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England
England
comprises most of the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, in addition to a number of small islands of which the largest is the Isle of Wight. England
England
is bordered to the north by Scotland
Scotland
and to the west by Wales. It is closer to continental Europe than any other part of mainland Britain, divided from France only by a 33 km (21 mi) sea gap, the English Channel.[2] The 50 km (31 mi) Channel Tunnel,[3] near Folkestone, directly links England
England
to mainland Europe. The English/French border is halfway along the tunnel.[4] Much of England
England
consists of rolling hills and plains. The north is generally more mountainous with a chain of mountains, the Pennines, dividing east and west, and the Lake District
Lake District
in the north west, containing the highest mountains in the country. Other upland and hilly areas in the north and Midlands are the Cheviot Hills, the North York
York
Moors, and the Shropshire
Shropshire
Hills. While most of the mountains and uplands are in the north, Dartmoor
Dartmoor
and Exmoor
Exmoor
are two upland areas lying in the south west of the country. The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. To the south of that line, there are larger areas of flatter land, including East Anglia
East Anglia
and the Fens, although hilly areas include the Cotswolds, the Chilterns, and the North and South Downs. The largest natural harbour in England
England
is at Poole, on the south-central coast. Some regard it as the second largest harbour in the world, after Sydney, Australia, although this fact is disputed (see harbours for a list of other large natural harbours).

Contents

1 Climate 2 Geology 3 Major towns and cities 4 Physical geography

4.1 Extreme points

4.1.1 England
England
(mainland) 4.1.2 England
England
(including islands)

4.2 Topography, mountains and hills 4.3 Islands

4.3.1 English islands by population

4.4 Rivers 4.5 Coastline 4.6 Largest lakes and reservoirs

5 Human geography

5.1 Land use 5.2 Neighbouring countries 5.3 Economic geography 5.4 Political geography

6 See also 7 References

Climate[edit]

England
England
1971–2000[5]

Climate
Climate
chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    84     7 1

    60     7 1

    67     9 2

    57     12 4

    56     15 6

    63     18 9

    54     21 11

    67     21 11

    73     18 9

    84     14 7

    84     10 4

    91     7 2

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    3.3     44 34

    2.4     44 34

    2.6     49 36

    2.2     53 38

    2.2     60 43

    2.5     65 48

    2.1     69 53

    2.6     69 52

    2.9     64 49

    3.3     56 44

    3.3     49 38

    3.6     45 36

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Main article: Climate
Climate
of the United Kingdom England
England
has a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round. The seasons are quite variable in temperature, however temperatures rarely fall below −5 °C (23 °F) or rise above 30 °C (86 °F). The prevailing wind is from the south-west, bringing mild and wet weather to England
England
regularly from the Atlantic Ocean. It is driest in the east and warmest in the south, which is closest to the European mainland. Snowfall can occur in winter and early spring, although it is not very common away from high ground. England
England
has warmer maximum and minimum temperatures throughout the year than the other countries of the UK, though Wales
Wales
has milder minima from November to February, and Northern Ireland has warmer maxima from December to February. England
England
is also sunnier throughout the year, but unlike Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland, the sunniest month is July, totalling around 192.8 hours. The highest temperature recorded in England
England
is 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) on 10 August 2003 at Brogdale, near Faversham, in Kent.[6] The lowest temperature recorded in England
England
is −26.1 °C (−15.0 °F) on 10 January 1982 at Edgmond, near Shropshire. The climate of south-west England
England
is rather distinct and somewhat milder than the rest of England, forming its own separate climate. Crops, flowers and plants can be grown much earlier in the south-west than in the rest of England
England
and the UK.

British Isles climatic zones

England
England
mainly lies within climatic zone 8, but the Pennines
Pennines
and Cumbrian Mountains
Cumbrian Mountains
lie in the colder zone 7 and south west England, the Irish sea coast, South coast and London lie in the warmer zone 9. A very small area, the Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
lie in the warmest zone in the British Isles, zone 10 which is close to Sub-Tropical.

Climate
Climate
data for England

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 6.6 (43.9) 6.9 (44.4) 9.3 (48.7) 11.7 (53.1) 15.4 (59.7) 18.1 (64.6) 20.6 (69.1) 20.5 (68.9) 17.5 (63.5) 13.6 (56.5) 9.5 (49.1) 7.4 (45.3) 13.1 (55.6)

Average low °C (°F) 1.1 (34) 1.0 (33.8) 2.4 (36.3) 3.6 (38.5) 6.3 (43.3) 9.1 (48.4) 11.4 (52.5) 11.2 (52.2) 9.3 (48.7) 6.6 (43.9) 3.5 (38.3) 2.0 (35.6) 5.6 (42.1)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 84.2 (3.315) 60.1 (2.366) 66.5 (2.618) 56.8 (2.236) 55.9 (2.201) 62.9 (2.476) 54.1 (2.13) 66.7 (2.626) 73.3 (2.886) 83.6 (3.291) 83.5 (3.287) 90.4 (3.559) 838.0 (32.992)

Average rainy days 13.4 10.4 12.1 10.1 9.8 9.8 8.5 9.4 10.2 11.8 12.5 13.1 131.2

Mean monthly sunshine hours 50.5 67.7 102.5 145.2 189.9 179.4 192.8 184.1 135.0 101.3 65.2 43.9 1,457.4

Source: Met Office[5] (1971–2000 averages)

Geology[edit] See also: Geology of England The Geology of England
Geology of England
is mainly sedimentary. The youngest rocks are in the south east, progressing in age in a north-westerly direction. The Tees-Exe line
Tees-Exe line
marks the division between younger, softer and low-lying rocks in the south east and older, harder, and generally a higher relief in the north-west. The geology of England
England
is recognisable in the landscape of its counties, for instance Cumbria, Kent
Kent
and Norfolk
Norfolk
all have very distinct and very different looks from each other. The geology of Northern England
Northern England
and Western England
England
tends to be somewhat closer to that of its near neighbours, Wales
Wales
and Scotland, with the geology of Southern England
Southern England
and Eastern England being more aligned with that found across the North Sea
North Sea
and English Channel in Northern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands. Geological features:

Cheddar Gorge
Cheddar Gorge
– the largest gorge in Great Britain Jurassic Coast
Jurassic Coast
– a UNESCO World Heritage Site Salisbury Plain Tees-Exe line Whin Sill London Basin Hampshire Basin London-Brabant Massif Dartmoor
Dartmoor
– one of a series of moors in the South West of England developing tors on a granitic batholith Lizard Complex
Lizard Complex
– an ancient piece of oceanic crust, onshore (i.e. an Ophiolite).

Geological resources:

Coal North Sea
North Sea
oil Sand and Gravel China Clay Copper and Tin Stone North Sea
North Sea
gas Potash[7]

and less abundantly,

Geothermal energy Onshore oil

Major towns and cities[edit] Main article: List of towns in England London is, by far, the largest urban area in England
England
and one of the largest and busiest cities in the world. Other cities, mainly in central and northern England, are of substantial size and influence. The list of England's largest cities or urban areas is open to debate because, although the normal meaning of city is "a continuously built-up urban area", this can be hard to define, particularly because administrative areas in England
England
often do not correspond with the limits of urban development, and many towns and cities have, over the centuries, grown to form complex urban agglomerations.[8][9] For the official definition of a UK (and therefore English) city, see City status in the United Kingdom. According to the ONS urban area populations for continuous built-up areas, these are the 15 largest conurbations (population figures from the 2001 census):

Rank Urban Area[10] Population (2001 Census)

Localities Major localities

1 Greater London Urban Area 8,278,251 67 Croydon, Barnet, Ealing, Bromley

2 West Midlands Urban Area 2,284,093 22 Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Dudley, Walsall

3 Greater Manchester
Manchester
Urban Area 2,240,230 57 Manchester, Salford, Bolton, Stockport, Oldham

4 West Yorkshire Urban Area 1,499,465 26 Leeds, Bradford, Huddersfield, Wakefield

5 Tyneside 879,996 25 Newcastle upon Tyne, North Shields, South Shields, Gateshead, Jarrow

6 Liverpool
Liverpool
Urban Area 816,216 8 Liverpool, St Helens, Bootle, Huyton-with-Roby

7 Nottingham
Nottingham
Urban Area 666,358 15 Nottingham, Beeston and Stapleford, Carlton, Long Eaton

8 Sheffield
Sheffield
Urban Area 640,720 7 Sheffield, Rotherham, Chapeltown, Mosborough/Highlane

9 Bristol
Bristol
Urban Area 551,066 7 Bristol, Kingswood, Mangotsfield, Stoke Gifford

10 Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton 461,181 10 Brighton, Worthing, Hove, Littlehampton, Shoreham, Lancing

11 Portsmouth
Portsmouth
Urban Area 442,252 7 Portsmouth, Gosport, Waterlooville, Fareham

12 Leicester
Leicester
Urban Area 441,213 12 Leicester, Wigston, Oadby, Birstall

13 Bournemouth
Bournemouth
Urban Area 383,713 5 Bournemouth, Poole, Christchurch, New Milton

14 Reading/ Wokingham
Wokingham
Urban Area 369,804 5 Reading, Bracknell, Wokingham, Crowthorne

15 Teesside 365,323 7 Middlesbrough, Stockton-on-Tees, Redcar, Billingham

The largest cities in England
England
are as follows (in alphabetical order):

Birmingham Bradford Bristol Coventry Derby Kingston upon Hull Leeds Leicester Liverpool London Manchester Newcastle upon Tyne Norwich Nottingham Oxford Peterborough Plymouth Portsmouth Sheffield Southampton Stoke-on-Trent Wolverhampton York

Physical geography[edit] Extreme points[edit]

England
England
and Wales
Wales
from space

The extreme points of England
England
are: England
England
(mainland)[edit]

Northernmost point – Marshall Meadows Bay, Northumberland at 55°48′N 2°02′W / 55.800°N 2.033°W / 55.800; -2.033 Northernmost settlement – Marshall Meadows, Northumberland at 55°48′N 2°02′W / 55.800°N 2.033°W / 55.800; -2.033 Southernmost point – Lizard Point, Cornwall at 49°57′N 5°12′W / 49.950°N 5.200°W / 49.950; -5.200 Southernmost settlement – Lizard, Cornwall at 49°57′N 5°12′W / 49.950°N 5.200°W / 49.950; -5.200 Westernmost point – Dr Syntax's Head, Land's End, Cornwall at 50°04′N 5°43′W / 50.067°N 5.717°W / 50.067; -5.717 Westernmost settlement – Sennen Cove, Cornwall at 50°04′N 5°42′W / 50.067°N 5.700°W / 50.067; -5.700 Easternmost point – Lowestoft
Lowestoft
Ness, Suffolk at 52°28.87′N 1°45.77′E / 52.48117°N 1.76283°E / 52.48117; 1.76283 Easternmost settlement – Lowestoft, Suffolk at 52°28′N 1°45′E / 52.467°N 1.750°E / 52.467; 1.750

England
England
(including islands)[edit]

Northernmost point – Marshall Meadows Bay, Northumberland at 55°48′N 2°02′W / 55.800°N 2.033°W / 55.800; -2.033 Northernmost settlement – Marshall Meadows, Northumberland at 55°48′N 2°02′W / 55.800°N 2.033°W / 55.800; -2.033 Southernmost point – Western Rocks, Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
at 49°51′N 6°24′W / 49.850°N 6.400°W / 49.850; -6.400 Southernmost settlement – St Agnes, Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
at 49°53′N 6°20′W / 49.883°N 6.333°W / 49.883; -6.333 Westernmost point – Crim Rocks, Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
at 49°53′N 6°27′W / 49.883°N 6.450°W / 49.883; -6.450 Westernmost settlement – St Agnes, Isles of Scilly
Isles of Scilly
at 49°53′N 6°21′W / 49.883°N 6.350°W / 49.883; -6.350 Easternmost point – Lowestoft
Lowestoft
Ness, Suffolk at 52°28.87′N 1°45.77′E / 52.48117°N 1.76283°E / 52.48117; 1.76283 Easternmost settlement – Lowestoft, Suffolk at 52°28′N 1°45′E / 52.467°N 1.750°E / 52.467; 1.750

Topography, mountains and hills[edit] Main article: Mountains and hills of England England
England
is generally lower and flatter than the rest of the UK, but has two main divisions in its form – the lowland areas of the south, east, and Midlands and the more rugged and upland areas of the north and west. East Anglia
East Anglia
is the lowest area of England, having no high hills or mountains and hosting an area of the Fens, the lowest area of England. The highest area of England
England
is the North West, which contains England's highest hills and mountains, including its highest – Scafell Pike. In England, a mountain is officially defined as land over 600 metres, so most fall in Northern England. Some hill and mountain chains in England
England
are:

Cumbrian Mountains
Cumbrian Mountains
– the highest mountains in England, containing Scafell Pike. The Cheviots – some refer to these as an extension of the Southern Uplands in Scotland. The Pennines
Pennines
which characterise much of Northern England
Northern England
and are often dubbed "the backbone of England".

The Peak District
Peak District
– an upland area of the southern Pennines
Pennines
in central and northern England. Yorkshire Dales
Yorkshire Dales
– an upland area of the northern Pennines.

North York Moors
North York Moors
– an area of hills and moorlands beside the North Sea. Exmoor
Exmoor
– uplands beside the Bristol
Bristol
Channel. Dartmoor
Dartmoor
– an area of uplands in the heart of Devon. The Cotswolds
Cotswolds
– a quintessentially and stereotypical English rural area. Chilterns
Chilterns
– a collection of low hills. South Downs
South Downs
– low hills close to the English Channel
English Channel
which form the white cliffs of the English South Coast. Shropshire Hills
Shropshire Hills
– uplands near Wales.

Islands[edit]

A map of British Isles EEZs and surrounding nations. Internal UK borders are represented by thin lines.

The Isle of Wight

Main article: List of islands of England The main English islands by area and population are:

Rank Island Area (sq mi) Area (km²)

1 Isle of Wight 147.09 380.99

2 Isle of Sheppey 36.31 94.04

3 Hayling Island 10.36 26.84

4 Foulness
Foulness
Island 10.09 26.84

5 Portsea Island 9.36 24.25

6 Canvey Island 7.12 18.45

7 Mersea Island 6.96 18.04

8 Walney Island 5.01 12.99

9 Portland 4.44 11.5

10 Wallasea Island 4.11 10.65

English islands by population[edit]

Rank Island Population (2001 UK census)

1 Portsea Island 147,088

2 Isle of Wight 132,731

3 Isle of Sheppey 37,852

4 Canvey Island 37,473

5 Hayling Island 16,887

6 Portland 12,800

7 Walney Island 11,391

8 Mersea Island about 7,200

9 Barrow Island 2,606

10 St Mary's 1,668

11 Thorney Island 1,079

12 Foulness 212

13 Tresco 180

14 Lindisfarne 162

15 St Martins 142

16 Roa Island about 100

17 Bryher 92

18 St Agnes 73

19 Lundy about 35

Rivers[edit] Main article: List of rivers of England The longest river in England
England
is the River Severn
River Severn
which has its source in Wales, enters England
England
at its confluence with the River Vyrnwy
River Vyrnwy
and flows into the Bristol
Bristol
Channel. The longest river entirely within England
England
is the River Thames
River Thames
which flows through the English and British capital, London. The Vale of York
York
and The Fens
The Fens
host many of England's larger rivers. Coastline[edit]

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England
England
has 4,422 km (2,748 mi) of coastline,[11] much less than the deeply indented Scottish coastline. The English coastline varies a great deal by the seas and regions it borders. The North Sea coast of England
England
is mainly flat and sandy with many dunes and is similar to coastlines across the sea in the Netherlands. The English North Sea
North Sea
coast is an important area of bird life and is a habitat for many shore and wading birds. Along the English Channel, the South Coast builds up into steep, white cliffs at Dover, which are often seen as an iconic symbol of England
England
and Britain.

The White Cliffs of Dover

The South Coast continues to the Isle of Wight, but eventually gives way to the Jurassic Coast
Jurassic Coast
of Dorset, a coastline rich in beauty, history and fossils.

Jurassic Coast.

Into Devon
Devon
and Cornwall, the coastline becomes more rocky and steep, with numerous cliffs and tiny fishing villages along the coastline. This stretch of coastline stretches from Devon
Devon
to Land's End
Land's End
in Cornwall, the westernmost part of mainland England. The coastline of Devon
Devon
and Cornwall has similarities to that of Brittany in France directly opposite. Following the coastline northwards the coast remains much the same as in south Devon
Devon
and Cornwall but is besides the Celtic Sea
Celtic Sea
until it eventually reaches the Bristol
Bristol
Channel, an important shipping and docking area. The English coastline re-emerges again in North West England. The coastline here is similar to the North Sea
North Sea
coast in that it is mainly flat and sandy, with the only notable cliffs along this stretch of coast being at St Bees Head
St Bees Head
in Cumbria. The English Irish Sea
Irish Sea
coast is an important area of estuaries and bird life, with Wirral being a peninsula bounded by two rivers, the River Dee and the River Mersey. Liverpool
Liverpool
and Merseyside
Merseyside
are areas of high population and important industry along this coast, with tourist resorts of Southport and Blackpool
Blackpool
being further to the north. The English Irish Sea
Irish Sea
coast hosts two important geographic areas, Morecambe Bay, a large bay, and the Furness
Furness
and Walney Island
Walney Island
areas. Further north into Cumbria
Cumbria
the Sellafield
Sellafield
Nuclear Power Station lies along this coast. The English section of the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
coast ends at the border with Scotland
Scotland
in the Solway Firth.

Durdle Door
Durdle Door
on the Jurassic Coast

Seas bordering England
England
are:

North Sea English Channel Celtic Sea Bristol
Bristol
Channel Irish Sea

Largest lakes and reservoirs[edit] Main article: List of lakes of England Although the largest nation within the UK, England
England
is relatively absent of large lakes, with many of its former wetlands being drained throughout the Middle Ages. Most of its largest lakes lie within the aptly named Lake District
Lake District
in Cumbria, Northern England.

England's largest lakes

Lake Area

1 Windermere 5.69 sq mi (14.7 km2)

2 Kielder Reservoir 3.86 sq mi (10.0 km2)

3 Ullswater 3.44 sq mi (8.9 km2)

4 Bassenthwaite Lake 2.06 sq mi (5.3 km2)

5 Derwent Water 2.06 sq mi (5.3 km2)

Human geography[edit] Land use[edit] The total land area of England
England
is 132,938 km2 (51,328 sq mi).[1] Crops and fallow land accounts for 30% of the land area, grasses and rough grazing 36%, other agricultural land 5%, forest and woodland 8%, and urban development 21%.[12] Neighbouring countries[edit] England
England
has two land borders: a 96 km (60 mi) border with Scotland
Scotland
that follows the Cheviot Hills
Cheviot Hills
and a 257 km (160 mi) border with Wales
Wales
that loosely follows the route of Offa's Dyke. To the west, the Irish Sea
Irish Sea
separates England
England
from Ireland and the Isle of Man; to the east, the North Sea
North Sea
separates England
England
from Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium
Belgium
and to the south, the English Channel
English Channel
separates England
England
from France and the Channel Islands.

Neighbouring Countries

Iceland Scotland Norway

Wales, Ireland

England

Netherlands, Germany

Spain France France, Belgium

Economic geography[edit] Main article: Economy of England

England
England
boasts one of the largest economies in Europe and indeed the world, with an average GDP per capita
GDP per capita
of £22,907. England's economy is usually regarded as a mixed market economy, it has adopted many free market principles in contrast to the Rhine Capitalism
Rhine Capitalism
of Europe, yet maintains an advanced social welfare infrastructure. The currency in England
England
is the pound sterling, also known as the GBP. England prints its own banknotes which are also circulated in Wales. The economy of England
England
is the largest part of the United Kingdom's economy. Regional differences:

A map of England
England
divided by the average GVA per capita in 2007 showing the distribution of wealth

The strength of the English economy varies from region to region. GDP, and GDP per capita
GDP per capita
is highest in London. Generally the Northern and Western areas of England
England
are the poorest, with the Southern and Eastern areas being the richest. The following table shows the GDP (2004) per capita of England
England
as a whole and each of the nine regions.

Rank Place GDP per capita in Euros

England 26 904

1. London 44 401

2. South East 31 300

3. East of England 27 778

4. South West 27 348

5. East Midlands 26 683

6. West Midlands 25 931

7. North West 25 396

8. Yorkshire and the Humber 25 300

9. North East 22 886

Two of the 10 economically strongest areas in the European Union are in England. Inner London
Inner London
is number 1 with a €71 338 GDP per capita (303% above EU average);Berkshire, Buckinghamshire & Oxfordshire is number 7 with a €40 937 GDP per capita
GDP per capita
(174% above EU average). Political geography[edit] England, formerly a kingdom and independent country, united with Scotland
Scotland
to form what would eventually become the UK ( Wales
Wales
was treated as part of England
England
at that time). England
England
is in a unique and controversial position of being a political entity within the UK and as of 2015 having no self-governance. England is represented by MPs in the British Parliament and matters relating only to England
England
are also dealt with by the UK parliament. England
England
is divided into a number of regions which also send representatives to the European Parliament. See also[edit]

North-South divide in England Geography of the United Kingdom Geography of Scotland Geography of Wales Geology of England Climate
Climate
of England List of islands of England List of rivers of England List of lakes of England Economy of England Lake District Pennines Northern England Southern England North Sea

References[edit]

^ a b "The Countries of the UK". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 15 October 2017.  ^ Dornbusch, U (October 2002). "CoastView – What happens offshore?". University of Sussex. Retrieved 29 October 2012.  ^ [1] ^ "TravelBritain – Kent". Archived from the original on 7 September 2008.  ^ a b " England
England
1971–2000 averages". Met Office. 2001. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2007.  ^ Temperature record changes hands BBC News, 30 September 2003. Retrieved 12 September 2006. ^ "National park potash mine open by 2021". 17 March 2016. Retrieved 4 April 2018 – via www.bbc.co.uk.  ^ "Religious centres recover city status", The Guardian, 8 July 1994. ^ Patrick O'Leary, "Derby's long road to city status", The Times, 29 July 1977, p.14 ^ Pointer, Graham (2005). "The UK's major urban areas" (PDF). Focus on People and Migration. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 2009-06-06.  ^ " England
England
Coast Path: Frequently Asked Questions (June 2012)" (PDF). Natural England. Retrieved 30 October 2012.  ^ National Statistics (2004). UK 2005. The Official Yearbook of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. London: The Stationery Office. p. 279. ISBN 0-11-621738-3. 

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