HOME
The Info List - Geneva Conventions



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The GENEVA CONVENTIONS comprise four treaties , and three additional protocols , that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war. The singular term _ Geneva
Geneva
Convention_ usually denotes the agreements of 1949, negotiated in the aftermath of the Second World War
Second World War
(1939–45), which updated the terms of the two 1929 treaties, and added two new conventions. The Geneva
Geneva
Conventions extensively defined the basic rights of wartime prisoners (civilians and military personnel ); established protections for the wounded and sick; and established protections for the civilians in and around a war-zone. The treaties of 1949
1949
were ratified, in whole or with reservations , by 196 countries . Moreover, the Geneva
Geneva
Convention also defines the rights and protections afforded to non-combatants , yet, because the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions are about people in war, the articles do not address warfare proper—the use of weapons of war—which is the subject of the Hague Conventions (First Hague Conference, 1899; Second Hague Conference 1907), and the bio -chemical warfare Geneva Protocol
Geneva Protocol
(Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War
War
of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gasses, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, 1925).

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Contents

* 2.1 Conventions * 2.2 Protocols

* 3 Application

* 3.1 Common Article 2 relating to international armed conflicts * 3.2 Common Article 3 relating to non-international armed conflict

* 4 Enforcement

* 4.1 Protecting powers * 4.2 Grave breaches

* 5 Legacy * 6 See also * 7 Notes and references * 8 External links

HISTORY

Progression of Geneva
Geneva
Conventions from 1864
1864
to 1949. Red Cross poster from the First World War
First World War
.

The Swiss
Swiss
businessman Henry Dunant
Henry Dunant
went to visit wounded soldiers after the Battle of Solferino in 1859. He was shocked by the lack of facilities, personnel, and medical aid available to help these soldiers. As a result, he published his book, _A Memory of Solferino _, in 1862, on the horrors of war. His wartime experiences inspired Dunant to propose:

* A permanent relief agency for humanitarian aid in times of war * A government treaty recognizing the neutrality of the agency and allowing it to provide aid in a war zone

The former proposal led to the establishment of the Red Cross
Red Cross
in Geneva
Geneva
. The latter led to the 1864
1864
Geneva
Geneva
Convention , the first codified international treaty that covered the sick and wounded soldiers in the battlefield. On 22 August 1864, the conference adopted the first Geneva
Geneva
Convention "for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field". Representatives of 12 states and kingdoms signed the convention:

* Grand Duchy of Baden * Kingdom of Belgium
Belgium
* Kingdom of Denmark
Kingdom of Denmark
* Second French Empire
Second French Empire
* Grand Duchy of Hesse
Grand Duchy of Hesse
* Kingdom of Italy
Kingdom of Italy
* Kingdom of the Netherlands
Kingdom of the Netherlands
* Kingdom of Portugal
Kingdom of Portugal
and the Algarves * Kingdom of Prussia * Switzerland
Switzerland
* Kingdom of Spain * Kingdom of Württemberg

For both of these accomplishments, Henry Dunant
Henry Dunant
became corecipient of the first Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
in 1901.

On 20 October 1868 the first, unsuccessful, attempt to expand the 1864
1864
treaty was undertaken. With the 'Additional Articles relating to the Condition of the Wounded in War' an attempt was undertaken to clarify some rules of the 1864
1864
convention and to extend them to maritime warfare. The Articles were signed but never ratified by all parties. Only the Netherlands and the United States ratified the Articles. The Netherlands later withdrew their ratification. The protection of the victims of maritime warfare would later be realized by the third Hague Convention of 1899 and the tenth Hague Convention of 1907 .

In 1906
1906
thirty-five states attended a conference convened by the Swiss
Swiss
government. On 6 July 1906
1906
it resulted in the adoption of the "_Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field_", which improved and supplemented, for the first time, the 1864
1864
convention. It remained into force until 1970 when Costa Rica acceded to the 1949
1949
Geneva
Geneva
Conventions.

The 1929 conference yielded two conventions that were signed on 27 July 1929. One, the "_Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field_", was the third version to replace the original convention of 1864. The other was adopted after experiences in World War I
World War I
had shown the deficiencies in the protection of prisoners of war under the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 . The "_Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War_" was not to replace these earlier conventions signed at The Hague, rather it supplemented them.

Inspired by the wave of humanitarian and pacifistic enthusiasm following World War II
World War II
and the outrage towards the war crimes disclosed by the Nuremberg Trials
Nuremberg Trials
, a series of conferences were held in 1949
1949
reaffirming, expanding and updating the prior Geneva
Geneva
and Hague Conventions. It yielded four distinct conventions:

* The First Geneva Convention "_for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field_" was the fourth update of the original 1864
1864
convention and replaced the 1929 convention on the same subject matter. * The Second Geneva
Geneva
Convention "_for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea_" replaced the Hague Convention (X) of 1907. It was the first Geneva
Geneva
Convention on the protection of the victims of maritime warfare and mimicked the structure and provisions of the First Geneva Convention. * The Third Geneva
Geneva
Convention "_relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War_" replaced the 1929 Geneva
Geneva
Convention that dealt with prisoners of war. * In addition to these three conventions, the conference also added a new elaborate Fourth Geneva
Geneva
Convention "_relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War_". It was the first Geneva Convention not to deal with combatants, rather it had the protection of civilians as its subject matter. The 1899 and 1907 Hague Conventions had already contained some provisions on the protection of civilians and occupied territory. Article 154 specifically provides that the Fourth Geneva
Geneva
Convention is supplementary to these provisions in the Hague Conventions.

Despite the length of these documents, they were found over time to be incomplete. In fact, the very nature of armed conflicts had changed with the beginning of the Cold War
War
era, leading many to believe that the 1949
1949
Geneva
Geneva
Conventions were addressing a largely extinct reality: on the one hand, most armed conflicts had become internal, or civil wars, while on the other, most wars had become increasingly asymmetric . Moreover, modern armed conflicts were inflicting an increasingly higher toll on civilians, which brought the need to provide civilian persons and objects with tangible protections in time of combat, thus bringing a much needed update to the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 . In light of these developments, two Protocols were adopted in 1977 that extended the terms of the 1949
1949
Conventions with additional protections. In 2005, a third brief Protocol was added establishing an additional protective sign for medical services, the Red Crystal , as an alternative to the ubiquitous Red Cross
Red Cross
and Red Crescent emblems, for those countries that find them objectionable.

CONTENTS

Parties to GC I–IV and P I–III Parties to GC I–IV and P I–II

Parties to GC I–IV and P I and III Parties to GC I–IV and P I

Parties to GC I–IV and P III Parties to GC I–IV and no P

The Geneva
Geneva
Conventions are rules that apply only in times of armed conflict and seek to protect people who are not or are no longer taking part in hostilities; these include the sick and wounded of armed forces on the field, wounded, sick, and shipwrecked members of armed forces at sea, prisoners of war , and civilians. The first convention dealt with the treatment of wounded and sick armed forces in the field. The second convention dealt with the sick, wounded, and shipwrecked members of armed forces at sea. The third convention dealt with the treatment of prisoners of war during times of conflict; the conflict in Vietnam greatly contributed to this revision of the Geneva
Geneva
Convention. The fourth convention dealt with the treatment of civilians and their protection during wartime.

CONVENTIONS

In diplomacy, the term _convention_ does not have its common meaning as an assembly of people. Rather, it is used in diplomacy to mean _an international agreement,_ or treaty.

* The First Geneva Convention "_for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field_" (first adopted in 1864
1864
, revised in 1906
1906
, 1929 and finally 1949);

* The Second Geneva
Geneva
Convention "_for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea_" (first adopted in 1949
1949
, successor of the Hague Convention (X) 1907); * The Third Geneva
Geneva
Convention "_relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War_" (first adopted in 1929 , last revision in 1949
1949
); * The Fourth Geneva
Geneva
Convention "_relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War_" (first adopted in 1949
1949
, based on parts of the Hague Convention (II) of 1899 and Hague Convention (IV) 1907).

With two Geneva
Geneva
Conventions revised and adopted, and the second and fourth added, in 1949
1949
the whole set is referred to as the "Geneva Conventions of 1949" or simply the " Geneva
Geneva
Conventions". Usually only the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions of 1949
1949
are referred to as First, Second, Third or Fourth Geneva
Geneva
Convention. The treaties of 1949
1949
were ratified, in whole or with reservations , by 196 countries .

PROTOCOLS

The 1949
1949
conventions have been modified with three amendment protocols :

* Protocol I (1977) relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts * Protocol II (1977) relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts * Protocol III (2005) relating to the Adoption of an Additional Distinctive Emblem.

APPLICATION

The Geneva
Geneva
Conventions apply at times of war and armed conflict to governments who have ratified its terms. The details of applicability are spelled out in Common Articles 2 and 3. The topic of applicability has generated some controversy. When the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions apply, governments have surrendered some of their national sovereignty by signing these treaties.

COMMON ARTICLE 2 RELATING TO INTERNATIONAL ARMED CONFLICTS

This article states that the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions apply to all cases of _international_ conflict, where at least one of the warring nations have ratified the Conventions. Primarily:

* The Conventions apply to all cases of declared war between signatory nations. This is the original sense of applicability, which predates the 1949
1949
version. * The Conventions apply to all cases of armed conflict between two or more signatory nations, even in the absence of a declaration of war. This language was added in 1949
1949
to accommodate situations that have all the characteristics of war without the existence of a formal declaration of war, such as a police action . * The Conventions apply to a signatory nation even if the opposing nation is not a signatory, but only if the opposing nation "accepts and applies the provisions" of the Conventions.

Article 1 of Protocol I further clarifies that armed conflict against colonial domination and foreign occupation also qualifies as an _international_ conflict.

When the criteria of international conflict have been met, the full protections of the Conventions are considered to apply.

COMMON ARTICLE 3 RELATING TO NON-INTERNATIONAL ARMED CONFLICT

This article states that the certain minimum rules of war apply to armed conflicts " where at least one Party is not a State". The interpretation of the term _armed conflict _ and therefore the applicability of this article is a matter of debate. For example, it would apply to conflicts between the Government and rebel forces, or between two rebel forces, or to other conflicts that have all the characteristics of war, whether carried out within the confines of one country or not. On the other hand, a handful of individuals attacking a police station _may_ not be considered an armed conflict subject to this article, but only subject to the laws of the country in question.

The other Geneva
Geneva
Conventions are not applicable in this situation but only the provisions contained within Article 3, and additionally within the language of Protocol II . The rationale for the limitation is to avoid conflict with the rights of Sovereign States that were not part of the treaties. When the provisions of this article apply, it states that:

* Persons taking no active part in the hostilities , including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed _hors de combat _ by sickness, wounds , detention , or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated humanely, without any adverse distinction founded on race, colour, religion or faith, sex, birth or wealth, or any other similar criteria. To this end, the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons:

* violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation , cruel treatment and torture ; * taking of hostages ; * outrages upon dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment; and * the passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court, affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples.

* The wounded and sick shall be collected and cared for.

ENFORCEMENT

PROTECTING POWERS

See also: Protecting power

The term _protecting power_ has a specific meaning under these Conventions. A protecting power is a state that is not taking part in the armed conflict, but that has agreed to look after the interests of a state that is a party to the conflict. The protecting power is a mediator enabling the flow of communication between the parties to the conflict. The protecting power also monitors implementation of these Conventions, such as by visiting the zone of conflict and prisoners of war. The protecting power must act as an advocate for prisoners, the wounded, and civilians.

GRAVE BREACHES

Logo of International Criminal Court

Not all violations of the treaty are treated equally. The most serious crimes are termed _grave breaches,_ and provide a legal definition of a war crime . Grave breaches of the Third and Fourth Geneva
Geneva
Conventions include the following acts if committed against a person protected by the convention:

* willful killing, torture or inhumane treatment, including biological experiments * willfully causing great suffering or serious injury to body or health * compelling a protected person to serve in the armed forces of a hostile power * willfully depriving a protected person of the right to a fair trial if accused of a war crime.

Also considered grave breaches of the Fourth Geneva
Geneva
Convention are the following:

* taking of hostages * extensive destruction and appropriation of property not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly * unlawful deportation , transfer , or confinement .

Nations who are party to these treaties must enact and enforce legislation penalizing any of these crimes. Nations are also obligated to search for persons alleged to commit these crimes, or persons having ordered them to be committed , and to bring them to trial regardless of their nationality and regardless of the place where the crimes took place.

The principle of universal jurisdiction also applies to the enforcement of grave breaches when the UN Security Council
UN Security Council
asserts its authority and jurisdiction from the UN Charter to apply universal jurisdiction. The UNSC
UNSC
did this when they established the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia to investigate and/or prosecute alleged violations.

LEGACY

Although warfare has changed dramatically since the Geneva Conventions of 1949, they are still considered the cornerstone of contemporary international humanitarian law . They protect combatants who find themselves _hors de combat ,_ and they protect civilians caught up in the zone of war. These treaties came into play for all recent international armed conflicts, including the War
War
in Afghanistan , the 2003 invasion of Iraq
2003 invasion of Iraq
, the invasion of Chechnya (1994–present) , and the 2008 War
War
in Georgia . The Geneva Conventions also protect those affected by non-international armed conflicts such as the Syrian Civil War
War
.

The lines between combatants and civilians have blurred when the actors are not exclusively High Contracting Parties (HCP). Since the fall of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, an HCP often is faced with a non-state actor, as argued by General Wesley Clark
Wesley Clark
in 2007. Examples of such conflict include the Sri Lankan Civil War
War
, the Sudanese Civil War
War
, and the Colombian Armed Conflict , as well most military engagements of the US since 2000.

Some scholars hold that Common Article 3 deals with these situations, supplemented by Protocol II (1977). These set out minimum legal standards that must be followed for internal conflicts. International tribunals, particularly the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), have clarified international law in this area. In the 1999 _Prosecutor v. Dusko Tadic _ judgement, the ICTY ruled that grave breaches apply not only to international conflicts, but also to internal armed conflict. Further, those provisions are considered customary international law .

Controversy has arisen over the US designation of irregular opponents as "unlawful enemy combatants " (see also unlawful combatant ) especially in the SCOTUS
SCOTUS
judgments over the Guantanamo Bay brig facility _ Hamdi v. Rumsfeld _, _ Hamdan v. Rumsfeld _ and _Rasul v. Bush _, and later _ Boumediene v. Bush _. President George W. Bush , aided by Attorneys-General John Ashcroft and Alberto Gonzales and General Keith B. Alexander , claimed the power, as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces, to determine that any person, including an American citizen, who is suspected of being a member, agent, or associate of Al Qaeda , the Taliban
Taliban
, or possibly any other terrorist organization, is an "enemy combatant" who can be detained in U.S. military custody until hostilities end, pursuant to the international law of war.

The application of the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions to the 2014 conflict in Ukraine (Crimea) is a troublesome problem because some of the personnel who engaged in combat against the Ukrainians were not identified by insignia, although they did wear military-style fatigues. American pilots in Operation Southern Watch were documented to bear no insignia, so as to gain some illusory intelligence advantage. The types of comportment qualified as acts of perfidy under jus in bello doctrine are listed in Articles 37 through 39 of the Geneva
Geneva
Convention; the prohibition of fake insignia is listed at Article 39.2, but the law is silent on the complete absence of insignia. The status of POW captured in this circumstance remains a question.

Educational institutions and organizations including Harvard University , the International Committee of the Red Cross
Red Cross
, and the Rohr Jewish Learning Institute use the Geneva
Geneva
Convention as a primary text investigating torture and warfare.

SEE ALSO

* War
War
portal * Law portal * International relations portal * Geneva
Geneva
portal

* Attacks on humanitarian workers * Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons * Customary international humanitarian law * Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict * Geneva
Geneva
Conference (other) * Geneva
Geneva
Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights * German Prisoners of War
War
in the United States * Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
– traditional rules on fighting wars * Human rights
Human rights
* Ian Fishback * International Committee of the Red Cross
Red Cross
* International Federation of Red Cross
Red Cross
and Red Crescent Societies * International humanitarian law * Laws of war * Nuremberg Principles * Reprisals * Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts Project * Targeted killing
Targeted killing

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ "State Parties / Signatories: Geneva
Geneva
Conventions of 12 August 1949". _International Humanitarian Law_. International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 22 January 2007. * ^ Dunant, Henry. _A Memory of Solferino_. English version, full text online. * ^ "Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 22 August 1864". Geneva, Switzerland: International Committee of the Red Cross
Red Cross
ICRC. Retrieved 2017-06-11. * ^ Roxburgh, Ronald (1920). _International Law: A Treatise_. London: Longmans, Green and co. p. 707. Retrieved 14 July 2009. * ^ Abrams, Irwin (2001). _The Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
and the Laureates: An Illustrated Biographical History, 1901–2001_. US: Science History Publications. Retrieved 14 July 2009. * ^ The story of an idea, film on the creation of the Red Cross, Red Crescent Movement and the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions * ^ ICRC. "Additional Articles relating to the Condition of the Wounded in War. Geneva, 20 October 1868 – State Parties". Retrieved 5 March 2017. * ^ Dutch Government (20 April 1900). "_Kamerstukken II_ 1899/00, nr. 3 (Memorie van Toelichting)" (PDF) (in Dutch). Retrieved 5 March 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Fleck, Dietrich (2013). _The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 322. ISBN 978-0-19-872928-0 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Fleck, Dietrich (2013). _The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 22 and 322. ISBN 978-0-19-872928-0 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ ICRC. "Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 6 July 1906". Retrieved 5 March 2017. * ^ ICRC. "Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 27 July 1929". Retrieved 5 March 2017. * ^ ICRC. "Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 27 July 1929". Retrieved 5 March 2017. * ^ Fleck, Dietrich (2013). _The Handbook of International Humanitarian Law_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-19-872928-0 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ ICRC. "Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field. Geneva, 12 August 1949". Retrieved 5 March 2017. The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic Conference held at Geneva
Geneva
from April 21 to August 12, 1949, for the purpose of revising the Geneva
Geneva
Convention for the Relief of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field of July 27, 1929 * ^ ICRC. "Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Geneva, 12 August 1949". Retrieved 5 March 2017. The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic Conference held at Geneva
Geneva
from April 21 to August 12, 1949, for the purpose of revising the Xth Hague Convention of October 18, 1907 for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare
Warfare
of the Principles of the Geneva Convention of 1906
1906
* ^ ICRC. "Convention (III) relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949". Retrieved 5 March 2017. The undersigned Plenipotentiaries of the Governments represented at the Diplomatic Conference held at Geneva
Geneva
from April 21 to August 12, 1949, for the purpose of revising the Convention concluded at Geneva
Geneva
on July 27, 1929, relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War
War
* ^ ICRC. "Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949". Retrieved 5 March 2017. In the relations between the Powers who are bound by the Hague Conventions respecting the Laws and Customs of War
War
on Land, whether that of July 29, 1899, or that of October 18, 1907, and who are parties to the present Convention, this last Convention shall be supplementary to Sections II and III of the Regulations annexed to the above-mentioned Conventions of The Hague. * ^ Kolb, Robert (2009). _Ius in bello_. Basel: Helbing Lichtenhahn. ISBN 978-2-8027-2848-1 . * ^ Sperry, C. (1906). "The Revision of the Geneva
Geneva
Convention, 1906.". _Proceedings of the American Political Science Association_. 3: 33–57. JSTOR 3038537 . * ^ Yingling, Raymund (1952). "The Geneva
Geneva
Conventions of 1949". _The American Journal of International Law_. 46: 393–427. JSTOR 2194498 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Pictet, Jean (1958). _Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949: Commentary_. International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 15 July 2009. * ^ "The Geneva
Geneva
Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War". _The American Journal of International Law_. 47: 119–177. 1953. JSTOR 2213912 . * ^ Bugnion, Francios (2000). "The Geneva
Geneva
Conventions of 12 August 1949: From the 1949
1949
Diplomatic Conference to the Dawn of the New Millennium". _International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944–)_. 76: 41–51. JSTOR 2626195 . doi :10.1111/1468-2346.00118 . * ^ ICRC. "Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 22 August 1864". Retrieved 5 March 2017. * ^ "Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 6 July 1906". International Committee of the Red Cross
Red Cross
. Retrieved 20 July 2013. * ^ ICRC. "Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armies in the Field. Geneva, 27 July 1929". Retrieved 5 March 2017. * ^ ICRC. "Convention (I) for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field. Geneva, 12 August 1949". Retrieved 5 March 2017. * ^ ICRC. "Convention (II) for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea. Geneva, 12 August 1949". Retrieved 5 March 2017. * ^ ICRC. "Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 27 July 1929". Retrieved 5 March 2017. * ^ ICRC. "Convention (III) relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949". Retrieved 5 March 2017. * ^ ICRC. "Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949". Retrieved 5 March 2017. * ^ treaties.un.org: "Protocol additional to the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the protection of victims of international armed conflicts (Protocol I)" * ^ treaties.un.org: "Protocol additional to the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts (Protocol II)", consulted July 2014 * ^ "Protocol additional to the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the adoption of an additional distinctive emblem (Protocol III)", consulted July 2014 * ^ ICRC (2016). "2016 Commentary on the Geneva
Geneva
Convention". _ICRC_. p. 393. * ^ ICRC. "The Geneva
Geneva
Conventions of 1949
1949
and their Additional Protocols". * ^ "Article 3 of the Convention (III) relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. Geneva, 12 August 1949.". Inter national Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 11 January 2011. * ^ How "grave breaches" are defined in the Geneva
Geneva
Conventions and Additional Protocols, International Committee of the Red Cross. * ^ "Practice Relating to Rule 157. Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
over War
War
Crimes". _International Committee of the Red Cross_. Retrieved 30 January 2017. Article 49 of the 1949
1949
Geneva
Geneva
Convention I, Article 50 of the 1949 Geneva
Geneva
Convention II, Article 129 of the 1949
1949
Geneva
Geneva
Convention III and Article 146 of the 1949
1949
Geneva
Geneva
Convention IV provide: The High Contracting Parties undertake to enact any legislation necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons committing, or ordering to be committed, any of the grave breaches of the present Convention defined in the following Article. Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to search for persons alleged to have committed, or to have ordered to be committed , and shall bring such persons, regardless of their nationality, before its own courts. It may also, if it prefers, and in accordance with the provisions of its own legislation, hand such persons over for trial to another High Contracting Party concerned, provided such High Contracting Party has made out a prima facie case. * ^ "The Geneva
Geneva
Conventions Today". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 16 November 2009. * ^ See U.S. Supreme Court decision, Hamdan v. Rumsfeld * ^ Abresch, William (2005). "A Human Rights Law of Internal Armed Conflict: The European