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George Bancroft
George Bancroft
(October 3, 1800 – January 17, 1891) was an American historian and statesman who was prominent in promoting secondary education both in his home state, at the national and international level. During his tenure as U.S. Secretary of the Navy, he established the United States Naval Academy
United States Naval Academy
at Annapolis
Annapolis
in 1845. He was a senior American diplomat in Europe. Among his best-known writings is the magisterial series, History of the United States, from the Discovery of the American Continent.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Career in education and literature 3 Family 4 Historian 5 Political career 6 Works

6.1 Major works 6.2 Minor publications

7 Namesakes and monuments 8 Notes 9 References

9.1 Primary sources

10 External links

Early life and education[edit] His family had been in Massachusetts Bay
Massachusetts Bay
since 1632, and his father, Aaron Bancroft, was distinguished as a revolutionary soldier, a leading Unitarian clergyman[1] and author of a popular life of George Washington. Bancroft was born in Worcester and began his education at Phillips Exeter Academy; he entered Harvard College
Harvard College
at thirteen years of age. At age 17, he graduated from Harvard, class of 1817,[2] and went to study in Germany. Abroad, he studied at the universities of Heidelberg, Göttingen and Berlin. At Göttingen he studied Plato
Plato
with Arnold Heeren; history with Heeren and Gottlieb Jakob Planck; Arabic, Hebrew, New Testament Greek and scripture interpretation with Albert Eichhorn; natural science with Johann Friedrich Blumenbach; German literature with Georg Friedrich Benecke; French and Italian literature with Artaud and Bunsen; and classics with Georg Ludolf Dissen. In 1820, he received his doctorate from the University of Göttingen. He returned to Heidelberg Schlierbach, where he had stayed during his studies in Heidelberg University. He founded a learning community for natural science and religion called Heidelbridge Community College, which in 1825 became Heidelbridge University of Science. This university received profound support from Harvard and in 1916 merged part of its academic learning with Heidelberg University, except Medicine and Law which still remained under the leadership of the Harvard Academic Council, although joint academic activities were exercised by the US Army Europe Command. No current activities are known since the US Army departed Heidelberg. Bancroft capped off his education with a European tour, in the course of which he sought out almost every distinguished man in the world of letters, science and art, including Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Lord Byron, Barthold Georg Niebuhr, Christian Charles Josias Bunsen, Friedrich Karl von Savigny, Varnhagen von Ense, Victor Cousin, Benjamin Constant
Benjamin Constant
and Alessandro Manzoni. Career in education and literature[edit] Bancroft's father had devoted his son to the work of the ministry. While the young man delivered several sermons shortly after his return from Europe in 1822 which produced a favorable impression, the love of literature proved the stronger attachment. His first position was that of tutor of Greek at Harvard. Instinctively a humanist, Bancroft had little patience with the narrow curriculum of Harvard in his day and the rather pedantic spirit with which classical studies were pursued there. Moreover, he had brought from Europe a new manner, imbued with ardent Romanticism
Romanticism
and this he wore without ease in the formal, self-satisfied and prim provincial society of New England; the young man's European air was subjected to ridicule, but his politics were sympathetic to Jacksonian democracy. A little volume of poetry, translations and original pieces, published in 1823 gave its author no fame. As time passed, and custom created familiarity, his style, personal and literary, was seen to be the outward symbol of a firm resolve to preserve a philosophic calm, and of an enormous underlying energy which spent itself in labor. He found the conversational atmosphere of Cambridge uncongenial, and with Joseph Cogswell he established the Round Hill School at Northampton, Massachusetts. This was the first serious effort made in the United States to elevate secondary education to the plane on which it belonged. In spite of the exacting and severe routine of the Round Hill School, Bancroft contributed frequently to the North American Review
North American Review
and to Walsh's American Quarterly; he also made a translation of Heeren's work on The Politics of Ancient Greece. In 1826 he published an oration in which he advocated universal suffrage and the foundation of the state on the power of the whole people. In 1830, without his knowledge, he was elected to the Massachusetts legislature, but refused to take his seat, and the next year he declined a nomination, though certain to have been elected, for the state senate. In 1834 appeared the first volume of the History of the United States, which would appear over the next four decades (1834–74) and established his reputation.[3] In 1835, he moved to Springfield, Massachusetts, where he completed the second volume of his history. The year of his move, he also drafted an address to the people of Massachusetts at the request of the Young Men's Democratic Convention. Family[edit] His first wife was Sarah Dwight, of a rich family in Springfield, Massachusetts; they married in 1827 and had two sons. She died in 1837. He formed a second marriage with Mrs Elizabeth Davis Bliss, a widow with two children. Together they had a daughter. Historian[edit] Bancroft, having trained in the leading German universities, was an accomplished scholar, whose magisterial History of the United States, from the Discovery of the American Continent covered the new nation in depth down to 1789.[4] Bancroft was imbued with the spirit of Romanticism, emphasizing the emergence of nationalism and republican values, and rooting on every page for the Patriots. His masterwork started appearing in 1834, and he constantly revised it in numerous editions.[5] Along with John Gorham Palfrey
John Gorham Palfrey
(1796–1881), he wrote the most comprehensive history of colonial America. Billias argues Bancroft played on four recurring themes to explain how America developed its unique values: providence, progress, patria, and pan-democracy. "Providence" meant that destiny depended more on God than on human will. The idea of "progress" indicated that through continuous reform a better society was possible. "Patria" (love of country) was deserved because America's spreading influence would bring liberty and freedom to more and more of the world. "Pan-democracy" meant the nation-state was central to the drama, not specific heroes or villains.[6] Vitzthum argues that Bancroft was the historian as artist and philosopher. He used past events to exemplify his moral vision, based on his Unitarian faith in progress. The history of America exemplified the gradual unfolding of God's purpose for mankind – the development of religious and political liberty. The tone of moral certainty made his volumes popular, in combination with their grand artistic sweep, intensity, and coherence.[7] Bancroft was an indefatigable researcher who had a thorough command of the sources, but his rotund romantic style and enthusiastic patriotism annoyed later generations of scientific historians, who did not assign his books to students.[8] Furthermore, scholars of the "Imperial School" after 1890 took a much more favorable view of the benign intentions of the British Empire
British Empire
than he did.[9][10] Bancroft was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society
American Antiquarian Society
in 1838, and also served as its Secretary of Domestic Correspondence from 1877 to 1880.[11] Political career[edit]

Bancroft in 1846

Bancroft entered politics in 1837 when appointed by Martin Van Buren as Collector of Customs of the Port of Boston. Two of his own appointees in the office were Orestes Brownson
Orestes Brownson
and author Nathaniel Hawthorne. In 1844, Bancroft was the Democratic candidate for governor of Massachusetts but he was defeated. He called for the annexation of Texas as extending "the area of freedom" and, though a Democrat, opposed slavery. In 1845, in recognition for his support at the previous Democratic convention, Bancroft was appointed to James Polk's cabinet as Secretary of the Navy, serving until 1846, when, for a month, he was acting Secretary of War. During his short period in the cabinet, Bancroft established the United States Naval Academy
United States Naval Academy
at Annapolis, creating a legacy of education and leadership.[12] He ordered naval action that resulted in the occupation of California and, as secretary of War, sent Zachary Taylor into the contested land between Texas and Mexico. That catalyzed the Mexican War, resulting in the United States greatly increasing its territory in the Southwest. Bancroft designed and developed the Naval Academy; he received all the appropriations for which he asked. Congress had never been willing to establish a naval academy, but Bancroft studied the law to assess the powers of the Secretary of the Navy. He found that he could order "a place where midshipmen should wait for orders." He could also direct instructors to give lessons to them at sea, and by law, instructors could follow the midshipmen to the place of their common residence on shore. The appropriation of the year for the naval service met the expense, and the Secretary of War ceded an abandoned military post to the navy. Therefore, when Congress came together, it learned that the midshipmen not at sea were housed at Annapolis. Thus, they were protected from the dangers of idleness and city life and busy at a regular course of study. Congress accepted the school, which was in full operation, and granted money for the repairs of the buildings. Bancroft introduced some new respected professors into the corps of instructors, and he suggested a system of promotion, related to experience and achievements as well as age. The merit system was not fully developed or applied at the time. Bancroft was influential also in obtaining additional appropriations for the United States Naval Observatory. Similarly, Bancroft studied so deeply the Oregon boundary dispute
Oregon boundary dispute
that in 1846, he was sent as minister plenipotentiary to London to work with the British government on the issue. There, he roomed with the historian Macaulay and the poet Hallam. With the election of Whig Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
as president, Bancroft's political appointment ended. On his return to the United States in 1849, he withdrew from public life. He resided in New York and wrote history. There, Bancroft acted as a founding member of the American Geographical Society
American Geographical Society
and served as the society's first president for nearly three years (February 21, 1852 – December 7, 1854).[13]

George Bancroft
George Bancroft
in his office (c. 1889)

In April 1864, at Bancroft's request, President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
wrote out what would become the fourth of five known manuscripts of the Gettysburg Address. Bancroft planned to include the copy in Autograph Leaves of Our Country's Authors, which he planned to sell at a Soldiers' and Sailors' Sanitary Fair, in Baltimore, to raise money to care for the Union Army. Bancroft was elected an Associate Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1863.[14] In 1866, he was chosen by Congress to deliver the special eulogy on Lincoln. In 1867, President Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
offered Bancroft the post of US minister to Prussia, enabling him to return to Germany. Bancroft remained in Berlin for seven years, and President Ulysses S. Grant appointed him minister to the German Empire in 1871. During his tenure in Berlin, Bancroft spent much time negotiating agreements with Prussia
Prussia
and the other north German states relating to naturalization and citizenship issues; they became known as the Bancroft Treaties
Bancroft Treaties
in his honor.[15]The treaties were the first international recognition of the right of expatriation. The principle has since incorporated in the law of nations. In his later years Bancroft lived in Washington, DC, summering at Rose Cliff, Newport, Rhode Island. His last official achievements are considered the greatest. In the San Juan arbitration case he displayed great versatility and skill ans won his case before the Mexican emperor. He died in 1891 after being the last surviving member of the Polk cabinet. Works[edit] Major works[edit]

Bancroft, George. History of the United States of America, from the Discovery of the American Continent. (Boston: Little, Brown, and company, numerous editions in 8 or 10 volumes 1854–78). online edition Bancroft, George; Dyer, Oliver, 1824–1907. (1891) History of the Battle of Lake Erie, and Miscellaneous Papers (New York: R. Bonner's sons) 292 pp. (American Library Association) online edition Bancroft, George. Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
to the End of His Public Career. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1889. online edition Bancroft, George. History of the Formation of the Constitution of the United States of America.(New York, D. Appleton and Company, 1882, Vol 1) online edition

Minor publications[edit]

An Oration Delivered on July 4, 1826, at Northampton, Mass. (Northampton, 1826) History of the Political System of Europe, translated from Heeren (1829) An Oration delivered before the Democracy of Springfield and Neighboring Towns, July 4, 1836 (2d ed., with prefatory remarks, Springfield, 1836) History of the Colonization of the United States (Boston, 1841, 12mo, abridged) An Oration delivered at the Commemoration, in Washington, of the Death of Andrew Jackson, June 27, 1845 The Necessity, the Reality, and the Promise of the Progress of the Human Race An Oration delivered before the New York Historical Society, November 20, 1854 (New York, 1854) Proceedings of the First Assembly of Virginia, 1619; Communicated, with an Introductory Note, by George Bancroft Collections of the New York Historical Society, second series, vol. iii., part i. (New York, 1857) Literary and Historical Miscellanies (New York, 1855) Memorial Address on the Life and Character of Abraham Lincoln, delivered at the request of both Houses of the Congress of America, before them, in the House of Representatives at Washington, on February 12, 1866 (Washington, 1866) via Archive.org A Plea for the Constitution of the United States of America, Wounded in the House of its Guardians Veritati Unice Litarem (New York, 1886)

Among his other speeches and addresses may be mentioned a lecture on "The Culture, the Support, and the Object of Art in a Republic," in the course of the New York Historical Society
New York Historical Society
in 1852; and one on "The Office, Appropriate Culture, and Duty of the Mechanic." Bancroft contributed a biography of Jonathan Edwards to the American Cyclopædia. Namesakes and monuments[edit]

Bancroft Tower, Worcester, Massachusetts

The United States Navy has named several ships USS Bancroft for him, as well as the fleet ballistic missile submarine USS George Bancroft (SBN-643), and the mid-19th century United States Coast Survey schooner USCS Bancroft. The dormitory at the United States Naval Academy, Bancroft Hall, is named after him. It is the largest single dormitory in the world.[16] Bancroft is one of 23 famous names on the $1 educational currency note of 1896.[17] The name of Bancroft, honoring George Bancroft, is found atop one of several marble pillars in the Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Building of the United States Library of Congress in Washington, DC. [18] In and around his birthplace of Worcester, Massachusetts, many streets, businesses and monuments bear his name:

Bancroft School, Worcester, MA Bancroft Hall[19] at Phillips Exeter Academy, Exeter, New Hampshire. Bancroft Tower,his erected in honor in Salisbury Park,[20] Worcester, MA Bancroft Commons,[21] an apartment building in downtown Worcester, MA Bancroft Motors, now owned by HARR Motor Company[22] Bancroft Street,[23] Gardner, MA Bancroft Street,[24] Worcester, MA Bancroft Elementary School,[25] (in the Bancroft neighborhood of the City of) Minneapolis, MN Bancroft Elementary School,[26] (in the Mount Pleasant neighborhood of) Washington, D.C. Bancroft Elementary School, Scranton, Pennsylvania Bancroft's Talon, an item in the 2014 MOBA Smite[27] Bancroft, Iowa Bancroft, Maine

Bancroft is interred at Rural Cemetery in Worcester. Notes[edit]

^ He served as president of the American Unitarian Association from 1825 to 1836. ^ "George Bancroft". Xroads.virginia.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-20.  ^ Bancroft, George (1834), A History of the United States from the Discovery of the American Continent to the Present Time, I, Boston: Charles Bowen  ^ Harvey Wish, The American Historian: A Social-intellectual History of the Writing of the American Past (1960) ch 5 online ^ See for online editions ^ George Athan Billias, "George Bancroft: Master Historian," Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, Oct 2001, 111#2 pp 507–528 ^ Richard C. Vitzthum, "Theme and Method in Bancroft's "History of the United States," New England Quarterly, Sept 1968, 41#3 pp 362–380 in JSTOR ^ Vitzthum, "Theme and Method in Bancroft's "History of the United States," p 362 ^ N. H. Dawes, and F. T. Nichols, "Revaluing George Bancroft," New England Quarterly, 6#2 (1933), pp. 278–293 in JSTOR ^ Michael Kraus, " George Bancroft
George Bancroft
1834–1934," New England Quarterly, 7#4 (1934), pp. 662–686 in JSTOR ^ Dunbar, B. (1987). Members and Officers of the American Antiquarian Society. Worcester: American Antiquarian Society. ^ " George Bancroft
George Bancroft
Secretary of the Navy 1800 – 1891". Naval History and Heritage Command. Archived from the original on October 2, 2013. Retrieved December 10, 2013.  ^ Wright, John Kirtland 'The Years of Henry Grinnell', Geography in the Making: The American Geographical Society
American Geographical Society
1851–1951 (1952) p. 17-18. — George Grady Press ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved May 17, 2011.  ^ George Bancroft
George Bancroft
Papers, 1815-1908 http://www.masshist.org/collection-guides/view/fa0413. Retrieved 26 February 2018.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ http://www.azinet.com/Annapolis ^ "United States Bank Notes". December 27, 2009.  ^ "United States Library of Congress, Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Building". January 18, 2010.  ^ "Bancroft Hall". Retrieved February 23, 2017. [permanent dead link] ^ "Google Maps". Retrieved February 23, 2017.  ^ "Apartment Rentals in Worcester MA - The Grid District". Retrieved February 23, 2017.  ^ "Harr Chrysler Jeep Dodge Ram: New & Used Car Dealers Worcester, MA - Harr CJDR". Retrieved February 23, 2017.  ^ "Google Maps". Retrieved February 23, 2017.  ^ "Google Maps". Retrieved February 23, 2017.  ^ "Welcome to Bancroft!". Retrieved February 23, 2017.  ^ "Bancroft Elementary School". Retrieved February 23, 2017.  ^ "Bancroft's Talon - Official SMITE Wiki". Retrieved February 23, 2017. 

References[edit]

 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bancroft, George". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 307–309.   Allibone, Samuel Austin (1900). "Bancroft, George". In Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John. Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.  Dawes, N. H., and F. T. Nichols. "Revaluing George Bancroft," New England Quarterly, 6#2 (1933), pp. 278–293 in JSTOR Kraus, Michael. " George Bancroft
George Bancroft
1834–1934," New England Quarterly, 7#4 (1934), pp. 662–686 in JSTOR Handlin, Lillian. George Bancroft: The Intellectual as Democrat. (New York, 1984). Nye, Russel B. George Bancroft, Brahmin Rebel (New York, 1944). Stewart, Watt. " George Bancroft
George Bancroft
Historian of the American Republic," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 19#1 (1932), pp. 77–86 in JSTOR Wish, Harvey. The American Historian: A Social-intellectual History of the Writing of the American Past (1960) ch 5 on Bancroft online Marquis Who's Who, Inc. Who Was Who in American History, the Military. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who, 1975. ISBN 0837932017 OCLC 657162692

Primary sources[edit]

Howe, M. A. Dewolfe The Life and Letters of George Bancroft
George Bancroft
– Vol. 1 (1971 reprint) Cornell University, Guide to the George Bancroft
George Bancroft
papers

External links[edit]

Biography portal

Wikimedia Commons has media related to George Bancroft.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: George Bancroft

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original works written by or about: George Bancroft

George Bancroft
George Bancroft
at the Database of Classical Scholars George Bancroft
George Bancroft
Papers, 1823–1890 Manuscripts and Archives, New York Public Library Obituary at New York Times' site Works by George Bancroft
George Bancroft
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about George Bancroft
George Bancroft
at Internet Archive Works by George Bancroft
George Bancroft
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) George Bancroft
George Bancroft
at Find a Grave

Government offices

Preceded by John Y. Mason United States Secretary of the Navy 1845–1846 Succeeded by John Y. Mason

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by Louis McLane U.S. Minister to Britain 1846–1849 Succeeded by Abbott Lawrence

Preceded by Joseph A. Wright U.S. Minister to Prussia 1867–1874 Succeeded by Bancroft Davis

v t e

United States Department of the Navy

Secretaries

Cabinet level

Stoddert Smith Hamilton Jones Crowninshield S Thompson Southard Branch L. Woodbury Dickerson Paulding Badger Upshur Henshaw Gilmer Mason Bancroft Mason Preston Graham Kennedy Dobbin Toucey Welles Borie Robeson R Thompson Goff Hunt Chandler Whitney Tracy Herbert Long Moody Morton Bonaparte Metcalf Newberry Meyer Daniels Denby Wilbur Adams Swanson Edison Knox Forrestal

Dept. of Defense

Sullivan Matthews Kimball Anderson Thomas T. Gates Franke Connally Korth Nitze Ignatius Chafee Warner Middendorf Claytor Hidalgo Lehman Webb Ball Garrett O'Keefe Dalton Danzig England Winter Mabus Spencer

Under Secretaries

Forrestal Bard A. Gates Sullivan Kenney Kimball Whitehair Thomas T. Gates Franke Bantz Fay BeLieu Baldwin Baird Warner Sanders Middendorf Potter Macdonald Woolsey Murray Goodrich Garrett Howard Danzig Hultin Pirie Livingstone Aviles Work Davidson Modly

Assistant Secretaries

Pre–1954

Fox Faxon Soley McAdoo T. Roosevelt Sr. Allen Hackett Darling Newberry Satterlee Winthrop F. Roosevelt G. Woodbury T. Roosevelt Jr. Robinson Jahncke H. Roosevelt Edison Compton Bard Hensel Kenney Andrews Koehler Askins Fogler

Post–1954

Financial Management and Comptroller Installations and Environment Manpower and Reserve Affairs Research, Development and Acquisitions General Counsel of the Navy defunct:

Air Installations and Logistics Material Research and Development Research, Engineering and Systems Shipbuilding and Logistics

v t e

United States Ambassadors to Germany
Germany

Minister

Adams

Envoy

Wheaton Donelson Hannegan Barnard Vroom Wright Judd Wright Bancroft Davis Taylor White Sargent Kasson Pendleton Phelps Runyon

Ambassador

Runyon Uhl White Tower Hill Leishman Gerard Dresel Houghton Schurman Sackett Dodd Wilson Kirk Morris Conant Bruce Dowling McGhee Lodge Jr. Rush Hillenbrand Stoessel Jr. Burns Burt Walters Kimmitt Holbrooke Redman Bindenagel Kornblum Coats Timken Koenig Murphy Emerson Logsdon

v t e

Hall of Fame for Great Americans

John Adams John Quincy Adams Jane Addams Louis Agassiz Susan B. Anthony John James Audubon George Bancroft Clara Barton Henry Ward Beecher Alexander Graham Bell Daniel Boone Edwin Booth Louis Brandeis Phillips Brooks William Cullen Bryant Luther Burbank Andrew Carnegie George Washington
George Washington
Carver William Ellery Channing Rufus Choate Henry Clay Grover Cleveland James Fenimore Cooper Peter Cooper Charlotte Cushman James Buchanan
James Buchanan
Eads Thomas Alva Edison Jonathan Edwards Ralph Waldo Emerson David Farragut Stephen Foster Benjamin Franklin Robert Fulton Josiah W. Gibbs William C. Gorgas Ulysses S. Grant Asa Gray Alexander Hamilton Nathaniel Hawthorne Joseph Henry Patrick Henry Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Mark Hopkins Elias Howe Washington Irving Andrew Jackson Thomas J. Jackson Thomas Jefferson John Paul Jones James Kent Sidney Lanier Robert E. Lee Abraham Lincoln Henry Wadsworth Longfellow James Russell Lowell Mary Lyon Edward MacDowell James Madison Horace Mann John Marshall Matthew Fontaine Maury Albert A. Michelson Maria Mitchell James Monroe Samuel F. B. Morse William T. G. Morton John Lothrop Motley Simon Newcomb Barack Obama Thomas Paine Alice Freeman Palmer Francis Parkman George Peabody William Penn Edgar Allan Poe Walter Reed Franklin D. Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Augustus Saint-Gaudens William Tecumseh Sherman John Philip Sousa Joseph Story Harriet Beecher Stowe Gilbert Stuart Sylvanus Thayer Henry David Thoreau Mark Twain Lillian Wald Booker T. Washington George Washington Daniel Webster George Westinghouse James McNeill Whistler Walt Whitman Eli Whitney John Greenleaf Whittier Emma Willard Frances E. Willard Roger Williams Woodrow Wilson Orville Wright Wilbur Wright

v t e

Presidents of the American Historical Association

1884–1900

Andrew Dickson White
Andrew Dickson White
(1884-85) George Bancroft
George Bancroft
(1886) Justin Winsor
Justin Winsor
(1887) William Frederick Poole
William Frederick Poole
(1888) Charles Kendall Adams
Charles Kendall Adams
(1889) John Jay (1890) William Wirt Henry (1891) James Burrill Angell
James Burrill Angell
(1892-93) Henry Adams
Henry Adams
(1893-94) George Frisbie Hoar
George Frisbie Hoar
(1895) Richard Salter Storrs
Richard Salter Storrs
(1896) James Schouler (1897) George Park Fisher (1898) James Ford Rhodes
James Ford Rhodes
(1899) Edward Eggleston
Edward Eggleston
(1900)

1901–1925

Charles Francis Adams Jr.
Charles Francis Adams Jr.
(1901) Alfred Thayer Mahan
Alfred Thayer Mahan
(1902) Henry Charles Lea
Henry Charles Lea
(1903) Goldwin Smith
Goldwin Smith
(1904) John Bach McMaster
John Bach McMaster
(1905) Simeon Eben Baldwin
Simeon Eben Baldwin
(1906) J. Franklin Jameson (1907) George Burton Adams (1908) Albert Bushnell Hart
Albert Bushnell Hart
(1909) Frederick Jackson Turner
Frederick Jackson Turner
(1910) William Milligan Sloane
William Milligan Sloane
(1911) Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
(1912) William Archibald Dunning (1913) Andrew C. McLaughlin
Andrew C. McLaughlin
(1914) H. Morse Stephens
H. Morse Stephens
(1915) George Lincoln Burr
George Lincoln Burr
(1916) Worthington C. Ford (1917) William Roscoe Thayer
William Roscoe Thayer
(1918-19) Edward Channing (1920) Jean Jules Jusserand
Jean Jules Jusserand
(1921) Charles Homer Haskins
Charles Homer Haskins
(1922) Edward Potts Cheyney
Edward Potts Cheyney
(1923) Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
(1924) Charles McLean Andrews
Charles McLean Andrews
(1924-25)

1926–1950

Dana Carleton Munro
Dana Carleton Munro
(1926) Henry Osborn Taylor (1927) James Henry Breasted
James Henry Breasted
(1928) James Harvey Robinson
James Harvey Robinson
(1929) Evarts Boutell Greene (1930) Carl L. Becker (1931) Herbert Eugene Bolton
Herbert Eugene Bolton
(1932) Charles A. Beard
Charles A. Beard
(1933) William Dodd (1934) Michael Rostovtzeff
Michael Rostovtzeff
(1935) Charles Howard McIlwain (1936) Guy Stanton Ford (1937) Laurence M. Larson (1938) William Scott Ferguson (1939) Max Farrand
Max Farrand
(1940) James Westfall Thompson (1941) Arthur M. Schlesinger Sr. (1942) Nellie Neilson (1943) William Linn Westermann
William Linn Westermann
(1944) Carlton J. H. Hayes (1945) Sidney Bradshaw Fay (1946) Thomas J. Wertenbaker
Thomas J. Wertenbaker
(1947) Kenneth Scott Latourette
Kenneth Scott Latourette
(1948) Conyers Read (1949) Samuel Eliot Morison
Samuel Eliot Morison
(1950)

1951–1975

Robert Livingston Schuyler (1951) James G. Randall (1952) Louis R. Gottschalk (1953) Merle Curti (1954) Lynn Thorndike
Lynn Thorndike
(1955) Dexter Perkins (1956) William L. Langer (1957) Walter Prescott Webb
Walter Prescott Webb
(1958) Allan Nevins
Allan Nevins
(1959) Bernadotte Everly Schmitt (1960) Samuel Flagg Bemis (1961) Carl Bridenbaugh (1962) Crane Brinton (1963) Julian P. Boyd (1964) Frederic C. Lane (1965) Roy Franklin Nichols (1966) Hajo Holborn (1967) John K. Fairbank (1968) C. Vann Woodward
C. Vann Woodward
(1969) Robert Roswell Palmer (1970) David M. Potter (1971) Joseph Strayer (1971) Thomas C. Cochran (1972) Lynn Townsend White Jr. (1973) Lewis Hanke (1974) Gordon Wright (1975)

1976–2000

Richard B. Morris (1976) Charles Gibson (1977) William J. Bouwsma (1978) John Hope Franklin (1979) David H. Pinkney (1980) Bernard Bailyn (1981) Gordon A. Craig
Gordon A. Craig
(1982) Philip D. Curtin (1983) Arthur S. Link (1984) William H. McNeill (1985) Carl Neumann Degler (1986) Natalie Zemon Davis
Natalie Zemon Davis
(1987) Akira Iriye (1988) Louis R. Harlan (1989) David Herlihy (1990) William Leuchtenburg (1991) Frederic Wakeman (1992) Louise A. Tilly (1993) Thomas C. Holt (1994) John Henry Coatsworth (1995) Caroline Bynum (1996) Joyce Appleby (1997) Joseph C. Miller (1998) Robert Darnton
Robert Darnton
(1999) Eric Foner
Eric Foner
(2000)

2001–Present

William Roger Louis (2001) Lynn Hunt (2002) James M. McPherson
James M. McPherson
(2003) Jonathan Spence (2004) James J. Sheehan
James J. Sheehan
(2005) Linda K. Kerber (2006) Barbara Weinstein (2007) Gabrielle M. Spiegel (2008) Laurel Thatcher Ulrich
Laurel Thatcher Ulrich
(2009) Barbara D. Metcalf (2010) Anthony Grafton
Anthony Grafton
(2011) William Cronon
William Cronon
(2012) Kenneth Pomeranz
Kenneth Pomeranz
(2013) Jan E. Goldstein (2014) Vicki L. Ruiz (2015) Patrick Manning (2016) Tyler E. Stovall (2017) Mary Beth Norton (2018)

v t e

Cabinet of President James K. Polk
James K. Polk
(1845–49)

Secretary of State

James Buchanan
James Buchanan
(1845–49)

Secretary of the Treasury

Robert J. Walker
Robert J. Walker
(1845–49)

Secretary of War

William Learned Marcy (1845–49)

Attorney General

John Y. Mason
John Y. Mason
(1845–46) Nathan Clifford
Nathan Clifford
(1846–48) Isaac Toucey
Isaac Toucey
(1848–49)

Postmaster General

Cave Johnson
Cave Johnson
(1845–49)

Secretary of the Navy

George Bancroft
George Bancroft
(1845–46) John Y. Mason
John Y. Mason
(1846–49)

v t e

Ambassadors of the United States of America to the Court of St. James's

Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1785–1811

John Adams
John Adams
(1785–1788) Thomas Pinckney
Thomas Pinckney
(1792–1796) Rufus King
Rufus King
(1796–1803) James Monroe
James Monroe
(1803–1807) William Pinkney
William Pinkney
(1808–1811) Jonathan Russell
Jonathan Russell
(chargé d'affaires) (1811–1812)

Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1815–1893

John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
(1815–1817) Richard Rush
Richard Rush
(1818–1825) Rufus King
Rufus King
(1825–1826) Albert Gallatin
Albert Gallatin
(1826–1827) James Barbour
James Barbour
(1828–1829) Louis McLane
Louis McLane
(1829–1831) Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
(1831–1832) Aaron Vail (chargé d'affaires) (1832–1836) Andrew Stevenson
Andrew Stevenson
(1836–1841) Edward Everett
Edward Everett
(1841–1845) Louis McLane
Louis McLane
(1845–1846) George Bancroft
George Bancroft
(1846–1849) Abbott Lawrence
Abbott Lawrence
(1849–1852) Joseph R. Ingersoll (1852–1853) James Buchanan
James Buchanan
(1853–1856) George M. Dallas
George M. Dallas
(1856–1861) Charles Adams Sr. (1861–1868) Reverdy Johnson
Reverdy Johnson
(1868–1869) John Lothrop Motley
John Lothrop Motley
(1869–1870) Robert C. Schenck
Robert C. Schenck
(1871–1876) Edwards Pierrepont
Edwards Pierrepont
(1876–1877) John Welsh (1877–1879) James Russell Lowell
James Russell Lowell
(1880–1885) Edward J. Phelps (1885–1889) Robert Todd Lincoln
Robert Todd Lincoln
(1889–1893)

Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's 1893–present

Thomas F. Bayard
Thomas F. Bayard
Sr. (1893–1897) John Hay
John Hay
(1897–1898) Joseph Choate (1899–1905) Whitelaw Reid
Whitelaw Reid
(1905–1912) Walter Page (1913-1918) John W. Davis
John W. Davis
(1918–1921) George Harvey (1921–1923) Frank B. Kellogg
Frank B. Kellogg
(1924–1925) Alanson B. Houghton
Alanson B. Houghton
(1925–1929) Charles G. Dawes
Charles G. Dawes
(1929–1931) Andrew W. Mellon
Andrew W. Mellon
(1932–1933) Robert Bingham (1933–1937) Joseph P. Kennedy (1938–1940) John G. Winant (1941–1946) W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
(1946) Lewis W. Douglas (1947–1950) Walter S. Gifford (1950–1953) Winthrop W. Aldrich
Winthrop W. Aldrich
(1953–1957) John Hay
John Hay
Whitney (1957–1961) David K. E. Bruce (1961–1969) Walter H. Annenberg (1969–1974) Elliot L. Richardson (1975–1976) Anne Armstrong (1976–1977) Kingman Brewster Jr. (1977–1981) John J. Louis Jr. (1981–1983) Charles H. Price II
Charles H. Price II
(1983–1989) Henry E. Catto Jr. (1989–1991) Raymond G. H. Seitz (1991–1994) William J. Crowe
William J. Crowe
(1994–1997) Philip Lader
Philip Lader
(1997–2001) William Stamps Farish III
William Stamps Farish III
(2001–2004) Robert H. Tuttle
Robert H. Tuttle
(2005–2009) Louis Susman
Louis Susman
(2009–2013) Matthew Barzun
Matthew Barzun
(2013–2017) Woody Johnson
Woody Johnson
(2017– )

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 39386684 LCCN: n50036519 ISNI: 0000 0001 0889 4019 GND: 118656996 SUDOC: 028004388 BNF: cb119927186 (data) NLA: 35013036 BNE: XX1155837 SN

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