 1910 to the aftermath of the
First World War
The short plays range from genial historical drama in The Dark Lady of the Sonnets and Great Catherine (1910 and 1913) to a study of polygamy in Overruled; three satirical works about the war (The Inca of Perusalem, O'Flaherty V.C. and Augustus Does His Bit, 1915–16); a piece that Shaw called "utter nonsense" (The Music Cure, 1914) and a brief sketch about a "Bolshevik empress" (Annajanska, 1917).
FULL LENGTH PLAYS
* Back to Methuselah * Saint Joan * The Apple Cart * Too True to Be Good * On the Rocks * The Simpleton of the Unexpected Isles * The Millionairess * Geneva * In Good King Charles\'s Golden Days * Buoyant Billions
Saint Joan (1923) drew widespread praise both for Shaw and for Sybil Thorndike, for whom he wrote the title role and who created the part in Britain. In the view of the commentator Nicholas Grene, Shaw's Joan, a "no-nonsense mystic, Protestant and nationalist before her time" is among the 20th century's classic leading female roles. The Apple Cart (1929), was Shaw's last popular success. He gave both that play and its successor, Too True to Be Good (1931), the subtitle "A political extravaganza", although the two works differ greatly in their themes; the first presents the politics of a nation (with a brief royal love-scene as an interlude) and the second, in Judith Evans's words, "is concerned with the social mores of the individual, and is nebulous." Shaw's plays of the 1930s were written in the shadow of worsening national and international political events. Once again, with On the Rocks (1933) and The Simpleton of the Unexpected Isles (1934), a political comedy with a clear plot was followed by an introspective drama. The first play portrays a British prime minister considering, but finally rejecting, the establishment of a dictatorship; the second is concerned with polygamy and eugenics and ends with the Day of Judgement.
The Millionairess (1934) is a farcical depiction of the commercial
and social affairs of a successful businesswoman. Geneva (1936)
lampoons the feebleness of the
League of Nations
MUSIC AND DRAMA REVIEWS
Shaw's collected musical criticism, published in three volumes, runs to more than 2,700 pages. It covers the British musical scene from 1876 to 1950, but the core of the collection dates from his six years as music critic of The Star and The World in the late 1880s and early 1890s. In his view music criticism should be interesting to everyone rather than just the musical élite, and he wrote for the non-specialist, avoiding technical jargon—"Mesopotamian words like 'the dominant of D major'". He was fiercely partisan in his columns, promoting the music of Wagner and decrying that of Brahms and those British composers such as Stanford and Parry whom he saw as Brahmsian. He campaigned against the prevailing fashion for performances of Handel oratorios with huge amateur choirs and inflated orchestration, calling for "a chorus of twenty capable artists". He railed against opera productions unrealistically staged or sung in languages the audience did not speak.
In Shaw's view, the London theatres of the 1890s presented too many revivals of old plays and not enough new work. He campaigned against "melodrama , sentimentality , stereotypes and worn-out conventions". As a music critic he had frequently been able to concentrate on analysing new works, but in the theatre he was often obliged to fall back on discussing how various performers tackled well-known plays. In a study of Shaw's work as a theatre critic, E. J. West writes that Shaw "ceaselessly compared and contrasted artists in interpretation and in technique". Shaw contributed more than 150 articles as theatre critic for The Saturday Review, in which he assessed more than 212 productions. He championed Ibsen 's plays when many theatregoers regarded them as outrageous, and his 1891 book Quintessence of Ibsenism remained a classic throughout the twentieth century. Of contemporary dramatists writing for the West End stage he rated Oscar Wilde above the rest: "... our only thorough playwright. He plays with everything: with wit, with philosophy, with drama, with actors and audience, with the whole theatre". Shaw's collected criticisms were published as Our Theatres in the Nineties in 1932.
Shaw maintained a provocative and frequently self-contradictory
attitude to Shakespeare (whose name he insisted on spelling
"Shakespear"). Many found him difficult to take seriously on the
POLITICAL AND SOCIAL WRITINGS
Shaw's political and social commentaries were published variously in Fabian tracts, in essays, in two full-length books, in innumerable newspaper and journal articles and in prefaces to his plays. The majority of Shaw's Fabian tracts were published anonymously, representing the voice of the society rather than of Shaw, although the society's secretary Edward Pease later confirmed Shaw's authorship. According to Holroyd, the business of the early Fabians, mainly under the influence of Shaw, was to "alter history by rewriting it". Shaw's talent as a pamphleteer was put to immediate use in the production of the society's manifesto—after which, says Holroyd, he was never again so succinct. Shaw in 1905
After the turn of the twentieth century, Shaw increasingly propagated
his ideas through the medium of his plays. An early critic, writing in
1904, observed that Shaw's dramas provided "a pleasant means" of
proselytising his socialism, adding that "Mr Shaw's views are to be
sought especially in the prefaces to his plays". After loosening his
ties with the Fabian movement in 1911, Shaw's writings were more
personal and often provocative; his response to the furore following
the issue of Common Sense About the War in 1914, was to prepare a
sequel, More Common Sense About the War. In this, he denounced the
pacifist line espoused by
The Intelligent Woman's Guide, Shaw's main political treatise of the 1920s, attracted both admiration and criticism. MacDonald considered it the world's most important book since the Bible; Harold Laski thought its arguments outdated and lacking in concern for individual freedoms. Shaw's increasing flirtation with dictatorial methods is evident in many of his subsequent pronouncements. A New York Times report dated 10 December 1933 quoted a recent Fabian Society lecture in which Shaw had praised Hitler, Mussolini and Stalin: "hey are trying to get something done, are adopting methods by which it is possible to get something done". As late as the Second World War, in Everybody's Political What's What, Shaw blamed the Allies ' "abuse" of their 1918 victory for the rise of Hitler, and hoped that, after defeat, the Führer would escape retribution "to enjoy a comfortable retirement in Ireland or some other neutral country". These sentiments, according to the Irish philosopher-poet Thomas Duddy, "rendered much of the Shavian outlook passé and contemptible".
"Creative evolution", Shaw's version of the new science of eugenics , became an increasing theme in his political writing after 1900. He introduced his theories in The Revolutionist's Handbook (1903), an appendix to Man and Superman, and developed them further during the 1920s in Back to Methuselah. A 1946 Life magazine article observed that Shaw had "always tended to look at people more as a biologist than as an artist". By 1933, in the preface to On the Rocks, he was writing that "if we desire a certain type of civilization and culture we must exterminate the sort of people who do not fit into it"; critical opinion is divided on whether this was intended as irony. In an article in the American magazine Liberty in September 1938, Shaw included the statement: "There are many people in the world who ought to be liquidated". Many commentators assumed that such comments were intended as a joke, although in the worst possible taste. Otherwise, Life magazine concluded, "this silliness can be classed with his more innocent bad guesses".
Shaw's fiction-writing was largely confined to the five unsuccessful novels written in the period 1879–1885. Immaturity (1879) is a semi-autobiographical portrayal of mid-Victorian England, Shaw's "own David Copperfield" according to Weintraub. The Irrational Knot (1880) is a critique of conventional marriage, in which Weintraub finds the characterisations lifeless, "hardly more than animated theories". Shaw was pleased with his third novel, Love Among the Artists (1881), feeling that it marked a turning point in his development as a thinker, although he had no more success with it than with its predecessors. Cashel Byron's Profession (1882) is, says Weintraub, an indictment of society which anticipates Shaw's first full-length play, Mrs Warren's Profession. Shaw later explained that he had intended An Unsocial Socialist as the first section of a monumental depiction of the downfall of capitalism. Gareth Griffith , in a study of Shaw's political thought, sees the novel as an interesting record of conditions, both in society at large and in the nascent socialist movement of the 1880s.
Shaw's only subsequent fiction of any substance was his 1932 novella The Adventures of the Black Girl in Her Search for God , written during a visit to South Africa in 1932. The eponymous girl, intelligent, inquisitive, and converted to Christianity by insubstantial missionary teaching, sets out to find God, on a journey that after many adventures and encounters, leads her to a secular conclusion. The story, on publication, offended some Christians and was banned in Ireland by the Board of Censors.
LETTERS AND DIARIES
"The strenuous literary life—
George Bernard Shaw
Shaw was a prolific correspondent throughout his life. His letters,
edited by Dan H. Laurence, were published between 1965 and 1988. Shaw
once estimated his letters would occupy twenty volumes; Laurence
commented that, unedited, they would fill many more. Shaw wrote more
than a quarter of a million letters, of which about ten per cent have
survived; 2,653 letters are printed in Laurence's four volumes. Among
Shaw's many regular correspondents were his childhood friend Edward
McNulty ; his theatrical colleagues (and amitiés amoureuses ) Mrs
Patrick Campbell and
Shaw's diaries for 1885–1897, edited by Weintraub, were published in two volumes, with a total of 1,241 pages, in 1986. Reviewing them, the Shaw scholar Fred Crawford wrote: "Although the primary interest for Shavians is the material that supplements what we already know about Shaw's life and work, the diaries are also valuable as a historical and sociological document of English life at the end of the Victorian age." After 1897, pressure of other writing led Shaw to give up keeping a diary.
MISCELLANEOUS AND AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL
Through his journalism, pamphlets and occasional longer works, Shaw wrote on many subjects. His range of interest and enquiry included vivisection , vegetarianism, religion, language, cinema and photography, on all of which he wrote and spoke copiously. Collections of his writings on these and other subjects were published, mainly after his death, together with volumes of selected aphorisms, "wit and wisdom" and general journalism.
Despite the many books written about him (Holroyd counts 80 by 1939) Shaw's autobiographical output, apart from his diaries, was relatively slight. He gave interviews to newspapers—"GBS Confesses", to The Daily Mail in 1904 is an example —and provided sketches to would-be biographers whose work was rejected by Shaw and never published. In 1939 Shaw drew on these materials to produce Shaw Gives Himself Away, a miscellany which, a year before his death, he revised and republished as Sixteen Self Sketches (there were seventeen). He made it clear to his publishers that this slim book was in no sense a full autobiography.
BELIEFS AND OPINIONS
Shaw was a poseur and a puritan; he was similarly a bourgeois and an antibourgeois writer, working for Hearst and posterity; his didacticism is entertaining and his pranks are purposeful; he supports socialism and is tempted by fascism. —Leonard Feinberg, The Satirist (2006)
In his lifetime Shaw professed many beliefs, often contradictory.
This inconsistency was partly an intentional provocation—the Spanish
Salvador de Madariaga describes Shaw as "a pole of
negative electricity set in a people of positive electricity". In one
area at least Shaw was constant: in his lifelong refusal to follow
normal English forms of spelling and punctuation. He favoured archaic
spellings such as "shew" for "show"; he dropped the "u" in words like
"honour" and "favour"; and wherever possible he rejected the
apostrophe in contractions such as "won't" or "that's". In his will,
Shaw ordered that, after some specified legacies, his remaining assets
were to form a trust to pay for fundamental reform of the English
alphabet into a phonetic version of forty letters. Though Shaw's
intentions were clear, his drafting was flawed, and the courts
initially ruled the intended trust void. A later out-of-court
agreement provided a sum of £8,300 for spelling reform; the bulk of
his fortune went to the residuary legatees—the British Museum, the
Royal Academy of Dramatic Art
Shaw's views on religion and Christianity were less consistent.
Having in his youth proclaimed himself an atheist, in middle age he
explained this as a reaction against the
Shaw espoused racial equality, and inter-marriage between people of different races. Despite his expressed wish to be fair to Hitler, he called anti-Semitism "the hatred of the lazy, ignorant fat-headed Gentile for the pertinacious Jew who, schooled by adversity to use his brains to the utmost, outdoes him in business". In The Jewish Chronicle he wrote in 1932, "In every country you can find rabid people who have a phobia against Jews, Jesuits, Armenians, Negroes, Freemasons, Irishmen, or simply foreigners as such. Political parties are not above exploiting these fears and jealousies."
In 1903 Shaw joined in a controversy about vaccination against smallpox. He called vaccination "a peculiarly filthy piece of witchcraft"; in his view immunisation campaigns were a cheap and inadequate substitute for a decent programme of housing for the poor, which would, he declared, be the means of eradicating smallpox and other infectious diseases. Less contentiously, Shaw was keenly interested in transport; Laurence observed in 1992 a need for a published study of Shaw's interest in "bicycling, motorbikes, automobiles, and planes, climaxing in his joining the Interplanetary Society in his nineties". Shaw published articles on travel, took photographs of his journeys, and submitted notes to the Royal Automobile Club .
Shaw strove throughout his adult life to be referred to as "Bernard Shaw" rather than "George Bernard Shaw", but confused matters by continuing to use his full initials—G.B.S.—as a by-line, and often signed himself "G. Bernard Shaw". He left instructions in his will that his executor (the Public Trustee ) was to license publication of his works only under the name Bernard Shaw. Shaw scholars including Ervine, Judith Evans, Holroyd, Laurence and Weintraub, and many publishers have respected Shaw's preference, although the Cambridge University Press was among the exceptions with its 1988 Cambridge Companion to George Bernard Shaw.
LEGACY AND INFLUENCE
Shaw, arguably the most important English-language playwright after Shakespeare, produced an immense oeuvre, of which at least half a dozen plays remain part of the world repertoire. ... Academically unfashionable, of limited influence even in areas such as Irish drama and British political theatre where influence might be expected, Shaw's unique and unmistakable plays keep escaping from the safely dated category of period piece to which they have often been consigned. Oxford Encyclopedia of Theatre (2003)
Shaw did not found a school of dramatists as such, but Crawford asserts that today "we recognise as second only to Shakespeare in the British theatrical tradition ... the proponent of the theater of ideas" who struck a death-blow to 19th-century melodrama. According to Laurence, Shaw pioneered "intelligent" theatre, in which the audience was required to think, thereby paving the way for the new breeds of twentieth-century playwrights from Galsworthy to Pinter .
Crawford lists numerous playwrights whose work owes something to that
of Shaw. Among those active in Shaw's lifetime he includes Noël
Coward , who based his early comedy The Young Idea on You Never Can
Tell and continued to draw on the older man's works in later plays.
T. S. Eliot , by no means an admirer of Shaw, admitted that the
Murder in the Cathedral , in which Becket 's slayers
explain their actions to the audience, might have been influenced by
Saint Joan. The critic
Eric Bentley comments that Eliot's later play
The Confidential Clerk "had all the earmarks of Shavianism ... without
the merits of the real Bernard Shaw". Among more recent British
dramatists, Crawford marks
Shaw's influence crossed the Atlantic at an early stage. Bernard
Dukore notes that he was successful as a dramatist in America ten
years before achieving comparable success in Britain. Among many
American writers professing a direct debt to Shaw, Eugene O\'Neill
became an admirer at the age of seventeen, after reading The
Quintessence of Ibsenism. Other Shaw-influenced American playwrights
mentioned by Dukore are
Elmer Rice , for whom Shaw "opened doors,
turned on lights, and expanded horizons";
Assessing Shaw's reputation in a 1976 critical study, T. F. Evans
described Shaw as unchallenged in his lifetime and since as the
leading English-language dramatist of the (twentieth) century, and as
a master of prose style. The following year, in a contrary
assessment, the playwright
John Osborne castigated
In a 1983 study, R. J. Kaufmann suggests that Shaw was a key forerunner—"godfather, if not actually finicky paterfamilias"—of the Theatre of the Absurd . Two further aspects of Shaw's theatrical legacy are noted by Crawford: his opposition to stage censorship, which was finally ended in 1968, and his efforts which extended over many years to establish a National Theatre . Shaw's short 1910 play The Dark Lady of the Sonnets, in which Shakespeare pleads with Queen Elizabeth I for the endowment of a state theatre, was part of this campaign.
Writing in The
The Shaw Festival in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada is the second largest repertory theatre company in North America. It produces plays by or written during the lifetime of Shaw as well as some contemporary works.
In the 1940s the author
Besides his collected music criticism, Shaw has left a varied musical legacy, not all of it of his choosing. Despite his dislike of having his work adapted for the musical theatre ("my plays set themselves to a verbal music of their own") two of his plays were turned into musical comedies: Arms and the Man was the basis of The Chocolate Soldier in 1908, with music by Oscar Straus , and Pygmalion was adapted in 1956 as My Fair Lady with book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe . Although he had a high regard for Elgar, Shaw turned down the composer's request for an opera libretto, but played a major part in persuading the BBC to commission Elgar's Third Symphony , and was the dedicatee of The Severn Suite (1930).
The substance of Shaw's political legacy is uncertain. In 1921 Shaw's erstwhile collaborator William Archer, in a letter to the playwright, wrote: "I doubt if there is any case of a man so widely read, heard, seen, and known as yourself, who has produced so little effect on his generation." Margaret Cole, who considered Shaw the greatest writer of his age, professed never to have understood him. She thought he worked "immensely hard" at politics, but essentially, she surmises, it was for fun—"the fun of a brilliant artist". After Shaw's death, Pearson wrote: "No one since the time of Tom Paine has had so definite an influence on the social and political life of his time and country as Bernard Shaw."
In its obituary tribute to Shaw, The Times Literary Supplement concluded:
He was no originator of ideas. He was an insatiable adopter and adapter, an incomparable prestidigitator with the thoughts of the forerunners. Nietzsche, Samuel Butler (Erewhon), Marx, Shelley, Blake, Dickens, William Morris, Ruskin, Beethoven and Wagner all had their applications and misapplications. By bending to their service all the faculties of a powerful mind, by inextinguishable wit, and by every artifice of argument, he carried their thoughts as far as they would reach—so far beyond their sources that they came to us with the vitality of the newly created.
* ^ Now (2016) known as 33 Synge Street.
* ^ Shaw's biographer
Michael Holroyd records that in 1689 Captain
William Shaw fought for William III at the
Battle of the Boyne
* ^ .
* ^ Peters 1996 , p. 5.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Ervine 1959 DNB archive .
* ^ A B Holroyd 1997 , p. 2.
* ^ A B Shaw 1969 , p. 22.
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , pp. 5–6.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V Weintraub ODNB
online 2013 .
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , pp. 13–14.
* ^ Rosset 1964 , pp. 105 and 129.
* ^ Dervin 1975 , p. 56.
* ^ O\'Donovan 1965 , p. 108.
* ^ Bosch 1984 , pp. 115–117.
* ^ Holroyd 1990 , pp. 27–28.
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , pp. 23–24.
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , pp. 24 (literature) and 25 (music).
* ^ A B Holroyd 1997 , pp. 19–21.
* ^ Shaw 1949 , pp. 89–90.
* ^ Nothorcot 1964 , p. 3.
* ^ Nothorcot 1964 , pp. 3–4 and 9.
* ^ O\'Donovan 1965 , p. 75.
* ^ A B Westrup 1966 , p. 58.
* ^ A B Holroyd 1997 , pp. 40–41.
* ^ Pharand 2000 , p. 24.
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , pp. 25 and 68.
* ^ Rollins and Witts 1962 , pp. 54–55 and 58.
* ^ Laurence 1976 , p. 8.
* ^ Peters 1996 , pp. 56–57.
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , p. 48.
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , pp. 48–49.
* ^ A B Holroyd 1997 , pp. 55–56.
* ^ Peters 1996 , pp. 102–103.
* ^ Pearce 1997 , p. 127.
* ^ Holroyd 1990 , p. 120.
* ^ Rodenbeck 1969 , p. 67.
* ^ Love Among the Artists: WorldCat .
* ^ Bevir 2011 , p. 155.
* ^ Holroyd 1990 , pp. 172–173.
* ^ Pharand 2000 , p. 6.
* ^ Adams 1971 , p. 64.
* ^ Yde 2013 , p. 46.
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , p. 79.
* ^ Pearson 1964 , p. 68.
* ^ Holroyd 1990 , pp. 127–128.
* ^ Holroyd 1990 , pp. 129–131.
* ^ Diniejko 2013 .
* ^ A B C Cole 1961 , pp. 7–8.
* ^ A B C D Fabian Tracts: 1884–1901 .
* ^ Shaw: A Manifesto 1884 .
* ^ A B Holroyd 1990 , pp. 178–180.
* ^ Pelling 1965 , p. 50.
* ^ Preece 2011 , p. 53.
* ^ Holroyd 1990 , pp. 182–183.
* ^ Shaw: Fabian Essays in Socialism 1889 , pp. 182–183.
* ^ Holroyd 1990 , p. 182.
* ^ Shaw: What Socialism Is 1890 , p. 3.
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , pp. 72, 81 and 94.
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , pp. 92–94.
* ^ Peters 1996 , p. 289.
* ^ Valency 1973 , p. 89.
* ^ Owen 2004 , p. 3.
* ^ Peters 1996 , p. 171.
* ^ A B Holroyd 1997 , pp. 81–83.
* ^ Crawford 1982 , pp. 21 and 23.
* ^ Shaw and Laurence (Vol 1) 1981 , p. 22.
* ^ Shaw and Laurence (Vol 1) 1981 , pp. 16–17.
* ^ Shaw and Laurence (Vol 1) 1981 , pp. 30–31.
* ^ A B C D Anderson: Grove Music Online .
* ^ Shaw and Laurence (Vol 3) 1981 , p. 767.
* ^ The Times, 29 September 1925 , p. 12.
* ^ A B The Standard, 23 April 1894 , p. 2.
* ^ Fun, 1 May 1894 , p. 179.
* ^ The Observer, 22 April 1894 , p. 5.
* ^ A B Holroyd 1997 , pp. 172–173.
* ^ The Sporting Times, 19 May 1894 , p. 3.
* ^ Peters 1998 , pp. 138 and 210.
* ^ The Daily News, 1 April 1895 , p. 2.
* ^ A B Evans 2003 , pp. 75–78.
* ^ Pelling 1965 , pp. 115–116.
* ^ Adelman 1996 , p. 22.
* ^ A B C Holroyd 1990 , pp. 270–272.
* ^ Pelling 1965 , pp. 119–120.
* ^ Cole 1961 , pp. 46–48.
* ^ Holroyd 1990 , pp. 409–411.
* ^ Pelling 1965 , p. 184.
* ^ Holroyd 1990 , p. 414.
* ^ Holroyd 1990 , p. 416.
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , p. 249.
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , p. 263.
* ^ Adams 1971 , p. 154.
* ^ Carr 1976 , p. 10.
* ^ Peters 1996 , p. 218.
* ^ Weintraub 1982 , p. 4.
* ^ Crawford 1975 , p. 93.
* ^ Holroyd 1989 , pp. 11–13.
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , pp. 261, 356 and 786.
* ^ A B The Observer, 8 March 1908 , p. 8.
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , p. 311.
* ^ Merriman 2010 , pp. 219–20.
* ^ Broad and Broad 1929 , p. 53.
* ^ Shaw 1998 , p. 64.
* ^ Kavanagh 1950 , p. 55.
* ^ Gahan 2010 , pp. 10–11.
* ^ Gahan 2010 , p. 8.
* ^ Gahan 2010 , p. 14.
* ^ Gahan 2010 , p. 1.
* ^ The Observer, 3 December 1905 , p. 5.
* ^ The Manchester Guardian, 21 November 1906 , p. 7.
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , p. 217.
* ^ Laurence 1955 , p. 8.
* ^ Gaye 1967 , p. 1531.
* ^ Wearing 1982 , p. 379.
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , p. 440.
* ^ The New York Times, 23 November 1913 , p. X6.
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , pp. 426–430.
* ^ A B Holroyd 1997 , pp. 443–444.
* ^ The New York Times, 10 October 1914 .
* ^ The New York Times, 13 October 1914 .
* ^ Pelling 1965 , pp. 187–188.
* ^ Shaw: Fabianism and the Empire 1900 , p. 24.
* ^ McBriar 1962 , p. 83.
* ^ Cole 1961 , p. 90.
* ^ A B Holroyd 1989 , pp. 46–47.
* ^ Holroyd 1989 , pp. 125–126.
* ^ Holroyd 1989 , pp. 129–133.
* ^ Holroyd 1989 , pp. 142–145.
* ^ A B Cole 1961 , p. 123.
* ^ Holroyd 1989 , p. 259.
* ^ Cole 1961 , p. 144.
* ^ Holroyd 1989 , pp. 267–268.
* ^ Holroyd 1989 , p. 318.
* ^ Smith 2013 , pp. 38–42.
* ^ Holroyd 1989 , pp. 319–321.
* ^ Shaw: Common Sense About the War 1914 , p. 12.
* ^ Ervine 1956 , p. 464.
* ^ Holroyd 1989 , pp. 371–374.
* ^ Evans 2003 , p. 110.
* ^ Evans 2003 , pp. 112–113.
* ^ Clare 2016 , p. 176.
* ^ A B Shaw: "Irish Nonsense About Ireland" 1916 .
* ^ Holroyd 1989 , pp. 390–391.
* ^ A B Holroyd 1993 , p. 60.
* ^ Bennett 2010 , p. 60.
* ^ Mackay 1997 , pp. 251–254.
* ^ Mackay 1997 , p. 280.
* ^ Holroyd 1993 , p. 62.
* ^ Mackay 1997 , pp. 296–297.
* ^ Holroyd 1989 , p. 384.
* ^ The Times, 12 November 1920 , p. 11.
* ^ The Times, 19 October 1921 , p. 8.
* ^ Ervine 1921 , p. 11.
* ^ Shaw 1934 , pp. 855, 869, 891, 910–911, and 938.
* ^ Ervine 1923 , p. 11.
* ^ The Times, 15 October 1923 , p. 11.
* ^ Rhodes 1923 , p. 8.
* ^ Gaye 1967 , p. 1357.
* ^ Drabble et al. 2007 "Back to Methuselah: A Metabiological
* ^ Holroyd 1997 , p. 520.
* ^ The Times, 9 December 1923 , p. 8.
* ^ The Times, 27 March 1924 , p. 12.
* ^ The
Nobel Prize in Literature
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Despair". The Observer. p. 11. (subscription required)
* Ervine, St John (14 October 1923). "At the Play: Back To
Methuselah". The Observer. p. 11. (subscription required)
* "Heartbreak House". The Times. 19 October 1921. p. 8.
* Anderson, Robert. "Shaw, Bernard". Grove Music Online. Retrieved 1
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Victorian Britain". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
* Ervine, St John (1959). "Shaw, George Bernard (1856–1950)".
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Retrieved 30 December 2015. (subscription or UK public library
* "Fabian Tracts: 1884–1901". LSE Digital Library. Retrieved 24
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Encyclopedia of Theatre and Performance. Oxford University Press.
Retrieved 12 February 2016. (subscription required)
* "Love Among the Artists". WorldCat. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
Nobel Prize in Literature
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