Georg Rasch (21 September 1901 – 19 October 1980) was a Danish
mathematician, statistician, and psychometrician, most famous for the
development of a class of measurement models known as Rasch models. He
studied with R.A. Fisher and also briefly with Ragnar Frisch, and was
elected a member of the
International Statistical Institute in 1948.
In 1919, Rasch began studying mathematics at the University of
Copenhagen. He completed a master's degree in 1925 and received a
doctorate in science with thesis director
Niels Erik Nørlund
Niels Erik Nørlund in
1930. Rasch married in 1928. Unable to find work as a mathematician
in the 1930s, he turned to work as a statistical consultant. In this
capacity he worked on a range of problems, including problems of
1 Contributions to psychometrics
2 Major publications
5 External links
Contributions to psychometrics
Georg Rasch is best known for his contributions to psychometrics. His
work in this field began when he used the
Poisson distribution to
model the number of errors made by students when reading texts. He
referred to the model as the multiplicative Poisson model.
He later developed the
Rasch model for dichotomous data, which he
applied to response data derived from intelligence and attainment
tests including data collected by the Danish military. At the same
epoch, American scientists independently developed item response
theory (IRT). Within IRT, the
Rasch model is one of the most simple
response models. In contrast to other simple models, the Rasch model
has a distinctive mathematical property: the model parameters (item
difficulties, examinee ability) are sufficient statistics. Rasch
demonstrated that his approach met criteria for measurement deduced
from an analysis of measurement in the physical sciences. He also
proposed generalizations of his model (Rasch, 1960/1980, 1977).
Rasch model is used extensively in assessment in education
and educational psychology, particularly for attainment and cognitive
Rasch, G. (1960/1980). Probabilistic models for some intelligence and
attainment tests.(Copenhagen, Danish Institute for Educational
Research), expanded edition (1980) with foreword and afterword by B.D.
Wright. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Rasch, G. (1961). On general laws and the meaning of measurement in
psychology, pp. 321–334 in Proceedings of the Fourth Berkeley
Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, IV. Berkeley:
University of Chicago Press, 1980.
Rasch, G. (1977). On Specific Objectivity: An attempt at formalizing
the request for generality and validity of scientific statements. The
Danish Yearbook of Philosophy, 14, 58-93.
Andersen, E. B. (1982)
Georg Rasch (1901–1980), Psychometrika,
Georg Rasch at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
Lina Wøhlk Olsen, Essays on
Georg Rasch and his contributions to
statistics, PhD thesis Univ. of Copenhagen, in part online here, in
part published elsewhere.
Institute for Objective
Measurement - some
Georg Rasch papers online
ISNI: 0000 0000 8164 2726
BNF: cb15880754r (data)