Brunei is a country in Southeastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and East Malaysia. Its geographical coordinates are 4°30′N 114°40′E / 4.500°N 114.667°E / 4.500; 114.667.

Brunei shares a 266 km (165 mi) border with Malaysia and has a 161 km (100 mi) coastline.


The climate in Brunei is tropical equatorial and humid subtropical at higher altitudes with heavy rainfall. Bandar Seri Begawan's climate is tropical equatorial with two seasons. Dry season is extremely hot (24 to 36 °C or 75.2 to 96.8 °F). Wet or rainy season is generally warm and wet (20 to 28 °C or 68.0 to 82.4 °F). Most of the country is a flat coastal plain with mountains in the east and hilly lowland in the west. The lowest point is at sea level and the highest is Bukit Pagon (1,850 m or 6,070 ft).

Climatic regions

  • Brunei-Muara District and Bandar Seri Begawan are humid tropical on the coastal and lower altitude north and Humid subtropical in central Brunei-Muara District. (20 to 36 °C or 68 to 97 °F)
  • Tutong District is tropical, Hot on the north and warm on the south. (22 to 32 °C or 71.6 to 89.6 °F)
  • Belait District is tropical, Hot on the north and slight warm on the south. (25 to 37 °C or 77.0 to 98.6 °F)
  • Temburong District is humid subtropical on the higher altitude south and humid tropical on the coastal and lower altitude north. (18 to 29 °C or 64 to 84 °F)



  • Total: 5,765 km2 (2,226 sq mi)
  • Land: 5,265 km2 (2,033 sq mi)
  • Water: 500 km2 (190 sq mi)

Area - comparative: similar to Norfolk, United Kingdom and slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries: 266 km (165 mi) (all with Malaysia)

Coastline: 161 km (100 mi)

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nmi (13.8 mi; 22.2 km)
exclusive economic zone: 200 nmi (230.2 mi; 370.4 km) or to median line

Terrain: flat coastal plain, rises to mountain in east; hilly lowland in west

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0m
highest point: Bukit Pagon 1,850 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, timber

Land use:
arable land: 0.76%
permanent crops: 1.14%
other: 98.10% (2012)

Irrigated land: 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi) (2003)

Total renewable water resources: 8.5 km3 (2.0 cu mi)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)
total: 0.09 km3/yr (97%/0%/3%)
per capital: 301.6 m3/yr (2009)

Natural hazards: Typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are quite rare, but Brunei is located along the Pacific Ring of Fire.

Environment - current issues: seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave within Malaysia

See also