Genoa (/ˈdʒɛnoʊ.ə/ JEN-oh-ə; Italian: Genova
[ˈdʒɛːnova] ( listen), locally [ˈdʒeːnova];
Ligurian: Zêna [ˈzeːna]; English, historically, and Latin: Genua)
is the capital of the Italian region of
Liguria and the sixth-largest
city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's
administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the Province
of Genoa, which in 2015 became the Metropolitan City of Genoa,
counted 855,834 resident persons. Over 1.5 million people live in
the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera.
Located on the Gulf of
Genoa in the Ligurian Sea,
historically been one of the most important ports on the
Mediterranean: it is currently the busiest in
Italy and in the
Mediterranean Sea and twelfth-busiest in the European Union.
Genoa has been nicknamed la Superba ("the proud one") due to its
glorious past and impressive landmarks. Part of the old town of
Genoa was inscribed on the
World Heritage List
World Heritage List (UNESCO) in 2006 as
Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli. The
city's rich cultural history in art, music and cuisine allowed it to
become the 2004 European Capital of Culture. It is the birthplace of
Christopher Columbus, Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Mazzini, Renzo Piano
and Grimaldo Canella, founder of the House of Grimaldi, among others.
Genoa, which forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa
industrial triangle of Northwest Italy, is one of the country's major
economic centers. The city has hosted massive shipyards and
steelworks since the 19th century, and its solid financial sector
dates back to the Middle Ages. The Bank of Saint George, founded in
1407, is among the oldest in the world and has played an important
role in the city's prosperity since the middle of the 15th
century. Today a number of leading Italian companies are based
in the city, including Fincantieri, Selex ES, Ansaldo Energia,
Ansaldo STS, Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone,
Piaggio Aerospace and Costa
4.1 Municipal government
4.1.1 Administrative subdivision
5.1 Main sights
5.3 Buildings and palaces
5.4 Old harbour
Aquarium of Genoa
5.6 Walls and fortresses
Erzelli science technology park
8.1 Visual art
8.10 Education and research
9.2 Air transport
9.3 Public transport
10 International relations
11 Notable people
12 See also
15 External links
Main articles: History of
Genoa and Timeline of Genoa
St. George's flag flying on the Doge's Palace in Genoa
The flag of
Genoa is a St. George's Cross, a red cross on a white
field; thus, it is identical to the flag of England. The patron saint
Genoa was Saint Lawrence until at least 958, but the Genoese
transferred their allegiance to
Saint George at some point during the
11th or 12th century, most likely with the rising popularity of the
"warrior saint" during the Crusades.
Genoa also had a banner
displaying a cross since at least 1218, possibly as early as 1113.
But the cross banner was not associated with the saint; indeed, the
saint had his own flag, the vexillum beati Georgii (first mentioned
1198), a red flag showing George and the dragon. A depiction of this
flag is shown in the Genoese annals under the year 1227. The Genoese
flag with the red cross was used alongside this "Saint George's flag",
from at least 1218, known as the insignia cruxata comunis Janue
("cross ensign of the commune of Genoa"). The saint's flag was the
city's main war flag, but the cross flag was used alongside it in the
1240s. The Saint George's flag (i.e. the flag depicting the saint)
remained the main flag of
Genoa at least until the 1280s. The flag now
known as the "St. George's Cross" seems to have replaced it as Genoa's
main flag at some point during the 14th century. The Book of Knowledge
of All Kingdoms (c. 1385) shows it, inscribed with the word iustiçia,
and described as:
And the lord of this place has as his ensign a white pennant with a
red cross. At the top it is inscribed with 'justice', in this
A panoramic view of
Genoa (click to enlarge)
The city of
Genoa covers an area of 243 square kilometres
(94 sq mi) between the
Ligurian Sea and the Apennine
Mountains. The city stretches along the coast for about 30 kilometres
(19 mi) from the neighbourhood of
Voltri to Nervi, and for 10
kilometres (6.2 mi) from the coast to the north along the valleys
Polcevera and Bisagno. The territory of
Genoa is popularly divided
into 5 main zones: the centre, the west, the east, the
the Bisagno Valley.
Genoa is adjacent to two popular Ligurian vacation spots:
Portofino. In the metropolitan area of
Genoa lies Aveto Natural
Genoa has a borderline oceanic (Cfb) and Mediterranean climate (Csa)
in the Köppen climate classification, since only one summer month has
less than 40 millimetres (1.57 in) of rainfall, preventing it
from being classified as solely oceanic or Mediterranean; with a
special note for the
The average yearly temperature is around 19 °C (66 °F)
during the day and 13 °C (55 °F) at night. In the coldest
months: December, January and February, the average temperature is
12 °C (54 °F) during the day and 6 °C (43 °F)
at night. In the warmest months – July and August – the average
temperature is 27.5 °C (82 °F) during the day and
21 °C (70 °F) at night. The daily temperature range is
limited, with an average range of about 6 °C (11 °F)
between high and low temperatures.
Genoa also sees significant
moderation from the sea, in stark contrast to areas behind the
Ligurian mountains such as Parma, where summers are hotter and winters
are quite cold.
Annually, the average 2.9 of nights recorded temperatures of
≤0 °C (32 °F) (mainly in January). The coldest
temperature ever recorded was −8 °C (18 °F) on the night
of February 2012; the highest temperature ever recorded during the day
is 38.5 °C (101 °F) on the August 2015. Average annual
number of days with temperatures of ≥30 °C (86 °F) is
about 8, average four days in July and August.
Average annual temperature of the sea is 17.5 °C (64 °F),
from 13 °C (55 °F) in the period January–March to
25 °C (77 °F) in August. In the period from June to
October, the average sea temperature exceeds 19 °C
Genoa is also a windy city, especially during winter when northern
winds often bring cool air from the
Po Valley (usually accompanied by
lower temperatures, high pressure and clear skies). Another typical
wind blows from southeast, mostly as a consequence of atlantic
disturbances and storms, bringing humid and warmer air from the sea.
Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almost every year, albeit big
amounts in the city centre are rare.
Annual average relative humidity is 68%, ranging from 63% in February
to 73% in May.
Sunshine hours total above 2,200 per year, from an average 4 hours of
sunshine duration per day in winter to average 9 hours in summer. This
value is an average between the northern half of
Europe and North
Climate data for
Genoa (1971–2000 normals)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Average snowy days
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico, data of sunshine hours
Source #2: Rivista Ligure "La neve sulle coste del
The Municipal Council of
Genoa is currently led by a right-wing
majority, elected in June 2017. The mayor is Marco Bucci, expression
of a right-wing alliance composed by Forza Italia, Lega Nord, Fratelli
d'Italia and other minor lists.
The 9 districts of Genoa
The city of
Genoa is subdivided into nine municipi (administrative
districts), as approved by the Municipal Council in 2007.
Population (% of total)
Prè, Molo, Maddalena, Oregina (it), Lagaccio (it), San
Nicola, Castelletto, Manin, San Vincenzo (it),
Sampierdarena, Belvedere, Campasso, San Bartolomeo, San
Teodoro (it), Angeli
Bassa Val Bisagno
San Fruttuoso (it), Sant’Agata, Marassi (it),
Quezzi (it), Fereggiano, Forte Quezzi
Media Val Bisagno
Staglieno (it) (Parenzo, San Pantaleo), Molassana (it),
Sant'Eusebio, Montesignano, Struppa (it) (Doria, Prato)
Rivarolo, Borzoli (it) Est, Certosa, Teglia, Begato, Bolzaneto,
Morego, San Quirico (it), Pontedecimo
Sestri, Borzoli (it) Ovest, San Giovanni Battista, Cornigliano,
Voltri, Crevari, Pra' (it), Palmaro, Ca’ Nuova, Pegli,
Multedo (it), Castelluccio
Foce (it), Brignole, San Martino (it), Chiappeto, Albaro,
San Giuliano, Lido, Puggia
Sturla, Quarto, Quartara, Castagna, Quinto al Mare (it), Nervi,
Apparizione (it), Borgoratti, San Desiderio (it),
A view of Piazza de Ferrari
Nighttime view of the port of Genoa, which has brought trade, commerce
and wealth to the city for centuries, greatly contributing to its
cultural and historical heritage.
Doge's Palace, ancient seat of the government of the oligarchic
Palace of Saint George, built in 1260
Notable to the city are the Palazzi dei Rolli, included in UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the
Palazzi dei Rolli. The world-famous Strade Nuove are via Garibaldi
(Strada Nuova), via Cairoli (Strada Nuovissima) and via Balbi (Strada
Balbi). Among the most important palaces are the Palazzo Rosso,
Palazzo Bianco, Palazzo Podestà o di Nicolosio Lomellino, Palazzo
Reale, Palazzo Angelo Giovanni Spinola, Palazzo Pietro Spinola di San
Luca and Palazzo Spinola di Pellicceria.
Genoa's historic centre is articulated in a maze of squares and narrow
caruggi (typical Genoese alleys). It joins a medieval dimension with
following 16th century and Baroque interventions (the ancient Via
Aurea, now Via Garibaldi).
Near Via Garibaldi, through the public elevator Castelletto Levante,
one can reach one of the most scenic places in the city, Belvedere
Castelletto. The centre of
Genoa is connected to its upper part by
ancient paths caught between tall palaces, called creuze. Walking
along these small paths one can reach magnificent places like the
Santuario di Nostra Signora di Loreto. Very beautiful is the upper
ring road so-called Circonvallazione a Monte that includes Corso
Firenze, Corso Paganini, Corso Magenta, Via Solferino, and Corso
San Lorenzo cathedral has a splendid portal and the dome designed by
Galeazzo Alessi. Inside is found the treasure of the Cathedral where
among other objects there is also what is said to be the Holy Chalice.
The symbols of the city are the Lanterna (the lighthouse) (117 metres
(384 feet) high), old and standing lighthouse visible in the distance
from the sea (beyond 30 kilometres (19 miles)), and the monumental
fountain of Piazza De Ferrari, recently restored, out-and-out core of
the city's life. Near
Piazza De Ferrari
Piazza De Ferrari and
Teatro Carlo Felice
Teatro Carlo Felice is the
Mazzini Gallery, a typical nineteenth-century structure with many
elegant shops and coffee bars.
Another tourist destination is the ancient seaside district of
Boccadasse (which means "the mouth of the donkey"), with its
multicolour boats, set as a seal to Corso Italia, the promenade which
runs along the Lido d'Albaro, and known for its ice-creams. After
Boccadasse you can continue along the sea up to Sturla.
Medieval gates of
Genoa are a rare survivor of the city's oldest
Royal Palace of Genoa, 16th century
Just out of the city centre, but still part of the 33 km
(21 mi) of coast included in the municipality's territory, are
Nervi, natural doorway to the Ligurian East Riviera, and Pegli, the
point of access to the West Riviera.
Nervi offers many attractions:
the promenade overlooking the sea called Passeggiata Anita Garibaldi;
parks covered with lush tropical vegetation; numerous villas and
palaces open to the public that now house museums (like GAM-Galleria
d'Arte Moderna, Raccolte Frugone Museum, Museo Giannettino Luxoro and
Wolfsoniana). (see also Parchi di Nervi) The East Riviera of Genoa
called Riviera di Levante is part of the Italian Riviera. East Riviera
is full of interesting towns to visit, and then from
Genoa to east
are: Bogliasco, Pieve Ligure, Sori, Recco, Camogli, Portofino, Santa
Margherita Ligure, Rapallo, Zoagli, Chiavari,
Lavagna and Sestri
Levante. In the west,
Pegli is the site of the famous Villa
Arenzano is a seaside town at the foot of the
Parco naturale regionale del Beigua.
Genoa based its rebirth upon the restoration of the green
areas of the immediate inland parts, among them the Parco naturale
regionale del Beigua, and upon the construction of facilities such as
Genoa in the Old Harbour - the biggest in
one of the major in
Europe - and its
Marina (the tourist small port
which holds hundreds of pleasure boats). All of these are inside the
restored Expo Area, arranged in occasion of the Columbian Celebrations
Near the city are
San Fruttuoso abbey
San Fruttuoso abbey accessible by a
daily ferry from the Old Harbour (
Porto Antico) of Genoa. In the
seabed in front of the
San Fruttuoso abbey
San Fruttuoso abbey there is the Christ of the
Abyss. From the Old Harbour one can reach by boat other famous seaside
Genoa such as
Portofino or a little more distant, Lerici
and the Cinque Terre.
The regained pride gave back to the city the consciousness of being
capable of looking to the future without forgetting its past. The
resumption of several flourishing hand-crafting activities, far-back
absent from the caruggi of the old town, is a direct evidence of it.
The restoration of many of Genoa's churches and palaces in the 1980s
and the 1990s contributed to the city's rebirth. A notable example the
Renaissance, Basilica of Santa Maria Assunta, sitting on the top of
the hill of Carignano and visible from almost every part of the city.
The total restoration of Doge's Palace - once venue of dogi and
senators and nowadays location of cultural events - and of the Old
Harbour and the rebuilding of Teatro Carlo Felice, destroyed by the
Second World War
Second World War bombings that only spared the neoclassic pronao of
the architect Carlo Barabino, were two more points of strength for the
realisation of a new Genoa.
Genoa could not renounce, especially as from the 1960s, to a great
renewal, which as happened in several other metropolis, should
necessarily get through the realisation of big council houses'
complexes, whose quality, utility and functionality has been and still
is controversial for those residents living there. Concerning this,
the most known cases are those of the so-called "Biscione", a
development in the shape of a long snake, situated on the hills of the
populous district of Marassi, and the one of the group of houses known
as "Le Lavatrici" (the washing machines), in the district of Prà.
Beyond a complete restyling of the area, the ancient port zone nearby
the Mandraccio opening, in Porta Siberia, was enriched by Genoese
Renzo Piano with a large sphere made of metal and glass,
installed in the port's waters, not far from the
Aquarium of Genoa,
and unveiled in 2001 in occasion of the
G8 Summit held in Genoa. The
sphere (called by the citizens "Piano's bubble" or "The Ball"), after
hosting an exposition of fens from Genoa's Botanical Gardens,
currently houses the reconstruction of a tropical environment, with
several plants, little animals and butterflies. Piano also designed
the subway stations and, in the hills area, the construction - in
UNESCO - of Punta Nave, base of the Renzo Piano
Nearby the Old Harbour is the so-called "Matitone", a skyscraper in
shape of a pencil, that lays side by side with the group of the WTC
towers, core of the San Benigno development, today base of part of the
Municipality's administration and of several companies.
St. Lawrence Cathedral
St. Lawrence Cathedral (Cattedrale di San Lorenzo) is the city's
cathedral, built in a Gothic-Romanesque style. Other notable
historical churches are the Commandery of the Saint John's Order
called Commenda di San Giovanni di Prè, San Matteo, San Donato, Santa
Maria di Castello, Sant'Agostino (deconsecrated since the 19th
century, sometimes is used for theatrical representations), Santo
Stefano, Santi Vittore e Carlo, Basilica della Santissima Annunziata
del Vastato, San Pietro in Banchi, Santa Maria delle Vigne, Nostra
Signora della Consolazione, San Siro, Santa Maria Maddalena, Santa
Maria Assunta di Carignano and Chiesa del Gesù. San Bartolomeo degli
Armeni houses the
Image of Edessa
Image of Edessa and San Pancrazio after the World
War II was entrusted to the ligurian delegation of the Sovereign
Military Order of Malta. These churches and basilicas are built in
Romanesque (San Donato, Santa Maria di Castello, Commenda di San
Giovanni di Pré), Gothic (San Matteo, Santo Stefano, Sant'Agostino),
Baroque (San Siro) or
Renaissance (Santa Maria Assunta di Carignano,
San Pietro in Banchi) appearance, or a mix of different styles (Nostra
Signora della Consolazione, Santissima Annunziata del Vastato; this
last has a Baroque interior and a Neoclassicist façade).
Santa Maria Assunta di Carignano
Another well known Genoese church is the shrine of Saint Francis of
Paola, notable for the outer courtyard overlooking the port and the
memorial to all those who died at sea. This church is of artistic
mention in that the tile depictions of the Via Crucis Stations along
the brick path to the church.
Genoa is found the Shrine of Nostra Signora della Guardia, (the
sanctuary is said to have inspired the writer
Umberto Eco in making
his novel The Name of the Rose). Another interesting church in the
Genoa is San Siro di Struppa.
The city was the birthplace of several popes (Innocent IV, Adrian V,
Innocent VIII, and Benedict XV) and various saints (Syrus of Genoa,
Romulus of Genoa, Catherine of Genoa, and Virginia Centurione
Bracelli). The Archbishop of
Genoa Jacobus de Voragine, wrote the
Golden Legend. Also from
Genoa were: Giovanni Paolo Oliva, the
Superior General of the Society of Jesus; Girolamo
Grimaldi-Cavalleroni, the Archbishop of Aix; Ausonio Franchi, priest,
philosopher, and theologian; Cardinal Giuseppe Siri; and the priests
Francesco Repetto, Giuseppe Dossetti, Gianni Baget Bozzo, and Andrea
Gallo. The present archbishop of Genoa, Cardinal Angelo Bagnasco,
comes from a Genoese family but was born in Pontevico, near Brescia
(see also Archdiocese of Genoa).
Buildings and palaces
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli
Metropolitan City of Genoa, Province of Genoa,
44°24′26″N 8°56′02″E / 44.407186°N 8.933983°E /
240.29 km2 (2.5865×109 sq ft)
Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the
Palazzi dei Rolli
Palazzi dei Rolli
Cultural: ii, iv
2006 (30th Session)
Location of Genoa
[edit on Wikidata]
The Mirror Gallery of the Royal Palace
The main features of central
Genoa include Piazza De Ferrari, around
which are sited the Opera and the Palace of the Doges. There is also a
Christopher Columbus is said to have lived as a child,
really an 18th-century reconstruction of the original one, destroyed
by the French naval bombing of 1684.
Palazzo di San Giorgio
Palazzo di San Giorgio was the headquarters of the Bank of Saint
George and here
Marco Polo and
Rustichello da Pisa composed The
Travels of Marco Polo. The port of
Genoa also contains an ancient
lighthouse called "La Lanterna".
Strada Nuova (now Via Garibaldi), in the old city, was inscribed on
World Heritage List
World Heritage List in 2006. This district was designed in the
mid-16th century to accommodate Mannerist palaces of the city's most
eminent families. In
Genoa there are 114 noble palaces (see also Rolli
di Genova among these 42 are inscribed on the World Heritage List.
Palazzi dei Rolli
Palazzi dei Rolli most famous are
Palazzo Rosso (now a
museum), Palazzo Bianco, Palazzo Tursi, Palazzo Gerolamo Grimaldi,
Palazzo Podestà, Palazzo Reale, Palazzo Angelo Giovanni Spinola,
Palazzo Pietro Spinola di San Luca, Palazzo Spinola di Pellicceria,
Palazzo Bianco and
Palazzo Rosso are also known as
Musei di Strada Nuova. The famous art college is also located on this
street. The Genoese artistic renaissance begins with the construction
of Villa del Principe commissioned by Andrea Doria: the architects
Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli
Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli and Giovanni Ponzello, the interior
was painted by
Perino del Vaga
Perino del Vaga and the garden fountain was realised by
Taddeo Carlone. In 1548 Galeazzo Alessi, with the project of Villa
Giustiniani-Cambiaso, designed a new prototype of Genoese palace that
would be an inspiration to other architects working in
Bartolomeo Bianco, Pietro Antonio Corradi, Rocco Lurago, Giovan
Battista Castello, and Bernardino Cantone.
Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens wrote
Palazzi di Genova
Palazzi di Genova in 1622, a book dedicated to the palaces of Genoa.
Scattered on the city there are many villas, built between the
fifteenth and the twentieth centuries, and among the best known are:
Villa Brignole Sale Duchessa di Galliera, Villa Durazzo-Pallavicini,
Villa Doria Centurione, Villa Durazzo Bombrini, Villa Serra, Villa
Giustiniani-Cambiaso, Villa Rossi Martini, Villa Imperiale Scassi,
Villa Grimaldi, Villa Negrone Moro, Villa Rosazza, Villetta Di Negro,
Villa delle Peschiere, Villa Imperiale, Villa Saluzzo Bombrini, and
Villa Grimaldi Fassio.
As it regards the 19th century remember the architects Ignazio
Gardella (senior), and
Carlo Barabino which among other things,
realises together with Giovanni Battista Resasco, the Monumental
Cemetery of Staglieno. The cemetery is renowned for its statues and
sepulchral monuments that preserve the mortal remains of notable
personalities, including Giuseppe Mazzini, Fabrizio De André, and
Constance Lloyd (Oscar Wilde's wife). In the first half of the 19th
century they are completed the Albergo dei Poveri and the Acquedotto
storico. In 1901 Giovanni Antonio Porcheddu realises the Silos
The city is rich in testimony of the
Gothic Revival like Albertis
Castle, Castello Bruzzo, Villa Canali Gaslini and Mackenzie Castle
designed by the architect Gino Coppedè.
Genoa is also rich of Art
Nouveau works, among which: Palazzo della Borsa, Via XX Settembre,
Hotel Bristol Palace, Grand Hotel Miramare and Stazione marittima.
Works of Rationalist architecture of the first half of the 20th
century are Torre Piacentini and Piazza della Vittoria where Arco
della Vittoria, both designed by the architect Marcello Piacentini.
Other architects who have changed the face of
Genoa in the 20th
century are: Ignazio Gardella, Luigi Carlo Daneri who realised the
Piazza Rossetti and the residential complex so-called Il Biscione,
Mario Labò, Aldo Rossi, Ludovico Quaroni,
Franco Albini who designed
the interiors of Palazzo Rosso, and Piero Gambacciani. The Edoardo
Chiossone Museum of Oriental Art, designed by Mario Labò, has one of
the largest collections of Oriental art in Europe.
Other architectural works to remember are: the Ponte Morandi by
Riccardo Morandi, the Old Harbour's new-design with Aquarium, Bigo and
Biosfera by Renzo Piano, the Palasport di Genova, the so-called
Matitone, and the Padiglione B of
Genoa Fair, by Jean Nouvel.
The galleon Neptune in the Old Harbour
The old harbour ("porto antico" in Italian) is the ancient part of the
port of Genoa. The harbour gave access to outside communities creating
a good geographical situation for the city. The city is spread out
geographically along a section of the
Liguria coast, which makes
trading by ship possible. Before the development of car, train, and
airplane travel, the main outside access for the city was the sea, as
the surrounding mountains made trade north by land more difficult than
coastal trade. Trade routes have always connected
Genoa on an
international scale, with increasingly farther reach starting from
trade along Europe's coastline before the medieval period to today's
connection across continents. In its heyday the
Genoese Navy was a
prominent power in the Mediterranean.
Genoa harbour was so important to the merchants for their own
economic success, other nearby harbours and ports were seen as
competition for a landing point for foreign traders. In the 16th
century, the Genovese worked to destroy the local shipping
Savona harbour. Taking matters into their own
Genoa merchants and the politically powerful in Genoa
attacked the harbour of
Savona with stones. This action was taken
to preserve the economic stability and wealth of the city during the
rise in prominence of Savona. The Genovese would go as far as to war
with other coastal, trading cities such as Venice, in order to
protect the trade industry.
Renzo Piano redeveloped the area for public access, restoring the
historical buildings (like the Cotton warehouses) and creating new
landmarks like the Aquarium, the Bigo and recently the "Bolla" (the
Sphere). The main touristic attractions of this area are the famous
Aquarium and the Museum of the Sea (MuMA). In 2007 these attracted
almost 1.7 million visitors.
Aquarium of Genoa
Genoa and biosphere
Genoa (in Italian: Acquario di Genova) is the largest
Italy and among the largest in Europe. Built for Genoa
Expo '92, it is an educational, scientific and cultural centre. Its
mission is to educate and raise public awareness as regards
conservation, management and responsible use of aquatic environments.
It welcomes over 1.2 million visitors a year.
Control of the entire environment, including the temperature,
filtration and lighting of the tanks was provided by local Automation
Supplier Orsi Automazione, acquired in 2001 by Siemens. The Aquarium
Genoa is co-ordinating the AquaRing EU project. It also provides
scientific expertise and a great deal of content for AquaRing,
including documents, images, academic content and interactive online
courses, via its Online Resource Centre.
Walls and fortresses
Main article: Walls of Genoa
The Porta Soprana
The city of
Genoa during its long history at least since the 9th
century had been protected by different line of defensive walls. Large
portions of these walls remain today, and
Genoa has more and longer
walls than any other city in Italy. The main city walls are known as
"Ninth century walls", "Barbarossa Walls" (12th century), "Fourteenth
century walls", "Sixteenth century walls" and "New Walls" ("Mura
Nuove" in Italian). The more imposing walls, built in the first half
of the 17th century on the ridge of hills around the city, have a
length of almost 20 km (12 mi). Some fortresses stand along
the perimeter of the "New Walls" or close them.
Main article: The Parks of Genoa
The gardens of Villa Durazzo-Pallavicini
Genoa has 82,000 square metres (880,000 square feet) of public parks
in the city centre, such as Villetta Di Negro which is right in the
heart of the town, overlooking the historical centre. Many bigger
green spaces are situated outside the centre: in the east are the
Nervi (96,000 square metres or 1,030,000 square feet)
overlooking the sea, in the west the beautiful gardens of Villa
Durazzo Pallavicini and its Giardino botanico Clelia Durazzo Grimaldi.
(265,000 square metres or 2,850,000 square feet). The numerous villas
and palaces of the city also have their own gardens, like Palazzo del
Principe, Villa Doria,
Palazzo Bianco and Palazzo Tursi, Palazzo
Nicolosio Lomellino, Albertis Castle, Villa Rosazza, Villa Croce,
Villa Imperiale Cattaneo, Villa Bombrini, Villa Brignole Sale Duchessa
di Galliera, Villa Serra and many more.
The city is surrounded by natural parks such as Parco naturale
regionale dell'Antola, Parco naturale regionale del Beigua, Aveto
Natural Regional Park and the
Ligurian Sea Cetacean Sanctuary.
Corso Italia runs for 2.5 km (1.6 mi) in the quartiere of
Albaro, linking two neighbourhoods of Foce and Boccadasse. The
promenade, which was built in 1908, overlooks the sea, towards the
promontory of Portofino. The main landmarks are the small lighthouse
of Punta Vagno, the San Giuliano Abbey, and the Lido of Albaro.
Passeggiata Anita Garibaldi, promenade overlooking the sea and 2
kilometres (1.2 miles) long, Nervi.
Promenade of the upper ring road, so-called "Circonvallazione a Monte"
that includes: Corso Firenze, Corso Paganini, Corso Magenta, Via
Solferino, Corso Armellini.
Walks can be made from the centre of
Genoa following one of the many
ancient paths between tall palaces and the "Creuze" to reach the
higher areas of the city where there are magnificent places like
Belvedere Castelletto, the "Righi's district", the "Santuario di
Nostra Signora di Loreto", the "Santuario della Madonnetta", the
"Santuario di San Francesco da Paola".
Monte Fasce gives a complete view of the city.
To reach the hinterland of Province of
Genoa yoneou can use the Genoa
- Casella Old Railway, characteristic 25 kilometres (16 miles) of
railway between the Genoese mountains.
Source: ISTAT 2001
At the beginning of 2011, there were 608,493 people residing in Genoa,
of whom 47% were male and 53% were female. The city is characterised
by rapid aging and a long history of demographic decline, that has
shown a partial slowdown in the last decade.
Genoa has the lowest
birth rate and is the most aged of any large Italian city. Minors
(children ages 18 and younger) totalled only 14.12% of the population
compared to pensioners who number 26.67%. This compares with the
Italian average of 18.06% (minors) and 19.94% (pensioners). The median
age of Genoa's residents is 47, compared to the Italian average of 42.
The current birth rate of the city is only 7.49 births per 1,000
inhabitants, compared to the national average of 9.45. As of
2006[update], 94.23% of the population was Italian. The largest
immigrant group is from the
Americas (mostly Ecuador): 2.76%, other
European nations (mostly Albania, Ukraine, the former
Romania): 1.37%, and North Africa: 0.62%. The city is predominantly
Roman Catholic, with small numbers of
Genoa metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $30.1 billion
in 2011, or $33,003 per capita.
San Benigno business district
Genoa exhibition centre
Ligurian agriculture has increased its specialisation pattern in
high-quality products (flowers, wine, olive oil) and has thus managed
to maintain the gross value-added per worker at a level much higher
than the national average (the difference was about 42% in 1999).
The value of flower production represents over 75% of the agriculture
sector turnover, followed by animal farming (11.2%) and vegetable
Steel, once a major industry during the booming 1950s and 1960s,
phased out after the late 1980s crisis, as
Italy moved away from the
heavy industry to pursue more technologically advanced and less
polluting productions. So the Ligurian industry has turned towards a
widely diversified range of high-quality and high-tech products (food,
Sestri Ponente and in metropolitan area - Sestri
Levante), electrical engineering and electronics, petrochemicals,
aerospace etc.). Nonetheless, the regions still maintains a
flourishing shipbuilding sector (yacht construction and maintenance,
cruise liner building, military shipyards). In the services
sector, the gross value-added per worker in
Liguria is 4% above the
national average. This is due to the increasing diffusion of modern
technologies, particularly in commerce and tourism. A good motorway
network (376 km (234 mi) in 2000) makes communications with
the border regions relatively easy. The main motorway is located along
the coastline, connecting the main ports of
Nice (in France), Savona,
Genoa and La Spezia. The number of passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants
(524 in 2001) is below the national average (584). On average, about
17 million tonnes of cargo are shipped from the main ports of the
region and about 57 million tonnes enter the region. The Port
of Genoa, with a trade volume of 58.6 million tonnes ranks
first in Italy, second in terms of twenty-foot equivalent units
after the transshipment port of Gioia Tauro, with a trade volume of
over 2 million TEUs. The main destinations for the cargo-passenger
traffic are Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Barcelona, and the Canary
Some companies based in
Genoa include Ansaldo STS, Ansaldo Energia,
Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone, Registro Italiano Navale, Banca Carige,
SLAM, and Costa Cruises.
Erzelli science technology park
Skyscrapers in the
Erzelli GREAT campus in October 2013
The western area of
Genoa hosts the
Erzelli GREAT Campus, an under
construction science technology park which houses the high-tech
corporations Siemens, Ericsson, Esaote, and robotics laboratories of
Italian Institute of Technology
Italian Institute of Technology (IIT). The
Campus science park is ongoing a process of enlargement, and in the
future will host the new Faculty of
Engineering of University of
Genoese School and Genoese Baroque and Rococo artists
Genoese painters active in the 14th century include Barnaba da Modena
and his local followers Nicolò da
Voltri and at the same time, the
Giovanni Pisano reached
Genoa to make the monument for
Margaret of Brabant, whose remains are today housed in the Museum of
In the 16th century along with the flourishing trade between the
Genoa and Flanders also grew the cultural exchanges. The
painters Lucas and
Cornelis de Wael
Cornelis de Wael lived in
Genoa for a long time,
where they played the role of a magnet for many Flemish painters like
Jaan Roos, Giacomo Legi, Jan Matsys,
Andries van Eertvelt
Andries van Eertvelt and Vincent
This creative environment also attracted the two most important
Rubens and Van Dyck, who along with Bernardo
Strozzi. gave life to the Genoese Painting School of the 17th
Portrait of a Young Man, by Albrecht Dürer. Gallery of Palazzo Rosso.
Much of the city's art is found in its churches and palaces, where
there are numerous Renaissance, Baroque and Rococo frescos. They are
rich in works of art the Cathedral, the Chiesa del Gesù where The
Circumcision and the "Miracles of St. Ignatius" by Rubens, the
Assunzione della Vergine by Guido Reni. The Church of San Donato
contains works of Barnaba da Modena, Nicolò da
Voltri and Joos van
Cleve, the Church of Santo Stefano The Stoning of St. Stephen by
Giulio Romano and the Church of Santa Maria Assunta the sculptures by
Filippo Parodi and Pierre Puget, very interesting is the Santa Maria
di Castello. But most of the works are kept in the Palaces like
Palazzo Bianco where "Ecce Homo" by Caravaggio, "Susannah and the
Elders" by Veronese, the "Garden Party in Albaro" by Magnasco. Palazzo
Rosso where Portrait of Anton Giulio Brignole-Sale by van Dyck,
Cleopatra morente by
Guercino and works of Dürer, Bernardo Strozzi,
Mattia Preti, Veronese.
Palazzo Spinola di Pellicceria
Palazzo Spinola di Pellicceria where the
"Portrait of Giovanni Carlo Doria on Horseback" by
Rubens and "Ecce
Homo" by Antonello da Messina, (see also the series of Ecce Homo by
Antonello da Messina). Palazzo
Tursi where the Penitent Magdalene by
Palazzo Reale which contains works of Strozzi, Gaulli,
Tintoretto, van Dyck, Simon Vouet, Guercino.
The most important Genoese painters are: "Luca Cambiaso", "Bernardo"
and "Valerio Castello", "Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione", "Domenico"
and "Paolo Gerolamo Piola", "Gregorio De Ferrari", "Bernardo Strozzi",
"Giovanni Battista Gaulli" and "Alessandro Magnasco". Sculptors
include Filippo Parodi, the wood sculptor Anton Maria Maragliano,
Francesco Maria Schiaffino
Francesco Maria Schiaffino and
Agostino Carlini who was member of the
Sculpture in the Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno.
Genoa on February 14, 1404, the famous humanist author, architect,
poet and philosopher
Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti was born. From
Simonetta Vespucci considered the most beautiful woman of her
time, we find portrayed in
The Birth of Venus
The Birth of Venus and Allegory of
Sandro Botticelli and in Portrait of Simonetta Vespucci
by Piero di Cosimo.
Genoa is also famous for its numerous tapestries, which decorated the
city's many salons. Whilst the patrician palaces and villas in the
city were and still are austere and majestic, the interiors tended to
be luxurious and elaborate, often full of tapestries, many of which
were Flemish. Famous is the
Genoese lace called with its name of
Turkish origin "Macramè". Very used in
Genoa is the Cobblestone
called "Risseu" and a kind of
Azulejo called "Laggioni".
Genoa has been likened by many to a Mediterranean New York, perhaps
for its high houses that in the Middle Ages were the equivalent of
today's skyscrapers, perhaps for the sea route Genoa-New York which in
past centuries has been travelled by millions of emigrants. The
Renzo Picasso in his visionary designs reinforces this
strange affinity between the two cities.
In the Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno, you can admire some
magnificent sculpture of the 19th century and early 20th century like
Monteverde Angel by Giulio Monteverde, or works by artists such as
"Augusto Rivalta", "Leonardo Bistolfi", "Edoardo Alfieri", "Santo
Among the Genoese painters of the 19th century and of the first half
of the 20th century remember: "Tammar Luxoro", "Ernesto Rayper",
"Rubaldo Merello" and "Antonio Giuseppe Santagata", in
grows up the sculptor Francesco Messina.
In 1967 the Genoese historian, critic and curator Germano Celant
coined the term Arte Povera. "Enrico Accatino" was another important
art theorist and
Emanuele Luzzati was the production designer and
Lorenzo Mongiardino also him a production designer
and architect. Two other important artists are
Emilio Scanavino and
In 1972 was founded in
Genoa the annual art exhibition
International Cartoonists Exhibition. About this, we have to remember
the illustrator and comics artist, Giovan Battista Carpi.
Golden Legend, 1290
"Anonymous of Genoa" was one of the first authors in
Liguria and Italy
who wrote verses in the Vernacular. It explained that in
Polo and Rustichello da Pisa, in the prisons of Palazzo San Giorgio,
wrote The Travels of Marco Polo. The
Golden Legend is a collection of
hagiographies written by the Archbishop of
Genoa Jacobus de Voragine.
To animate the Genoese literary environment of the 16th century were
Gabriello Chiabrera and "Ansaldo Cebà", the latter best known for his
correspondence with Sara Copia Sullam. The city has been the
birthplace of the historian Caffaro di Rustico da Caschifellone, of
the poet "Martin Piaggio", of the famous historian, philosopher and
journalist Giuseppe Mazzini, of the writer Piero Jahier, of the poet
Nobel Prize Eugenio Montale. The writer and translator Fernanda
Pivano, the journalist "Vito Elio Petrucci" and the poet Edoardo
Sanguineti, the literary critic
Carlo Bo instead was born in Sestri
Levante near Genoa. We have also remember the dialet poet Edoardo
Firpo and the symbolist Ceccardo Roccatagliata Ceccardi. The city of
Genoa has been an inspiration to many writers and poets among which:
Dino Campana, Camillo Sbarbaro, Gaspare Invrea who wrote "The mouth of
the wolf" and Giorgio Caproni. Between the alleys of the historical
centre there is the Old Libreria Bozzi. The "Berio Civic Library"
houses the precious manuscript entitled "The Durazzo Book of Hours".
In the first half of the 20th century, the Mazzini Gallery's was a
meeting place of many artists, writers and intellectuals among which
Guido Gozzano, Salvatore Quasimodo, Camillo Sbarbaro, Francesco
Messina, Pierangelo Baratono, Eugenio Montale. In the thirties of the
20th century was active in
Circoli magazine and after the
World War II the "Il Gallo" magazine. Coveted and known from the 1960s
to the 1980s was the Genoese literary lounge animated by the writer
Since 1995, all the months of June take place in
Genoa the Genoa's
International Poetry Festival, conceived by Claudio Pozzani with the
help of Massimo Bacigalupo.
Main article: Music of Genoa
The neoclassical Teatro Carlo Felice
Genoa was a centre of
Occitanie culture in
Italy and for this reason
it developed an important school of troubadours: Lanfranc Cigala,
Jacme Grils, Bonifaci Calvo, Luchetto Gattilusio, Guillelma de Rosers,
Genoa is the birthplace of the composer Simone Molinaro, violinist and
composer Niccolò Paganini, violinist
Camillo Sivori and composer
Cesare Pugni. In addition, the famous violin maker Paolo de Barbieri.
Paganini's violin, Il Cannone Guarnerius, is kept in Palazzo Tursi.
The city is the site of the
Niccolò Paganini Music Conservatory.
Alessandro Stradella, a composer of the middle baroque, lived in Genoa
and was assassinated in 1682.
Felice Romani was a poet who wrote many librettos for the opera
Gaetano Donizetti and Vincenzo Bellini. Giovanni
Ruffini was another poet known for writing the libretto of the opera
Don Pasquale for its composer.
Goffredo Mameli and
Michele Novaro composed "Il Canto degli
In 1857, debuted the work of
Giuseppe Verdi entitled Simon Boccanegra
inspired by the first Doge of Genoa, Simone Boccanegra.
Genoa is also the birthplace of the condcuctor
Fabio Luisi and of many
opera singers like Giuseppe Taddei, Margherita Carosio, Luciana Serra,
and Daniela Dessì.
Teatro Carlo Felice
Teatro Carlo Felice was built in 1828 in the city in the Piazza De
Ferrari, and named for the monarch of the then Kingdom of Sardinia
(which included the present regions of Sardinia,
Liguria). The theatre was the centre of music and social life in the
19th century. On various occasions in the history of the theatre,
presentations have been conducted by Mascagni, Richard Strauss,
Hindemith and Stravinsky. Other Genoese theaters are the Politeama
Genovese, Teatro Stabile di Genova, Teatro della Tosse and Teatro
On the occasion of the
Christopher Columbus celebration in 1992, new
musical life was given to the area around the old port, including the
restoration of the house of Paganini and presentations of the
trallalero, the traditional singing of Genoese dock workers.
The trallalero, traditional music in the Genoese dialect, is a
polyphonic vocal music, performed by five men and several songs. The
trallalero are ancient songs that have their roots in the
Mediterranean tradition. Another aspect of the traditional Genoese
music is the "Nostalgic Song". The principal authors and singers of
the Nostalgic Song in
Genoese dialect are Mario Cappello who wrote the
piece "Ma se ghe penso" (English: "But if I think about it"), a memory
Genoa by an emigrant to Argentina, Giuseppe Marzari, Agostino
Dodero up to I Trilli, Piero Parodi, "Buby Senarega", Franca Lai. The
traditional Nostalgic Song will have a great influence on the
so-called Scuola Genovese of singer-songwriters that in some cases
will mix the nostalgic feeling with pop and jazz atmospheres.
Natalino Otto started the swing genre in
Italy and his
friend and colleague
Pippo Barzizza was a composer, arranger,
conductor and music director. Other musicians, composers and arrangers
are Angelo Francesco Lavagnino, Gian Piero Reverberi, Gian Franco
Reverberi, Oscar Prudente, Pivio and Aldo De Scalzi.
Genoa in the second half of the 20th century was famous for an
important school of Italian singer-songwriters, so-called Scuola
Genovese, that includes Umberto Bindi, Luigi Tenco", "Gino Paoli",
"Bruno Lauzi", "Fabrizio de André, Ivano Fossati, Angelo Branduardi"
and Francesco Baccini.
Nino Ferrer was also born in Genoa. In the 70s
there were formed in
Genoa numerous bands of Italian progressive rock
like New Trolls, Picchio dal Pozzo, Latte e Miele, and Delirium. Today
we point the band
Buio Pesto and The Banshee band.
Some songs about the city of
Genoa are part of Italian popular
culture, like "Via del Campo" and "La Città Vecchia" by Fabrizio de
André, "Genova per noi" by Paolo Conte, "La Casa in Via del Campo"
the song also sung by
Amalia Rodrigues and "Piazza Alimonda" the song
about the facts of
Genoa 2001 by Francesco Guccini.
Fabrizio de André
Fabrizio de André in 1984 released the album Crêuza de mä, totally
written in Genoese dialect.
I Madrigalisti di Genova is a vocal and instrumental group formed in
1958 which specialised in medieval and
The city has numerous music festivals, among which are Concerts at San
Fruttuoso abbey, Premio Paganini, I Concerti di San Torpete,
International Music Festival Genova, We Love Jazz, Gezmatz Festival
& Workshop, and Goa-Boa Festival. In the town of Santa Margherita
Ligure the ancient abbey of Cervara is often the site of chamber
Giovine Orchestra Genovese, one of the oldest concert societies in
Italy, was founded in
Genoa in 1912.
Genoa has been the set for many films and especially for the genre
called Polizieschi. Notable directors born in
Genoa include Pietro
Germi and Giuliano Montaldo, the actors: Gilberto Govi, Vittorio
Gassman, Paolo Villaggio, Alberto Lupo, the actresses: Lina Volonghi,
Delia Boccardo, Rosanna Schiaffino, Eleonora Rossi Drago, Marcella
Michelangeli and the pornographic actress Moana Pozzi. Before actor
Bartolomeo Pagano's cinema career, he was a camallo, which means
stevedore, at the port of Genoa. His cinema career began with the film
Cabiria, one of the first and most famous kolossal. In 1985 were
Genoa some scenes of Pirates by Roman Polanski, finished
shooting they left in the Old Harbour the galleon Neptune.
Some films set in Genoa:
Agata and the Storm
Amore che vieni, amore che vai, from the novel Un destino ridicolo
Behind Closed Shutters
The Blue-Eyed Bandit
Carlo Giuliani, Boy
The Case of the Bloody Iris
The Conspiracy in Genoa
Days and Clouds
Di che segno sei?
Diaz - Don't Clean Up This Blood
Father and Son
General Della Rovere
In the Beginning There Was Underwear
Mark Shoots First
Mean Frank and Crazy Tony
The Mouth of the Wolf
The Police Serve the Citizens?
Processo contro ignoti
Scent of a Woman
The Walls of Malapaga
The Yellow Rolls-Royce
Main article: Genoese dialect
Genoese dialect (Zeneize) is the most important dialect of the
Ligurian language, and is commonly spoken in
Genoa alongside Italian.
Ligurian is listed by
Ethnologue as a language in its own right, of
the Romance branch, the Ligurian Romance language, and not to be
confused with the ancient Ligurian language. Like the languages of
Lombardy, Piedmont, and surrounding regions, it is of Gallo-Italic
Luigi Ferraris Stadium
There are two major football teams in Genoa:
Genoa C.F.C. and U.C.
Sampdoria; the former is the oldest football club operating in Italy,
Genoa C.F.C.). The football section of the club was
founded in 1893 by James Richardson Spensley, an English doctor. Genoa
1893 has won 9 championships (between 1898 and 1924) and 1
U.C. Sampdoria was founded in 1946 from the merger
of two existing clubs,
Andrea Doria (founded in 1895) and
Sampierdarenese (founded in 1911). Sampdoria has won one Italian
championship (Serie A – Season 1990–1991), 4
Italy Cups, 1 UEFA
Cup Winners' Cup in 1989/90 and 1 Italian Super Cup. Both
U.C. Sampdoria play their home games in the Luigi Ferraris
Stadium, which holds 36,536 spectators. Deeply felt is the derby
called Derby della Lanterna.
Takes place in
Genoa the international tournament AON Open Challenger.
In rugby union the city is represented by CUS Genova Rugby, which is
the rugby union team of the University of
Genoa Sports Centre. CUS
Genova had their peak in 1971-1973 when the team was runner-up of the
Italian Serie A for three consecutive seasons and contested
unsuccessfully the title to Petrarca Rugby. Amongst the CUS Genova
players who represented
Italy at international level the most relevant
Marco Bollesan and Agostino Puppo.
In 1947 was founded the
CUS Genova Hockey
CUS Genova Hockey and in 1968 the basketball
club Athletic Genova. The city hosts the FIFA World Cup in 1934 and in
1990, in 1988 the European Karate Championships and in 1992 the
European Athletics Indoor Championships. In 2003 was inaugurated the
indoor sporting arena, Vaillant Palace
The city lends its name to a particular type of a sailing boat
Genoa sail, in 2007 the city hosts the Tall Ships' Races.
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Pesto, a popular Genoese sauce
Popular sauces of Genoese cuisine include
Pesto sauce, garlic sauce
called Agliata, "Walnut Sauce" called Salsa di noci, Green sauce,
Pesto di fave, Pasta d'acciughe and the meat sauce called U Toccu.
Genovese sauce instead is the contribution of
Genoa to the Neapolitan
cuisine. The Genoese tradition includes many varieties of pasta as
Corzetti (see also Corsetti), Trofie, Pansoti,
also: "Farinata", Panissa, Cuculli. Key ingredient of Genoese cuisine
is the Prescinsêua used among other things to prepare the Torta
pasqualina and the Barbagiuai and still Focaccia con le cipolle,
Farinata di zucca, Focaccette al formaggio and the Focaccia con il
formaggio which means "Focaccia with cheese" that is even being
European Union PGI status. Other key ingredients are
many varieties of fish as Sardines,
Anchovies (see also Acciughe
ripiene and Acciughe sotto sale), Garfish, Swordfish, Tuna, Octopus,
Squid, Mussels, the Stoccafisso which means
Stockfish (see also
Musciame and Gianchetti.
Other elements of Genoese cuisine include the Ligurian Olive Oil, the
cheeses like Brös, U Cabanin, San Stè cheese, Giuncata, the sausages
like Testa in cassetta, Salame cotto and the Salame genovese di
Sant'Olcese which is the style of
Genoa salami. Fresh pasta (usually
trofie) or trenette with pesto sauce is probably the most iconic among
Pesto sauce is prepared with fresh Genovese basil,
pine nuts, grated parmesan, garlic and olive oil pounded together.
Liguria wine such as Pigato, Vermentino, Sciacchetrà, Rossese and
Ciliegiolo del Tigullio are popular. Dishes of Genoese tradition
Tripe cooked in various recipes like Sbira, the Polpettone
di melanzane, the Tomaxelle, the Minestrone alla genovese, the
Bagnun, the fish-consisting Ciuppin (the precursor to San Francisco's
Cioppino), the Buridda, the Seppie in zimino, the Preboggion.
Two sophisticated recipes of Genoese cuisine are: the
Cappon magro and
the Cima alla genovese (a song by
Fabrizio De André
Fabrizio De André is titled 'A
Çimma and is dedicated to this Genoese recipe). Originating in Genoa
is Pandolce that gave rise to
Genoa cake. The city lands its name to a
special paste used to prepare cakes and pastries called
Genoise and to
the Pain de Gênes.
Genoa there are many food markets in typical nineteenth-century
iron structures as Mercato del Ferro, Mercato Dinegro, Mercato di Via
Prè, Mercato di piazza Sarzano, Mercato del Carmine, Mercato della
Foce, Mercato Romagnosi. The Mercato Orientale instead is in masonry
and has a circular structure.
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Genoa has left an extraordinary impression on many noted
Friedrich Nietzsche loved
Genoa and wrote some of his
Sigmund Freud and
Ezra Pound lived near
Genoa in Rapallo.
Anton Chekhov said that
Genoa "is the most beautiful city in the
Richard Wagner wrote: "I have never seen anything like
this Genoa! it is something indescribably beautiful".
Among the personalities of the 19th and 20th centuries who wrote about
Genoa were Heinrich Heine, Osip Mandelstam, Aleksandr Ivanovich
Herzen, Mary Shelley, Oscar Wilde, Charles Dickens, Mark Twain, Joseph
Conrad, Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, Gustave Flaubert, Alexandre Dumas,
Louis Énault, Valery Larbaud, Albert Camus, Paul Valéry, F. Scott
Fitzgerald, Paul Klee. Giuseppe Verdi, Giacomo Puccini, and Pietro
Mascagni. Verdi in his work, Simon Boccanegra, is inspired by the
medieval history of the city. The poets Dino Campana, Camillo Sbarbaro
Giorgio Caproni have made
Genoa a recurring element of their
Famous Genoese include Sinibaldo and Ottobuono Fieschi (Popes Innocent
IV and Adrian V), Giovanni Battista Cybo (Pope Innocent VIII) and
Giacomo della Chiesa (Pope Benedict XV), navigators Christopher
Columbus, Antonio de Noli, Enrico Alberto d'Albertis, Enrico de Candia
(Henry, Count of Malta) and Andrea Doria, composers Niccolò Paganini
and Michele Novaro, Italian patriots Giuseppe Mazzini, Goffredo Mameli
and Nino Bixio, writer and translator Fernanda Pivano, poet Edoardo
Sanguineti, Communist politician Palmiro Togliatti, architect Renzo
Piano, art curator and critic Germano Celant, Physics 2002 Nobel Prize
winner Riccardo Giacconi, Literature 1975 Nobel Prize winner Eugenio
Montale, the court painter Giovanni Maria delle Piane (Il Mulinaretto)
from the Delle Piane family, artists Vanessa Beecroft, Enrico
Accatino, comedians Gilberto Govi, Paolo Villaggio, Beppe Grillo, Luca
Bizzarri, Paolo Kessisoglu and Maurizio Crozza; singer-songwriters
Fabrizio de André, Ivano Fossati, Umberto Bindi,
Bruno Lauzi and
Francesco Baccini, while
Luigi Tenco and
Gino Paoli are also known as
Genoese singer-songwriters, although they are respectively from
Cassine and Monfalcone; actor Vittorio Gassman, and actress Moana
Pozzi, Giorgio Parodi who conceived the motorcycle company Moto Guzzi
with Carlo Guzzi and Giovanni Ravelli.
Some reports say the navigator and explorer Giovanni Caboto (John
Cabot) was also from Genoa, others say he was from Savona. Saints from
Genoa include Romulus, Syrus, Catherine of Genoa. Among the latest
generations, musicians like Andrea Bacchetti, Giulio Plotino, Sergio
Ciomei, Lorenzo Cavasanti, Stefano Bagliano and Fabrizio Cipriani, as
well as academics and authors like Michele Giugliano and Roberto
Dillon, help in keeping the name of the city on the international
spotlight in different fields among the arts, technology and culture.
Accademia Ligustica di Belle Arti
Doge's Palace, Genoa
Edoardo Chiossone Museum of Oriental Art
Galata-Museo del Mare
GAM-Galleria d'Arte Moderna
Lighthouse of Genoa
Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova
Museo di Santa Maria di Castello
Museo Giannettino Luxoro
Museum of Contemporary Art Villa Croce
Museo del Risorgimento e istituto mazziniano
Museo di Sant'Agostino
Museo navale di Pegli
Palazzi dei Rolli
Palazzo Spinola di Pellicceria
Education and research
University of Genoa's main building
The first organised forms of higher education in
Genoa date back to
the 13th century when private colleges were entitled to award degrees
in Medicine, Philosophy, Theology, Law, Arts. Today the University
of Genoa, founded in the 15th century, is one of the largest in Italy,
with 11 faculties, 51 departments and 14 libraries. In 2007–2008,
the University had 41,000 students and 6,540 graduates.
Genoa is also home to other Colleges, Academies or Museums:
The University of Genoa
The CNR Area della Ricerca di Genova
The Accademia ligustica di belle arti
Antonio de Noli Academic Society
The Accademia Ligure di scienze e lettere
The Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia
The ISICT-istituto superiore di studi in tecnologie dell'informazione
e della comunicazione
Renzo Piano Building Workshop
The OBR Open Building Research
The Accademia Italiana della
The "Niccolò Paganini" Conservatory
The Italian Hydrographic Institute
The Deledda International School
The Deutsche Schule Genua
Genoa Comics Academy
The International School in Genoa
Russian Ballet College
Italian Institute of Technology
Italian Institute of Technology was established in 2003 jointly by
the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research and the
Italian Minister of Economy and Finance, to promote excellence in
basic and applied research. The main fields of research of the
Institute are Neuroscience, Robotics, Nanotechnology, Drug discovery.
The central research labs and headquarters are located in Morego, in
the neighbourhood of Bolzaneto.
Clemson University, based in South Carolina,
United States has a villa
Genoa where architecture students and students in related fields
can attend for a semester or year-long study program.
Florida International University
Florida International University (FIU), based in Miami, Florida,
United States also has a small campus in Genoa, with the University of
Genoa, which offers classes within the FIU School of Architecture.
Genoa is the birthplace of "Giovanni Battista Baliani" and "Vincentio
Reinieri" of the geneticist "Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza" of the
astrophysicist, Nobel Prize, "Riccardo Giacconi" and of the astronaut
Franco Malerba. The city is home to the
Erzelli Hi-Tech Park, to the
Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, to the "Istituto idrografico della
Marina" and annually hosts the Festival della Scienza. The city has an
important tradition in the fields of the geology, paleontology, botany
and naturalistic studies, among the most eminent personalities
remember: "Lorenzo Pareto", "Luigi d'Albertis", "Enrico Alberto
d'Albertis", "Giacomo Doria" and "Arturo Issel", we point the Orto
Botanico dell'Università di Genova. Very important and renowned is
the Istituto Giannina Gaslini.
In 1846 the city hosts the eighth "Meeting of Italian Scientists" and
Luigi Carnera discovers an asteroid and called it "485 Genua",
dedicating it to the Latin name of Genoa.
A view of the commercial port of Genoa
Main article: Port of Genoa
Panorama of port of Genoa
Several cruise and ferry lines serve the passenger terminals in the
old port, with a traffic of 3.2 million passengers in 2007.
MSC Cruises chose
Genoa as one of its main home ports, in competition
with the Genoese company Costa Cruises, which moved its home port to
Savona. The quays of the passenger terminals extend over an area of
250,000 square metres (2,700,000 square feet), with 5 equipped berths
for cruise vessels and 13 for ferries, for an annual capacity of
4 million ferry passengers, 1.5 million cars and 250,000
trucks. The historical maritime station of Ponte dei Mille is
today a technologically advanced cruise terminal, with facilities
designed after the world's most modern airports, to ensure fast
embarking and disembarking of latest generation ships carrying
thousand passengers. A third cruise terminal is currently under
construction in the redesigned area of Ponte Parodi, once a quay used
for grain traffic.
The Costa Concordia cruise ship, owned by Costs Cruises, is now docked
at the port and will be soon be dismantled.
Genoa Cristoforo Colombo Airport
Genoa airport is built on an artificial peninsula.
The Airport of
Genoa (IATA: GOA, ICAO: LIMJ) is built on an artificial
peninsula, 4 NM (7.4 km; 4.6 mi) west of the city.
The airport is currently operated by Aeroporto di Genova S.P.A., which
has recently upgraded the airport complex, that now connects Genoa
with several daily flights to Rome, Naples, Paris, London,
Munich. In 2008, 1,202,168 passengers travelled through the
airport, with an increase of international destinations and
Main article: Railway stations in Genoa
Genoa's metropolitan system
The main railway stations are
Genoa Brignole and
Genoa Principe, the
first situated in the east side of the city centre, close to the
business districts and the exhibition centre, while the second is in
the west side, close to the port, the university and the historical
centre. From these two stations depart the main trains connecting
Genoa to France, Turin,
Milan and Rome.
Genova Brignole railway station
Genoa's third most important station is
Genoa Sampierdarena, which
serves the densely populated neighbourhood of Sampierdarena. A total
of 23 other local stations serve the other neighbourhoods, on the
30-kilometre-long coast line from
Nervi to Voltri, and on the northern
Bolzaneto and the
The municipal administration of
Genoa is projecting to transform these
urban railway lines to be part of the rapid transit system, which now
consists of a light metro which connects Brin to the city centre and
is called the Metropolitana di Genova (
Genoa Metro). The metro line
has been recently extended to Brignole Station, with the opening of
the new station in December 2012. The Corvetto station between De
Ferrari and Brignole is currently passed-through. A possible further
extension towards the eastern, densely populated boroughs was planned,
but the municipal administration is keen to improve the public
transport investing in new tram lines instead of completing the
extension of the light metro. The current stations of the metro
line are Brin-Certosa, Dinegro, Principe, Darsena, San Giorgio,
Sant'Agostino and De Ferrari, and the line is 5.3 km
(3.3 mi) long.
Genova Piazza Principe railway station
The city's hilly nature has influenced transport provision, and the
city is served by three funicular railways (the Zecca–Righi
Sant'Anna funicular and the Quezzi funicular), a rack
railway the Principe–Granarolo rack railway, and 10 public
The city's metro, bus and trolleybus network is operated by AMT
(Azienda Mobilità e Trasporti S.p.A.). There is also the Drin Bus -
demand responsive transport service (DRT) that connects the hilly,
low-density areas of Genoa. The average amount of time
people spend commuting with public transit in Genova, for example to
and from work, on a weekday is 54 min. 10% of public transit riders,
ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time
people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 12 min, while
13% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The
average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public
transit is 4 km, while 2% travel for over 12 km in a single
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy
Genoa is twinned with:
Baltimore, United States
Columbus, United States
Genoa has bilateral agreements with the following sister
Saint Petersburg, Russia
Acqui Terme, Italy
La Paz, Bolivia
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Capo di Ponte, Italy
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Pointe Noire, Congo
El Mina, Lebanon
Pizzo Calabro, Italy
Polokwane, South Africa
Democratic Republic of the Congo
San Marino Republic
Main articles: List of people from
Genoa and Category:People from
Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli
List of tallest buildings in Genoa
MT Haven Amoco Haven tanker disaster
List of diplomats of Great Britain to the Republic of Genoa
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Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica Militare
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See also: Bibliography of Genoa (it)
Gino Benvenuti. Le repubbliche marinare. Amalfi, Pisa, Genova e
Venezia. Netwon Compton, Rome, 1989.
Steven A. Epstein;
Genoa & the Genoese, 958–1528 University of
North Carolina Press, 1996; online edition
Steven A. Epstein; "Labour and Port Life in
Mediterranean Historical Review. 3 (1988): 114–40.
Steven A. Epstein; "Business Cycles and the Sense of Time in Medieval
Genoa." Business History Review 62 (1988): 238–60.
Face Richard. "Secular History in Twelfth-Century Italy: Caffaro of
Genoa." Journal of
Medieval History 6 (1980): 169–84.
Hughes Diane Owen. "Kinsmen and Neighbors in
Medieval Genoa." In The
Medieval City, edited by Harry A. Miskimin, David Herlihy, and Adam L.
Udovitch, 1977, 3–28.
Hughes Diane Owen. "Urban Growth and Family Structure in Medieval
Genoa." Past and Present 66 (1975): 3–28.
Lopez Robert S. "Genoa." In Dictionary of the Middle Ages,
pp. 383–87. 1982.
Vitale Vito. Breviario della storia di Genova. Vols. 1–2. Genoa,
Giuseppe Felloni – Guido Laura "Genova e la storia della finanza:
una serie di primati ?" "
Genoa and the history of finance: a
series of firsts ?" 9 November 2004, ISBN 88-87822-16-6
Van Doosselaere, Quentin, Commercial Agreements and Social Dynamics in
Genoa (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009).
Гавриленко О. А., Сівальньов О. М.,
Цибулькін В. В. Генуезька спадщина на
теренах України; етнодержавознавчий
вимір. — Харків: Точка, 2017.— 260 с. —
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Genoa.
Staglieno: A monumental cemetery
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Genoa.
Genova2015.org - Official Site
Comuni of the Metropolitan City of Genoa
Favale di Malvaro
Isola del Cantone
San Colombano Certénoli
Santa Margherita Ligure
Santo Stefano d'Aveto
Regional capitals of Italy
Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Trento, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
European Capitals of Culture
Santiago de Compostela
Luxembourg City and Greater Region
World Heritage Sites in Italy
Mantua and Sabbioneta
Monte San Giorgio1
Porto Venere, Palmaria, Tino and Tinetto, Cinque Terre
Monterosso al Mare
Residences of the Royal House of Savoy
Castle of Moncalieri
Castle of Racconigi
Castle of Rivoli
Castello del Valentino
Royal Palace of Turin
Palazzo Madama, Turin
Palace of Venaria
Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi
Villa della Regina
Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes1
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
Sacri Monti of
Piedmont and Lombardy
Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Vineyard Landscape of Piedmont: Langhe-
Roero and Monferrato
Torre della Ghirlandina
Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande, Modena
Orto botanico di Padova
Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto
Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi
Etruscan Necropolises of
Cerveteri and Tarquinia
Piazza del Duomo, Pisa
Castel del Monte, Apulia
Vallo di Diano
Vallo di Diano National Park,
Paestum and Velia, Certosa
Oplontis and Villa Poppaea
Palace of Caserta,
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli and
San Leucio Complex
Sassi di Matera
Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale
Archaeological Area of Agrigento
Syracuse and Necropolis of Pantalica
Val di Noto
Militello in Val di Catania
Villa Romana del Casale
Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)
Cividale del Friuli
Temple of Clitumnus
Temple of Clitumnus located at Campello sul Clitunno
Santa Sofia located at Benevento
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo located at Monte Sant'Angelo
Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3
Primeval Beech Forests of Europe4
Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries5
Peschiera del Garda
1 Shared with Switzerland
2 Shared with the Holy See
3 Shared with Austria, France, Germany, Slovenia, and Switzerland
4 Shared with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany,
Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain and Ukraine
5 Shared with
Croatia and Montenegro
Italy by population
ISNI: 0000 0001 2285 1461