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The Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
(German pronunciation: [ɡenəˈʁaːlˌplaːn ˈɔst]; English: Master Plan for the East), abbreviated GPO, was the German government's plan for the genocide and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe
Central and Eastern Europe
by Germans. It was to be undertaken in territories occupied by Germany during World War II. The plan was partially realized during the war, resulting indirectly and directly in a very large number of deaths, but its full implementation was not considered practicable during the major military operations, and was prevented by Germany's defeat.[1][2] The plan entailed the enslavement, expulsion, and mass murder of most Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
(and substantial parts of the Baltic peoples, especially Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and Latgalians[3]) in Europe along with planned destruction of their nations, whom the 'Aryan' Nazis viewed as racially inferior.[4] The programme operational guidelines were based on the policy of Lebensraum
Lebensraum
designed by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and the Nazi Party in fulfilment of the Drang nach Osten
Drang nach Osten
(drive to the East) ideology of German expansionism. As such, it was intended to be a part of the New Order in Europe. The master plan was a work in progress. There are four known versions of it, developed as the time went on. After the invasion of Poland, the original blueprint for Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
(GPO) was discussed by the RKFDV
RKFDV
in mid-1940 during the Nazi–Soviet population transfers. The second known version of GPO was procured by the RSHA
RSHA
from Wetzel in April 1942. The third version was officially dated June 1942. The final settlement master plan for the East came in from the RKFDV
RKFDV
on October 29, 1942. However, after the German defeat at Stalingrad planning of the colonization in the East was suspended, and the program was gradually abandoned.[5]

Contents

1 Development and reconstruction of the plan 2 Phases of the plan and its implementation 3 Civilian death toll in the Soviet Union 4 See also 5 Footnotes 6 References

6.1 Primary source

7 Further reading 8 External links

Development and reconstruction of the plan[edit] The body responsible for the Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
was the SS's Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) under Heinrich Himmler, which commissioned the work. The document was revised several times between June 1941 and spring 1942 as the war in the east progressed successfully. It was a strictly confidential proposal whose content was known only to those at the top level of the Nazi hierarchy; it was circulated by RSHA
RSHA
to the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories (Ostministerium) in early 1942.[6] According to testimony of SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
Dr. Hans Ehlich (one of the witnesses before the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials), the original version of the plan was drafted in 1940. As a high official in the RSHA, Ehlich was the man responsible for the drafting of Generalplan Ost along with Dr. Konrad Meyer, Chief of the Planning Office of Himmler's Reich Commission for the Strengthening of Germandom. It had been preceded by the Ostforschung, a number of studies and research projects carried out over several years by various academic centres to provide the necessary facts and figures.[6]

Hess and Himmler visit a VoMi
VoMi
display of proposed rural German settlements in the East, March 1941.

The preliminary versions were discussed by Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
and his most trusted colleagues even before the outbreak of war. This was mentioned by SS- Obergruppenführer
Obergruppenführer
Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski
Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski
during his evidence as a prosecution witness in the trial of officials of the Race and Settlement Main Office (RuSHA). According to Bach-Zelewski, Himmler stated openly: "It is a question of existence, thus it will be a racial struggle of pitiless severity, in the course of which 20 to 30 million Slavs
Slavs
and Jews will perish through military actions and crises of food supply."[6] A fundamental change in the plan was introduced on June 24, 1941 – two days after the start of Operation Barbarossa – when the 'solution' to the Jewish question
Jewish question
ceased to be part of that particular framework gaining a lethal, autonomous priority.[6] Nearly all the wartime documentation on Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
was deliberately destroyed shortly before Germany's defeat in May 1945,[7][8] and the full proposal has never been found, though several documents refer to it or supplement it. Nonetheless, most of the plan's essential elements have been reconstructed from related memos, abstracts and other documents.[9] A major document which enabled historians to accurately reconstruct the Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
was a memorandum released on April 27, 1942, by Erhard Wetzel, director of the NSDAP Office of Racial Policy, entitled "Opinion and thoughts on the master plan for the East of the Reichsführer SS".[10] Wetzel's memorandum was a broad elaboration of the Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
proposal.[11][9] It came to light only in 1957.[12] Adolf Hitler, in his attempt to reassure sceptics, mentioned the world's indifference towards the earlier Armenian Genocide
Genocide
as an argument that possible negative consequences for Germany would be minimal in this case. In subsequent years, his declaration from Berghof has been referred to as Hitler's Armenian quote.[13][14] Phases of the plan and its implementation[edit]

Percentages of ethnic groups to be destroyed and/or deported to Siberia
Siberia
by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
from future settlement areas.[15][16][3]

Ethnic group / Nationality Population percent subject to removal

Russians[17][16] 50–60% to be physically eliminated and another 15% to be sent to Western Siberia

Estonians[3][18] almost 50%

Latvians[3] 50%

Czechs[16] 50%

Ukrainians[16] 65%

Belarusians[16] 75%

Poles[16] 20 million, or 80–85%

Lithuanians[3] 85%

Latgalians[3] 100%

Further information: Expulsion of Poles
Poles
by Nazi Germany, Wehrbauer, and Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland

Europe, with pre-WW2 borders, showing the extension of the Generalplan Ost master plan. LEGEND: Dark grey – Germany (Deutsches Reich). Dotted black line – the extension of a detailed plan of the "second phase of settlement" (zweiten Siedlungsphase). Light grey – planned territorial scope of the Reichskommissariat
Reichskommissariat
administrative units; their names in blue are Ostland (1941-1945), Ukraine (1941-1944), Moskowien (never realized), and Kaukasien (never realized).

Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
(GPO) (English: Master Plan East) was a secret Nazi German plan for the colonization of Central and Eastern Europe.[19] Implementing it would have necessitated genocide[15] and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale to be undertaken in the European territories occupied by Germany during World War II. It would have included the extermination of most Slavic people in Europe. The plan, prepared in the years 1939-1942, was part of Adolf Hitler's and the Nazi movement's Lebensraum
Lebensraum
policy and a fulfilment of the Drang nach Osten (English: Drive towards the East) ideology of German expansion to the east, both of them part of the larger plan to establish the New Order. The final version of the Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
proposal was divided into two parts; the "Small Plan" (Kleine Planung), which covered actions carried out in the course of the war; and the "Big Plan" (Grosse Planung), which described steps to be taken gradually over a period of 25 to 30 years after the war was won. Both plans entailed the policy of ethnic cleansing.[9][20] As of June 1941, the policy envisaged the deportation of 31 million Slavs
Slavs
to Siberia.[6] The Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
proposal offered various percentages of the conquered or colonized people who were targeted for removal and physical destruction; the net effect of which would be to ensure that the conquered territories would become German. In ten years' time, the plan effectively called for the extermination, expulsion, Germanization
Germanization
or enslavement of most or all East and West Slavs
Slavs
living behind the front lines of East-Central Europe. The "Small Plan" was to be put into practice as the Germans
Germans
conquered the areas to the east of their pre-war borders. In this way the plan for Poland was drawn up at the end of November 1939 and is probably responsible for much of the World War II
World War II
expulsion of Poles
Poles
by Germany (first to colonial district of the General Government
General Government
and, from 1942 also to Polenlager).[21] After the war, under the "Big Plan", Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
foresaw the removal of 45 million non-Germanizable people from Central and Eastern Europe, of whom 31 million were "racially undesirable", 100% of Jews, Poles
Poles
(85%), Lithuanians
Lithuanians
(85%) [3][16], Belorussians (75%) and Ukrainians
Ukrainians
(65%), to West Siberia,[7] and about 14 millions were to remain, but were to be treated as slaves.[9] In their place, up to 8-10 million Germans
Germans
would be settled in an extended "living space" (Lebensraum). Because the number of Germans
Germans
appeared to be insufficient to populate the vast territories of Central and Eastern Europe, the peoples judged to lie racially between the Germans
Germans
and the Russians
Russians
(Mittelschicht), namely, Latvians
Latvians
and even Czechs, were also supposed to be resettled there.[22]

Prisoners of the Krychów
Krychów
forced labour camp dig irrigation ditches for the new German latifundia of the General Plan East in 1940. Most of them, Polish Jews
Polish Jews
and some Roma people, were sent to Sobibór extermination camp afterwards.[23]

According to Nazi intentions, attempts at Germanization
Germanization
were to be undertaken only in the case of those foreign nationals in Central and Eastern Europe who could be considered a desirable element for the future Reich from the point of view of its racial theories. The Plan stipulated that there were to be different methods of treating particular nations and even particular groups within them. Attempts were even made to establish the basic criteria to be used in determining whether a given group lent itself to Germanization. These criteria were to be applied more liberally in the case of nations whose racial material (rassische Substanz) and level of cultural development made them more suitable than others for Germanization. The Plan considered that there were a large number of such elements among the Baltic nations. Erhard Wetzel felt that thought should be given to a possible Germanization
Germanization
of the whole of the Estonian nation and a sizable proportion of the Latvians. On the other hand, the Lithuanians seemed less desirable since "they contained too great an admixture of Slav blood." Himmler's view was that "almost the whole of the Lithuanian nation would have to be deported to the East".[16] Himmler is described to even have had a positive attitude towards germanizing the populations of Alsace-Lorraine, border areas of Slovenia
Slovenia
(Upper Carniola and Southern Styria) and Bohemia-Moravia, but not Lithuania, claiming its population to be of "inferior race"[24]. Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia were to be deprived of their statehood, while their territories were to be included in the area of German settlement. This meant that Latvia and especially Lithuania
Lithuania
would be covered by the deportation plans, though in a somewhat milder form than the expulsion of Slavs
Slavs
to western Siberia. While the Baltic nations like Estonians
Estonians
would be spared from repressions and physical liquidation (that the Jews and the Poles
Poles
were experiencing), in the long term the Nazi planners did not foresee their existence as independent entitites and they would be deported as well, with eventual denationalisation; initial designs were for Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia to be Germanized within 25 years, however Heinrich Himmler revised them to 20 years.[25]

Nazi propaganda poster of the Third Reich
Third Reich
in 1939 (dark grey) after the conquest of Poland. It depicts pockets of German colonists resettling into Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
from Soviet controlled territories during the "Heim ins Reich" action. The outline of Poland (here superimposed in red) was missing from the original poster.[26]

In 1941 it was decided to destroy the Polish nation completely and the German leadership decided that in 15-20 years the Polish state under German occupation was to be fully cleared of any ethnic Poles
Poles
and settled by German colonists.[27]:32 A majority of them, now deprived of their leaders and most of their intelligentsia (through mass murder, destruction of culture, the ban on education above the absolutely basic level, and kidnapping of children for Germanization), would have to be deported to regions in the East and scattered over as wide an area of Western Siberia
Siberia
as possible. According to the plan this would result in their assimilation by the local populations, which would cause the Poles
Poles
to vanish as a nation.[22] According to plan, by 1952 only about 3–4 million 'non-Germanized' Poles
Poles
(all of them peasants) were to be left residing in the former Poland. Those of them who would still not Germanize were to be forbidden to marry, the existing ban on any medical help to Poles
Poles
in Germany would be extended, and eventually Poles
Poles
would cease to exist. Experiments in mass sterilization in concentration camps may also have been intended for use on the populations.[28] The Wehrbauer, or soldier-peasants, would be settled in a fortified line to prevent civilization reanimating beyond the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
and threatening Germany.[29] "Tough peasant races" would serve as a bulwark against attack[30] — however, it was not very far east of the "frontier" that the westernmost reaches within continental Asia of the Third Reich's major Axis partner, Imperial Japan's own Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere would have existed, had a complete defeat of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
occurred. The seizure of food supplies in Ukraine brought about starvation, as it was intended to do to depopulate that region for German settlement.[31] Soldiers were told to steel their hearts against starving women and children, because every bit of food given to them was stolen from the German people, endangering their nourishment.[32]

Execution of Polish intelligentsia during the mass murders in Piaśnica

Widely varying policies were envisioned by the creators of Generalplan Ost, and some of them were actually implemented by Germany in regards to the different Slavic territories and ethnic groups. For example, by August–September 1939 ( Operation Tannenberg
Operation Tannenberg
followed by the A-B Aktion in 1940), Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
death squads and concentration camps had been employed to deal with the Polish elite, while the small number of Czech intelligentsia were allowed to emigrate overseas. Parts of Poland were annexed by Germany early in the war (leaving aside the rump German-controlled General Government
General Government
and the areas previously annexed by the Soviet Union), while the other territories were officially occupied by or allied to Germany (for example, the Slovak part of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
became a theoretically independent puppet state, while the ethnic-Czech parts of the Czech lands
Czech lands
(so excluding the Sudetenland) became a "protectorate"). It is unknown to what degree the plan was actually directly connected to the various German war crimes and crimes against humanity in the East, especially in the latter phases of the war.[citation needed] In any case, the majority of Germany's 12 million forced laborers were abducted from Eastern Europe, mostly in the Soviet territories and Poland (both Slavs
Slavs
and local Jews). One of the charges listed in the indictment presented at the trial of Adolf Eichmann, the SS officer responsible for the transportation aspects of the Final Solution, was that he was responsible for the deportation of 500,000 Poles. Eichmann was convicted on all 15 counts.[33] Civilian death toll in the Soviet Union[edit] The Soviet Extraordinary State Commission
Extraordinary State Commission
formed in World War II
World War II
in order to investigate the Nazi crimes,[34] which was tasked also with compensating the state for damages suffered by the USSR,[35] reported 8.2 million Soviet civilian war dead,[36] (4.0 million in Ukraine; 2.5 million in Belarus; and 1.7 million in Russia) as the result of German occupation. These figures have been disputed outside of Russia. Some reports prepared by the Commission are now considered outright fabrications, such as the shifting of blame for the Katyn massacre perpetrated by the Soviet authorities themselves.[37][38] The losses were for the entire territory of the USSR in 1946 to 1991 borders, including territories occupied by the Red Army in 1939–1940. The commission reported figures of 2.4 million civilian losses in annexed lands included citizens of prewar Poland along with inhabitants of other states occupied by the Soviet Union.[39] The overall statistics included Russian victims of Stalinist terror as well.[40][41] The Russian Academy of Sciences
Russian Academy of Sciences
in 1995 estimated that the World War II casualties of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
included 13.7 million civilian dead, 20% of the 68 million persons in the occupied USSR.This included 7.4 million victims of Nazi policies and reprisals; 2.2 million deaths of persons deported to Germany for forced labor; and 4.1 million famine and disease deaths in occupied territory. To support these figures, they cited sources published in the Soviet era based on the work of the Extraordinary State Commission, there were an additional estimated 3 million famine deaths in areas of the USSR not under German occupation. These figures are cited in the official publications of the Russian government [42] This was disputed by the Russian historian Viktor Zemskov who maintained that the government's estimate for the civilian war dead is overstated because it includes about 7 million deaths resulting from natural causes, based on the mortality rate that prevailed before the war, and that reported civilian deaths in the occupied regions included persons who were evacuated to the rear areas. He submitted an estimate of 4.5 million civilians who were Nazi victims or were killed in the occupied zone and 4 million deaths due to the deterioration in living conditions.[43] Timothy D. Snyder maintains that there were 4.2 million victims of the German Hunger Plan in the Soviet Union, "largely Russians, Belarusians
Belarusians
and Ukrainians," including 3.1 million Soviet POWs and 1.0 million civilian deaths in the Siege of Leningrad. [44] According to Snyder, Hitler intended eventually to exterminate up to 45 million Poles, Ukrainians, Belarusians
Belarusians
and Czechs
Czechs
by planned famine as part of Generalplan Ost.[45] See also[edit]

A-A line, military goal of Operation Barbarossa Areas annexed by Nazi Germany Chronicles of Terror Expulsion of Poles
Poles
by Nazi Germany Holocaust victims Hunger Plan
Hunger Plan
to seize food from the Soviet Union Nazi crimes against ethnic Poles Nazi crimes against Soviet POWs Nazism and race New Order proclaimed by Hitler in 1941 Occupation of Poland (1939–1945) Pabst Plan
Pabst Plan
to reconstruct Warsaw
Warsaw
as a Nazi city Racial policy of Nazi Germany Wannsee Conference
Wannsee Conference
about the "Final Solution" World War II
World War II
evacuation and expulsion Forced labour under German rule during World War II Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
in Nazi planning

Footnotes[edit]

^ [1] WISSENSCHAFT - PLANUNG - VERTREIBUNG.] Der Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
der Nationalsozialisten· Eine Ausstellung der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft © 2006 ^ Dietrich Eichholtz»Generalplan Ost« zur Versklavung osteuropäischer Völker. PDF file, direct download. ^ a b c d e f g Misiunas, Romuald J.; Taagepera, Rein (1993). The Baltic States: Years of Dependence, 1940-80. University of California Press. pp. 48–9. ISBN 978-052008228-1.  ^ Stephenson, Jill (2006). Hitler's Home Front: Wurttemberg Under the Nazis. Hambledon Continuum. p. 113. ISBN 1-85285-442-1. Other non-'Aryans' included Slavs, Blacks and Roma and Sinti (Romanies), although some of these last were classed as 'racially pure'.  ^ " Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
(General Plan East). The Nazi evolution in German foreign policy. Documentary sources". World Future Fund.  ^ a b c d e Browning (2007), pp. 240–1 ^ a b Schmuhl, Hans-Walter (2008). The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, 1927–1945. Crossing boundaries. Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science. 259. Springer Netherlands. pp. 348–9. ISBN 978-90-481-7678-6.  ^ Poprzeczny, Joseph (2004). Odilo Globocnik, Hitler's Man in the East. McFarland. p. 186. ISBN 0-7864-1625-4.  ^ a b c d Gellately, Robert (1996). "Reviewed Works: Vom Generalplan Ost zum Generalsiedlungsplan by Czeslaw Madajczyk; Der 'Generalplan Ost'. Hauptlinien der nationalsozialistischen Planungs- und Vernichtungspolitik by Mechtild Rössler, Sabine Schleiermacher". Central European History. 29 (2): 270–4.  References: Madajczyk (1994); Rössler & Scheiermacher (1993). ^ Wetzel (1942). ^ Weiss-Wendt, Anton (2010). Eradicating Differences: The Treatment of Minorities in Nazi-Dominated Europe. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 69. ISBN 1443824496.  ^ Madajczyk (1962). ^ Streeter, Stephen M.; Weaver, John C.; Coleman, William D. (2009). Empires and Autonomy: Moments in the History of Globalization. UBC Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-077481600-7.  ^ Churchill, Ward (1997). A little matter of genocide: holocaust and denial in the Americas, 1492 to the present. San Francisco: City Lights Books. p. 52. ISBN 978-087286323-1.  ^ a b Eichholtz, Dietrich (September 2004). "»Generalplan Ost« zur Versklavung osteuropäischer Völker" [Generalplan Ost for the enslavment of East European peoples] (downloadable PDF). Utopie Kreativ (in German). 167: 800–8 – via Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung.  ^ a b c d e f g h Gumkowski, Janusz; Leszczynski, Kazimierz (1961). Poland under Nazi Occupation. Warsaw: Polonia Publishing House. OCLC 456349.  See excerpts in "Hitler's Plans for Eastern Europe". Holocaust Awareness Committee - History Department, Northeastern University. Archived from the original on 2011-11-25.  ^ Pinfield, Nick (2015). Fordham, Michael; Smith,David, eds. Democracy and Nazism: Germany, 1918-1945. Student Book. p. 173. ISBN 978-110757316-1.  ^ Smith, David J. (2001). Estonia: Independence and European Integration. Routledge. p. 35. ISBN 978-041526728-1.  ^ "Wissenschaft, Planung, Vertreibung - Der Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
der Nationalsozialisten". Eine Ausstellung der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) (in German). 2006.  ^ Madajczyk, Czesław (1980). "Die Besatzungssysteme der Achsenmächte. Versuch einer komparatistischen Analyse" [Occupation modalities of the Axis powers. A possible comparative analysis]. Studia Historiae Oeconomicae. 14: 105–22.  See also Müller, Rolf-Dieter; Ueberschär, Gerd R., eds. (2008). Hitler's War in the East, 1941-1945: A Critical Assessment. Berghahn. ISBN 978-1-84545-501-9. Google Books.  ^ Tomaszewski, Irene; Werbowski, Tecia (2010). Code Name Żegota: Rescuing Jews in Occupied Poland, 1942–1945. ABC-CLIO. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-313-38391-5. Retrieved May 11, 2012.  ^ a b Connelly, J. (1999). "Nazis and Slavs: From Racial Theory to Racist Practice". Central European History. 32 (1): 1–33.  ^ "Obozy pracy na terenie Gminy Hańsk" [Labour camps in Gmina Hańsk] (in Polish). hansk.info. Retrieved 29 September 2014.  ^ Heinemann, Isabel (1999). Rasse, Siedlung, deutsches Blut. Das Rasse- und Siedlungshauptamt der SS und die rassenpolitische Neuordnung Europas. Wallstein Verlag. p. 370. ISBN 3892446237.  ^ Raun,Toivo U. (2002). Estonia and the Estonians
Estonians
(2nd updated ed.). Stanford CA: Hoover Institution Press. pp. 160–4. ISBN 0817928537.  ^ Nicholas, Lynn H. (2011). Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web. Knopf Doubleday. p. 194. ISBN 0307793826.  ^ Berghahn, Volker R. (1999). " Germans
Germans
and Poles
Poles
1871–1945". In Bullivant, K.; Giles,G.J.; Pape, W. Germany and Eastern Europe: Cultural Identities and Cultural Differences. Rodopi. pp. 15–34. ISBN 9042006889.  ^ Weinberg, Gerhard L. (2005). Visions of Victory: The Hopes of Eight World War II
World War II
Leaders. Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-052185254-8.  ^ Cecil, Robert (1972). The Myth of the Master Race: Alfred Rosenberg and Nazi Ideology. New York City: Dodd, Mead & Co. p. 19. ISBN 0-396-06577-5.  ^ Sontheimer, Michael (27 May 2011). "When We Finish, Nobody Is Left Alive". Spiegel Online.  ^ Berkhoff (2004), p. 45. ^ Berkhoff (2004), p. 166. ^ Korbonski, Stefan (1981). The Polish Underground State: A Guide to the Underground, 1939-1945. Hippocrene Books. pp. 120, 137–8. ISBN 978-088254517-2.  ^ Berenbaum (1990). ^ Akinsha, Konstantin; Kozlov, Grigorii (2007). "April 1991 Spoils of War: The Soviet Union's Hidden Art Treasures". ArtNews.  ^ Kumanev, Georgily A. The German occupation regime on occupied territory in the USSR.  In Berenbaum (1990), p. 140. ^ Fischer, Benjamin B. (2008). "The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field". CIA. Retrieved 10 December 2005.  ^ Cienciala, Anna M.; Materski, Wojciech (2007). Katyn: a crime without punishment. Yale University Press. pp. 226–9. ISBN 978-0-300-10851-4.  ^ Жертвы двух диктатур. Остарбайтеры и военнопленные в Третьем Рейхе и их репатриация. – М.: Ваш выбор ЦИРЗ, 1996, pp. 735-8. [Victims of Two Dictatorships. Ostarbeiters and POW in Third Reich and Their Repatriation] (in Russian). Quote: "2,411,430 in annexed territories including (1,538,544 from Poland: Stanislav 223,920; Volyn 65,440; Lviv/Lwow 475,435; Rovno 175,133; Ternopol 172,357; Lutsk 117,549; Brest 159,526, Horodna 111,203; and Polesskya 37,981) Lithuania: including Vilnius/Wilno 436,535; Latvia: 313,798; Estonia: 61,307; and Moldova: 61,246." ^ Davies, Norman (2012). Boże igrzysko [God's Playground]. 2 (Polish ed.). Otwarte. p. 956. ISBN 8324015566. To, co robili Sowieci, było szczególnie mylące. Same liczby były całkowicie wiarygodne, ale pozbawione komentarza, sprytnie ukrywały fakt, że ofiary w przeważającej liczbie nie były Rosjanami, że owe miliony obejmowały ofiary nie tylko Hitlera, ale i Stalina, oraz że wśród ludności cywilnej największe grupy stanowili Ukraińcy, Polacy, Białorusini i Żydzi. Translation: The Soviet methods were particularly misleading. The numbers were correct, but the victims were overwhelmingly not Russian, and came from either one of the two regimes.  ^ Wegner, Bernd (1997). From peace to war: Germany, Soviet Russia, and the world, 1939–1941. Berghahn. p. 74. ISBN 1-57181-882-0.  ^ Russian Academy (1995). ^ Zemskov, Viktor N. (2012). "О масштабах людских потерь CCCР в Великой Отечественной Войне" [The extent of human losses USSR in the Great Patriotic War]. Military Historical Archive (Военно-исторический архив) (in Russian). 9: 59–71 – via Demoskop Weehly vol. 559-560 (2013).  ^ Snyder (2010), Bloodlands,p. 411. Snyder states "4.2 million Soviet citizens starved by the German occupiers" ^ Snyder (2010), Bloodlands, p. 160

References[edit]

Aly, Götz; Heim, Susanne (2003). Architects of Annihilation: Auschwitz and the Logic of Destruction. Phoenix. The General Plan for the East. ISBN 1-84212-670-9 – via Google Books.  Berenbaum, Michael, ed. (1990). A Mosaic of Victims: Non-Jews Persecuted and Murdered by the Nazis. NYUP. ISBN 1-85043-251-1.  Berkhoff, Karel C. (2004). Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine Under Nazi Rule. Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-01313-1.  Browning, Christopher R. (2007). The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939-March 1942. U of Nebraska Press. Generalplan Ost: The Search for a Final Solution through Expulsion. ISBN 0803203926.  Fritz, Stephen G. (2011). Ostkrieg: Hitler's War of Extermination in the East. University Press of Kentucky. Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
(General plan for the east). ISBN 0813140501 – via Google Books.  Koehl, Robert L. (1957). Rkfdv: German Resettlement and Population Policy 1939-1945. : A History of the Reich Commission for the Strengthening of Germandom. Harvard University Press. OCLC 906064851.  Madajczyk, Czesław (1962). "General Plan East. Hitler's Master Plan for expansion". Polish Western Affairs. World Future Fund. III (2). Resources: Wetzel (1942); Meyer-Hetling (1942). Note: After World War II, it was thought, that the memorandum itself had been lost. The first information of its content was given in Koehl (1957), p. 72.  Madajczyk, Czesław, ed. (1994). Vom Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
Zum Generalsiedlungsplan: Dokumente (in German). De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3598232244.  Rössler, Mechtild; Scheiermacher, Sabine, eds. (1993). Der 'Generalplan Ost' Hauptlinien der nationalsozialistischen Plaungs-und Vernichtungspolitik (in German). Akademie-Verlag. ISBN 978-3050024455.  Russian Academy of Science (1995). Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei [Human losses of the USSR in the period of WWII: collection of articles.] (in Russian). Sankt-Petersburg. ISBN 5-86789-023-6.  Snyder, Timothy (2012). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. Basic Books. Generalplan Ost. ISBN 0465002390.  Wildt, Michael (2008). Generation of the unbound: the leadership corps of the Reich Security Main Office. Wallstein Verlag. Weltanschauung. ISBN 3835302906 – via Google Books. 

Primary source[edit]

Meyer-Hetling, Konrad (June 1942). 'Generalplan Ost', Rechtliche, wirtschaftliche und räumliche Grundlagen des Ostaufbaues (in German). Under supervision of Heinrich Himmler.  Wetzel, Erhard (27 April 1942). Stellungnahme und Gedanken zum Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
des Reichsführers S.S. [Opinion and thoughts on the master plan for the East of the Reichsführer SS] (Memorandum). pp. 297–324.  In "Dokumentation - Der Generalplan Ost" (PDF). Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte. Institut für Zeitgeschichte. 6 (3): 281–325. 1958. 

Further reading[edit]

Bakoubayi Billy, Jonas: Musterkolonie des Rassenstaats: Togo in der kolonialpolitischen Propaganda und Planung Deutschlands 1919-1943, J.H.Röll-Verlag, Dettelbach 2011, ISBN 978-3-89754-377-5. (in German) Eichholtz, Dietrich. "Der Generalplan Ost." Über eine Ausgeburt imperialistischer Denkart und Politik, Jahrbuch für Geschichte, Volume 26, 1982. (in German) Heiber, Helmut. "Der Generalplan Ost." Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, Volume 3, 1958. (in German) Kamenetsky, Ihor (1961). Secret Nazi Plans for Eastern Europe: A Study of Lebensraum
Lebensraum
Policies. New York City: Bookman Associates.  Madajczyk, Czesław. Die Okkupationspolitik Nazideutschlands in Polen 1939-1945, Cologne, 1988. OCLC 473808120 (in German) Madajczyk, Czesław. Generalny Plan Wschodni: Zbiór dokumentów, Główna Komisja Badania Zbrodni Hitlerowskich w Polsce, Warszawa, 1990. OCLC 24945260 (in Polish) Roth, Karl-Heinz, "Erster Generalplan Ost." (April/May 1940) von Konrad Meyer, Dokumentationsstelle zur NS-Sozialpolitik, Mittelungen, Volume 1, 1985. (in German) Szcześniak, Andrzej Leszek. Plan Zagłady Słowian. Generalplan Ost, Polskie Wydawnictwo Encyklopedyczne, Radom, 2001. ISBN 8388822039 OCLC 54611513 (in Polish) Wildt, Michael. "The Spirit of the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA)." Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions (2005) 6#3 pp. 333–349. Full article available with purchase.

External links[edit]

Berlin-Dahlem (May 28, 1942). Full text of the original German Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
document. "Legal, economic and spatial foundations of the East." Digitized copy of the 100-page version from the Bundesarchiv
Bundesarchiv
Berlin-Licherfelde. (in German) Worldfuturefund.org: Documentary sources regarding Generalplan Ost Dac.neu.edu: Hitler's Plans for Eastern Europe Der Generalplan Ost
Generalplan Ost
der Nationalsozialisten. (in German) Deutsches Historisches Museum (2009), Berlin, Übersichtskarte: Planungsszenarien zur "völkischen Flurbereinigung" in Osteuropa.

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The Holocaust

By territory

Albania Belarus Belgium Channel Islands Croatia Estonia France Norway Latvia Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Poland Russia Serbia Ukraine

Lists and timelines

Victims of Nazism Holocaust survivors Survivors of Sobibór Victims and survivors of Auschwitz

Books and other resources Films about the Holocaust Nazi concentration camps Nazi ideologues Rescuers of Jews Shtetls depopulated of Jews Timeline of deportations of French Jews Timeline of the Holocaust Timeline of the Holocaust in Norway Treblinka timeline

Camps

Concentration

Bergen-Belsen Bogdanovka Buchenwald Dachau Danica Dora Đakovo Esterwegen Flossenbürg Gonars Gospić Gross-Rosen Herzogenbusch Jadovno Janowska Kaiserwald Kraków-Płaszów Kruščica Lobor Mauthausen-Gusen Neuengamme Rab Ravensbrück Sachsenhausen Salaspils Sisak children's camp Stutthof Tenja Theresienstadt Topovske Šupe Uckermark Warsaw

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Bełżec Chełmno Jasenovac Majdanek Maly Trostenets Sajmište Slana Sobibór Treblinka

Transit

be Breendonk Mechelen fr Gurs Drancy it Bolzano Risiera di San Sabba nl Amersfoort Schoorl Westerbork

Methods

Einsatzgruppen Gas van Gas chamber Extermination through labour Human medical experimentation

Nazi units

SS-Totenkopfverbände Concentration Camps Inspectorate Politische Abteilung Sanitätswesen

Victims

Jews

Roundups

fr Izieu Marseille Vel' d'Hiv

Pogroms

Kristallnacht Bucharest Dorohoi Iaşi Jedwabne Kaunas Lviv Odessa Tykocin Wąsosz

Ghettos

Poland

Białystok Kraków Łódź Lublin Lwów Warsaw

Elsewhere

Budapest Kovno Minsk Riga Vilna

"Final Solution"

Wannsee Conference Operation Reinhard Holocaust trains Extermination camps

Einsatzgruppen

Babi Yar Bydgoszcz Kamianets-Podilskyi Ninth Fort Piaśnica Ponary Rumbula Erntefest

Resistance

Jewish partisans Ghetto uprisings

Warsaw Białystok Częstochowa

End of World War II

Death marches Wola Bricha Displaced persons Holocaust denial

trivialization

Others

Romani people
Romani people
(gypsies) Poles Soviet POWs Slavs
Slavs
in Eastern Europe Homosexuals People with disabilities Serbs Freemasons Jehovah's Witnesses Black people

Responsibility

Organizations

Nazi Party Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(SD) Waffen-SS Wehrmacht

Units

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiments Orpo Police Battalions

Collaborators

Ypatingasis būrys Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann Arajs Kommando Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Trawnikis Nederlandsche SS Special
Special
Brigades

Individuals

Major perpetrators Nazi ideologues

Early elements Aftermath Remembrance

Early elements

Nazi racial policy Nazi eugenics Nuremberg Laws Haavara Agreement Madagascar Plan Forced euthanasia (Action T4)

Nuremberg trials Denazification Holocaust survivors

Survivor guilt

Reparations

Remembrance

Days of remembrance Memorials and museums Academia

v t e

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and Einsatzkommandos

People

Director

Reinhard Heydrich Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

Humbert Achamer-Pifrader Walther Bierkamp Horst Böhme Erich Ehrlinger Wilhelm Fuchs Heinz Jost Erich Naumann Arthur Nebe Otto Ohlendorf Friedrich Panzinger Otto Rasch Heinrich Seetzen Franz Walter Stahlecker Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski Rudolf Batz Ernst Biberstein Wolfgang Birkner Helmut Bischoff Paul Blobel Walter Blume Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock Otto Bradfisch Werner Braune Friedrich Buchardt Fritz Dietrich Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Waldemar Klingelhöfer Wolfgang Kügler Walter Kutschmann Rudolf Lange Gustav Adolf Nosske Hans-Adolf Prützmann Walter Rauff Martin Sandberger Hermann Schaper Karl Eberhard Schöngarth Erwin Schulz Franz Six Eugen Steimle Eduard Strauch Martin Weiss Udo von Woyrsch

Other members

August Becker Lothar Fendler Joachim Hamann Emil Haussmann Felix Landau Albert Widmann

Collaborators

Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Antanas Impulevičius Konrāds Kalējs Algirdas Klimaitis

Groups

German

SS RSHA SD Orpo 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Sonderdienst

Non-German

Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian) Arajs Kommando Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Crimes

Belarus

Łachwa Ghetto Minsk Ghetto Slutsk Affair

Estonia

Kalevi-Liiva

Latvia

Burning of the Riga synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Lithuania

Ninth Fort Kaunas June 1941 Kaunas 29 October 1941 Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 Ponary

Poland

Operation Tannenberg Intelligenzaktion AB-Aktion Operation Reinhard

Russia

Gully of Petrushino Zmievskaya Balka Lokot Autonomy

Ukraine

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobycz Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa

Records

The Black Book Commissar Order Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Generalplan Ost Jäger Report Korherr Report Special Prosecution Book-Poland
Special Prosecution Book-Poland
(Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen) Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
reports

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Heinrich Himmler

Reichsführer-SS Chief of German Police Minister of the Interior

Reichsführer-SS

Himmler's service record Ideology of the SS Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS Freundeskreis Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
("Circle of Friends of the Reichsführer-SS") Adolf Hitler Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
(Chief of the RSHA) Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner
(successor as Chief of the RSHA) Karl Wolff
Karl Wolff
(Chief of Personal Staff) Hedwig Potthast
Hedwig Potthast
(secretary) Rudolf Brandt
Rudolf Brandt
(Personal Administrative Officer to RFSS) Hermann Gauch
Hermann Gauch
(adjutant) Werner Grothmann
Werner Grothmann
(aide-de-camp) Heinz Macher (second personal assistant) Walter Schellenberg
Walter Schellenberg
(personal aide) Karl Maria Wiligut (occultist)

Organizations

Schutzstaffel Gestapo Ahnenerbe Lebensborn Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion

Responsibility for the Holocaust

The Holocaust Porajmos Crimes against Poles Crimes against Soviet POWs Persecution of Slavs
Slavs
in Eastern Europe Persecution of homosexuals Action T4 Persecution of Serbs Suppression of Freemasonry Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses Persecution of black people Kommandostab Reichsführer-SS Volksliste Operation Reinhard Hegewald Posen speeches Himmler-Kersten Agreement

Family

Margarete Himmler
Margarete Himmler
(wife) Gudrun Burwitz
Gudrun Burwitz
(daughter) Hedwig Potthast
Hedwig Potthast
(mistress) Gebhard Ludwig (older brother) Ernst (younger brother) Katrin Himmler (great-niece) Heinz Kokott (brother-in-law) Richard Wendler
Richard Wendler
(brother-in-law)

Military

Operation Himmler Army Group Oberrhein Army Group Vistula Operation Nordwind

Failed assassins

Václav Morávek Claus von Stauffenberg Henning von Tresckow

People

Erhard Heiden
Erhard Heiden
(predecessor as Reichsführer-SS) Karl Hanke
Karl Hanke
(successor as Reichsführer-SS) Falk Zipperer (closest friend) Karl Gebhardt
Karl Gebhardt
(personal physician) Felix Kersten (personal masseur) Hugo Blaschke (dentist) Sidney Excell
Sidney Excell
(man who arrested Himmler)

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Estonia

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Latvia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia Ukraine

Crimes

Kalevi-Liiva

Prominent victims

Zelig Kalmanovich Wolf Durmashkin

Major perpetrators

Hans Aumeier Karl Jäger Ernst Kaltenbrunner Aleksander Laak Hinrich Lohse Ain-Ervin Mere Alfred Rosenberg Martin Sandberger Rudolf Joachim Seck Franz Walter Stahlecker

Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Reichskommissariat
Reichskommissariat
Ostland

Notable collaborators

Karl Linnas Evald Mikson

Concentration camps

Klooga Jägala Vaivara

Documentation

Jäger Report Judenfrei

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

War crimes investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Holocaust trials in Soviet Estonia Estonian International Commission

Righteous Among the Nations

Uku Masing Eha Masing Polina Lentsman

Related articles

History of the Jews in Estonia Estonia in World War II Occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Latvia

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia Ukraine

Crimes

Burning of the Riga synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Victims

Jewish people of Latvia Gypsies Joseph Carlebach Simon Dubnow Else Hirsch

Perpetrators

Alois Brunner Rudolf Batz Fritz Dietrich Otto-Heinrich Drechsler Erich Ehrlinger Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Heinz Jost Konrāds Kalējs Ernst Kaltenbrunner Wolfgang Kügler Rudolf Lange Hinrich Lohse Friedrich Panzinger Hans-Adolf Prützmann Eduard Roschmann Alfred Rosenberg Martin Sandberger Albert Sauer Rudolf Joachim Seck Franz Walter Stahlecker Eduard Strauch

Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Reichskommissariat
Reichskommissariat
Ostland Rollkommando Hamann

Collaborators

Individuals Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Kārlis Lobe

Organizations Arajs Kommando Latvian Auxiliary Police Schutzmannschaft

Ghettos and camps

Daugavpils Ghetto Jungfernhof concentration camp Kaiserwald concentration camp Riga Ghetto Salaspils concentration camp

Documentation

Generalplan Ost Jäger Report

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

War crimes investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Righteous Among the Nations

Jānis Lipke Roberts Sedols

Memorials

Bikernieki Memorial

Related articles

The Holocaust Occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Lithuania

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Poland Russia Ukraine

People

Perpetrators

Algimantas Dailidė Erich Ehrlinger Joachim Hamann Karl Jäger Bruno Kittel Algirdas Klimaitis Hinrich Lohse Franz Murer Helmut Rauca Adrian von Renteln Rudolf Joachim Seck Franz Walter Stahlecker Martin Weiss

Victims and resistance

Chaim Yellin Alexander Bogen Josef Glazman Jay M. Ipson Shmerke Kaczerginski Zelig Kalmanovich Abba Kovner Ephraim Oshry Abraham Sutzkever Elchonon Wasserman Yitzhak Wittenberg Jacob Wygodzki Wolf Durmashkin See also: Songs of the Vilna Ghetto

Rescuers

Kazys Binkis Petronėlė Lastienė Karl Plagge Antanas Poška Ona Šimaitė Chiune Sugihara Jan Zwartendijk See also: List of Lithuanian Righteous Among the Nations

Groups

Perpetrators

Einsatzgruppen Police Battalions Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Resistance

Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje

Events

Jäger Report Kaunas June 1941 Kaunas 29 October 1941 Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 Ponary

Places

HKP 562 forced labor camp Kailis forced labor camp Kovno Ghetto Lukiškės Prison Marcinkonys Ghetto Ninth Fort Šiauliai Ghetto Švenčionys Ghetto Vilna Ghetto

Occupation of Lithuania
Lithuania
by Nazi Germany History of the Jews in Lithuania

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

v t e

Camps, ghettos and operations

Camps

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Chełmno Majdanek Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
death camps

Bełżec Sobibór Treblinka

Concentration

Kraków-Płaszów Potulice Soldau Stutthof Szebnie Trawniki Warsaw

Mass shootings

AB Action Bronna Góra Erntefest Jedwabne Kielce cemetery Aktion Krakau Lviv pogroms Lwów professors Palmiry Sonderaktion Krakau Tannenberg Tykocin Bydgoszcz Wąsosz Bloody Sunday

Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

Action T4 Grossaktion Warsaw Human medical experimentation

v t e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber
Gas chamber
executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

Juana Bormann Danz Demjanjuk Margot Dreschel Kurt Gerstein Grese Höcker Kaduk Kollmer Muhsfeldt Orlowski Volkenrath

By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
(SS) Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
(Orpo battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
"RONA" Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
"Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

Estonian Auxiliary Police Latvian Auxiliary Police
Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten
(Nederlandsche SS)

v t e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

AK AOB Bund GL PKB ŻOB ŻZA

Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish Ghetto Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

Kraków Łódź Lvov (Lwów) Warsaw

Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

Auschwitz Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

v t e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz trials Treblinka trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz trial
Auschwitz trial
(Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum Majdanek State Museum Sobibór Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews by Poles
Poles
during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Ukraine

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia

Crimes

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobych Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa Pripyat Swamps

Major perpetrators

Paul Blobel Werner Braune Lothar Fendler Hans Frank Günther Herrmann Friedrich Jeckeln Ernst Kaltenbrunner Fritz Katzmann Erich Koch Felix Landau Gustav Adolf Nosske Otto Ohlendorf Paul Otto Radomski Otto Rasch Walter Schimana Erwin Schulz Heinrich Seetzen Otto Wächter Dieter Wisliceny

Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiment South Reichskommissariat
Reichskommissariat
Ukraine

Collaborators

Individuals Hryhoriy Vasiura Vladimir Katriuk Petro Voinovsky Petro Zakhvalynsky

Organizations Schutzmannschaft Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Nachtigall Battalion

Ghettos, camps and prisons

Bogdanovka Drohobych Ghetto Syrets concentration camp Vapniarka concentration camp

Resistance and survivors

Priest's Grotto Syrets inmate revolt

Planning, methods, documents and evidence

Planning Generalplan Ost Volksliste

Evidence Graebe affidavit

Concealment and denial

Sonderaktion 1005

Investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Righteous Among the Nations

Klymentiy Sheptytsky Omelyan Kovch Hermann Friedrich Graebe

Memorials

Babi Yar
Babi Yar
memorials List of Babi Yar
Babi Yar
victims

See also History of the Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia Transnistria Governorate

Authority control

.