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WALES (Welsh : Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and is part of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
and offshore islands. It is bordered by England
England
to its east, the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to its north and west, and the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
to its south. It has a total area of 2,064,100 hectares (5,101,000 acres) and is about 170 mi (274 km) from north to south and at least 60 mi (97 km) wide. It has a number of offshore islands, by far the largest of which is Anglesey
Anglesey
. The mainland coastline, including Anglesey, is about 1,680 mi (2,704 km) in length. As of 2014, Wales
Wales
had a population of about 3,092,000; Cardiff
Cardiff
is the capital and largest city and is situated in the urbanised area of South East Wales .

Wales
Wales
has a complex geological history which has left it a largely mountainous country. The coastal plain is narrow in the north and west of the country but wider in the south, where the Vale of Glamorgan
Vale of Glamorgan
has some of the best agricultural land. Exploitation of the South Wales Coalfield during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
resulted in the development of an urban economy in the South Wales
South Wales
Valleys, and the expansion of the port cities of Newport , Cardiff
Cardiff
and Swansea
Swansea
for the export of coal . The smaller North Wales Coalfield was also developed at this time, but elsewhere in the country, the landscape is rural and communities are small, the economy being largely dependent on agriculture and tourism. The climate is influenced by the proximity of the country to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
and the prevailing westerly winds; thus it tends to be mild, cloudy, wet and windy.

CONTENTS

* 1 Physical geography * 2 Geology
Geology
* 3 Climate * 4 Land use * 5 Natural resources

* 6 Political geography

* 6.1 Border between Wales
Wales
and England
England
* 6.2 Local government

* 7 Demography * 8 Communications * 9 Protected areas * 10 See also * 11 References

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

The summit of Snowdon
Snowdon
, the highest mountain in Wales
Wales
Depiction of the Vale of Towy, Carmarthenshire
Carmarthenshire

Wales
Wales
is located on the western side of central southern Great Britain . To the north and west is the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
, and to the south is the Bristol Channel
Bristol Channel
. The English counties of Cheshire
Cheshire
, Shropshire
Shropshire
, Herefordshire
Herefordshire
and Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
lie to the east. Much of the border with England
England
roughly follows the line of the ancient earthwork known as Offa\'s Dyke . The large island of Anglesey
Anglesey
lies off the northwest coast, separated from mainland Wales
Wales
by the Menai Strait , and there are a number of smaller islands.

Most of Wales
Wales
is mountainous. Snowdonia
Snowdonia
(Welsh : Eryri) in the northwest has the highest mountains, with Snowdon
Snowdon
(Yr Wyddfa) at 1,085 m (3,560 ft) being the highest mountain in England
England
and Wales. To the south of the main range lie the Arenig Group , Cadair Idris
Cadair Idris
and the Berwyn Mountains . In the northeast of Wales, between the Clwyd
Clwyd
Valley and the Dee Estuary, lies the Clwydian Range
Clwydian Range
. The 14 (or possibly 15) peaks over 3,000 feet (914 m), all in Snowdonia, are known collectively as the Welsh 3000s
Welsh 3000s
.

The Cambrian Mountains run from northeast to southwest and occupy most of the central part of the country. These are more rounded and undulating, clad in moorland and rough, tussocky grassland . In the south of the country are the Brecon Beacons
Brecon Beacons
in central Powys, the Black Mountains (Y Mynyddoedd Duon) spread across parts of Powys and Monmouthshire in southeast Wales
Wales
and, confusingly, Black Mountain
Mountain
(Y Mynydd Du), which lies further west on the border between Carmarthenshire
Carmarthenshire
and Powys.

The Welsh lowland zone consists of the north coastal plain, the island of Anglesey, part of the Llŷn Peninsula
Llŷn Peninsula
, a narrow strip of coast along Cardigan Bay , much of Pembrokeshire
Pembrokeshire
and southern Carmarthenshire
Carmarthenshire
, the Gower Peninsula
Gower Peninsula
and the Vale of Glamorgan
Vale of Glamorgan
. The main rivers are the River Dee , part of which forms the boundary between Wales
Wales
and England, the River Clwyd
River Clwyd
and the River Conwy
River Conwy
, which all flow northwards into Liverpool Bay
Liverpool Bay
and the Irish Sea. Further round the coast, the Rivers Mawddach , Dovey , Rheidol , Ystwyth and Teifi flow westwards into Cardigan Bay, and the rivers Towy , Taff , Usk and Wye flow southwards into the Bristol Channel. Parts of the River Severn
River Severn
form the boundary between Wales
Wales
and England.

The length of the coast of mainland Wales
Wales
is about 1,370 mi (2,205 km), and adding to this the coasts of the Isle of Anglesey
Anglesey
and Holy Island , the total is about 1,680 mi (2,704 km). Cardigan Bay is the largest bay in the country and Bala Lake
Bala Lake
(Llyn Tegid) the largest lake at 1.8 sq mi (4.7 km2). Other large lakes include Llyn Trawsfynydd at 1.8 sq mi (4.7 km2), Lake Vyrnwy
Lake Vyrnwy
at 1.7 sq mi (4.4 km2), Llyn Brenig at 1.4 sq mi (3.6 km2), Llyn Celyn
Llyn Celyn
at 1.2 sq mi (3.1 km2) and Llyn Alaw at 1.2 sq mi (3.1 km2). Bala Lake
Bala Lake
lies in a glacial valley blocked by a terminal moraine , but the other lakes are reservoirs created by impounding rivers, to provide drinking water, hydroelectric schemes or flood defences, and many are also used recreationally.

GEOLOGY

Main article: Geology of Wales
Geology of Wales
Geologic map of Wales
Wales

The geology of Wales
Wales
is complex and varied. The earliest outcropping rocks are from the Precambrian
Precambrian
era, some 700 Mya , and are found in Anglesey, the Llŷn peninsula, southwestern Pembrokeshire
Pembrokeshire
and in places near the English border. During the Lower Palaeozoic , as seas periodically flooded the land and retreated again, thousands of metres of sedimentary and volcanic rocks accumulated in a marine basin known as the Welsh Basin .

During the early and middle Ordovician
Ordovician
period (485 to 460 Mya), volcanic activity increased. One large volcanic system, which was centred around what is now Snowdon, emitted an estimated 60 cubic kilometres (14 cu mi) of debris. Another volcano formed Rhobell Fawr near Dolgellau. During this period, great accumulations of sand, gravel and mud were deposited further south in Wales, and these gradually consolidated. Some of the volcanic ash fell in the sea and formed great banks, where unstable masses sometimes slid into deeper water, creating submarine avalanches . This caused great turbidity in the sea, after which the particles began to settle out according to particle size. The strata thus formed are called turbidites , and these are common in central Wales, being particularly obvious in the sea cliffs around Aberystwyth
Aberystwyth
.

By the beginning of the Devonian
Devonian
period (400 Mya) the sea was retreating from the Welsh Basin as the land was thrust up by the collision of land masses, forming a new range of mountains, the Welsh Caledonides. The strata were compressed and deformed, and in places, the clay minerals recrystallised, developing a grain that allowed parallel cleavage, making it easy to split the rocks into thin flat sheets of stone known as slate . In the Carboniferous
Carboniferous
period (360 to 300 Mya), erosion of the mountains resulted in the formation of sandstones and mudstones. A reinvasion of southern and northeastern parts of Wales
Wales
by the sea resulted in depositions of limestone, and extensive swamps in South Wales
South Wales
gave rise to peat deposits and the eventual formation of coal measures. Southwestern Wales, in particular, was affected by the Variscan orogeny , a period when continental collisions further south caused complex folding and fracturing of the strata.

During the Permian
Permian
, Triassic
Triassic
and Jurassic
Jurassic
(300 to 150 Mya), further episodes of desertification, subsidence and uplift occurred and Wales was alternately inundated by the sea and raised above it. By the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(140 to 70 Mya), Wales
Wales
was permanently above sea level and in the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
(2.5 Mya to recent), it underwent several exceptionally cold periods, the ice ages . The mountains we see today largely assumed their present shape during the last ice age, the Devensian glaciation .

In the mid 19th century, two prominent geologists , Roderick Murchison and Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
, used their studies of the geology of Wales
Wales
to establish certain principles of stratigraphy and palaeontology . From the Latin name for Wales, Cambria (derived from Cymru), was derived the name of the earliest geological period of the Paleozoic era, the Cambrian
Cambrian
. After much dispute, the next two periods of the Paleozoic era, the Ordovician
Ordovician
and Silurian
Silurian
, were named after pre-Roman Celtic tribes of Wales, the Ordovices
Ordovices
and Silures
Silures
.

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of Wales

Wales
Wales
has a maritime climate , the predominant winds being southwesterlies and westerlies blowing in from the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. This means that the weather in Wales
Wales
is in general mild, cloudy, wet and windy. The country's wide geographic variations cause localised differences in amounts of sunshine, rainfall and temperature. Rainfall in Wales
Wales
varies widely, with the highest average annual totals in Snowdonia
Snowdonia
and the Brecon
Brecon
Beacons, and the lowest near the coast and in the east, close to the English border. Throughout Wales, the winter months are significantly wetter than the summer ones. Snow is comparatively rare near sea level in Wales, but much more frequent over the hills, and the uplands experience harsher conditions in winter than the more low-lying parts.

The mean annual temperatures in Wales
Wales
are about 11 °C (52 °F) on the coast and 9.5 °C (49 °F) in low-lying inland areas. It becomes cooler at higher altitudes, with a mean decrease in annual temperatures of approximately 0.5 °C (0.9 °F) for each 100 metres (330 feet) of increased altitude. Consequently, the higher parts of Snowdonia
Snowdonia
experience mean annual temperatures of 5 °C (41 °F). At nights, the coldest conditions occur when there is little wind and no cloud cover, especially when the ground is snow-clad; the lowest temperature recorded in Wales
Wales
was in conditions of this sort at Rhayader
Rhayader
on New Year's Day, 1940, when the temperature fell to −23.3 °C (−9.9 °F). Occasionally, the coastal area of North Wales experiences some of the warmest winter conditions in the United Kingdom, with temperatures up to 18 °C (64 °F); these result from a Foehn wind
Foehn wind
, a south-westerly airflow warming up as it descends from the mountains of Snowdonia. Rain coming in from the west in Snowdonia
Snowdonia

Rainfall in Wales
Wales
is mostly as a result of the arrival of Atlantic low pressure systems and is heaviest between October and January over the whole country. The driest months are usually April, May and June, and Wales
Wales
experiences fewer summer thunderstorms than England. Rainfall varies across the country with the highest records being from the greatest elevations. Snowdonia
Snowdonia
experiences total annual rainfalls exceeding 3,000 mm (118 in) whereas coastal regions of Wales
Wales
and the English border may have less than 1,000 mm (39 in). The combination of mountainous areas and Atlantic lows can produce large quantities of rain and sometimes results in flooding. The amount of snowfall varies with altitude and enormously from year to year. In the lowlands, the number of days with lying snow may vary from zero to thirty or more, with an average of about twenty in Snowdonia.

Wales
Wales
is one of the windier parts of the United Kingdom. The strongest winds are usually associated with Atlantic depressions; as one of these arrives, the winds usually start in the southwest, before veering to the west and then to the northwest as the system passes by. The southwest of Pembrokeshire
Pembrokeshire
experiences the most gale-force winds. The highest wind speed ever recorded in Wales
Wales
at a lowland site was gusts of 108 knots (200 km/h; 124 mph) at Rhoose
Rhoose
, in the Vale of Glamorgan, on 28 October 1989.

LAND USE

Main article: Agriculture in Wales Hill farm with Welsh Black cattle

The total terrestrial surface of Wales
Wales
is 2,064,100 hectares (5,101,000 acres). The area of land used for agriculture and forestry in the country in 2013 was 1,712,845 hectares (4,232,530 acres). Of this 79,461 hectares (196,350 acres) was used for arable cropping and fallow, 1,449 hectares (3,580 acres) for horticulture, and 1,405,156 hectares (3,472,220 acres) was used for grazing. Woodland occupied 63,366 hectares (156,580 acres) and 10,126 hectares (25,020 acres) was unclassified land. In addition, there were 180,305 hectares (445,540 acres) of common rough grazing, giving a total area of all the land used for agriculture purposes, including common land, of 1,739,863 hectares (4,299,300 acres).

In order of area planted, the arable crops grown in Wales
Wales
were: foods for stock-feeding, spring barley, wheat, maize, winter barley, other cereals for combining, oilseed rape, potatoes and other crops. The grassland was predominantly permanent pasture, with only 10% of the grassland being under five years old. Compared with other parts of the United Kingdom, Wales
Wales
has the smallest percentage of arable land (6%), and a considerably smaller area of rough grazing and hill land than Scotland (27% against 62%).

NATURAL RESOURCES

The South Wales Coalfield
South Wales Coalfield
extends from parts of Pembrokeshire
Pembrokeshire
and Carmarthenshire
Carmarthenshire
in the west, to Blaenau Gwent
Blaenau Gwent
and Torfaen
Torfaen
in the east, and the rather smaller North Wales Coalfield underlies parts of Flintshire
Flintshire
and Denbighshire. Vast quantities of coal were mined in Wales
Wales
during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
and the earlier part of the twentieth century, after which coal stocks dwindled and the remaining pits became uneconomical as foreign coal became available at low prices. The last deep pit in Wales
Wales
closed in 2008.

Ironstone
Ironstone
outcrops along the northern edge of the South Wales Coalfield were extensively worked for the production of iron and were important in the initiation of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
in South Wales. Lead
Lead
was mined at Pentre Halkyn in Flintshire
Flintshire
during the Roman occupation of Britain and there were ore-bearing sites in Clwyd
Clwyd
where lead, silver and sometimes zinc were mined. These metals were also mined in the upland areas of the Rivers Ystwyth and Rheidol. Manganese , titanium and numerous other minerals occur in various parts of Wales. Gold is found in southern Snowdonia
Snowdonia
and at Dolaucothi , and Snowdonia
Snowdonia
had a flourishing copper industry from the early 1800s. Although exploited in the past, none of these minerals is mined on a commercial scale today. Penrhyn Quarry
Penrhyn Quarry
in about 1900

Stone is quarried in various parts of Wales, and slate quarrying has been a major industry in North Wales. The Cilgwyn Quarry was being worked in the 12th century, but later Blaenau Ffestiniog
Blaenau Ffestiniog
became the centre of production. The Penrhyn Quarry
Penrhyn Quarry
is still producing slates, though at a reduced capacity compared to its heyday, and the Llechwedd Slate
Slate
Caverns have been converted into a visitor attraction. Several of the railways that used to carry the slates to the ports have been restored as tourist attractions, including the Ffestiniog Railway
Ffestiniog Railway
and the Talyllyn Railway
Talyllyn Railway
.

Wales
Wales
has some potential for the onshore production of oil and gas. Shale gas may be obtained by fracking and there is methane in unmined coal seams that may be extractable. Another potential source of gas is the underground controlled combustion of coal seams to produce syngas , a mixture of hydrogen , methane and carbon monoxide . The Dinorwig Power Station
Dinorwig Power Station
lower reservoir, a 1,800 MW pumped-storage hydroelectric scheme, one of the largest such schemes in Europe

With its mountainous terrain and ample rainfall, water is one of Wales' most abundant resources. The country has many man-made reservoirs and supplies water to England
England
as well as generating power through hydroelectric schemes . The largest reservoirs, such as the Claerwen
Claerwen
, are in the Elan Valley , and other notable bodies of water include Lake Vyrnwy, Talybont Reservoir
Reservoir
and Llyn Brianne
Llyn Brianne
. Some of these are popular resorts for outdoor activities such as sailing, kayaking, cycling, fishing and bird-watching.

Wind is another resource that Wales
Wales
has in abundance. The Gwynt y Môr is one of several offshore wind farms off the coast of North Wales
Wales
and Anglesey, and is the second largest such wind farm in the world. Other wind farms are found on inland, mostly upland sites, but there are none in the Snowdonia
Snowdonia
and Brecon Beacons
Brecon Beacons
national parks.

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY

BORDER BETWEEN WALES AND ENGLAND

Main article: England–Wales border

The modern border between Wales
Wales
and England
England
was largely defined by the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542
Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542
, based on the boundaries of medieval Marcher lordships . According to the Welsh historian John Davies :

Thus was created the border between Wales
Wales
and England, a border which has survived until today. It did not follow the old line of Offa's Dyke nor the eastern boundary of the Welsh dioceses; it excluded districts such as Oswestry and Ewias, where the Welsh language
Welsh language
would continue to be spoken for centuries, districts which it would not be wholly fanciful to consider as Cambria irredenta. Yet, as the purpose of the statute was to incorporate Wales
Wales
into England, the location of the Welsh border was irrelevant to the purposes of its framers.

The boundary has never been confirmed by referendum or reviewed by a Boundary Commission . The boundary line very roughly follows Offa's Dyke from south to north as far as a point about 40 miles (64 km) from the northern coast, but then swings further east. It has a number of anomalies, but some were ironed out by the Counties (Detached Parts) Act 1844 . For instance, it separates Knighton from its railway station, and divides the village of Llanymynech
Llanymynech
where a pub straddles the line.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

See also: Local government in Wales
Local government in Wales

Wales
Wales
is divided into 22 unitary authorities , which are responsible for the provision of all local government services, including education, social work, environmental and road services. Below these in some areas there are community councils , which cover specific areas within a council area. The unitary authority areas are known as "principal areas ". The Queen appoints Lords Lieutenant to represent her in the eight preserved counties of Wales
Wales
.

In the Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
Area Classification, local authorities are clustered into groups based in the six main census dimensions (demographic, household composition, housing, socio-economic, employment and industry sector). Most of the local authorities in mid and west Wales
Wales
are classified as part of the 'Coastal and Countryside' supergroup. Most of the south Wales authorities, Flintshire
Flintshire
and Wrexham
Wrexham
are in the 'Mining and Manufacturing' supergroup; Cardiff
Cardiff
is part of the 'Cities and Services' supergroup and the Vale of Glamorgan
Vale of Glamorgan
is part of 'Prospering UK'.

DEMOGRAPHY

Cardiff
Cardiff
is the most densely populated area in Wales
Wales

The population of Wales
Wales
in 2014 was about 3,092,000, an increase of 9,600 (0.31%) on the previous year, which was the slowest growth rate for any country in the United Kingdom. The main population and industrial areas in Wales
Wales
are in South Wales
South Wales
, specifically Cardiff, Swansea
Swansea
and Newport and the adjoining South Wales
South Wales
Valleys . Cardiff
Cardiff
is the capital city and had a population of around 346,000 at the 2011 census. This was followed by the unitary authorities of Swansea (239,000), Rhondda Cynon Taf (234,400), Carmarthenshire
Carmarthenshire
(183,800), Caerphilly (178,800), Flintshire
Flintshire
(152,500), Newport (145,700), Neath Port Talbot (139,800), Bridgend (139,200) and Wrexham
Wrexham
(134,800). Cardiff
Cardiff
was the most heavily populated area in Wales
Wales
with 2,482 people per square kilometre (6,428 per sq mile) while Powys had just 26.

A high proportion of the Welsh population lives in smaller settlements: nearly 20% live in villages of less than 1,500 persons compared with 10% in England. Wales
Wales
also has a relatively low proportion of its population in large settlements: only 26% live in urban areas with a population over 100,000; in comparison, nearly 40% of the English population live in urban areas larger than the largest in Wales. Another feature of the settlement pattern in Wales
Wales
is the share of the population living in the sparsest rural areas: 15% compared with only 1.5% in England.

COMMUNICATIONS

Communications within Wales
Wales
are influenced by the topography and the mountainous nature of the country: the main rail and road routes between South and North Wales
Wales
loop to the east and pass largely through England. The only motorway in Wales
Wales
is the M4 motorway
M4 motorway
from London to South Wales, entering the country over the Second Severn Crossing , passing close to Newport, Cardiff
Cardiff
and Swansea
Swansea
and extending as far west as the Pont Abraham services before continuing northwest as the A48 to Carmarthen
Carmarthen
. The A40 is a major trunk road connecting London to Fishguard
Fishguard
via Brecon
Brecon
and Carmarthen. The A487 coast road links Cardigan with Aberystwyth, and the A44 links Aberystwyth
Aberystwyth
with Rhayader, Leominster
Leominster
and Worcester
Worcester
. The main trunk road in North Wales
Wales
is the A55 dual carriageway road from Chester
Chester
past St Asaph
St Asaph
and Abergele
Abergele
, continuing along the coast to Bangor , crossing Anglesey and terminating at Holyhead
Holyhead
. The A55 running alongside the North Wales Coast Line
North Wales Coast Line

The South Wales
South Wales
Main Line links London Paddington with Swansea, entering Wales
Wales
through the Severn Tunnel
Severn Tunnel
. Other main line services from the Midlands and the North of England
England
join this at Newport. Branch lines serve the South Wales
South Wales
Valleys, Barry, and destinations beyond Swansea
Swansea
which include the ferry terminals at Fishguard
Fishguard
and Pembroke Dock. The Heart of Wales Line
Heart of Wales Line
links Llanelli
Llanelli
with Craven Arms in Shropshire. The Cambrian
Cambrian
Line crosses the centre of Wales, with trains from Shrewsbury
Shrewsbury
to Welshpool
Welshpool
, Aberystwyth
Aberystwyth
and Pwllheli
Pwllheli
. The North Wales Coast Line
North Wales Coast Line
links Crewe
Crewe
and Chester
Chester
to Bangor and Holyhead , from where there is a ferry service to Ireland. Passengers can change at Shotton for the Borderlands Line
Borderlands Line
, which links Wrexham
Wrexham
with Bidston
Bidston
on the Wirral Peninsula
Wirral Peninsula
, and at Conwy for the Conwy Valley Line to Blaenau Festiniog .

Cardiff
Cardiff
Airport is the only airport in Wales
Wales
which offers international scheduled flights. Destinations available include other parts of the United Kingdom, Ireland and parts of continental Europe. The airport is also used for charter flights on a seasonal basis. In 2015, around 1.2 million passengers used the airport. Several ferry services operate between Welsh ports and Ireland: Holyhead
Holyhead
to Dublin
Dublin
; Fishguard
Fishguard
to Rosslare; Pembroke Dock to Rosslare; and Swansea
Swansea
to Cork .

PROTECTED AREAS

Main article: Protected areas of Wales
Protected areas of Wales
The Pembrokeshire
Pembrokeshire
Coast Path near Ceibwr Bay

Wales
Wales
has three designated national parks . Snowdonia
Snowdonia
National Park in northwestern Wales
Wales
was established in 1951 as the third national park in Britain, following the Peak District
Peak District
and the Lake District
Lake District
. It covers 827 square miles (2,140 km2) of the mountains of Snowdonia and has 37 miles (60 km) of coastline. The Pembrokeshire
Pembrokeshire
Coast National Park was established the following year to protect the spectacular coastal scenery of West Wales. It includes Caldey Island
Caldey Island
, the Daugleddau estuary and the Preseli Hills
Preseli Hills
, as well as the entire length of the Pembrokeshire
Pembrokeshire
Coast Path . The Brecon Beacons
Brecon Beacons
National Park was established five years later and extends across the southern part of Powys, the northwestern part of Monmouthshire and parts of eastern Carmarthenshire. In each case, the park authority acts as a special purpose local authority and exercises planning control over residential and industrial development in the park. The authorities have a duty to conserve the natural beauty of the area, and to promote opportunities for members of the public to enjoy and appreciate the park's special qualities.

Wales
Wales
also has five Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty . These differ from National Parks in that the authorities have a duty to conserve and enhance the natural beauty of the landscape but do not have an obligation to promote the enjoyment of the public and additionally, they have no control over planning. In 1956, the Gower Peninsula became the first designated AONB in Britain. Other AONBs are: the whole of Anglesey; the Llŷn Peninsula; the Clwydian Range and Dee Valley ; and the Wye Valley , part of which is in England.

Wales
Wales
has many waterfalls, including some of the most striking in the United Kingdom. One such is the 240 ft (73 m) Pistyll Rhaeadr
Pistyll Rhaeadr
near the village of Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant
Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant
. It is formed as a mountain stream drops over a cliff and changes character to a lowland river, the Afon Rhaeadr . The site has been designated by the Countryside Council for Wales
Wales
as the 1000th Site of Special Scientific Interest
Site of Special Scientific Interest
in Wales, because of its importance to an understanding of Welsh geomorphology . The 19th-century English author George Borrow
George Borrow
remarked of the waterfall, "I never saw water falling so gracefully, so much like thin, beautiful threads, as here."

SEE ALSO

* Geology of Wales
Geology of Wales
* List of Blue Flag Beaches of Wales * Geography of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Geography of England
England
* Geography of Scotland
Geography of Scotland
* Geography of Ireland

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D E F Philip's (1994). Atlas of the World. Reed International. pp. 16–17. ISBN 0-540-05831-9 . * ^ Else, David; Bardwell, Sandra; Dixon, Belinda; Dragicevich, Peter (2007). Walking in Britain. Lonely Planet. p. 333. ISBN 978-1-74104-202-3 . * ^ "The Welsh 3000s
Welsh 3000s
Challenge". The Welsh 3000s. Retrieved 13 April 2016. * ^ "How long is the UK coastline?". Cartopics. The British Cartographic Society. Retrieved 25 April 2016. * ^ "Bala Lake". The Snowdonia
Snowdonia
National Park. Retrieved 12 April 2016. * ^ "History". Traws Lake. Retrieved 12 April 2016. * ^ "Lake Vyrnwy". 1891 The Practical Engineer. Technical Publishing Company. Retrieved 12 April 2016. * ^ " Llyn Brenig Reservoir
Reservoir
and Visitor Centre". AboutBritain.com. Retrieved 12 April 2016. * ^ "Llyn Celyn". The Snowdonia
Snowdonia
National Park. Retrieved 12 April 2016. * ^ "Llyn Alaw". Anglesey
Anglesey
Visitor. Retrieved 12 April 2016. * ^ Patmore, John Allan (1971). Land and Leisure in England
England
& Wales. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. p. 262. ISBN 978-0-8386-1024-4 . * ^ A B C D "Environmental Change and Mineral Formation in Wales". Wales
Wales
Underground. Retrieved 13 April 2016. * ^ Jones, Alyn. "What\'s in a name? Celtic Connections". The Edinburgh Geologist: Issue No. 35. Edinburgh Geological Society. Retrieved 24 April 2016. * ^ A B C D E F "Wales: Climate". Met Office. Retrieved 22 April 2016. * ^ A B "Land use". Climate Change Commission for Wales. p. 59. Retrieved 22 April 2016. * ^ "A review of the Beef Sector in Wales". Meat Promotion Wales. 27 November 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2016. * ^ " South Wales
South Wales
(geological map)". Geological Maps of Selected British Regions. University of Southampton
University of Southampton
. Retrieved 22 April 2016. * ^ "The North Wales
Wales
Coalfield". Coalmining History Research Centre. 1953. Retrieved 22 April 2016. * ^ " Coal
Coal
mine closes with celebration". BBC News
BBC News
. 25 January 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2016. * ^ "Blaenavon World Heritage Site". Retrieved 23 April 2016. * ^ "Denbighshire, Flintshire
Flintshire
& Wrexham
Wrexham
Metalliferous Sites". North Wales
Wales
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* v * t * e

Wales
Wales
articles

HISTORY

* Prehistory * Roman Era * Anglo-Welsh Wars * Early Middle Ages * Kingdom of Gwynedd
Kingdom of Gwynedd
* Kingdom of Powys
Kingdom of Powys
* Deheubarth
Deheubarth
* Medieval
Medieval
Welsh law
Welsh law
* Norman invasion * Edwardian conquest * Late Middle Ages * Statute of Rhuddlan * Glyndŵr Rising
Glyndŵr Rising
* Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542
Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542

GEOGRAPHY

* Geology
Geology
* Islands * Lakes * Mountains and hills * Protected areas * Rivers

POLITICS

* Assembly * Elections * First Minister * Political parties * Welsh nationalism

* Welsh Office
Welsh Office

* Secretary of State

* Modern Welsh law
Welsh law
* Women\'s suffrage

ECONOMY

* Agriculture (Sheep farming ) * Companies * Power stations * Tourism * Transport

SOCIETY

* Demographics * Education

* Languages

* Welsh

* history

* Welsh English
Welsh English

* Welsh people
Welsh people

CULTURE

* Art * Eisteddfod
Eisteddfod
* Gorsedd
Gorsedd
* Literature in Welsh / in English * Media * Museums * Castles * Scheduled Monuments * Music * Theatre

SPORT

* Athletics * Bando * Boxing * Cnapan
Cnapan
* Cricket

* Football

* national team

* Golf * Horse racing * Pêl-Law

* Rugby league

* national team

* Rugby union

* Men\'s team * Men\'s 7s team * Women\'s team * Women\'s 7s team

RELIGION

* 1904–1905 Welsh Revival * Bahá\'ís * Buddhism * Christianity * Church in Wales
Wales
* Saint David
Saint David
* Hinduism * Islam in Wales
Wales
* Judaism * Presbyterian Church of Wales
Wales
* Welsh Methodist revival
Welsh Methodist revival
* Mormonism * Neo-Druidism
Neo-Druidism
* Sikhism

SYMBOLS

* Anthem

* Flags

* national

* Prince of Wales\'s feathers * Royal Badge * Welsh Dragon
Welsh Dragon

* Outline

* Category * Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Geography of Europe
Geography of Europe

SOVEREIGN STATES

* Albania * Andorra * Armenia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Belarus * Belgium * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Bulgaria * Croatia * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Estonia * Finland * France * Georgia * Germany * Greece * Hungary * Iceland * Ireland * * Italy * Kazakhstan * Latvia * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macedonia * Malta * Moldova * Monaco * Montenegro * Netherlands * Norway * Poland * Portugal * Romania * Russia * San Marino * Serbia * Slovakia * Slovenia * Spain * Sweden * Switzerland * Turkey * Ukraine * United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* Vatican City

States with limited recognition

* Abkhazia * Artsakh * Kosovo * Northern Cyprus * South Ossetia * Transnistria

Dependencies and other entities

* Åland * Faroe Islands * Gibraltar * Guernsey * Isle of Man * Jersey * Svalbard

OTHER ENTITIES

* European Union

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