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GENERALFELDMARSCHALL (English: general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal ; listen (help ·info ); abbreviated to FELDMARSCHALL) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
; in the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
, the rank Feldmarschall was used. The rank was the equivalent to Großadmiral (English: Grand admiral) in the Kaiserliche Marine and Kriegsmarine
Kriegsmarine
, a five-star rank , comparable to OF-10 in today's NATO naval forces.

CONTENTS

* 1 Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
* 2 Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary

* 3 Germany

* 3.1 Prussian and German Empires * 3.2 Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* 3.3 East Germany * 3.4 Modern Germany

* 4 See also * 5 Notes

HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE

The title of Kaiserlich-Königlicher Feldmarschall ("imperial and royal field marshal") is used in statutes of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
of the German Nation to describe senior military officials, later becoming the highest rank of Reichsgeneralfeldmarschall (RGFM), followed by Reichsfeldzeugmeister (RFZM) and Reichs-General-Feldmarschall-Leutnant (RGFML).

AUSTRIAN EMPIRE AND AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

See also: List of Austrian field marshals

The rank existed in the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
as Kaiserlicher Feldmarschall ("imperial field marshal") and in the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
as Kaiserlicher und königlicher Feldmarschall ("imperial and royal field marshal"). Both were based on usage in the Holy Roman Empire. The monarch held the rank ex officio, other officers were promoted as required. Between 1914 and 1918, ten men attained this rank, of whom four were members of the reigning Habsburg dynasty.

GERMANY

Marshal's baton of Wolfram von Richthofen

PRUSSIAN AND GERMAN EMPIRES

Rank insignia Epaulette Shoulder badge Generalfeldmarschall
Generalfeldmarschall
until 1918

In the German-Prussian Army and later in the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
, the rank of Generalfeldmarschall
Generalfeldmarschall
had several privileges, such as elevation to nobility, equal protocol rank with cabinet ministers, the right of reporting directly to the monarch , and a constant escort.

In 1854, the rank of colonel-general (German : Generaloberst) was created in order to promote William, Prince of Prussia (the later William I, German Emperor ) to senior rank without breaking the rule that only wartime field commanders could receive the rank of field marshal for a victory in a decisive battle or the capture of a fortification or major town. The equivalent of colonel-general in the German Navy was the rank of Generaladmiral ("general admiral" or "admiral-general").

In 1870 Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia and Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm —who had commanded armies during the Franco-Prussian War —became the first Prussian princes appointed as field marshals.

The exalted nature of the rank was underscored during World War I, when only five German officers (excluding honorary promotions to members of royal families and foreign officers) were designated Generalfeldmarschall: Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
, August von Mackensen , Karl von Bülow , Hermann von Eichhorn , and Remus von Woyrsch . Only a single naval officer, Henning von Holtzendorff , was designated Grand Admiral. Not even such well-known German commanders as Erich Ludendorff , Erich von Falkenhayn
Erich von Falkenhayn
, or Reinhard Scheer received marshal's batons or Grand Admiral rank.

NAZI GERMANY

Rank insignia Arabesque 1942-1945 Epaulette until 1942 on flecktarn suit Generalfeldmarschall
Generalfeldmarschall
Heer until 1945

In the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
during World War II
World War II
, the rank of Generalfeldmarschall
Generalfeldmarschall
was the highest military rank until July 1940 , when Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring
was promoted to the newly created higher rank of Reichsmarschall
Reichsmarschall
. The equivalent of a Generalfeldmarschall
Generalfeldmarschall
in the navy was Großadmiral ("grand admiral").

Unlike Kaiser Wilhelm II , Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
distributed the rank more widely, promoting 25 Heer and Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
officers in total and two Kriegsmarine
Kriegsmarine
Grand Admirals . (Another promotion, that of Austrian General Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli , was honorary.) Four weeks after the Heer and Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
had won the Battle of France , a Blitzkrieg
Blitzkrieg
in the Low Countries
Low Countries
and France
France
(10 May – 22 June 1940), Hitler promoted twelve generals to the rank of field marshal. Those promoted on 19 July 1940 , were Walther von Brauchitsch , Wilhelm Keitel
Wilhelm Keitel
, Gerd von Rundstedt , Fedor von Bock , Wilhelm von Leeb , Wilhelm List
Wilhelm List
, Günther von Kluge , Erwin von Witzleben , Walter von Reichenau (Heer) and Albert Kesselring
Albert Kesselring
, Erhard Milch , Hugo Sperrle
Hugo Sperrle
(Luftwaffe).

In 1942, three other men were promoted—"Wüstenfuchs" (desert fox) Erwin Rommel (22 June) for the siege of Tobruk , Erich von Manstein (30 June) for the Siege of Sevastopol and Georg von Küchler (30 June) for his success as 'Oberbefehlshaber der Heeresgruppe Nord ' ("commander-in-chief of Army Group North").

Hitler promoted Friedrich Paulus
Friedrich Paulus
—commander of the 6th Army at Stalingrad —to the rank of field marshal via field radio on 30 January 1943, a day before his army's inevitable surrender in order to encourage him to continue to fight until death or commit suicide. In the promotion Hitler noted that no German or Prussian field marshal at that point in history had ever been captured alive. Paulus surrendered the following day anyway, claiming Ich habe nicht die Absicht, mich für diesen bayerischen Gefreiten zu erschießen ("I have no intention of shooting myself for this Bavarian corporal"). A disappointed Hitler commented, "That's the last field marshal I make in this war!" (In fact, he appointed seven more -- two on the very day after Paulus' surrender and the last just five days before his own suicide.)

Generalfeldmarschall
Generalfeldmarschall
was the highest regular general officer rank in the German Wehrmacht, comparable to NATO rank codes OF10, and to the five-star rank in anglophone armed forces. It was equivalent to Großadmiral of the German Kriegsmarine
Kriegsmarine
.

Financially the rank of Generalfeldmarschall
Generalfeldmarschall
in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
was very rewarding as, apart from a yearly salary, Hitler introduced a tax free fringe benefits for Generals in the range of Reichsmark
Reichsmark
2,000 to 4,000 per month in 1940. He also bestowed generous presents on his highest officers, with Wilhelm von Leeb receiving RM 250,000 for his 65th birthday from Hitler.

Promotion to the rank did not guarantee Hitler's ongoing favor, however. As the tide of the war turned, Hitler took out his frustrations on his top commanders, relieving most of the Generalfeldmarschalls of duty before the war's conclusion. Bock, Brauchitsch, Leeb, and List were all relieved of their posts in 1942 for perceived failures during Operation Barbarossa and took no further active part in the war. Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist , Manstein and Sperrle were similarly retired in 1944 and Rundstedt and Maximilian von Weichs in March 1945. Grand Admiral Erich Raeder was retired in January 1943 following a fierce argument with Hitler over the future of the German surface fleet. Walther Model , one of Hitler's most successful commanders, had nevertheless lost the Fuhrer's confidence by war's end and committed suicide to avoid capture and likely trial as a war criminal . Milch was relieved after conspiring unsuccessfully to have Göring removed from command of the Luftwaffe, and even Göring himself was stripped of his offices and expelled from the Nazi Party in Hitler's last days. Ferdinand Schörner
Ferdinand Schörner
ignominiously abandoned his command to save himself in the war's last days. Kluge, Witzleben and Rommel were either executed or forced to commit suicide for their real or imagined roles in assassination plots against Hitler. By war's end, only Keitel, Kesselring, Robert Ritter von Greim and Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz were still in positions of military responsibility.

Junior rank GENERALOBERST (Ranks Wehrmacht) GENERALFELDMARSCHALL Senior rank REICHSMARSCHALL

EAST GERMANY

The National People\'s Army of the Deutsche Demokratische Republik or DDR ( German Democratic Republic , i.e. East Germany) created the rank of Marshal of the German Democratic Republic on 25 March 1982. A general could be appointed to this rank by the Staatsrat (the head-of-state council of the GDR) during wartime or for exceptional military achievement; no one ever held the rank, however.

MODERN GERMANY

The ranks of Generalfeldmarschall, Generaloberst, Großadmiral and Generaladmiral no longer exist in the new German (until 1990 West-German) Armed Forces, the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
, which were created in 1956. Currently, the highest military grades in the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
are general and admiral .

The Commander-in-Chief
Commander-in-Chief
of the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
is in peacetime, according to Article 65a of the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany (constitution), the civilian Federal Minister of Defence , who holds supreme command authority over all soldiers. In wartime, that supreme command authority is transferred to the Federal Chancellor. The Chief of Staff of the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
is the military chief of defence and heads the Armed Forces Command Staff (German : Führungsstab der Streitkräfte).

SEE ALSO

* List of German field marshals * List of Austrian field marshals * List of field marshals of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
of the German Nation * Comparative military ranks of World War I * Comparative military ranks of World War II
World War II
* SS-Volksmarschall

NOTES

* ^ * ^ Snyder, Louis (1994) . Encyclopedia of the Third Reich, pp. 111, 112 * ^ Snyder, Louis (1994) , p. 112 * ^ Beevor, Antony (1998). Stalingrad, The Fateful Siege: 1942-1943. New York: Penguin Books. p. 381 * ^ "Dienen und Verdienen. Hitlers Geschenke an seine Eliten" . www.hsozkult.de (in German). Retrieved 19 March 2016.

HIGHEST MILITARY RANKS

* General officer * Flag officer * Air officer

* Imperator
Imperator
* Marshal of Italy * Generalissimo * Generalissimus of the Soviet Union * Supreme Allied Commander * Admiral of the Navy * General of the Armies * General of the Air Force * Generalfeldmarschall * Mareşal * Marshal of the air force
Marshal of the air force
* Marshal of the Soviet Union * Marshal of the Russian Federation
Marshal of the Russian Federation
* Mushir * Magister militum
Magister militum
* Spahbed * Ispahsalar * Beylerbey * Bojni Vojvoda * Chom Thap Thai * Constable of France
France
* Domestic of the Schools
Domestic of the Schools
* Grand Domestic
Grand Domestic
* Shogun
Shogun
* Dux bellorum *