Geneva Accord (2003)
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The Geneva Initiative, also known as the Geneva Accord, is a draft ''Permanent Status Agreement'' to end the
Israeli–Palestinian conflict The Israeli–Palestinian conflict is one of the world's most enduring conflicts, with the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip reaching years of conflict. Various attempts have been made to resolve the conflict as part of th ...
, based on previous official negotiations, international resolutions, the Quartet Roadmap,
the Clinton Parameters The Clinton Parameters ( he, מתווה קלינטון, ''Mitveh Clinton'') were guidelines for a permanent status agreement to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict The Israeli–Palestinian conflict is one of the world's most enduring ...
, and the
Arab Peace Initiative The Arab Peace Initiative ( ar, مبادرة السلام العربية; ), also known as the Saudi Initiative (; ), is a 10 sentence proposal for an end to the Arab–Israeli conflict The Arab–Israeli conflict includes the political t ...
.Geneva Initiative
FAQ
/ref> The document was finished on 12 October 2003.Geneva Accord – A Model Israeli-Palestinian Peace Agreement
12 October 2003,
The Accord was prepared in secret for over 2 years before the 50-page document was officially launched on 1 December 2003, at a ceremony in Geneva, Switzerland.The Geneva Accord
''Haaretz'', December 2003 (the article apparently shows a wrong publication date)

Hauser, ''The New York Times'', 5 December 2003
Among its creators were formal negotiators and architects of previous rounds of Israeli-Palestinian negotiations, including former Israeli minister and politician
Yossi Beilin Yosef "Yossi" Beilin ( he, יוסף "יוסי" ביילין, born 12 June 1948) is an Israeli politician and scholar who has served in multiple ministerial and leadership positions in the Israeli government. Much of his political career was in the ...

Yossi Beilin
and former
Palestinian Authority The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; ar, السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية ') is the interim self-government body that exercises partial civil control over the Gaza Strip and West Bank bantustans, 167 islands in the Wes ...

Palestinian Authority
minister
Yasser Abed Rabbo Yasser Abed Rabbo ( ar, ياسر عبد ربه) also known by his ''Kunya (Arabic), kunya'', Abu Bashar ( ar, ابو بشار) (born 1944) is a Palestinian people, Palestinian politician and a member of the Palestine Liberation Organization's (PLO ...
. Both noted that the Geneva accord did not obligate either of their respective governments, even though Abed Rabbo was a minister at the time of writing. The Initiative got broad international support, but was heavily criticised by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon.Haaretz, 12 October 2003
A welcome and legitimate initiative
/ref> In September 2009, a detailed expanded version of the plan was released. The annexes serve as a supplement to the Geneva Accord, outlining the practical measures required for successful implementation of the
two-state solution The two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict envisions an independent State of Palestine alongside the Israel, State of Israel, west of the Jordan River. The boundary between the two states is still subject to dispute and neg ...
. They cover key issues including security, border crossings, the Implementation and Verification Group (IVG), roads, water management, environmental concerns, the economy, and the division of Jerusalem.Geneva Initiative
"Annexes"
Ramallah and Tel Aviv, 2009


Outline

The Geneva Initiative addresses and presents a comprehensive solution to all issues vital to ensuring the end of the conflict and the realization of the national visions of both parties. It would give the Palestinians almost all of the
West Bank The West Bank ( ar, الضفة الغربية '; he, הגדה המערבית ' or ') is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, bordered by Jordan and the Dead Sea to the east and by Israel to the south, west a ...
and
Gaza Strip The Gaza Strip (;The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza.. ...
drawing
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
's borders close to what existed prior to the Israeli control of territory at the culmination of the 1967 war. The plan has much similarity with the
2000 Camp David Summit The 2000 Camp David Summit was a summit meeting A summit meeting (or just summit) is an international meeting of Head of state, heads of state or Head of government, government, usually with considerable media exposure, tight security, and a prea ...
and
Taba Summit The Taba Summit (also known as ''Taba Talks'', ''Taba Conference'' or short ''Taba'') were talks between Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially t ...
proposals, and Olmert's 2008 Napkin map. Only settlements along the Green Line would be annexed by Israel with mutual land swaps, including
Ma'ale Adumim Ma'ale Adumim ( he, מַעֲלֵה אֲדֻמִּים; ar, معالي أدوميم) is an urban Israeli settlement and a city in the West Bank, seven kilometers () east of Jerusalem. Ma'ale Adumim achieved city council (Israel), city status in ...

Ma'ale Adumim
,
Pisgat Ze'ev Pisgat Ze'ev ( he, פסגת זאב, lit. ''Ze'ev's Peak'') is an Israeli settlement Israeli settlements, or Israeli colonies, are civilian communities inhabited by Israeli citizens, almost exclusively of Jewish ethnicity, built International ...
and
Giv'at Ze'ev Giv'at Ze'ev ( he, גִּבְעַת זְאֵב) is an Israeli settlement'An Israeli ...
. In the Geneva Initiative,
Ariel The Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey (ARIEL), is a space telescope A space telescope or space observatory is a telescope in outer space used to observe astronomical objects. Suggested by Lyman Spitzer in 1946, th ...
would be dismantled and the Palestinians be given more sovereignty over East Jerusalem. Jerusalem would be divided administratively, with East Jerusalem ("Al-Quds") serving as the capital of the Palestinian state and West Jerusalem ("Yerushalayim") as the capital of Israel. A Multinational Force would play an important role. In return for removing most of the Israeli settlements, the Palestinians would limit their "Palestinian right of return, right of return" of refugees to Israel to a number specified by the Israeli government and will put an end to any further claims and demands from Israel.


Summary


Key concepts

The key concepts included in the Geneva Accord are: * A mutual Israeli–Palestinian declaration of an end to the conflict and future claims. * Mutual recognition of both nations and their right to an independent state. * Almost complete Israeli withdrawal to the 1967 borders, with a limited number of settlement blocs on the basis of a 1:1 land swap. * A comprehensive solution to the issue of the Palestinian refugees based on the Clinton Parameters (2000); of which the main component will be compensation and a return to an independent Palestinian State. * Jewish Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and Arab Jerusalem as Palestine’s capital with Jewish areas under Israeli sovereignty and Arab areas under Palestinian sovereignty. * A non-militarized Palestinian state and detailed security arrangements.


Refugees

The proposal for the Palestinian refugee problem is modeled after UNGAR 194, UNSC Resolution 242, and the Arab Peace Initiative. It outlines a compensation plan for recognition of "Refugeehood" and loss of property and a remuneration plan for states that have hosted Palestinian refugees. The Geneva Accord outlines multiple options and modalities for refugees to exercise a choice of permanent place of residence (PPR) in accordance with clauses set forth in the document, some of which include the option to elect to remain in their present host countries, or relocate to third countries, among them Israel, at the sovereign discretion of third countries.


Borders and territory

The Geneva Accord bases the International Border between the States of Palestine and Israel on the June 4th 1967 lines, in accordance with UNSC Resolution 242UNSC Resolution 242
22 November 1967
and UNSC Resolution 338,UNSC Resolution 338
22 October 1973
with reciprocal modifications in the form of landswaps on a 1:1 basis. Israel will annex several areas currently densely populated by Jewish settlements near the Green Line (Israel), Green Line (such as Gush Etzion). In return for areas annexed by Israel from the
West Bank The West Bank ( ar, الضفة الغربية '; he, הגדה המערבית ' or ') is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, bordered by Jordan and the Dead Sea to the east and by Israel to the south, west a ...
, the Palestinians will receive territory of equal area and quality adjacent mostly to the
Gaza Strip The Gaza Strip (;The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza.. ...
. The State of Israel will assume responsibility for resettling the Israelis living in what would be determined as Palestinian sovereign territory such as
Ariel The Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey (ARIEL), is a space telescope A space telescope or space observatory is a telescope in outer space used to observe astronomical objects. Suggested by Lyman Spitzer in 1946, th ...
and other settlements.


Jerusalem

The sharing of Jerusalem will be addressed along the Clinton Parameters. Jewish Jerusalem will serve as Israel’s capital and Arab Jerusalem as Palestine’s capital. Each state would be sovereign over the neighborhoods predominately inhabited by its respective community. The Old City (Jerusalem), Old City will be open and free to movement and the parties will commit to safeguarding the character, holiness, and freedom of worship in the city. The Implementation and Verification Group will act as an impartial international presence to monitor and verify the preservation of cultural heritage in the Old City in accordance with UNESCO World Heritage List rules. The IVG will establish an Old City Policing Unit to perform policing duties to defuse local tensions and resolve disputes.


International supervision

An Implementation and Verification Group (IVG) will be established to facilitate, assist in, guarantee, monitor, and resolve disputes relating to the implementation of the agreement. Under the authority of the IVG would be a Multinational Force (MF) which will serve to provide security guarantees to the Parties, act as a deterrent, and oversee the implementation of the relevant provisions of the agreement. The specific details related to the composition of the MF and responsibilities of the IVG as a whole are outlined in the annexes.


Support

Yasser Arafat praised the "brave initiative that opens the door to peace". It was reported by Palestinian sources that Arafat and Ahmed Qurei had approved the Geneva initiative in principle but not the details, and sent official representatives to the launching ceremony. A June 2010 poll conducted by the Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research in Ramallah found support for the Geneva/Clinton Parameters running at about 49% amongst Palestinians and 52% among Israelis. The level of opposition was equal at 49% in the Palestinian community, but stood at 37% for Israelis.PSR – Survey Research Unit, Press Release
, 29 June 2010
''The Jerusalem Post'' reported on 10 March 2008 that influential Palestinian figure Marwan Barghouti had told Israeli politician Haim Oron "that it was possible for Israel and the Palestinians to reach a final-status agreement along the lines of the Geneva Initiative".


United States

* George W. Bush: "[The Geneva Accord] is productive, so long as they adhere to the principles [to] fight off terror, that there must be security, and there must be the emergence of a Palestinian state that is democratic and free."Bush: Geneva is 'productive'
Nathan Guttman, ''Haaretz'', 5 December 2003
* Colin Powell: "The U.S. remains committed to the President's two-state vision and to the road map, but we also believe that projects such as yours are important in helping to sustain an atmosphere of hope in which Israelis and Palestinians can discuss mutually acceptable resolutions to the difficult issues that confront them."Powell lends support to Geneva Accord
Aluf Been, ''Haaretz'', 9 November 2003
* Bill Clinton: "That's why the agreement in Geneva is so important. ... Such efforts prove that Israelis and Palestinians of goodwill can agree on even the most vexing settlement issues."
Bill Clinton, ''USA Today'', 3 December 2003


Other international support

* Fifty-eight former presidents, prime ministers, foreign ministers and other global leaders, among them former presidents Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union and F.W. de Klerk of South Africa, issued a statement expressing "strong support" for the plan. Other world leaders who voiced their backing included King Mohammed VI of Morocco, British Prime Minister Tony Blair, President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt and Clinton.


Criticism


Palestinian criticism

Palestinian support was not universal. Some strongly opposed the plan and its apparent trade-off of the Palestinian right of return in exchange for statehood. Jamal Zakut, one of the participants and drafters of the plan from the Palestinian side, argued that the section dealing with the refugee issue has "certain ambiguity" and the whole purpose of this document is only to be a model for a future agreement. "The document does not indicate or ensure full and collective return of millions of Palestinians but neither does it waive this right … the document is only another tool by which we continue the struggle to restore our national rights and achieve peace as confirmed by international community and nothing more".


Israeli criticism

Upon the Geneva Accord's release in 2003, the government of Israel headed by Ariel Sharon criticized the accord. A publicity campaign on the Israel Broadcasting Authority stations was cancelled after an Israel Radio investigation raised suspicions of questionable financing. Silvan Shalom, who was the Foreign Affairs Minister of Israel at the time, revealed the significant foreign national funding of Beilin's plan, and the Israeli government protested this foreign meddling in internal affairs.


Follow-up

Since the writing of the Geneva Accord, the Geneva Initiative developed two cooperating not-for-profit associations / Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), Heskem (H.L. Education for Peace/Geneva Initiative-Israel) on the Israeli side and their Palestinian counterpart Palestine Peace Coalition/Geneva Initiative (PPC/GI). The organizations work together and among their respective communities to promote the Accord’s mission of a negotiated agreement between Israel and Palestine, and to prepare public opinion and leadership to be accepting of the compromises required to solve the conflict. The Geneva Initiative NGOs educate and campaign, both locally and internationally, that it is in the best interest of Israelis and Palestinians to negotiate directly in order to reach a sustainable two-state solution.


See also

* Israeli–Palestinian peace process * Projects working for peace among Israelis and Arabs * List of Middle East peace proposals * International law and the Arab–Israeli conflict * Middle East economic integration ;Arab–Israeli diplomacy and treaties * Paris Peace Conference, 1919 * Faisal–Weizmann Agreement (1919) * 1949 Armistice Agreements * Camp David Accords (1978) * Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty (1979) * Madrid Conference of 1991 * Oslo Accords (1993) * Israel–Jordan peace treaty (1994) * Camp David 2000 Summit * Menachem Froman#Froman–Amayreh Agreement, Froman–Amayreh Agreement


References


External links

*
Summary Accord + Annexes

Official Israeli website

Official Palestinian website

German website
{{Arab-Israeli diplomacy Israeli–Palestinian peace process Proposed treaties 2003 in international relations 2003 in Israel 2003 in the Palestinian territories Diplomatic conferences in Switzerland