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The General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States, or more commonly referred to as General of the Armies
General of the Armies
(abbreviated as GAS), is the highest possible rank in the United States
United States
Army.[1] The rank is informally equated to that of a six-star general and is currently the highest possible operational rank of the United States
United States
Armed Forces. The rank has been held only twice in history – once by an active-duty officer (John J. Pershing), and once by posthumous promotion to George Washington
George Washington
in 1976. The rank of General of the Armies is senior to General of the Army, General of the Air Force, and Fleet Admiral.

Contents

1 Initial concept and history

1.1 American Civil War 1.2 First World War 1.3 Second World War 1.4 Developments since the 1970s

2 Officers appointed as General of the Armies

2.1 John Pershing 2.2 George Washington

2.2.1 Promotion legislation

3 Unsuccessful campaigns for appointment as General of the Armies

3.1 Douglas MacArthur

3.1.1 World War II 3.1.2 Renewed efforts 3.1.3 Failed posthumous promotion

3.2 Omar Bradley

4 Chronology 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References

7.1 Notes

8 Further reading 9 External links

Initial concept and history[edit]

George Washington's rank insignia as "General and Commander-in-Chief"

Appointment to the rank or grade of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States
United States
has a history spanning over two centuries. In the course of its existence the authority and seniority of the rank, and perceptions by both the American public and the military establishment, have varied. The first mention of the rank "General of the Armies" was in an Act of the United States Congress
United States Congress
on March 3, 1799. Congress provided:

That a Commander
Commander
of the United States
United States
shall be appointed and commissioned by the style of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States and the present office and title of Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General shall thereafter be abolished.

The rank of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
was intended for bestowal upon George Washington, who held the rank of "General and Commander-in-Chief" which was a grade senior to all American major generals and brigadier generals from the American Revolutionary War. However, only a few months after the Congressional proposal, Washington died on December 14, 1799. The United States Army
United States Army
at that time had also drastically reduced in size and there was no practical need for a superior General rank, thus the proposal for General of the Armies was soon forgotten. American Civil War[edit]

Civil War era insignia for "General of the Army of the United States"

In 1865, after the close of the American Civil War, Congress again revisited the idea of a superior General rank. The result was the creation of a special rank called "General of the Army of the United States", which was held by Ulysses S. Grant.[2] This early version of General of the Army was in fact a four-star general officer rank although, unlike in modern times, Congress intended for only one Army officer to hold the position, thus granting the rank the same authority as the initial concept of General of the Armies. William T. Sherman[2] and Philip Sheridan[2] would also hold the position. By Sheridan's tenure, the insignia had been changed to that of a major general superimposed upon a golden national eagle. This change was made since the United States Army
United States Army
of the 1880s had no rank of lieutenant general, thus creating an insignia gap between two and four stars. First World War[edit]

John Pershing's gold star insignia.

The rank of General of the Army of the United States
United States
ceased to exist upon the death of Sheridan in 1888. The next proposal to create a superior general rank would occur thirty one years later during the First World War. In the interim, the highest possible general officer rank of the United States Army
United States Army
was that of two-star major general. Within the United States
United States
Navy, three- and four-star ranks continued into the 20th century, leading to the creation of the Admiral
Admiral
of the Navy rank in 1903. George Dewey
George Dewey
was appointed this rank which, at the time of its creation, was considered a four-star admiral with an added honorary title. A comparison between Admiral
Admiral
of the Navy and General of the Armies was first made in 1944, although the rank of Admiral
Admiral
of the Navy was never declared equal in seniority. During World War I, the United States Congress
United States Congress
authorized the appointment of three-star lieutenant generals and four-star generals to be granted temporarily for service in the National Army. Tasker H. Bliss and John J. Pershing
John J. Pershing
were promoted to general in October 1917, and Peyton C. March
Peyton C. March
was promoted to that rank in May 1918. Hunter Liggett and Robert Lee Bullard
Robert Lee Bullard
were both promoted to lieutenant general on October 16, 1918. In 1919, by Congressional directive, the rank of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
was formally established and John J. Pershing became the first person to hold the rank. After the close of the First World War, the highest active grade in the U.S. Army again became major general, with all lieutenant generals and generals (except for Pershing) reverted to this permanent rank of major general.[3] Pershing then retired from the United States Army
United States Army
on September 13, 1924, and retained his rank on the U.S. Army retirement rolls until his death in 1948.[4] Four-star generals were reauthorized in 1929, starting with Charles Pelot Summerall. Pershing at this time was no longer on active duty, but his rank was regarded as senior to a full general outside the regular promotion tier. Second World War[edit] On December 14, 1944, the United States Army
United States Army
established a five-star general position and named this new rank "General of the Army", which was a title that had not been used since the 1880s after the Civil War. Unlike the Civil War version, this new rank was clearly a five-star position, whereas the old version was considered a four-star rank; the five-star rank was also intended to be held by more than one person rather than a single supreme rank for the head of the U.S. Army.

Unofficial insignia for six star general

General of the Armies
General of the Armies
Pershing was still living during World War II, although he was very elderly. Nevertheless, the question was immediately raised by both the media and the public as to whether Pershing's rank "fit in" with the new five-star position. The situation was touchy from a diplomatic viewpoint, since the five-star General of the Army rank had been created largely to give American officers equal rank with British Army
British Army
field marshals. The United States government was very hesitant to declare that Pershing held a senior rank to General of the Army, since this would elevate him to six-star status, the same as a grand marshal or generalissimo in Europe and possibly offend not only the British but also the French. To solve the situation, it was decided that Pershing would outrank all five-star generals by order of seniority, meaning that even if he did not have a higher rank, he was considered senior by virtue of an earlier date of promotion into that rank. There was still rampant speculation, however, that Pershing was a six-star general, and the media put the matter directly to the War Department for a clear and concise answer. In response to a direct question as to whether Pershing held six-star rank, the then Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
stated:

It appears the intent of the Army was to make the General of the Armies senior in grade to the General of the Army. I have advised Congress that the War Department concurs in such proposed action.[5][6]

Stimson's answer was very carefully worded and nowhere did he ever actually state that Pershing held six-star rank. The situation with Pershing was seemingly solved, but the matter of a six-star general in the United States
United States
military would reappear in only a few months during the summer of 1945 at which time Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
was proposed for promotion to General of the Armies. Efforts to promote MacArthur, although never successful, would continue for the next twenty years and lapse only with his death in 1964. Developments since the 1970s[edit]

Proposed insignia for General of the Armies
General of the Armies
as published in 1981 following the death of Omar Bradley

The rank of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
was revisited with a posthumous promotion of George Washington
George Washington
in 1978. In 1981, upon the death of Omar Bradley, brief consideration was given for another posthumous promotion; however, no action was taken beyond designing a potential "modern day" insignia for General of the Armies. The most recent reference to the rank of General of the Armies occurred in 2008 when the Army authorized the Army Service Uniform
Army Service Uniform
as the new standard uniform for United States
United States
soldiers. As part of the first presentations of the uniform to Army leadership, the Institute of Heraldry created an insignia chart with officer ranks ranging from Second lieutenant to General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States. This 21st-century insignia chart, showing both a five- and six-star general officer, was considered unofficial by the Army and was later refined to show insignia only to four-star general.[7] Officers appointed as General of the Armies[edit] John Pershing[edit]

General John Pershing depicted with four gold stars on his epaulette

John J. Pershing
John J. Pershing
was the only person in history to hold the rank of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
while serving on active duty. In 1919, to honor his service in World War I, Congress authorized the promotion of Pershing to the rank of " General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States" and allowed him to design his own insignia.[8] On September 3, 1919, President Woodrow Wilson, in accordance with Public Law 66-45, promoted Pershing to that same rank. The rank was primarily intended to recognize Pershing's performance as commander of the American Expeditionary Forces. General Pershing chose to wear the four stars of a general, but in gold, to signify his new position. A bureaucratic loophole in Army regulations did not recognize this insignia, thus Pershing's gold stars did not appear on Army rank precedence charts and were considered as an unofficial rank insignia.[9] The matter was not resolved until after Pershing's retirement when the Army declared[citation needed] that the four gold stars worn by Pershing were the official insignia for General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States, thus creating the following hierarchy of Army general-officer ranks.

General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States

General

Lieutenant
Lieutenant
general

Major
Major
general

Brigadier
Brigadier
general

George Washington[edit]

George Washington
George Washington
was the first person considered for the rank of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
in 1799. He was posthumously promoted in 1976, 177 years after his death.

As part of the American bicentennial celebrations, a proposal was raised in Congress to commemorate the leadership and historical importance of George Washington
George Washington
by appointing him to the grade of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States.[1][10] In his own day, Washington had been appointed and served as "General and Commander
Commander
in chief of the Army of the [United States]".[11][12][13] but only wore the three-star insignia of an Army lieutenant general. As of 1782, when Washington was listed as a lieutenant general on the rolls of the United States
United States
Army, his rank was informally called "three-star general". The United States
United States
at this point had no four-star general rank and would not until 1866. At that time, the European rank of captain general was shortened to simply "general"; there would also be no lieutenant generals in the American army until Winfield Scott
Winfield Scott
was "brevetted" to the rank of lieutenant general in 1841. Since Washington had technically retired as a lieutenant general (three stars), he was as a result outranked by later four and five-star generals and admirals of the Civil War, World War I, and World War II. To rectify this discrepancy, and to acknowledge Washington's unique role in military history as serving as a military commander-in-chief not answerable to either the Continental Congress or its President, Congress in 1976 felt it only fitting that Washington be granted a supreme rank to signify that he actively commanded with complete authority all branches of military forces within the United States.[11][12] On March 13, 1978, Washington was posthumously promoted to the full grade of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States, with effective date from July 4, 1976. The promotion was authorized by a congressional joint resolution on January 19, 1976 which recommended Washington's promotion and further declared that no officer of the United States
United States
armed forces should ever outrank George Washington.

The formal promotion order signed by Secretary of the Army Clifford Alexander, Jr.

The formal promotion order signed by Secretary of the Army Clifford Alexander, Jr., simply formalised the promotion. It did not mention six-star status, nor did it include, as the legislation did, the phrasing "such grade to have rank and precedence over all other grades of the Army, past or present". The legislation implicitly clarified the relationship of Washington's rank to Pershing's. Public Law 94-479, which codified the rank of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States, did not create a separate rank from Pershing's but rather simply clarified that, while Washington and Pershing held the same rank, Washington was to be considered senior although having obtained the rank at a later date. Promotion legislation[edit]

Whereas Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General George Washington
George Washington
of Virginia commanded our armies throughout and to the successful termination of our Revolutionary War; Whereas Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General George Washington
George Washington
presided over the convention that formulated our Constitution; Whereas Lieutenant General George Washington
George Washington
twice served as President of the United States of America; and Whereas it is considered fitting and proper that no officer of the United States Army
United States Army
should outrank Lieutenant General George Washington
George Washington
on the Army list; Now, therefore, be it

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That (a) for purposes of subsection (b) of this section only, the grade of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States
United States
is established, such grade to have rank and precedence over all other grades of the Army, past or present. (b) The President is authorized and requested to appoint George Washington posthumously to the grade of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States, such appointment to take effect on July 4, 1976.

Approved October 11, 1976. Public Law 94-479

Unsuccessful campaigns for appointment as General of the Armies[edit] Douglas MacArthur[edit]

General of the Army Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
was proposed for promotion to rank in 1945.

General of the Army Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
was considered for appointment to the rank of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
both during and after World War II, but a formal promotion order for his appointment "to the office of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States" was never issued.[14][15] Supporters of MacArthur would lobby for over two decades to have the general promoted to "six star general". World War II[edit] As part of the preparation for Operation Downfall
Operation Downfall
(the planned invasion of Japan), the United States
United States
War Department began drawing up invasion manpower requirements for a large force organized into several Navy fleets and Army groups. The Army also saw the need for a possible promotion of more officers to the rank of General of the Army, depending on the size of the invasion force, as well as the participation of American allies in the Pacific (such as the Royal Navy and the Chinese Army) all of which maintained their own equivalents to five-star rank. It became obvious that the Supreme Commander
Commander
for the attack of Japan would hold an enormous amount of power and would command an invasion force larger than any seen to date in the Second World War. It was also clear that whoever this commander was would have direct command authority of not one, but several five-star officers. To that end, a proposal was discussed in the War Department to appoint Douglas MacArthur to the rank of "General of the Armies" and have this position be considered a six-star general rank. The proposal for MacArthur's promotion to a new rank was begun on July 23, 1945.[16][not in citation given] The Army draft for the promotion specified three key points regarding the renewed proposal for General of the Armies:

The position would clearly be a six-star general rank The rank would be senior to General of the Army The rank would require a new insignia which incorporated a sixth star into the five-star design of General of the Army.

At the beginning of August 1945, a member of MacArthur's staff drew a single sketch of a five star general insignia superimposed in its center with a sixth star of rank.[17] This sketch was the first known design for a "six star general" insignia, but was never seriously considered since, just a few weeks later, the proposal for MacArthur's promotion was dropped.[18] The United States Army
United States Army
formally closed the file on MacArthur's promotion on August 18, 1945, four days after Japan's surrender announcement which rendered the planned invasion of the Japanese home islands unnecessary. MacArthur's service record was then annotated that the promotion package had been closed due to "lack of necessity for such a rank".[19] As this proposal to promote MacArthur was simply "on the drawing board", the United States Army
United States Army
firmly stated for the next twenty years that there was never an officially recognized six-star general rank in the United States
United States
military hierarchy. John Pershing's status also remained in a very gray area, in particular because of the vague statements made by Secretary of War Stimson and the fact that Pershing was never on active duty at the same time as a five-star General of the Army.[6] Renewed efforts[edit]

Senate Joint Resolution for Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
to assume the rank of General of the Armies

In the early 1950s, supporters of Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
began to petition the United States
United States
government to authorize a "promotion" to the rank of General of the Armies. MacArthur was at this time a retired five-star general and, with the movement to promote him, it was clear that (Army regulations notwithstanding) the general public felt that the rank of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
was a six-star position. In 1955, the United States Congress
United States Congress
considered a bill authorizing President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
to promote MacArthur to the rank of General of the Armies. The language used in the bill states that the rank was to be "re-activated" and that MacArthur was to be "promoted" to the position. With such terms, the Congressional legislation all but confirmed that General of the Armies
General of the Armies
was a senior rank to that of General of the Army. However, the Army itself still did not declare that General of the Armies
General of the Armies
was a six-star rank, and Congress did not actually pass, or even vote on, the proposed legislation. Because of the various complications, MacArthur advised Dwight Eisenhower that he wished to decline promotion and the bill to promote MacArthur was dropped. Supporters of MacArthur continued with further petitions, however, and the MacArthur Memorial in Norfolk, Virginia possesses numerous letters from 1962 through 1964 attempting to obtain MacArthur a "six-star promotion". In the letters, as well as a congressional record appendix from February 1962 (pages A864-A865), this promotion was referred to as both "six-star general" and "general of the armies". Failed posthumous promotion[edit] When MacArthur died in 1964, proponents for his promotion petitioned both the Army and Congress to grant a posthumous promotion to General of the Armies, and even went so far as to obtain a vote of neutral support from Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(meaning he would neither support nor attempt to scuttle the promotion). In 1965, the Deputy Chief of Staff for Army Personnel contacted the Institute of Heraldry
Institute of Heraldry
and requested the feasibility of creating a six star general insignia in the event that MacArthur was in fact posthumously promoted. At the same time, the Army Personnel Office began attempting to resolve the confusion surrounding the status of General of the Armies.[20] The Army Personnel Office determined that, because of the number of living five-star generals still on the Army rolls in 1964, to introduce a rank of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
would require a formal regulation dealing with seniority, insignia, and retirement benefits. The Army Judge Advocate General also advised that, should MacArthur receive promotion to rank of General of the Armies, salary and benefits associated with the much more firmly established rank of five-star General of the Army would have to be reexamined. The Joint Chiefs of Staff further stated that because George C. Marshall
George C. Marshall
was senior to MacArthur on the Army rolls, that should MacArthur be made a General of the Armies, a similar measure would have to be passed posthumously promoting Marshall as well (Marshall had died in 1959). Due to various logistical and administrative difficulties, as well the United States
United States
having recovered from the John F. Kennedy assassination coupled with the expansion of the Vietnam War, efforts to promote MacArthur were ultimately dropped and no further petitions to the Army were received after 1966. Omar Bradley[edit]

Omar Bradley

Upon the death of Omar Bradley
Omar Bradley
in 1981, Congress considered a special recognition to commemorate the passing of the last of the Second World War five star officers. Six weeks after Bradley's death, the House Armed Services Committee sent a letter to the Institute of Heraldry and the Army requesting to know the feasibility of promoting Bradley to the rank of six star general.[21] A brief was issued which repeated much of the concerns raised in 1964 when Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
had been considered posthumously for the rank. The Institute of Heraldry
Institute of Heraldry
released two insignia designs for the rank of the General of the Armies
General of the Armies
which incorporated a sixth star into the standard five star general design; a third design depicting a six star collar insignia was also proposed. In response to a concern regarding seniority amongst five star officers, Congress also requested clarification as to the procedures should a United States Navy
United States Navy
or Air Force officer be promoted to six star rank. The response to Congress stated: "Should an officer of the Air Force or Navy be promoted to six star rank, that officer should be entitled to the six star insignia with a service specific crest".[22] The notion of promoting Bradley was never agreed upon within Congress and by 1982 the proposal had been dropped. There have been no further efforts since to promote a member of the United States
United States
armed forces to the rank of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States. Chronology[edit]

June 1775: George Washington
George Washington
appointed as General and Commander-in-Chief November 1783: Highest rank in the United States' military declared as Major
Major
General March 1799: Congress proposes George Washington
George Washington
be appointed as " General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States" December 1799: Washington dies; proposal to promote to higher rank is dropped March 1847: Winfield Scott
Winfield Scott
promoted to Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General, technically the same rank as George Washington April 1861: The American Civil War
American Civil War
begins July 1866: Congress established the rank of "General of the Army of the United States" and promotes Ulysses Grant
Ulysses Grant
to the position March 1869: William Sherman
William Sherman
promoted to General of the Army June 1888: Philip Sheridan
Philip Sheridan
promoted to General of the Army August 1888: Sheridan dies. Highest rank in Army is again Major General March 1903: George Dewey
George Dewey
promoted to " Admiral
Admiral
of the Navy", with date of rank from 1899 October 1917: John J. Pershing
John J. Pershing
promoted to four-star general, now known simply as "General" October 1918: First promotions to Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General since the American Civil War September 1919: John J. Pershing
John J. Pershing
promoted to General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States September 1924: Pershing retires. Two star Major
Major
General again highest rank in Army February 1929: Three and four star general ranks again issued on a temporary basis November 1930: Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
becomes a four star general and Army Chief of Staff December 1941: United States
United States
enters World War II December 1944: Five star "General of the Army" rank established July 1945: Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
proposed for promotion to "General of the Armies" August 1945: World War II ends. Promotion proposal for MacArthur is closed July 1948: John J. Pershing
John J. Pershing
dies January 1955: Congress considers a bill to promote MacArthur to General of the Armies. April 1964: MacArthur dies. No further efforts for promotion after 1966. March 1978: George Washington
George Washington
posthumously promoted to General of the Armies of the United States
United States
with seniority over all other officers of the United States
United States
armed forces April 1981: Omar Bradley, the last five star officer of World War II, dies. Congress briefly considers the feasibility of promotion to six star rank November 2008: The Institute of Heraldry
Institute of Heraldry
releases an insignia chart displaying a "six star general" rank. The Army states that the insignia is not official

Gallery[edit]

Proposed insignia as published by the Institute of Heraldry
Institute of Heraldry
in 1981.[N 1]

Six star general proposed collar insignia.

Proposed cross branch insignia for General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States (Army, Navy, and Air Force).

1966 prototype version for six star general rank

Alternate 1966 design

Final version of a "modern day" 6 star general, as published in 1981

See also[edit]

Six-star rank Five-star rank General officers in the United States List of United States
United States
four-star officers List of United States Army
United States Army
four-star generals List of United States
United States
military leaders by rank United States Army
United States Army
officer rank insignia Generalissimo

References[edit]

^ a b Public Law 94-479 of 1976 to provide for the appointment of George Washington
George Washington
to the grade of General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States ^ a b c Office of the Judge Advocate General, United States
United States
Army (1915). The military laws of the United States, 1915, Volume 1, Issue 915 (also The military laws of the United States, 1915, Volume 1, Issue 915). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.  ^ Only Major
Major
Generals Now; March, Liggett and Bullard Lose War Rank The New York Times, June 30, 1920 ^ "How many U.S. Army five-star generals have there been and who were they?". United States Army
United States Army
Center of Military History.  ^ " General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States
United States
and General of the Army of the United States". US Military. About.com. 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2014.  ^ a b "Pershing, John, GEN". Together we Served. 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2014.  ^ "IOH chart shows five- and six-star generals", Army Times (2008) ^ "5 Star Generals". Militaryfactory.com. Retrieved 2013-08-14.  ^ Army Regulations 600-35, Personnel: The Prescribed Uniform, October 12, 1921 ^ Public Law 66-45 of September 3, 1919 to revive the office of General of the Armies ^ a b Cont'l Cong., Commission for General Washington, in 2 Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789 96-7 (Library of Cong. eds., 1905). ^ a b Cont'l Cong., Instructions for General Washington, in 2 Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789 100-1 (Library of Cong. eds., 1905). ^ Cont'l Cong., Resolution Changing "United Colonies" to "United States", in 5 Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789 747 (Library of Cong. eds., 1905). ^ Senate Joint Resolution 26 of January 21, 1955 ^ 84th Congress 1st session, S.J.Res.26 ^ Giangreco, D. M. (October 2009). Hell to Pay: Operation Downfall
Operation Downfall
and the Invasion of Japan. Naval Institute Press.  ^ Burke, C.J., "The ambiguous case for six star general", Look Magazine, 15 Jul 1960 ^ Daily Operational Reports, Supreme Allied Commander
Commander
- South West Pacific Area; National Archives and Records Administration, RG165 (College Park) ^ Records of Service Record of Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
-- National Personnel Records Center. ^ Army Message Traffic 5/5/64, Washington, DC; "Request for Preliminary Designs for a 6 Star General insignia", Office of the Chief of Staff for Personnel ^ Congressional Record 1981, Cong. 97 Sess. 1 – Parts 6-8, "Comparison and Promotion Procedures for General of the Armies
General of the Armies
and General of the Army of the United States". ^ Congressional Record 1981, Cong. 97 Sess. 1 – Part 8, "Promotion of other service branches to General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States".

Notes[edit]

^ A six-star insignia was published in 2008 by the Institute of Heraldry, but was never considered official by the United States
United States
Army

Further reading[edit]

Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff ( United States Army
United States Army
Center of Military History) How many U.S. Army five-star generals have there been and who were they? from the United States Army
United States Army
Center of Military History Military service record of Douglas MacArthur, Military Personnel Records Center Naval service record of Chester Nimitz, Military Personnel Records Center

External links[edit]

The Origin of the Ranks and Rank Insignia Now Used by the United States Armed Forces at history.navy.mil Abandoned proposal for six-star rank in Second World War at eisenhowermemorial.org General of the Armies
General of the Armies
of the United States
United States
and General of the Army of the United States
United States
at us.military.com

v t e

United States
United States
uniformed services commissioned officer and officer candidate ranks

Pay grade / branch of service Officer candidate O-1 O-2 O-3 O-4 O-5 O-6 O-7 O-8 O-9 O-10 O-11 Special grade

Insignia [1]

[6]

[6] [6] [6]

[2]

Army CDT / OC 2LT 1LT CPT MAJ LTC COL BG MG LTG GEN GA[3] GAS[3]

Marine Corps Midn / Cand 2ndLt 1stLt Capt Maj LtCol Col BGen MajGen LtGen Gen [5] [5]

Navy MIDN / OC ENS LTJG LT LCDR CDR CAPT RDML RADM VADM ADM FADM[3] AN[3]

Air Force Cadet / OT / OC 2d Lt 1st Lt Capt Maj Lt Col Col Brig Gen Maj Gen Lt Gen Gen GAF[3] [5]

Coast Guard CDT / OC ENS LTJG LT LCDR CDR CAPT RDML RADM VADM ADM [5] [5]

PHS Corps [OC] ENS LTJG LT LCDR CDR CAPT RADM RADM VADM ADM [5] [5]

NOAA Corps OC ENS LTJG LT LCDR CDR CAPT RDML RADM VADM [4] [5] [5]

[1] No universal insignia for officer candidate rank; Navy candidate insignia shown [2]Official 1945 proposal for General of the Armies
General of the Armies
insignia; John J. Pershing's GAS insignia: ; George Dewey's Admiral
Admiral
of the Navy insignia: [3] Rank used for specific officers in wartime only, not permanent addition to rank structure [4] Grade is authorized by the U.S. Code for use but has not been created [5] Grade has never been created or authorized [6] USAF and U.S. Army insignia shown

v t e

United States
United States
warrant officer ranks

W-1 W-2 W-3 W-4 W-5

Army

WO1

CW2

CW3

CW4

CW5

Marine Corps

WO1

CWO2

CWO3

CWO4

CWO5

Navy

WO1[1]

CWO2

CWO3

CWO4

CWO5

Air Force

WO1[1]

CWO2[1]

CWO3[1]

CWO4[1]

CWO5[1]

Coast Guard

WO1[1]

CWO2

CWO3

CWO4 [2]

PHS Corps

[2] [2] [2] [2] [3]

NOAA Corps

[3] [3] [3] [3] [3]

[1] Grade inactive [2] Grade is authorized for use by U.S. Code but has not been created [3] Grade never created or authorized

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United States
United States
comparative military ranks

Flag Rank Officers

Pay Grade Army Marine Corps Navy/Coast Guard Air Force

Special General of the Armies none Admiral
Admiral
of the Navy none

Special General of the Army none Fleet Admiral General of the Air Force

O-10 General General Admiral General

O-9 Lt. General Lt. General Vice Admiral Lt. General

O-8 Major
Major
General Major
Major
General Rear Admiral
Admiral
(upper half) Major
Major
General

O-7 Brigadier
Brigadier
General Brigadier
Brigadier
General Rear Admiral
Admiral
(lower half) Brigadier
Brigadier
General

Commissioned Officers

Pay Grade Army Marine Corps Navy/Coast Guard Air Force

O-6 Colonel Colonel Captain Colonel

O-5 Lt. Colonel Lt. Colonel Commander Lt. Colonel

O-4 Major Major Lt. Commander Major

O-3 Captain Captain Lieutenant Captain

O-2 1st Lieutenant 1st Lieutenant Lieutenant, JG 1st Lieutenant

O-1 2nd Lieutenant 2nd Lieutenant Ensign 2nd Lieutenant

Warrant Officers

Pay Grade Army Marine Corps Navy/Coast Guard Air Force

W-5 Chief Warrant Officer, Five Chief Warrant Officer, Five Chief Warrant Officer, Five (not used by Coast Guard) none - discontinued before creation of CW5

W-4 Chief Warrant Officer, Four Chief Warrant Officer, Four Chief Warrant Officer, Four Chief Warrant Officer, Four (discontinued)

W-3 Chief Warrant Officer, Three Chief Warrant Officer, Three Chief Warrant Officer, Three Chief Warrant Officer, Three (discontinued)

W-2 Chief Warrant Officer, Two Chief Warrant Officer, Two Chief Warrant Officer, Two Chief Warrant Officer, Two (discontinued)

W-1 Warrant Officer, One Warrant Officer, One Warrant Officer, One (discontinued) Warrant Officer, One (discontinued)

Enlisted Servicemen

Pay Grade Army Marine Corps Navy/Coast Guard Air Force

E-9 (special) Sergeant
Sergeant
Major
Major
of the Army Sergeant
Sergeant
Major
Major
of the Marine Corps Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy/Coast Guard Chief Master Sergeant
Sergeant
of the Air Force

E-9 Command Sergeant
Sergeant
Major Sergeant
Sergeant
Major Sergeant
Sergeant
Major Master Gunnery Sergeant Command Master Chief Petty Officer Master Chief Petty Officer Command Chief Master Sergeant Chief Master Sergeant

E-8 First Sergeant Master Sergeant First Sergeant Master Sergeant Senior Chief Petty Officer Senior Master Sergeant

E-7 Sergeant
Sergeant
First Class Gunnery Sergeant Chief Petty Officer Master Sergeant

E-6 Staff Sergeant Staff Sergeant Petty Officer First Class Technical Sergeant

E-5 Sergeant Sergeant Petty Officer Second Class Staff Sergeant

E-4 Specialist/Corporal Corporal Petty Officer Third Class Senior Airman

E-3 Private First Class Lance Corporal Seaman Airman
Airman
First Class

E-2 Private Private First Class Seaman
Seaman
Apprentice Airman

E-1 Private Private Seaman
Seaman
Recruit Airman
Airman
Basic

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Highest military ranks

General officer Flag officer Air officer

Imperator Marshal of Italy Generalissimo Generalissimus of the Soviet Union Supreme Allied Commander Admiral
Admiral
of the Navy General of the Armies General of the Air Force Generalfeldmarschall Mareşal Marshal of the air force Marshal of the Soviet Union Marshal of the Russian Federation Mushir Magister militum Spahbed Ispahsalar Beylerbey Bojni Vojvoda Chom Thap Thai Constable of France Domestic of the Schools Grand Domestic Shōgun Dux bellorum Grand marshal Hetman Jenderal besar Polemarch Reichsmarschall Federal General of Switzerland Sardar Serasker Autokrator First marshal of the empire Da yuan shuai Dai-gensui Taewonsu Yuan shuai Wonsu Marshal of Yugoslavia

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Star officer grades

General officer Flag officer Air officer

By star ranks

Six-star rank
Six-star rank
(proposed) Five-star rank Four-star rank Three-star rank Two-star rank One-star rank

By titles

Generalissimo Generalissimus of the Soviet Union Supreme Allied Commander Admiral
Admiral
of the Navy General of the Armies Generalfeldmarschall Field marshal Mareşal Marshal of the air force Marshal of the Russian Federation Marshal of the Soviet Union Mushir Caudillo Magister militum Spahbed Ispahsalar Beylerbey Constable of France Grand Domestic Dux bellorum Grand marshal Hetman Jenderal besar Reichsmarschall Sardar Serasker Strategos autokrator First marshal of the empire Dai-gensui Taewonsu Voivoda Wonsu Yuan Shuai Da yuan shuai Marshal of Yugoslavia

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George Washington

1st President of the United States, 1789–1797 Senior Officer of the Army, 1798–1799 Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army, 1775–1783 Second Continental Congress, 1775 First Continental Congress, 1774

Military career Revolutionary War

Military career French and Indian War

Jumonville Glen Battle of Fort Necessity Forbes Expedition

Washington and the American Revolution Commander-in-chief, Continental Army Aides-de-camp Washington's headquarters Boston campaign

Siege of Boston

New York and New Jersey campaign

Delaware River crossing Battle of Trenton

Philadelphia campaign

Battle of Brandywine Battle of Germantown Battle of White Marsh Valley Forge Battle of Monmouth

Battles of Saratoga Sullivan Expedition Yorktown campaign

Siege of Yorktown

Culper spy ring Newburgh Conspiracy

Newburgh letter

Resignation as commander-in-chief Badge of Military Merit

Purple Heart

Washington Before Boston Medal Horses: Nelson and Blueskin

Other U.S. founding events

1769 Virginia Association

Continental Association

1774 Fairfax Resolves Court of Appeals in Cases of Capture 1785 Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Conference Chairman, 1787 Constitutional Convention

Presidency

United States
United States
presidential election, 1788–89 1792 First inauguration

inaugural bible

Second inauguration Title of "Mr. President" Cabinet of the United States

Secretary of State Attorney General Secretary of the Treasury Secretary of War

Judiciary Act of 1789 Nonintercourse Act Whiskey Rebellion

Militia Acts of 1792

Coinage Act of 1792

United States
United States
Mint

Proclamation of Neutrality

Neutrality Act of 1794

Jay Treaty Pinckney's Treaty Slave Trade Act of 1794 Residence Act Thanksgiving Proclamation Farewell Address State of the Union Address 1790 1791 1792 1793 1796 Cabinet Federal judicial appointments

Views and public image

Presidential library The Washington Papers Religious views Washington and slavery Town Destroyer Legacy

Life and homes

Early life Birthplace Ferry Farm
Ferry Farm
boyhood home Mount Vernon

Gristmill Woodlawn Plantation

Samuel Osgood House, First Presidential Mansion Alexander Macomb House, Second Presidential Mansion President's House, Philadelphia Germantown White House Custis estate Potomac Company James River and Kanawha Canal Mountain Road Lottery Congressional Gold Medal Thanks of Congress President-General of the Society of the Cincinnati Washington College Washington and Lee University Electoral history of George Washington

Memorials and depictions

Washington, D.C. Washington state Washington Monument Mount Rushmore Washington's Birthday Purple Heart The Apotheosis of Washington George Washington
George Washington
(Houdon) George Washington
George Washington
(Ceracchi) George Washington
George Washington
(Trumbull) Washington Crossing the Delaware General George Washington
George Washington
at Trenton Washington at Verplanck's Point General George Washington
George Washington
Resigning His Commission Unfinished portrait Lansdowne portrait The Washington Family
The Washington Family
portrait Washington at Princeton
Washington at Princeton
painting Point of View sculpture George Washington
George Washington
University Washington University Washington Masonic National Memorial George Washington
George Washington
Memorial Parkway George Washington
George Washington
Bridge Washington and Jefferson National Forests Washington Monument, Baltimore Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
statue List of memorials U.S. Postage stamps

Washington-Franklin Issues 1932 bicentennial

Currency

Washington quarter Washington dollar Silver bullion coins

Cultural depictions George Washington
George Washington
(1984 miniseries 1986 sequel)

Related

Bibliography Founding Fathers of the United States Republicanism Federalist Party

Federalist Era

Virginia dynasty Coat of arms Cherry-tree anecdote River Farm Washington's Crossing 1751 Barbados trip Category Syng inkstand General of the Armies American Philosophical Society American Revolution

patriots

Mount Vernon
Mount Vernon
Ladies' Association

Ancestry and family

Martha Washington
Martha Washington
(wife) John Parke Custis
John Parke Custis
(stepson) George Washington
George Washington
Parke Custis (step-grandson, adopted son) Eleanor Parke Custis (step-granddaughter, adopted daughter) Augustine Washington
Augustine Washington
(father) Mary Ball (mother) Lawrence Washington (half-brother) Augustine Washington
Augustine Washington
Jr. (half-brother) Betty Washington Lewis (sister) Samuel Washington
Samuel Washington
(brother) John A. Washington (brother) Charles Washington (brother) Lawrence Washington (grandfather) John Washington
John Washington
(great-grandfather) Bushrod Washington
Bushrod Washington
(nephew)

John Adams
John Adams

.