HOME
The Info List - Genocide



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

GENOCIDE is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic , national , racial , or religious group) in whole or in part. The hybrid word "genocide" is a combination of the Greek word _génos_ ("race, people") and the Latin
Latin
suffix _-cide_ ("act of killing"). The United Nations
United Nations
Genocide Convention, which was established in 1948, defines genocide as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group".

The term genocide was coined in a 1944 book; it has been applied to the Holocaust
Holocaust
, the Armenian genocide
Armenian genocide
and many other mass killings including the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas , the Greek genocide
Greek genocide
, the Assyrian genocide
Assyrian genocide
, the Serbian genocide , the Holodomor, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide
Cambodian genocide
, the Guatemalan genocide, and, more recently, the Bosnian genocide
Bosnian genocide
, the Kurdish genocide , and the Rwandan genocide
Rwandan genocide
.

According to one estimate, from 1956 to 2016, a total of forty-three genocides have taken place which caused the death of about 50 million people, while an additional 50 million were resettled or displaced by such conflicts.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origin of the term

* 2 As a crime

* 2.1 International law
International law

* 2.2 Specific provisions

* 2.2.1 "Intent to destroy" * 2.2.2 "In part"

* 2.3 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
Genocide
(CPPCG) coming into force * 2.4 UN Security Council
UN Security Council
on genocide * 2.5 Municipal law

* 3 Criticisms of the CPPCGand other definitions of genocide

* 4 International prosecution of genocide

* 4.1 By ad hoc tribunals

* 4.1.1 Nuremberg Tribunal (1945–1946) * 4.1.2 International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (1993 to present) * 4.1.3 International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
(1994 to present)

* 4.1.4 Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia
Cambodia
(2003 to present)

* 4.2 By the International Criminal Court
International Criminal Court

* 4.2.1 Darfur, Sudan

* 5 Genocide
Genocide
in history * 6 Stages of genocide, influences leading to genocide, and efforts to prevent it

* 7 See also

* 7.1 Research

* 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links

ORIGIN OF THE TERM

Before 1944, various terms, including "massacre" and "crimes against humanity " were used to describe intentional, systematic killings, and in 1941, Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
, when describing the German invasion of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, spoke of "a crime without a name".

In 1944, Raphael Lemkin
Raphael Lemkin
created the term _genocide_ in his book _Axis Rule in Occupied Europe_. The book describes the implementation of Nazi policies in occupied Europe , and cites earlier mass killings. The term described the systematic destruction of a nation or people, and the word was quickly adopted by many in the international community. The word _genocide_ is the combination of the Greek prefix _geno-_ (γένος, meaning 'race' or 'people') and _caedere_ (the Latin
Latin
word for "to kill"). The word _genocide_ was used in indictments at the Nuremberg trials
Nuremberg trials
, held from 1945, but solely as a descriptive term, not yet as a formal legal term.

According to Lemkin, genocide was "a coordinated strategy to destroy a group of people, a process that could be accomplished through total annihilation as well as strategies that eliminate key elements of the group's basic existence, including language, culture, and economic infrastructure”. Lemkin defined genocide as follows:

Generally speaking, genocide does not necessarily mean the immediate destruction of a nation, except when accomplished by mass killings of all members of a nation. It is intended rather to signify a coordinated plan of different actions aiming at the destruction of essential foundations of the life of national groups, with the aim of annihilating the groups themselves. The objectives of such a plan would be the disintegration of the political and social institutions, of culture, language, national feelings, religion, and the economic existence of national groups, and the destruction of the personal security, liberty, health, dignity, and even the lives of the individuals belonging to such groups.

The preamble to the 1948 Genocide Convention(CPPCG) notes that instances of genocide have taken place throughout history. But it was not until Lemkin coined the term and the prosecution of perpetrators of the Holocaust
Holocaust
at the Nuremberg trials
Nuremberg trials
that the United Nations defined the crime of genocide under international law in the Genocide Convention.

Lemkin's lifelong interest in the mass murder of populations in the 20th century was initially in response to the killing of Armenians in 1915 and later to the mass murders in Nazi-controlled Europe. He referred to the Albigensian Crusade
Albigensian Crusade
as "one of the most conclusive cases of genocide in religious history". He dedicated his life to mobilizing the international community, to work together to prevent the occurrence of such events. In a 1949 interview, Lemkin said "I became interested in genocide because it happened so many times. It happened to the Armenians, then after the Armenians, Hitler took action".

AS A CRIME

INTERNATIONAL LAW

_ Members of the Sonderkommando
Sonderkommando
_ burn corpses of Jews in pits at Auschwitz
Auschwitz
II-Birkenau, an extermination camp

After the Holocaust, which had been perpetrated by the Nazi Germany and its allies prior to and during World War II
World War II
, Lemkin successfully campaigned for the universal acceptance of international laws defining and forbidding genocides. In 1946, the first session of the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution that "affirmed" that genocide was a crime under international law, but did not provide a legal definition of the crime. In 1948, the UN General Assembly adopted the _Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
Genocide
_ (CPPCG) which defined the crime of genocide for the first time.

The _CPPCG_ was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 9 December 1948 and came into effect on 12 January 1951 (Resolution 260 (III)). It contains an internationally recognized definition of genocide which has been incorporated into the national criminal legislation of many countries, and was also adopted by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
International Criminal Court
, which established the International Criminal Court (ICC). Article II of the Convention defines genocide as:

...any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy , in whole or in part , a national , ethnical , racial or religious group, as such: (a) Killing members of the group; (b) Causing serious bodily harm, or harm to mental health , to members of the group; (c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; (d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; (e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

The first draft of the Convention included political killings, but these provisions were removed in a political and diplomatic compromise following objections from some countries, including the USSR , a permanent security council member. The USSR argued that the Convention's definition should follow the etymology of the term, and may have feared greater international scrutiny of its own Great Purge . Other nations feared that including political groups in the definition would invite international intervention in domestic politics. However leading genocide scholar William Schabasstates: “Rigorous examination of the travaux fails to confirm a popular impression in the literature that the opposition to inclusion of political genocide was some Soviet machination. The Soviet views were also shared by a number of other States for whom it is difficult to establish any geographic or social common denominator: Lebanon, Sweden, Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, the Philippines, the Dominican Republic, Iran, Egypt, Belgium, and Uruguay. The exclusion of political groups was in fact originally promoted by a non-governmental organization, the World Jewish Congress, and it corresponded to Raphael Lemkin’s vision of the nature of the crime of genocide.”

The convention's purpose and scope was later described by the United Nations Security Council as follows:

The Convention was manifestly adopted for humanitarian and civilizing purposes. Its objectives are to safeguard the very existence of certain human groups and to affirm and emphasize the most elementary principles of humanity and morality. In view of the rights involved, the legal obligations to refrain from genocide are recognized as _erga omnes _.

When the Convention was drafted, it was already envisaged that it would apply not only to then existing forms of genocide, but also "to any method that might be evolved in the future with a view to destroying the physical existence of a group". As emphasized in the preamble to the Convention, genocide has marred all periods of history, and it is this very tragic recognition that gives the concept its historical evolutionary nature.

The Convention must be interpreted in good faith, in accordance with the ordinary meaning of its terms, in their context, and in the light of its object and purpose. Moreover, the text of the Convention should be interpreted in such a way that a reason and a meaning can be attributed to every word. No word or provision may be disregarded or treated as superfluous, unless this is absolutely necessary to give effect to the terms read as a whole.

Genocide
Genocide
is a crime under international law regardless of "whether committed in time of peace or in time of war" (art. I). Thus, irrespective of the context in which it occurs (for example, peace time, internal strife, international armed conflict or whatever the general overall situation) genocide is a punishable international crime. — UN Commission of Experts that examined violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia.

SPECIFIC PROVISIONS

"Intent To Destroy"

In 2007 the European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
(ECHR), noted in its judgement on _Jorgic v. Germany_ case that in 1992 the majority of legal scholars took the narrow view that "intent to destroy" in the CPPCGmeant the intended physical-biological destruction of the protected group and that this was still the majority opinion. But the ECHR also noted that a minority took a broader view and did not consider biological-physical destruction was necessary as the intent to destroy a national, racial, religious or ethnic group was enough to qualify as genocide.

In the same judgement the ECHR reviewed the judgements of several international and municipal courts judgements. It noted that International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
and the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
had agreed with the narrow interpretation, that biological-physical destruction was necessary for an act to qualify as genocide. The ECHR also noted that at the time of its judgement, apart from courts in Germany which had taken a broad view, that there had been few cases of genocide under other Convention States municipal laws and that "There are no reported cases in which the courts of these States have defined the type of group destruction the perpetrator must have intended in order to be found guilty of genocide".

In the case of "Onesphore Rwabukombe" the German Supreme Court adhered to its previous judgement and didn't follow the narrow interpretation of the ICTY and the ICJ.

"In Part"

Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
victims

The phrase "in whole or in part" has been subject to much discussion by scholars of international humanitarian law. The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
found in _Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic – Trial Chamber I – Judgment – IT-98-33 (2001) ICTY8 (2 August 2001)_ that Genocide
Genocide
had been committed. In _Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic – Appeals Chamber – Judgment – IT-98-33 (2004) ICTY 7 (19 April 2004)_ paragraphs 8, 9, 10, and 11 addressed the issue of _in part_ and found that "the part must be a substantial part of that group. The aim of the Genocide Conventionis to prevent the intentional destruction of entire human groups, and the part targeted must be significant enough to have an impact on the group as a whole." The Appeals Chamber goes into details of other cases and the opinions of respected commentators on the Genocide Convention to explain how they came to this conclusion.

The judges continue in paragraph 12, "The determination of when the targeted part is substantial enough to meet this requirement may involve a number of considerations. The numeric size of the targeted part of the group is the necessary and important starting point, though not in all cases the ending point of the inquiry. The number of individuals targeted should be evaluated not only in absolute terms, but also in relation to the overall size of the entire group. In addition to the numeric size of the targeted portion, its prominence within the group can be a useful consideration. If a specific part of the group is emblematic of the overall group, or is essential to its survival, that may support a finding that the part qualifies as substantial within the meaning of Article 4 ."

In paragraph 13 the judges raise the issue of the perpetrators' access to the victims: "The historical examples of genocide also suggest that the area of the perpetrators’ activity and control, as well as the possible extent of their reach, should be considered. ... The intent to destroy formed by a perpetrator of genocide will always be limited by the opportunity presented to him. While this factor alone will not indicate whether the targeted group is substantial, it can—in combination with other factors—inform the analysis."

CONVENTION ON THE PREVENTION AND PUNISHMENT OF THE CRIME OF GENOCIDE (CPPCG) COMING INTO FORCE

The Convention came into force as international law on 12 January 1951 after the minimum 20 countries became parties. At that time however, only two of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council were parties to the treaty: France
France
and the Republic of China
Republic of China
. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
ratified in 1954, the United Kingdom in 1970, the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
in 1983 (having replaced the Taiwan-based Republic of China
Republic of China
on the UNSC in 1971), and the United States
United States
in 1988. This long delay in support for the Convention by the world's most powerful nations caused the Convention to languish for over four decades. Only in the 1990s did the international law on the crime of genocide begin to be enforced.

UN SECURITY COUNCIL ON GENOCIDE

UN Security Council
UN Security Council
Resolution 1674 , adopted by the United Nations Security Council on 28 April 2006, "reaffirms the provisions of paragraphs 138 and 139 of the 2005 World Summit Outcome Document regarding the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity". The resolution committed the Council to action to protect civilians in armed conflict.

In 2008 the UN Security Council
UN Security Council
adopted resolution 1820 , which noted that "rape and other forms of sexual violence can constitute war crimes, crimes against humanity or a constitutive act with respect to genocide".

MUNICIPAL LAW

Main article: Genocide under municipal laws

Since the Convention came into effect in January 1951 about 80 United Nations member states have passed legislation that incorporates the provisions of CPPCGinto their municipal law .

CRITICISMS OF THE CPPCGAND OTHER DEFINITIONS OF GENOCIDE

See also: Genocide definitions

William Schabashas suggested that a permanent body as recommended by the Whitaker Report to monitor the implementation of the Genocide Convention, and require States to issue reports on their compliance with the convention (such as were incorporated into the United Nations Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture), would make the convention more effective.

Writing in 1998 Kurt Jonassohn and Karin Björnson stated that the CPPCGwas a legal instrument resulting from a diplomatic compromise. As such the wording of the treaty is not intended to be a definition suitable as a research tool, and although it is used for this purpose, as it has an international legal credibility that others lack, other definitions have also been postulated. Jonassohn and Björnson go on to say that none of these alternative definitions have gained widespread support for various reasons.

Jonassohn and Björnson postulate that the major reason why no single generally accepted genocide definition has emerged is because academics have adjusted their focus to emphasise different periods and have found it expedient to use slightly different definitions to help them interpret events. For example, Frank Chalk and Kurt Jonassohn studied the whole of human history, while Leo Kuperand R. J. Rummel in their more recent works concentrated on the 20th century, and Helen Fein , Barbara Harff and Ted Gurr have looked at post World War II events. Jonassohn and Björnson are critical of some of these studies, arguing that they are too expansive, and conclude that the academic discipline of genocide studies is too young to have a canon of work on which to build an academic paradigm .

The exclusion of social and political groups as targets of genocide in the CPPCGlegal definition has been criticized by some historians and sociologists, for example M. Hassan Kakar in his book _The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979–1982_ argues that the international definition of genocide is too restricted, and that it should include political groups or any group so defined by the perpetrator and quotes Chalk and Jonassohn: " Genocide
Genocide
is a form of one-sided mass killing in which a state or other authority intends to destroy a group, as that group and membership in it are defined by the perpetrator." In turn some local governments such as Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, France
France
, and Spain
Spain
include political groups as legitimate genocide victims in their anti-genocide laws.

While there are various definitions of the term, Adam Jones states that the majority of genocide scholars consider that "intent to destroy" is a requirement for any act to be labelled genocide, and that there is growing agreement on the inclusion of the physical destruction criterion.

Barbara Harff and Ted Gurr defined genocide as "the promotion and execution of policies by a state or its agents which result in the deaths of a substantial portion of a group ... the victimized groups are defined primarily in terms of their communal characteristics, i.e., ethnicity, religion or nationality." Harff and Gurr also differentiate between genocides and politicides by the characteristics by which members of a group are identified by the state. In genocides, the victimized groups are defined primarily in terms of their communal characteristics, i.e., ethnicity, religion or nationality. In politicides the victim groups are defined primarily in terms of their hierarchical position or political opposition to the regime and dominant groups. Daniel D. Polsby and Don B. Kates, Jr. state that "... we follow Harff's distinction between genocides and 'pogroms ,' which she describes as 'short-lived outbursts by mobs, which, although often condoned by authorities, rarely persist.' If the violence persists for long enough, however, Harff argues, the distinction between condonation and complicity collapses."

According to R. J. Rummel, genocide has 3 different meanings. The ordinary meaning is murder by government of people due to their national, ethnic, racial, or religious group membership. The legal meaning of genocide refers to the international treaty, the _Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide_ (CPPCG). This also includes non-killings that in the end eliminate the group, such as preventing births or forcibly transferring children out of the group to another group. A generalized meaning of genocide is similar to the ordinary meaning but also includes government killings of political opponents or otherwise intentional murder. It is to avoid confusion regarding what meaning is intended that Rummel created the term democide for the third meaning.

Highlighting the potential for state and non-state actors to commit genocide in the 21st century, for example, in failed states or as non-state actors acquire weapons of mass destruction, Adrian Gallagher defined genocide as 'When a source of collective power (usually a state) intentionally uses its power base to implement a process of destruction in order to destroy a group (as defined by the perpetrator), in whole or in substantial part, dependent upon relative group size'. The definition upholds the centrality of intent, the multidimensional understanding of destroy, broadens the definition of group identity beyond that of the 1948 definition yet argues that a substantial part of a group has to be destroyed before it can be classified as genocide (dependent on relative group size).

A major criticism of the international community's response to the Rwandan Genocide
Rwandan Genocide
was that it was reactive, not proactive. The international community has developed a mechanism for prosecuting the perpetrators of genocide but has not developed the will or the mechanisms for intervening in a genocide as it happens.

INTERNATIONAL PROSECUTION OF GENOCIDE

BY AD HOC TRIBUNALS

Nuon Chea
Nuon Chea
, the Khmer Rouge's chief ideologist, before the Cambodian Genocide Tribunalon 5 December 2011.

All signatories to the CPPCGare required to prevent and punish acts of genocide, both in peace and wartime, though some barriers make this enforcement difficult. In particular, some of the signatories—namely, Bahrain
Bahrain
, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, India
India
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, the Philippines
Philippines
, Singapore
Singapore
, the United States
United States
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, Yemen
Yemen
, and former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
—signed with the proviso that no claim of genocide could be brought against them at the International Court of Justice without their consent. Despite official protests from other signatories (notably Cyprus
Cyprus
and Norway
Norway
) on the ethics and legal standing of these reservations, the immunity from prosecution they grant has been invoked from time to time, as when the United States refused to allow a charge of genocide brought against it by former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
following the 1999 Kosovo War
Kosovo War
.

It is commonly accepted that, at least since World War II
World War II
, genocide has been illegal under customary international law as a peremptory norm , as well as under conventional international law . Acts of genocide are generally difficult to establish for prosecution, because a chain of accountability must be established. International criminal courts and tribunals function primarily because the states involved are incapable or unwilling to prosecute crimes of this magnitude themselves.

Nuremberg Tribunal (1945–1946)

Main article: Nuremberg Trials
Nuremberg Trials

The Nazi leaders who were prosecuted shortly after World War II
World War II
for taking part in the Holocaust, and other mass murders, were charged under existing international laws , such as crimes against humanity , as the crime of "genocide' was not formally defined until the 1948 _Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide_ (CPPCG). Nevertheless, the recently coined term appeared in the indictment of the Nazi leaders , Count 3, which stated that those charged had "conducted deliberate and systematic genocide—namely, the extermination of racial and national groups—against the civilian populations of certain occupied territories in order to destroy particular races and classes of people, and national, racial or religious groups, particularly Jews, Poles, Gypsies and others."

International Criminal Tribunal For The Former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(1993 To Present)

See also: Bosnian Genocide
Bosnian Genocide
and List of Bosnian genocide
Bosnian genocide
prosecutions The cemetery at the Srebrenica-Potočari Memorial and Cemetery to Genocide
Genocide
Victims

The term _Bosnian genocide_ is used to refer either to the killings committed by Serb forces in Srebrenica
Srebrenica
in 1995, or to ethnic cleansing that took place elsewhere during the 1992–1995 Bosnian War .

In 2001, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
(ICTY) judged that the 1995 Srebrenica massacre
Srebrenica massacre
was an act of genocide. On 26 February 2007, the International Court of Justice (ICJ), in the _ Bosnian Genocide
Bosnian Genocide
Case _ upheld the ICTY's earlier finding that the massacre in Srebrenica
Srebrenica
and Zepa constituted genocide, but found that the Serbian government had not participated in a wider genocide on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
during the war, as the Bosnian government had claimed.

On 12 July 2007, European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
when dismissing the appeal by Nikola Jorgićagainst his conviction for genocide by a German court (Jorgic v. Germany ) noted that the German courts wider interpretation of genocide has since been rejected by international courts considering similar cases. The ECHR also noted that in the 21st century "Amongst scholars, the majority have taken the view that ethnic cleansing , in the way in which it was carried out by the Serb forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in order to expel Muslims and Croats from their homes, did not constitute genocide. However, there are also a considerable number of scholars who have suggested that these acts did amount to genocide, and the ICTY has found in the Momcilo Krajisnik case that the actus reus of genocide was met in Prijedor "With regard to the charge of genocide, the Chamber found that in spite of evidence of acts perpetrated in the municipalities which constituted the actus reus of genocide".

About 30 people have been indicted for participating in genocide or complicity in genocide during the early 1990s in Bosnia . To date, after several plea bargains and some convictions that were successfully challenged on appeal two men, Vujadin Popovićand Ljubiša Beara, have been found guilty of committing genocide, Zdravko Tolimirhas been found guilty of committing genocide and conspiracy to commit genocide, and two others, Radislav Krstićand Drago Nikolić, have been found guilty of aiding and abetting genocide. Three others have been found guilty of participating in genocides in Bosnia by German courts, one of whom Nikola Jorgićlost an appeal against his conviction in the European Court of Human Rights . A further eight men, former members of the Bosnian Serb security forces were found guilty of genocide by the State Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina (See List of Bosnian genocide
Bosnian genocide
prosecutions ).

Slobodan Milošević
Slobodan Milošević
, as the former President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia, was the most senior political figure to stand trial at the ICTY. He died on 11 March 2006 during his trial where he was accused of genocide or complicity in genocide in territories within Bosnia and Herzegovina, so no verdict was returned. In 1995, the ICTY issued a warrant for the arrest of Bosnian Serbs Radovan Karadžićand Ratko Mladić on several charges including genocide. On 21 July 2008, Karadžić was arrested in Belgrade, and later tried in The Hague accused of genocide among other crimes. On 24 March 2016, Karadžić was found guilty of genocide in Srebrenica, war crimes and crimes against humanity, 10 of the 11 charges in total, and sentenced to 40 years' imprisonment. Ratko Mladićwas arrested on 26 May 2011 in Lazarevo, Serbia, and is currently on trial in The Hague .

International Criminal Tribunal For Rwanda
Rwanda
(1994 To Present)

See also: Rwandan Genocide
Rwandan Genocide
Victims of the 1994 Rwandan genocide

The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
(ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations
United Nations
for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda
Rwanda
during the genocide which occurred there during April 1994, commencing on 6 April. The ICTR
ICTR
was created on 8 November 1994 by the Security Council of the United Nations
United Nations
in order to judge those people responsible for the acts of genocide and other serious violations of the international law performed in the territory of Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between 1 January and 31 December 1994.

So far, the ICTR
ICTR
has finished nineteen trials and convicted twenty seven accused persons. On 14 December 2009 two more men were accused and convicted for their crimes. Another twenty five persons are still on trial. Twenty-one are awaiting trial in detention, two more added on 14 December 2009. Ten are still at large. The first trial, of Jean-Paul Akayesu , began in 1997. In October 1998, Akayesu was sentenced to life imprisonment. Jean Kambanda, interim Prime Minister, pleaded guilty.

Extraordinary Chambers In The Courts Of Cambodia
Cambodia
(2003 To Present)

Main articles: Killing Fields
Killing Fields
and Khmer Rouge Tribunal Rooms of the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
contain thousands of photos taken by the Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
of their victims. Skulls in the Choeung Ek
Choeung Ek
.

The Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
, led by Pol Pot
Pol Pot
, Ta Mokand other leaders, organized the mass killing of ideologically suspect groups. The total number of victims is estimated at approximately 1.7 million Cambodians between 1975–1979, including deaths from slave labour.

On 6 June 2003 the Cambodian government and the United Nations reached an agreement to set up the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia
Cambodia
(ECCC) which would focus exclusively on crimes committed by the most senior Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
officials during the period of Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
rule of 1975–1979. The judges were sworn in early July 2006.

The genocide charges related to killings of Cambodia's Vietnamese and Cham minorities, which is estimated to make up tens of thousand killings and possibly more

The investigating judges were presented with the names of five possible suspects by the prosecution on 18 July 2007.

* Kang Kek Iew
Kang Kek Iew
was formally charged with war crime and crimes against humanity and detained by the Tribunal on 31 July 2007. He was indicted on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity on 12 August 2008. His appeal against his conviction for war crimes and crimes against humanity was rejected on 3 February 2012, and he is serving a sentence of life imprisonment. * Nuon Chea
Nuon Chea
, a former prime minister, who was indicted on charges of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and several other crimes under Cambodian law on 15 September 2010. He was transferred into the custody of the ECCC on 19 September 2007. His trial started on 27 June 2011 and ended on 7 August 2014, with a life sentence imposed for crimes against humanity. * Khieu Samphan
Khieu Samphan
, a former head of state, who was indicted on charges of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and several other crimes under Cambodian law on 15 September 2010. He was transferred into the custody of the ECCC on 19 September 2007. His trial began on 27 June 2011. and also ended on 7 August 2014, with a life sentence imposed for crimes against humanity. * Ieng Sary, a former foreign minister, who was indicted on charges of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and several other crimes under Cambodian law on 15 September 2010. He was transferred into the custody of the ECCC on 12 November 2007. His trial started on 27 June 2011, and ended with his death on 14 March 2013. He was never convicted. * Ieng Thirith, a former minister for social affairs and wife of Ieng Sary, who was indicted on charges of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and several other crimes under Cambodian law on 15 September 2010. She was transferred into the custody of the ECCC on 12 November 2007. Proceedings against her have been suspended pending a health evaluation.

There has been disagreement between some of the international jurists and the Cambodian government over whether any other people should be tried by the Tribunal.

BY THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

Since 2002, the International Criminal Court
International Criminal Court
can exercise its jurisdiction if national courts are unwilling or unable to investigate or prosecute genocide, thus being a "court of last resort," leaving the primary responsibility to exercise jurisdiction over alleged criminals to individual states. Due to the United States
United States
concerns over the ICC , the United States
United States
prefers to continue to use specially convened international tribunals for such investigations and potential prosecutions.

Darfur, Sudan

Main article: War in Darfur A mother with her sick baby at Abu Shouk IDP camp in North Darfur

There has been much debate over categorizing the situation in Darfur as genocide. The ongoing conflict in Darfur
Darfur
, Sudan, which started in 2003, was declared a "genocide" by United States
United States
Secretary of State Colin Powellon 9 September 2004 in testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee . Since that time however, no other permanent member of the UN Security Council
UN Security Council
has done so. In fact, in January 2005, an International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur, authorized by UN Security Council
UN Security Council
Resolution 1564 of 2004, issued a report to the Secretary-General stating that "the Government of the Sudan has not pursued a policy of genocide." Nevertheless, the Commission cautioned that "The conclusion that no genocidal policy has been pursued and implemented in Darfur
Darfur
by the Government authorities, directly or through the militias under their control, should not be taken in any way as detracting from the gravity of the crimes perpetrated in that region. International offences such as the crimes against humanity and war crimes that have been committed in Darfur
Darfur
may be no less serious and heinous than genocide."

In March 2005, the Security Council formally referred the situation in Darfur
Darfur
to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, taking into account the Commission report but without mentioning any specific crimes. Two permanent members of the Security Council, the United States
United States
and China , abstained from the vote on the referral resolution. As of his fourth report to the Security Council, the Prosecutor has found "reasonable grounds to believe that the individuals identified have committed crimes against humanity and war crimes," but did not find sufficient evidence to prosecute for genocide.

In April 2007, the Judges of the ICC issued arrest warrants against the former Minister of State for the Interior, Ahmad Harun, and a Militia
Militia
Janjaweedleader, Ali Kushayb, for crimes against humanity and war crimes.

On 14 July 2008, prosecutors at the International Criminal Court (ICC), filed ten charges of war crimes against Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir : three counts of genocide, five of crimes against humanity and two of murder. The ICC's prosecutors claimed that al-Bashir "masterminded and implemented a plan to destroy in substantial part" three tribal groups in Darfur
Darfur
because of their ethnicity.

On 4 March 2009, the ICC issued a warrant of arrest for Omar Al Bashir, President of Sudan as the ICC Pre-Trial Chamber I concluded that his position as head of state does not grant him immunity against prosecution before the ICC. The warrant was for war crimes and crimes against humanity. It did not include the crime of genocide because the majority of the Chamber did not find that the prosecutors had provided enough evidence to include such a charge. Later the decision was changed by the Appeals Panel and after issuing the second decision, charges against Omar al-Bashirinclude three counts of genocide.

GENOCIDE IN HISTORY

Main article: Genocides in history Naked Soviet POWs held by the Nazis in Mauthausen concentration camp . "... the murder of at least 3.3 million Soviet POWs is one of the least-known of modern genocides; there is still no full-length book on the subject in English." —Adam Jones

The concept of genocide can be applied to historical events of the past . The preamble to the CPPCGstates that "at all periods of history genocide has inflicted great losses on humanity."

Revisionist attempts to challenge or affirm claims of genocide are illegal in some countries. For example, several European countries ban the denial of the Holocaust
Holocaust
or the Armenian Genocide
Armenian Genocide
, while in Turkey referring to the mass killings of Armenians , Greeks , Assyrians and Maronites as genocides may be prosecuted under Article 301 .

William Rubinsteinargues that the origin of 20th century genocides can be traced back to the collapse of the elite structure and normal modes of government in parts of Europe following the First World War:

The 'Age of Totalitarianism' included nearly all of the infamous examples of genocide in modern history, headed by the Jewish Holocaust, but also comprising the mass murders and purges of the Communist world, other mass killings carried out by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and its allies, and also the Armenian genocide
Armenian genocide
of 1915. All these slaughters, it is argued here, had a common origin, the collapse of the elite structure and normal modes of government of much of central, eastern and southern Europe as a result of the First World War, without which surely neither Communism nor Fascism would have existed except in the minds of unknown agitators and crackpots. — William Rubinstein, _Genocide: a history_

STAGES OF GENOCIDE, INFLUENCES LEADING TO GENOCIDE, AND EFFORTS TO PREVENT IT

For genocide to happen, there must be certain preconditions. Foremost among them is a national culture that does not place a high value on human life. A totalitarian society, with its assumed superior ideology, is also a precondition for genocidal acts. In addition, members of the dominant society must perceive their potential victims as less than fully human: as "pagans," "savages," "uncouth barbarians," "unbelievers," "effete degenerates," "ritual outlaws," "racial inferiors," "class antagonists," "counterrevolutionaries," and so on. In themselves, these conditions are not enough for the perpetrators to commit genocide. To do that—that is, to commit genocide—the perpetrators need a strong, centralized authority and bureaucratic organization as well as pathological individuals and criminals. Also required is a campaign of vilification and dehumanization of the victims by the perpetrators, who are usually new states or new regimes attempting to impose conformity to a new ideology and its model of society. — M. Hassan Kakar

In 1996 Gregory Stanton, the president of Genocide
Genocide
Watch , presented a briefing paper called "The 8 Stages of Genocide" at the United States Department of State . In it he suggested that genocide develops in eight stages that are "predictable but not inexorable".

The Stanton paper was presented to the State Department, shortly after the Rwandan Genocide
Rwandan Genocide
and much of its analysis is based on why that genocide occurred. The preventative measures suggested, given the briefing paper's original target audience, were those that the United States could implement directly or indirectly by using its influence on other governments.

STAGE CHARACTERISTICS PREVENTIVE MEASURES

1. Classification People are divided into "us and them". "The main preventive measure at this early stage is to develop universalistic institutions that transcend ... divisions."

2. Symbolization "When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of pariah groups..." "To combat symbolization, hate symbols can be legally forbidden as can hate speech ".

3. Dehumanization "One group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects, or diseases." "Local and international leaders should condemn the use of hate speech and make it culturally unacceptable. Leaders who incite genocide should be banned from international travel and have their foreign finances frozen."

4. Organization " Genocide
Genocide
is always organized... Special
Special
army units or militias are often trained and armed..." "The U.N. should impose arms embargoes on governments and citizens of countries involved in genocidal massacres , and create commissions to investigate violations"

5. Polarization "Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda..." "Prevention may mean security protection for moderate leaders or assistance to human rights groups...Coups d’état by extremists should be opposed by international sanctions."

6. Preparation "Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity..." "At this stage, a Genocide
Genocide
Emergency must be declared. ..."

7. Extermination "It is 'extermination' to the killers because they do not believe their victims to be fully human". "At this stage, only rapid and overwhelming armed intervention can stop genocide. Real safe areas or refugee escape corridors should be established with heavily armed international protection."

8. Denial "The perpetrators... deny that they committed any crimes..." "The response to denial is punishment by an international tribunal or national courts"

In April 2012, it was reported that Stanton would soon be officially adding two new stages, Discrimination
Discrimination
and Persecution, to his original theory, which would make for a 10-stage theory of genocide.

In a paper for the Social Science Research CouncilDirk Moses criticises the Stanton approach concluding:

In view of this rather poor record of ending genocide, the question needs to be asked why the "genocide studies" paradigm cannot predict and prevent genocides with any accuracy and reliability. The paradigm of "genocide studies," as currently constituted in North America in particular, has both strengths and limitations. While the moral fervor and public activism is admirable and salutary, the paradigm appears blind to its own implication in imperial projects that are themselves as much part of the problem as they are part of the solution. The US government called Darfur
Darfur
a genocide to appease domestic lobbies, and because the statement cost it nothing. Darfur
Darfur
will end when it suits the great powers that have a stake in the region. — Dirk Moses

Other authors have focused on the structural conditions leading up to genocide and the psychological and social processes that create an evolution toward genocide. Ervin Staub showed that economic deterioration and political confusion and disorganization were starting points of increasing discrimination and violence in many instances of genocides and mass killing. They lead to scapegoating a group and ideologies that identified that group as an enemy. A history of devaluation of the group that becomes the victim, past violence against the group that becomes the perpetrator leading to psychological wounds, authoritarian cultures and political systems, and the passivity of internal and external witnesses (bystanders) all contribute to the probability that the violence develops into genocide. Intense conflict between groups that is unresolved, becomes intractable and violent can also lead to genocide. The conditions that lead to genocide provide guidance to early prevention, such as humanizing a devalued group, creating ideologies that embrace all groups, and activating bystander responses. There is substantial research to indicate how this can be done, but information is only slowly transformed into action.

Kjell Anderson uses a dichotomistic classification of genocides: "hot genocides, motivated by hate and the victims’ threatening nature, with low-intensity cold genocides, rooted in victims’ supposed inferiority."

SEE ALSO

* Genocide
Genocide
portal

* Autogenocide * Countervalue * Crimes against humanity
Crimes against humanity
* Democide * Effects of genocide on youth * Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
* Forced migration
Forced migration
* Forensic osteology * Gendercide * Genocidal rape * Genocide education * Great Famine (Ireland) * Homicide
Homicide
* Indian massacres * Indonesian killings of 1965–66 * Indonesian occupation of East Timor * Infanticide * Involuntary euthanasia
Involuntary euthanasia
* Local extinction * Mass murder
Mass murder
* Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia * Moriori people * Omnicide * Political cleansing of population * Policide * Population growth#Human population growth rate * Ritualcide * Social cleansing * Utilitarian genocide

RESEARCH

* The Center for the Study of Genocide, Conflict Resolution, and Human Rights * International Association of Genocide Scholars

NOTES

* ^ For a more complete list, see Genocides in history.

REFERENCES

* ^ Stanton, Gregory H. , _What is genocide?_, Genocide
Genocide
Watch . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Legal definition of genocide" (PDF). United Nations
United Nations
. Retrieved 22 February 2017. * ^ What Is Genocide? * ^ _A_ _B_ William Schabas. Genocide
Genocide
in international law: the crimes of crimes. — Cambridge University Press, 2000. — p. 25:"_Lemkin’s interest in the subject dates to his days as a student at Lvov University, when he intently followed attempts to prosecute the perpetration of the massacres of the Armenians_ * ^ _A_ _B_ Power 2002 , pp. 22-29. * ^ Charles H. Anderton, Jurgen Brauer, ed. (2016). _Economic Aspects of Genocides, Other Mass Atrocities, and Their Prevention_. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
. ISBN 9780199378296 . * ^ Churchill, Winston (August 24, 1941). _Prime Minister Winston Churchill\'s Broadcast to the World About the Meeting With President Roosevelt_ (Speech). British Library of Information – via ibiblio . * ^ "Coining a Word and Championing a Cause: The Story of Raphael Lemkin". United States
United States
Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum (USHMM), Holocaust Encyclopedia. Lemkin's memoirs detail early exposure to the history of Ottoman attacks against Armenians (which most scholars believe constitute genocide), antisemitic pogroms, and other histories of group-targeted violence as key to forming his beliefs about the need for legal protection of groups. * ^ Taylor, Telford (1982-03-28). "When people kill a people". The New York Times
New York Times
. Retrieved 2016-12-12. "In 1943, in the course of his monumental study _Axis Rule in Occupied Europe_, the late Raphael Lemkin coined the word genocide - from the Greek genos (race or tribe) and the Latin
Latin
cide (killing) - to describe the deliberate 'destruction of a nation or of an ethnic group.'" * ^ _A_ _B_ Lemkin 2008 , p. 79. * ^ "What Is Genocide?", _ Holocaust
Holocaust
Encyclopedia_, United States Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum, 24 June 2014 . * ^ Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. _Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide_ Archived 2 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ https://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007050 * ^ Yair Auron. The Banality of Denial: Israel and the Armenian Genocide. — Transaction Publishers, 2004. — p. 9:"_...when Raphael Lemkin coined the word genocide in 1944 he cited the 1915 annihilation of Armenians as a seminal example of genocide_" * ^ A. Dirk Moses. Genocide
Genocide
and settler society: frontier violence and stolen indigenous children in Australian history. — Berghahn Books, 2004. — p. 21:_"Indignant that the perpetrators of the Armenian genocide
Armenian genocide
had largely escaped prosecution, Lemkin, who was a young state prosecutor in Poland, began lobbying in the early 1930s for international law to criminalize the destruction of such groups."_ * ^ Raphael Lemkin
Raphael Lemkin
(2012). Steven Leonard Jacobs, ed. _Lemkin on Genocide_. Lexington Books. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-7391-4526-5 . Retrieved 14 February 2016. * ^ Rothenberg, Daniel. "Genocide." Encyclopedia of Genocide
Genocide
and Crimes Against Humanity. Ed. Dinah L. Shelton. Vol. 1. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 395–397. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 4 Mar. 2015. * ^ Stanley, Alessandra (Apr 17, 2006). "A PBS Documentary Makes Its Case for the Armenian Genocide, With or Without a Debate". _New York Times_. Retrieved Aug 7, 2012. * ^ Rubinstein, W. D. (2004). _Genocide: a history_. Pearson Education. p. 308. ISBN 0-582-50601-8 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Robert Gellately& Ben Kiernan(2003). _The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective_. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 267. ISBN 0-521-52750-3 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Staub, Ervin (31 July 1992). _The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide
Genocide
and Other Group Violence_. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-521-42214-0 . * ^ William A. Schabas (2009), _ Genocide
Genocide
in International Law: The Crime of Crimes_, 2nd Ed., pg 160 * ^ From a statement made by Mr. Morozov, representative of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, on 19 April 1948 during the debate in the Ad Hoc Committee on Genocide
Genocide
(E/AC.25/SR.12). * ^ See Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, opened for signature on 23 May 1969, United Nations
United Nations
Treaty
Treaty
Series, vol. 1155, No. I-18232. * ^ Mandate, structure and methods of work: Genocide
Genocide
I of the UN Commission of Experts to examine violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia, created by Security Council resolution 780 (1992) of 6 October 1992. * ^ European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
Judgement in Jorgic v. Germany (Application no. 74613/01) paragraphs 18, 36,74 * ^ European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
Judgement in Jorgic v. Germany (Application no. 74613/01) paragraphs 43–46 * ^ BGH, Urteil v. 21.05.2015 - 3 StR 575/14, analysed with respect to genocidal intent in 'La Revue des Droits de l'Homme by Natascha Kersting (La poursuite pénale du génocide rwandais devant les juridictions allemandes : L’intention de détruire dans l’affaire « Onesphore Rwabukombe »), https://revdh.revues.org/2539. * ^ What is Genocide? McGill Faculty of Law ( McGill University
McGill University
) * ^ Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic – Trial Chamber I – Judgment – IT-98-33 (2001) ICTY8 (2 August 2001) * ^ _A_ _B_ Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic – Appeals Chamber – Judgment – IT-98-33 (2004) ICTY 7 (19 April 2004) * ^ Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic – Appeals Chamber – Judgment – IT-98-33 (2004) ICTY 7 (19 April 2004) See Paragraph 6: "Article 4 of the Tribunal's Statute, like the Genocide
Genocide
Convention, covers certain acts done with "intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such." * ^ Statute of the International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, U.N. Doc. S/25704 at 36, annex (1993) and S/25704/Add.1 (1993), adopted by Security Council on 25 May 1993, Resolution 827 (1993). * ^ Resolution Resolution 1674 (2006) * ^ "Security Council passes landmark resolution – world has responsibility to protect people from genocide" (Press release). Oxfam . 28 April 2006. Archived from the original on 12 October 2010. * ^ https://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2008/sc9364.doc.htm * ^ The Crime of Genocide
Genocide
in Domestic Laws and Penal Codes website of prevent genocide international. * ^ William Schabas_ War crimes
War crimes
and human rights: essays on the death penalty, justice and accountability_, Cameron May 2008 ISBN 1-905017-63-4 , ISBN 978-1-905017-63-8 . p. 791 * ^ _A_ _B_ Kurt Jonassohn Article 211-1 -- génocide" (in French). Prevent Genocide
Genocide
International. Retrieved 31 January 2017. * ^ Daly, Emma (30 June 2003). "Spanish Judge Sends Argentine to Prison on Genocide
Genocide
Charge". _ New York Times
New York Times
_. Retrieved 30 January 2017. * ^ "Profile: Judge Baltasar Garzon". BBC
BBC
. 7 April 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2017. * ^ Jones, Adam. _Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction_, Routledge/Taylor Kates, Don B., Jr. (3 November 1997). "OF HOLOCAUSTS AND GUN CONTROL". _Washington University Law Quarterly_. 75 (Fall): 1237. (cites Harff 1992, see other note) * ^ Harff, Barbara (1992). Fein, Helen, ed. "Recognizing Genocides and Politicides". _ Genocide
Genocide
Watch_. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. 27: 37, 38. * ^ Domocide versus genocide; which is what? * ^ Adrian Gallagher, Genocide
Genocide
and Its Threat to Contemporary International Order (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013) p. 37. * ^ United Nations
United Nations
Treaty
Treaty
Collection (As of 9 October 2001): Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide on the web site of the Office of the United Nations
United Nations
High Commissioner for Human Rights * ^ (See for example the submission by Agent of the United States, Mr. David Andrews to the ICJ Public Sitting, 11 May 1999) * ^ Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
: 1944 R. Lemkin _Axis Rule in Occupied Europe_ ix. 79 "By 'genocide' we mean the destruction of a nation or of an ethnic group." * ^ Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
"Genocide" citing Sunday Times 21 October 1945 * ^ Staff. _ Bosnian genocide
Bosnian genocide
suspect extradited_, BBC
BBC
, 2 April 2002 * ^ "Fifth Section: Case of Jorgic v. Germany: Application no. 74613/01". European Court of Human Rights. 12 July 2007. Retrieved 5 February 2017: see § 47. * ^ The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia found in Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic – Trial Chamber I – Judgment – IT-98-33 (2001) ICTY8 (2 August 2001) that genocide had been committed. (see paragraph 560 for name of group in English on whom the genocide was committed). It was upheld in _Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic – Appeals Chamber – Judgment – IT-98-33 (2004) ICTY 7 (19 April 2004)_ * ^ "Courte: Serbia failed to prevent genocide, UN court rules". _ The San Francisco Chronicle_. Associated Press. 26 February 2007. * ^ ECHR Jorgic v. Germany. § 42 citing Prosecutor v. Krstic, IT-98-33-T, judgment of 2 August 2001, §§ 580 * ^ ECHR _Jorgic v. Germany Judgment_, 12 July 2007. § 44 citing Prosecutor v. Kupreskic and Others (IT-95-16-T, judgment of 14 January 2000), § 751. On 14 January 2000, the ICTY ruled in the Prosecutor v. Kupreskic and Others case that the killing of 116 Muslims in order to expel the Muslim population from a village amounted to persecution, not genocide. * ^ ICJ press release 2007/8 26 February 2007 * ^ http://icty.org/x/cases/krajisnik/cis/en/cis_krajisnik_en.pdf * ^ Staff (5 November 2009). "Q&A: Karadzic on trial". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 28 January 2010. * ^ "Radovan Karadzic, a Bosnian Serb, Gets 40 Years Over Genocide and War Crimes". _ The New York Times
The New York Times
_. Retrieved 24 March 2016. * ^ "Karadzic sentenced to 40 years for genocide". _CNN_. Retrieved 2016-03-26. * ^ Staff (26 May 2011). "Q&A: Ratko Mladic arrested: Bosnia war crimes suspect held". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 28 May 2011. * ^ These figures need revising they are from the ICTR
ICTR
page which says see www.ictr.org * ^ Cambodian Genocide
Genocide
Program, Yale University
Yale University
's MacMillan Center for International and Area Studies * ^ "A/RES/57/228B: Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
trials" (PDF). United Nations Assistance to the Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
Trials (UNAKRT). 22 May 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 July 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ Doyle, Kevin. "Putting the Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
on Trial", _Time _, 26 July 2007 * ^ MacKinnon, Ian "Crisis talks to save Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
trial", _The Guardian _, 7 March 2007 * ^ The Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
Trial Task Force, Royal Cambodian Government * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Case 002". The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2017. * ^ "Former Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
leaders begin genocide trial". BBC
BBC
News . 30 July 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ Buncombe, Andrew (11 October 2011). "Judge quits Cambodia
Cambodia
genocide tribunal". _ The Independent
The Independent
_. London. Archived from the original on 14 October 2011. * ^ Munthit, Ker (12 August 2008). "Cambodian tribunal indicts Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
jailer". _ USA Today
USA Today
_. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 30 May 2010. * ^ "Kaing Guek Eav alias Duch Sentenced to Life Imprisonment by the Supreme Court Chamber". Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. 3 February 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Case File
File
No.: 002/19-09-2007-ECCC-OCIJ: Closing Order" (PDF). Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. 15 September 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ McKirdy, Euan (9 August 2014). "Top Khmer Rouge
Khmer Rouge
leaders found guilty of crimes against humanity, sentenced to life in prison". CNN. Retrieved 6 February 2017. * ^ "002/19-09-2007: Decision on immediate appeal against Trial Chamber\'s order to release the accused Ieng Thirith" (PDF). Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. 13 December 2011. Retrieved 16 February 2017. * ^ "Statement by Carolyn Willson, Minister Counselor for International Legal Affairs, on the Report of the ICC, in the UN General Assembly" (PDF). (123 KB) 23 November 2005 * ^ Jafari, Jamal and Paul Williams (2005) "Word Games: The UN and Genocide
Genocide
in Darfur" _JURIST_ * ^ POWELL DECLARES KILLING IN DARFUR \'GENOCIDE\', The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer , 9 September 2004 * ^ _A_ _B_ "Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur
Darfur
to the United Nations
United Nations
Secretary-General" (PDF). (1.14 MB), 25 January 2005, at 4 * ^ "Security Council Resolution 1593 (2005)" (PDF). (24.8 KB) * ^ SECURITY COUNCIL REFERS SITUATION IN DARFUR, SUDAN, TO PROSECUTOR OF INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT, UN Press Release SC/8351, 31 March 2005 * ^ "Fourth Report of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, to the Security Council pursuant to UNSC 1593 (2005)" (PDF). (597 KB), Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, 14 December 2006. * ^ Statement by Mr. Luis Moreno Ocampo, Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, to the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council pursuant to UNSCR 1593 (2005), International Criminal Court, 5 June 2008 * ^ ICC issues a warrant of arrest for Omar Al Bashir, President of Sudan (ICC-CPI-20090304-PR394), ICC press release, 4 March 2009 * ^ https://www.icc-cpi.int/CourtRecords/CR2010_04826.PDF * ^ Adam Jones (2010), _Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction_ (2nd ed.), p.271. – "'" Next to the Jews in Europe," wrote Alexander Werth ', "the biggest single German crime was undoubtedly the extermination by hunger, exposure and in other ways of . . . Russian war prisoners." Yet the murder of at least 3.3 million Soviet POWs is one of the least-known of modern genocides; there is still no full-length book on the subject in English. It also stands as one of the most intensive genocides of all time: "a holocaust that devoured millions," as Catherine Merridaleacknowledges. The large majority of POWs, some 2.8 million, were killed in just eight months of 1941–42, a rate of slaughter matched (to my knowledge) only by the 1994 Rwanda genocide." * ^ Pair guilty of \'insulting Turkey\', _ BBC
BBC
News _, 11 October 2007. * ^ Rubinstein, W. D. (2004). _Genocide: a history_. Pearson Education. p.7. ISBN 0-582-50601-8 * ^ _A_ _B_ M. Hassan Kakar Chapter 4. The Story of Genocide
Genocide
in Afghanistan Footnote 9. Citing Horowitz, quoted in Chalk and Jonassohn, Genocide, 14. * ^ M. Hassan Kakar Chapter 4. The Story of Genocide
Genocide
in Afghanistan Footnote 10. Citing For details, see Carlton, _War and Ideology._ * ^ M. Hassan Kakar, _Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979–1982_, University of California
University of California
Press, 1995. * ^ _A_ _B_ Gregory Stanton. The 8 Stages of Genocide, Genocide Watch, 1996 * ^ The FBI
FBI
has found somewhat similar stages for hate groups . * ^ http://aipr.wordpress.com/2012/04/19/genprev-in-the-news-19-april-2012/ * ^ Dirk Moses Why the Discipline of " Genocide
Genocide
Studies" Has Trouble Explaining How Genocides End?, Social Science Research Council, 22 December 2006 * ^ Staub, E (1989). The roots of evil: The origins of genocide and other group violence. New York: Cambridge University Press. * ^ Staub, E. (2011) _Overcoming evil: Genocide, violent conflict and terrorism_ New York: Oxford University Press. * ^ p. 9. Anderson, Kjell. (2015) Colonialism and Cold Genocide: The Case of West Papua. _ Genocide
Genocide
Studies and Prevention: An International Journal_ Vol. 9: Iss. 2: 9–25.

FURTHER READING

ARTICLES

* Christopher R. Browning, "The Two Different Ways of Looking at Nazi Murder" (review of Philippe Sands, _East West Street: On the Origins of "Genocide" and "Crimes Against Humanity"_, Knopf, 425 pp., $32.50; and Christian Gerlach, _The Extermination of the European Jews_, Cambridge University Press, 508 pp., $29.99 ), _The New York Review of Books _, vol. LXIII, no. 18 (November 24, 2016), pp. 56–58. Discusses Hersch Lauterpacht's legal concept of "crimes against humanity ", contrasted with Rafael Lemkin's legal concept of "genocide". All genocides are crimes against humanity, but not all crimes against humanity are genocides; genocides require a higher standard of proof, as they entail _intent_ to destroy a particular group. * The Genocide
Genocide
in Darfur
Darfur
is Not What It Seems Christian Science Monitor * Suharto’s Purge, Indonesia’s Silence. Joshua Oppenheimerfor _ The New York Times
The New York Times
_, September 29, 2015. * (in Spanish) Aizenstatd, Najman Alexander. "Origen y Evolución del Concepto de Genocidio". Vol. 25 Revista de Derecho de la Universidad Francisco Marroquín 11 (2007). ISSN 1562-2576 * No Lessons Learned from the Holocaust? Assessing Risks of Genocide and Political Mass Murder since 1955 American Political Science Review. Vol. 97, No. 1. February 2003. * (in Spanish) Marco, Jorge. "Genocidio y Genocide
Genocide
Studies: Definiciones y debates", en: Aróstegui, Julio, Marco, Jorge y Gómez Bravo, Gutmaro (coord.): "De Genocidios, Holocaustos, Exterminios...", _Hispania Nova_, 10 (2012). Véase * What Really Happened in Rwanda? Christian Davenport and Allan C. Stam. * Reyntjens, F. (2004). "Rwanda, Ten Years On: From Genocide
Genocide
to Dictatorship." African Affairs 103(411): 177–210. * Brysk, Alison. 1994. "The Politics of Measurement: The Contested Count of the Disappeared in Argentina." Human Rights Quarterly 16: 676–92. * Davenport, C. and P. Ball (2002). "Views to a Kill: Exploring the Implications of Source Selection in the Case of Guatemalan State Terror, 1977–1996." Journal of Conflict Resolution 46(3): 427–450. * Krain, M. (1997). "State-Sponsored Mass Murder: A Study of the Onset and Severity of Genocides and Politicides." Journal of Conflict Resolution 41(3): 331–360.

BOOKS

* Andreopoulos, George J., ed. (1994). _Genocide: Conceptual and Historical Dimensions_. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3249-6 . * Ball, P., P. Kobrak, and H. Spirer (1999). State Violence in Guatemala, 1960–1996: A Quantitative Reflection. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science. * Bloxham, Donald & Moses, A. Dirk : _The Oxford Handbook of Genocide
Genocide
Studies._

_ Wikiquote has quotations related to: GENOCIDE _

_ Look up GENOCIDE _ in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to GENOCIDE _.

DOCUMENTS

* Voices of the Holocaust—a learning resource at the British Library * Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide
Genocide
(1948) - full text of Genocide Convention * Whitaker Report * 8 Stages of Genocide" by Gregory H. Stanton

RESEARCH INSTITUTES, ADVOCACY GROUPS, AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

* Institute for the Study of Genocide * International Association of Genocide
Genocide
Scholars * International Network of Genocide
Genocide
Scholars (INoGS) * United to End Genocide
Genocide
(merger of Save Darfur
Darfur
Coalition and the Genocide
Genocide
Intervention Network) * Simon-Skjodt Center for the Prevention of Genocide
Genocide
at the United States Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum * Auschwitz
Auschwitz
Institute for Peace and Reconciliation * Center for Holocaust
Holocaust
and Genocide
Genocide
Studies, Amsterdam, the Netherlands * Center for Holocaust
Holocaust
and Genocide
Genocide
Studies at the University of Minnesota * Genocide
Genocide
Studies Program at Yale University * Montreal Institute for Genocide
Genocide
Studies at Concordia University * Minorities at Risk Project at the University of Maryland * Budapest Centre for Mass Atrocities Prevention

* v * t * e

International criminal law

SOURCES

* Customary international law * Peremptory norm * Hague Conventions * Geneva Conventions
Geneva Conventions
* Nuremberg Charter * Nuremberg principles * United Nations
United Nations
Charter * Genocide Convention * Convention Against Torture * Rome Statute

Crimes against international law

* Crimes against humanity
Crimes against humanity
* Crime against peace * Crime of apartheid * Genocide * Piracy
Piracy
* Slave trading * War crime * War of aggression

International courts (in order of foundation)

* International Military Tribunal (Nuremberg Trials) * International Military Tribunal for the Far East * International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
* International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
* Special
Special
Court for Sierra Leone * International Criminal Court
International Criminal Court
* Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia
Cambodia
* Special
Special
Panels of the Dili District Court * Special
Special
Tribunal for Lebanon * Mechanism for International Criminal Tribunals

HISTORY

* List of war crimes * List of convicted war criminals

RELATED CONCEPTS

* Command responsibility * Superior orders * Joint criminal enterprise * Law of war * Universal jurisdiction * Non-combatant

* v * t * e

Racism
Racism

TYPES OF RACISM

* Against Jews * Aversive * Among Black people * Among White people * Among LGBT people

* Among US minorities

* Colorism

* Among Hipsters * Consumer * Covert * Cultural * Environmental * Gendered * Institutional * Internalized * Nationalist

* New racism

* Neo-racism

* Reverse

* Romantic

* Love

* Sexual * Scientific * Societal * Symbolic

Manifestations of racism

* Anti-miscegenation laws

* Expression

* in the media * in Charles Dickens\' works * in music

* in early US films

* Censored Eleven

* in horror films * in porn

* online

* on Wikipedia
Wikipedia

* in sport

* baseball * martial arts * soccer

* in school curricula * in US politics * Jokes * Slurs

* Racial
Racial
antagonism * Racial
Racial
determinism * Racial
Racial
hatred

* Racial
Racial
hierarchy

* Casta
Casta

* Racial
Racial
polarization * Racial quota * Racial
Racial
vilification

* Racial
Racial
violence

* Race war

RACISM BY REGION

* Africa * Arab world * Asia * Australia * Europe * Middle East * North America * South America

RELATED TOPICS

* Anti-racism

* Psychological impact

* Psychoanalysis

* Racial
Racial
transformation * Passing * Racial
Racial
democracy * Racial
Racial
fetishism * Race traitor * List of racism-related articles * List of anti-ethnic terms

Category
Category

* v * t * e

Genocide
Genocide
topics

GENOCIDES

* List by death toll * Dzungar Mongols (1750s) * Circassian genocide(1860s) * Herero and Namaqua (1904–07) * Greek (1914–23) * Assyrian (1914–25) * Armenian (1915–23) * Libyan Genocide(1923–32) * Holodomor(1932–33) * The Holocaust
The Holocaust
(1941–44) * Porajmos
Porajmos
(1941-1944) * Serbian (1941–45) * Aardakh
Aardakh
(1944-48) * Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(1971) * East Timor (1974-99) * Cambodian (1975–79) * Guatemalan Maya (1981–83) * Kurds in Iraq (1986–89) * Partition of India
India
(1947)

* Polish genocide(s) in the USSR

* Great Purge
Purge
Era (1937-38

* Occupation of Poland (1939-45)

*

* Katyn massacre
Katyn massacre
(1940)

* Massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia(1943-1944) * Burundian genocides(1972 border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Democide

* Autogenocide

* Politicide

* Classicide * Eliticide

* Policide

* Ethnocide

* Cultural genocide

* Gendercide * Genocidal massacre * Utilitarian genocide * Genocide of indigenous peoples

METHODS

* Genocidal rape * Extermination camp
Extermination camp
* Killing Fields
Killing Fields
* Cultural genocide

GENOCIDE DENIAL

* The Holocaust
The Holocaust

* trivialization

* Armenian * Bosnian * Rwandan * Holodomor * Cambodian

ISSUES

* Definitions * Genocide
Genocide
law * Prevention

NOTABLE FIGURES

* Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
* Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann
* Ante Pavelić * Benito Mussolini
Benito Mussolini
* Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
* Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
* Talaat Pasha * Enver Pasha * Djemal Pasha * Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
* Pol Pot
Pol Pot
* Hirohito
Hirohito
* Omar al-Bashir * Augustin Bizimungu * Radovan Karadžić * Lothar von Trotha
Lothar von Trotha
* Efraín Ríos Montt * Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
* Nikolai Yezhov
Nikolai Yezhov

* v * t * e

Ethnicity

Related concepts

* Clan
Clan

* Ethnic group
Ethnic group

* Ethnolinguistic group
Ethnolinguistic group
* Ethnoreligious group

* Indigenous peoples
Indigenous peoples
* Ingroups and outgroups * Meta-ethnicity * Metroethnicity * Minority group * Monoethnicity * Nation
Nation
* Nationality
Nationality
* Panethnicity * Polyethnicity * Population
Population
* Race * Symbolic ethnicity * Tribe
Tribe

ETHNOLOGY

* Anthropology
Anthropology
* Ethnic
Ethnic
studies * Ethnoarchaeology

* Ethnobiology

* Ethnobotany
Ethnobotany
* Ethnozoology * Ethnoecology

* Ethnocinema * Ethnogeology

* Ethnography
Ethnography

* Autoethnography * Clinical * Critical * Cyber- * Netnography * Online * Person-centered * Salvage * Transidioethnography * Video

* Ethnohistory * Ethnolinguistics * Ethnology
Ethnology
* Ethnomathematics * Ethnomethodology
Ethnomethodology
* Ethnomuseology * Ethnomusicology
Ethnomusicology
* Ethnophilosophy * Ethnopoetics * Ethnoscience * Ethnosemiotics * Ethnotaxonomy

Groups by region

* Africa * Europe * Oceania

* Arab League * Europe

* Australian

* indigenous

* Indigenous Oceanian * Europeans in Oceania

AMERICAS

* Indigenous * Canada * Mexico * United States
United States
* Central America * South America

ASIA

* Central * East * Northern * South * Southeast * West

Identity and ethnogenesis

* Cross-race effect * Cultural assimilation * Cultural identity
Cultural identity
* Demonym * Development * Endonym * Ethnic
Ethnic
flag * Ethnic
Ethnic
option * Ethnic
Ethnic
origin * Ethnic
Ethnic
religion * Ethnicity in census * Ethnofiction * Ethnonym * Folk religion
Folk religion
* Historical * Imagined community * Kinship
Kinship
* Legendary progenitor * Lineage-bonded society * Mores
Mores
* Nation-building * Nation
Nation
state * National language
National language
* National myth * Origin myth * Pantribal sodality * Tribal name * Tribalism * Urheimat
Urheimat

Multiethnic society

* Consociationalism * Diaspora politics * Dominant minority * Ethnic
Ethnic
democracy * Ethnic
Ethnic
enclave * Ethnic
Ethnic
interest group * Ethnic
Ethnic
majority * Ethnic
Ethnic
media * Ethnic
Ethnic
pornography * Ethnic
Ethnic
theme park * Ethnoburb
Ethnoburb
* Ethnocracy * Ethnopluralism * Indigenous rights
Indigenous rights
* Middleman minority * Minority rights * Model minority * Multinational state
Multinational state

Ideology and ethnic conflict

* Ethnic
Ethnic
bioweapon * Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
* Ethnic hatred * Ethnic joke * Ethnic
Ethnic
nationalism * Ethnic
Ethnic
nepotism * Ethnic penalty * Ethnic
Ethnic
slur * Ethnic
Ethnic
stereotype * Ethnic
Ethnic
violence * Ethnocentrism * Ethnocide * Ethnosymbolism * Indigenism * Separatist movements * Xenophobia

* v * t * e

Extinction
Extinction

PHENOMENA

* Background extinction rate * Coextinction * De-extinction * Ecological extinction * Extinct in the wild
Extinct in the wild
* Functional extinction * Genetic pollution * Lazarus taxon * Local extinction * Pseudoextinction

MODELS

* Extinction
Extinction
vortex

CAUSES

* Genetic erosion
Genetic erosion
* Habitat destruction
Habitat destruction
* Human overpopulation * Muller\'s ratchet * Mutational meltdown * Overexploitation

THEORIES border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* Extinction
Extinction
debt * Extinction
Extinction
risk from global warming * Extinction
Extinction
threshold * Field of Bullets
Field of Bullets
* Hypothetical species
Hypothetical species
* Latent extinction risk

MAJOR EXTINCTION EVENTS

* Ordovician–Silurian * Late Devonian * Permian–Triassic * Triassic– Jurassic
Jurassic
* Cretaceous–Paleogene

* Holocene

* Timeline

OTHER EXTINCTION EVENTS

* Great Oxygenation * End-Ediacaran * End-Botomian * Dresbachian
Dresbachian
* Cambrian–Ordovician * Ireviken * Mulde * Lau * Carboniferous * Olson\'s * End-Capitanian * Carnian Pluvial * Toarcian * End- Jurassic
Jurassic
or Tithonian * Aptian * Cenomanian-Turonian * Eocene–Oligocene * Middle Miocene * Pliocene–Pleistocene * Quaternary

EXTINCT SPECIES

* Lists of extinct species

* Lists of extinct animals * List of extinct plants
List of extinct plants

* IUCN Red List extinct species

ORGANIZATIONS

* International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
* IUCN Species Survival Commission * Voluntary Human Extinction
Extinction
Movement

SEE ALSO

* Decline in amphibian populations * Human extinction

Category
Category
Portal
Portal
WikiProject Commons

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND : 4063690-2 * BNF : cb11967012s (data) * NDL : 00576271

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Genocide
Genocide
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.

* Privacy policy * About Wikipedia
Wikipedia
* Disclaimers * Contact Wikipedia
Wikipedia
* Developers * Cookie statement * Mobile view

* *

Links: ------ /wiki/Ethnic_group /wiki/Nationality /wiki/Race_(classification_of_humans) /wiki/Religion /wiki/Hybrid_word /wiki/Greek_language /wiki/Latin /wiki/Suffix /#cite_note-1 /wiki/Genocide_Convention /#cite_note-UNLegalDef-2

.