RegionsArgentina's provinces are divided in 7 zones regarding climate and terrain. From North to South, West to East: * Argentine Northwest: Jujuy Province, Jujuy, Salta Province, Salta, Tucumán Province, Tucumán, Catamarca Province, Catamarca, La Rioja Province, Argentina, La Rioja * Gran Chaco: Formosa Province, Formosa, Chaco Province, Chaco, Santiago del Estero Province, Santiago del Estero * Mesopotamia, Argentina, Mesopotamia: Misiones Province, Misiones, Corrientes Province, Corrientes * Cuyo, Argentina, Cuyo: San Juan Province, Argentina, San Juan, Mendoza Province, Mendoza, San Luis Province, San Luis * The Pampas: Santa Fe Province, Santa Fe, La Pampa Province, La Pampa, Buenos Aires Province, Buenos Aires, Córdoba Province, Argentina, Córdoba, Entre Ríos Province, Entre Ríos * Patagonia: Río Negro Province, Rio Negro, Neuquén Province, Neuquén, Chubut Province, Chubut, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego Province, Argentina, Tierra del Fuego
Land use* Arable land: 13.9% * Permanent crops: 0.4% * Permanent pastures: 39.6% * Forest: 10.7% * Other: 35.4% (2020) * Irrigation, Irrigated land: 23,600 km² (2020) * Total renewable water resources: 814 km3/yr
Mountains and hills
Water resourcesIn Argentina, the fluvial net is integrated by many systems of different economic relevance, which could be measured by their amount of flow and navigability. Water flow relevance is based on its potential to be used for irrigation and as a source of energy. Depending on where the water streams drain, rivers and creeks could be classified into three different kinds of watersheds: * Open or exorheic watersheds: they have exterior drainage (into the sea) - Parana River, Uruguay River, Negro River * Closed or Endorheic basin, endorheic watersheds: they have interior drainage - Atuel River, Diamante River, Tunuyan River * Areic watersheds: they lack of drainage and could be found in the center-west of the chaquenean plain, on the west of the pampean region and in some patagonic areas On the other hand, lakes and lagoons are permanent accumulations of water over impervious depressions. Their difference is mainly based on their extension and depth. They are very important for stream regulation, as a source of energy, tourist attraction and its ichthyologic wealth. In Argentina, all major lakes are in Patagonia (Carlevari and Carlevari, 2007).
RiversExcept in the northeast there are few large rivers, and many have only seasonal flows. Nearly all watercourses drain eastward toward the Atlantic, but a large number terminate in lakes and swamps or become lost in the thirsty soils of the Pampas and Patagonia. The four major rivers systems are those that feed into the Río de la Plata estuary, those made up of the Andean streams, those of the central river system, and those of the southern system. The Paraná River, Paraná, the second-longest river in South America after the Amazon River, Amazon, flows approximately 4,900 km and forms part of the borders between Brazil and Paraguay, and Paraguay and Argentina. Its upper reaches feature many waterfalls. It is joined by the Iguazú River (Río Iguaçu) where it enters Argentina in the northeast. This area is well known throughout the world for the spectacular Iguazú Falls (Cataratas Iguaçu, meaning "great water"). One of the world's great natural wonders, they are located on the border between Argentina and Brazil with two-thirds of the falls in Argentina. They include approximately 275 falls, ranging between 60 and 80 m high. These falls are higher and wider than Niagara Falls on the border of the United States and Canada. Other tributaries of the Paraná, which feed in from the west, are the Bermejo River, Bermejo, Bermejito, Salado River, Argentina, Salado, and Carcarañá. The Uruguay River (1,600 km) forms a part of the borders between Argentina and Brazil and Argentina and Uruguay. It is navigable for about 300 km from its mouth to Concordia, Entre Ríos, Concordia. The 2,550-km Paraguay River forms part of the border between Paraguay and Argentina, and flows into the Paraná north of Corrientes and Alto Paraná. These all join to flow into the Río de la Plata, and eventually into the Atlantic Ocean in northern Argentina. Where these rivers meet, a wide estuary is formed, which can reach a maximum width of 222 km. In north central Argentina, Lake Mar Chiquita is supplied with its water by several rivers. The Dulce River (Argentina), Dulce River originates near San Miguel de Tucumán and flows southwest into the lake. From the southwest it is also fed by the Primero River, Primero and Segundo River, Segundo Rivers. In the northern Patagonia region, the major rivers are the Colorado River (Argentina), Colorado and Negro Rivers, both of which rise in the Andes and flow to the Atlantic Ocean. The Colorado is fed by the Río Desaguadero, Salado River, which flows from Pico Ojos del Salado in a southeasterly direction to the Colorado. Tributaries of the Salado include the Atuel, Diamante River, Diamante, Tunuyán, Río Desaguadero, Desaguadero, and the San Juan, all of which originate in the northwest Andes. The Negro also has two main tributaries of its own, the Neuquén and the Limay River, Limay. In the central Patagonia region the Chubut River, Chubut rises in the Andes and flows east to form a sizable lake before making its way to the ocean. The Lake District is also coursed by its share of rivers, all originating in the mountains and flowing to the Atlantic. These include the Deseado River, Deseado, Chico, Santa Cruz River (Argentina), Santa Cruz, and Gallegos River, Gallegos Rivers.
LakesThe Los Lagos Region (Lake District), on the border of Chile and Argentina in the Andes mountain region, contains many glacial lakes that are carved out of the mountains then filled by melt-water and rain. The most significant of these is Lago Buenos Aires, also known as General Carrera, located in southern Argentina and shared with Chile. It is the largest lake in the country and the fifth largest in all of South America with an average surface area of 2,240 km2. Moving south along the border one would encounter Lago San Martín, Lago Viedma, and finally Lago Argentino, the second largest lake in this region with an area of 1466 km2. Not far from Lake Buenos Aires on the Castillo Plain near Comodoro Rivadavia is Lake Colhue Huapi. One of the world's largest salt lakes, and the second largest lake in Argentina, is Lake Mar Chiquita (Little Sea), located in central Argentina. Its surface area varies from year to year and season to season, but has in it wettest periods spanned 5,770 km2. The reservoir created by the Chocón dam, located on the Limay River, Limay river, is one of the country's largest man made lakes.
WetlandsIberá, in the northeast of Argentina, is a biologically rich region, with more than sixty ponds joined to marshes and swampland. The area is extremely humid, and is home to hundreds of bird species and thousands of insects, including a wide variety of butterfly, butterflies. The area hosts a diverse array of flora and fauna, notably the royal water lily, Ceiba pentandra, silk-cotton trees, alligators, and capybara, the largest rodent species in the world.
ClimateArgentina is subject to a variety of climates. The north of the country, including latitudes in and below the Tropic of Capricorn, is characterized by very hot, wet summers (which result in a lot of swamp lands) with mild drier winters, and is subject to periodic droughts during the winter season. Central Argentina has hot summers with tornadoes and thunderstorms (in western Argentina producing some of the world's largest hail), and cool winters. The southern regions have warm summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall, especially in mountainous zones. Higher elevations at all latitudes experience cooler conditions.
Political GeographyInternational agreements: * Party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, MARPOL 73/78, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling * Signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation Strategic importance: * Location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)
Territorial claims* Land claims ** Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute#Argentine claim, Falkland Islands ** South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands sovereignty dispute, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands ** Argentine Antarctica * Maritime claims on Argentine Sea ** Territorial sea: ** Contiguous zone: ** Exclusive economic zone: ** Continental shelf: or to the edge of the continental margin
National parksThe National Parks of Argentina make up a network of thirty national parks in Argentina. The parks cover a very varied set of terrains and biotopes, from Baritú National Park on the northern border with Bolivia to Tierra del Fuego National Park in the far south of the continent (see List of national parks of Argentina). The creation of the National Parks dates back to the 1903 donation of 73 square kilometers of land in the Lake District in the Andes foothills by Francisco Moreno. This formed the nucleus of a larger protected area in Patagonia around San Carlos de Bariloche. In 1934, a law was passed creating the National Parks system, formalizing the protected area as the Nahuel Huapi National Park and creating the Iguazú National Park. The National Park Police Force was born, enforcing the new laws preventing tree-felling and hunting. Their early task was largely to establish national sovereignty over these disputed areas and to protect borders. Five further national parks were declared in 1937 in Patagonia and the service planned new towns and facilities to promote tourism and education. Six more were declared by 1970. In 1970 a new law established new categories of protection, so that there now were National Parks, National Monuments, Educational Reserves and Natural Reserves. Three national parks were declared in the 1970s. In 1980, another new law affirmed the status of national parks - this law is still in place. The 1980s saw the service reaching out to local communities and local government to help in the running and development of the national parks. Ten more national parks were created with local co-operation, sometimes at local instigation. In 2000, Mburucuyá National Park, Mburucuyá and Copo National Parks were declared, and El Leoncito National Park, El Leoncito natural reserve was upgraded to a national park. The headquarters of the National Park Service are in downtown Buenos Aires, on Santa Fe Avenue. A library and information center are open to the public. The administration also covers the national monuments, such as the Petrified Forest, and natural and educational reserves.
See also* List of islands of Argentina * List of volcanoes in Argentina * Protected areas of Argentina *