General Services Administration
General Services Administration (GSA), an independent agency of
the United States government, was established in 1949 to help manage
and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. GSA supplies
products and communications for U.S. government offices, provides
transportation and office space to federal employees, and develops
government-wide cost-minimizing policies and other management
GSA employs about 12,000 federal workers and has an annual operating
budget of roughly $26.3 billion. GSA oversees $66 billion of
procurement annually. It contributes to the management of about $500
billion in U.S. federal property, divided chiefly among 8,300 owned
and leased buildings and a 210,000 vehicle motor pool. Among the real
estate assets managed by the GSA are the
Ronald Reagan Building
Ronald Reagan Building and
International Trade Center in
Washington, D.C. – the largest U.S.
federal building after the Pentagon – and the Hart-Dole-Inouye
Federal Center (which had previously been the Battle Creek Sanitarium
run by John Harvey Kellogg).
GSA's business lines include the Federal Acquisition Service (FAS),
the Public Buildings Service (PBS), and the Technology Transformation
Service (TTS), as well as several Staff Offices including the Office
of Governmentwide Policy, the Office of Small Business Utilization,
and the Office of Mission Assurance. TTS's Office of Products and
Programs is responsible for five portfolios designed to help federal
agencies improve delivery of information and services to the
public. Key initiatives include FedRAMP, Cloud.gov, the USAGov
platform (e.g., USA.gov, GobiernoUSA.gov, and Kids.gov), Data.gov,
Performance.gov, and Challenge.gov.
GSA is member of the
Procurement G6, an informal group leading the use
of framework agreements and e-procurement instruments in public
Ted Weiss Federal Building
Ted Weiss Federal Building controversy
Lurita Doan controversy
1.1.3 Western Regions Training Conference controversy
2.1.1 Staff Offices
2.1.2 Independent Offices
Procurement and the GSA Schedule
3.2 Federal property and buildings
3.3 Federal vehicle fleet management
3.4 Interagency Resources Management Conference
3.5 Technology Transformation Service
3.6 Section 1122 Program
4 See also
6 External links
In 1947 President
Harry Truman asked former President Herbert Hoover
to lead what became known as the
Hoover Commission to make
recommendations to reorganize the operations of the federal
government. One of the recommendations of the commission was the
establishment of an "Office of the General Services." This proposed
office would combine the responsibilities of the following
U.S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Federal Supply
U.S. Treasury Department's Office of Contract Settlement
National Archives Establishment
All functions of the Federal Works Agency, including the Public
Buildings Administration and the Public Roads Administration
War Assets Administration
GSA became an independent agency on July 1, 1949, after the passage of
the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act. General Jess
Larson, Administrator of the War Assets Administration, was named
GSA's first Administrator.
The first job awaiting Administrator Larson and the newly formed GSA
was a complete renovation of the White House. The structure had fallen
into such a state of disrepair by 1949 that one inspector of the time
said the historic structure was standing “purely from habit.”
Larson later explained the nature of the total renovation in depth by
saying, “In order to make the
White House structurally sound, it was
necessary to completely dismantle, and I mean completely dismantle,
everything from the
White House except the four walls, which were
constructed of stone. Everything, except the four walls without a
roof, was finally stripped down, and that's where the work started.”
GSA worked closely with President Truman and First Lady
Bess Truman to
ensure that the new agency's first major project would be a success.
GSA completed the renovation in 1952. GSA headquarters, located at
Eighteenth and F Streets, NW, was U.S. General Services Administration
Building listed on the
National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places in 1986 as
Interior Department Offices.
In 1960, GSA created the Federal Telecommunications System, a
government-wide intercity telephone system. In 1962, the Ad Hoc
Committee on Federal Office Space created a new building program to
address obsolete office buildings in Washington, D.C., resulting in
the construction of many of the offices that now line Independence
In 1970, the Nixon administration created the Consumer Product
Information Coordinating Center, now called the USAGov. The Federal
Buildings Fund was initiated in 1974, which allowed the GSA to issue
rent bills to federal agencies. In 1972, the GSA established the
Automated Data and Telecommunications Service, which later became the
Office of Information Resources Management. In 1973, the GSA created
the Office of Federal Management Policy. GSA’s Office of Acquisition
Policy centralized procurement policy in 1978. The GSA was initially
responsible for emergency preparedness and stockpiling strategic
materials to be used in wartime until these functions were transferred
to the newly-created
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Federal Emergency Management Agency in 1979.
In 1984, GSA introduced the federal government to the use of charge
cards, known as the GMA SmartPay system. The National Archives and
Records Administration was spun off into an independent agency in
1985. The same year, the GSA began to provide governmentwide policy
oversight and guidance for federal real property management as a
result of an Executive Order signed by President Ronald Reagan.
In 2003, the Federal Protective Service was moved to the Department of
Homeland Security. In 2005, GSA reorganized to merge the Federal
Supply Service (FSS) and Federal Technology Service (FTS) business
lines into the Federal Acquisition Service (FAS).
On April 3, 2009, President
Barack Obama nominated Martha N. Johnson
to serve as the GSA Administrator. After a 9-month delay, the United
States Senate confirmed her nomination on February 4, 2010. On April
2, 2012, Johnson resigned in the wake of a management-deficiency
report that detailed improper payments for a 2010 "Western Regions"
training conference put on by the Public Buildings Service in Las
Ted Weiss Federal Building
Ted Weiss Federal Building controversy
In July 1991, GSA contractors began the excavation of what is now the
Ted Weiss Federal Building
Ted Weiss Federal Building in New York City. The planning for that
building did not take into account the possibility of encountering the
historic cemetery for colonial-era African New Yorkers that was
located beneath the footprint of the $276-million-dollar office
building. When initial excavation disturbed burials, destroying
skeletons and artifacts, GSA sent archaeologists to excavate—but hid
their findings from the public. Revelation of the discoveries led to
18 months of activism by African-descendant community members, public
officials, academics, and concerned citizens. Ultimately, GSA made
public amends by funding extensive scientific research under the
auspices of Michael Blakey; creating a new subagency, the Office of
Public Education and Interpretation; truncating the building plan; and
funding public reports on the story of the African Burial Ground. The
efforts led to the creation of a new unit of the National Park
Service, The African Burial Ground National Monument, at the facility.
GSA fully funded that portion of the National Park Service until
2010, when GSA's formal involvement with the African Burial Ground
Lurita Doan controversy
In an earlier scandal, President George W. Bush had forced a previous
GSA Administrator, Lurita Doan, to resign; GSA had awarded a sole
source contract for $20,000 to her friend. Doan appeared to have
violated the Hatch Act.
Western Regions Training Conference controversy
In 2012, U.S. Representative John Mica, chairman of the House
Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, called for a
congressional investigation into the misuse of federal money by
GSA. Lawmakers accused the GSA of "lavish spending" following the
2010 Western Regions Training Conference at the
M Resort in Las
GSA spent $823,000 in taxpayer money toward the October 2010
convention. $100,405.37 was spent in employee travel costs for a total
of eight pre-planning meetings, scouting trips, and a “dry run". The
report also found excessive spending for event planners, gifts for
participants, and lavish meals.
The conference had been the most recent in a series of similar lavish
conferences organized by regions of GSA's Public Buildings Service. In
May 2010, the GSA treated 120 interns to a five-day conference at a
Palm Springs, California
Palm Springs, California resort; an additional investigation led by
Inspector General Brian D. Miller found 115 missing
Apple iPods meant
for an employee rewards program.
Martha N. Johnson resigned in the wake of the
controversy. Before turning in her own resignation, Johnson fired two
other GSA senior executives, Public Buildings Service head Robert Peck
and senior advisor Stephen Leeds. Four PBS Regional Commissioners, who
had been responsible for planning the conference, were placed on
Acting Administrator of the U.S. General Services Administration
The Administrator of General Services is the chief executive of the
agency. Tim Horne was named Acting Administrator on January 20,
2017. GSA consists of three major services: the Public Buildings
Service (PBS), the Federal Acquisition Service (FAS), and the
Technology Transformation Service (TTS). In addition to these three
major services, the agency also consists of twelve staff offices and
two independent agencies.
Office of Governmentwide Policy
Ensures that government-wide policies encourage federal agencies to
develop and use the best and most cost-effective management practices
for the conduct of their specific programs.
Office of the Chief Financial Officer
Office of Human Resources Management
Office of GSA IT
Office of Administrative Services
Office of Congressional and Intergovernmental Affairs
Office of Strategic Communication
Office of Small Business Utilization
Promotes increased access to GSA's nationwide procurement
Office of General Counsel
Office of Civil Rights
Office of Mission Assurance
Office of Customer Experience
Office of Inspector General
Promotes economy, efficiency, and effectiveness within GSA and works
to prevent and detect fraud, waste, and abuse in GSA's programs and
Civilian Board of Contract Appeals
Hears and decides contract disputes between government contractors and
GSA conducts its business activities through 11 offices (known as GSA
Regions) throughout the United States. These regional offices are
located in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Denver, Ft. Worth, Kansas City,
Missouri, New York City, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Seattle
(Auburn), and Washington, D.C.
Thomas P. O'Neill Jr. Federal Building
Northeast and Caribbean
1 World Trade Center
New York, NY
100 S Independence Mall W
Martin Luther King, Jr. Federal Building
Kluczynski Federal Building
Two Pershing Square
Kansas City, MO
Fritz G. Lanham Federal Building
Fort Worth, TX
Denver Federal Center
Denver (Lakewood), CO
50 United Nations Plaza
San Francisco, CA
400 15th St. SW
Seattle (Auburn), WA
301 7th St. SW
Procurement and the GSA Schedule
The Federal Acquisition Service (FAS) provides comprehensive solutions
for products and services across the government. GSA assists with
procurement work for other government agencies. As part of this
effort, it maintains the large GSA Schedules, which other agencies can
use to buy goods and services. The GSA Schedule can be thought of as a
collection of pre-negotiated contracts.
Procurement managers from
government agencies can view these agreements and make purchases from
the GSA Schedule knowing that all legal obligations have been taken
care of by GSA.
The GSA Schedule is awarded as a prime contract entered into by the
federal government and a vendor that has submitted an acceptable
proposal. At the core of the GSA Schedule contract lie two key
concepts: 1) Basis of Award customer or group of customers and 2)
Price Reduction Clause. The two concepts are applied in concert to
achieve the government's pricing objectives for the GSA Schedule
program. Namely, the government wants to ensure that when the vendor
experiences competitive pressures to reduce its pricing, then the
government can benefit from these and be extended reduced pricing as
The Basis of Award customer or group of customers represents the
customer or group of customers whose sales are affected on the same
terms and conditions as those with GSA, and whose pricing is used: 1)
as the baseline during negotiations to establish discounts offered to
GSA, and 2) as a price floor that, when breached, constitutes
additional discounting that triggers the Price Reduction Clause.
The Price Reduction Clause ensures that vendor discounting practices
and GSA Schedule prices maintain a fixed relationship. The vendor
specifies in its GSA proposal, and during negotiations of GSA Schedule
contract prices, the discounts to be given to Basis of Award
customer(s). If the vendor then provides a larger discount to a Basis
of Award customer than what was agreed upon in the GSA Schedule
contract (i.e., if the price floor is breached), then the vendor's GSA
price will be reduced proportionately and retroactively.
Effective Price Reduction Clause compliance procedures will protect
vendors if their discounting practices are fully and accurately
disclosed in their original proposals to GSA and then are used as a
basis for compliance over the term of the contract. Although not
ideal, a compliance system implemented after a contract has been
awarded can bring a contract into compliance, although sometimes at
the expense of profits. If implementing a system in the middle of a
contract period, inaccuracies that turn up should be corrected
immediately, and the GSA contracting officer should be made aware of
them. Price Reduction Clause compliance systems and procedures can
range from the simple to the complex. A simple, manual system would be
appropriate for a service contractor with standard labor rates that
are not discounted. A complex system would be required for a reseller
with thousands of products and discounting policies that differ among
In response to increased mandates and standards required by the
Federal Government of its agencies, in a push to plan for federal
sustainability, GSA offers online tools to aid in the building and
management of government offices that are subject to these
GSA has delegated authority to the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
to procure medical supplies under the VA Federal Supply Schedules
Federal property and buildings
Thoughtful analysis to balance GSA preservation, cost, and performance
goals supported historic window retention with replacement of
non-historic windows at this 1930 courthouse
See also: Federal Building (other)
The Public Buildings Service (PBS) acquires and manages thousands of
federal properties. In accordance with Title 40 of the United States
Code, GSA is charged with promulgating regulations governing the
acquisition, use, and disposal of real property (real estate and land)
and personal property (essentially all other property). This activity
is centered in GSA's Office of Governmentwide Policy. Policies
promulgated by GSA are developed in collaboration with federal
agencies, and are typically published for public comment in the
Federal Register prior to publication as a Final Rule.
The Public Buildings Service provides workplaces for federal customer
agencies and United States courthouses at good economies to the
American taxpayer. PBS is funded primarily through the Federal
Buildings Fund, which is supported by rent from federal customer
Disposal of surplus real property is managed by the Office of Property
Disposal within the Public Buildings Service. The Office is
responsible for property which includes land, office buildings,
warehouses, former post offices, farms, family residences, commercial
facilities, or airfields located in the United States, Puerto Rico,
the U.S. Virgin Islands, or the U.S. Pacific Territories. Surplus
property is made available to both government and private bidders and,
in some cases, land sold for public purposes (such as parks or
welfare) may be made available for a discount of up to 100% of the
GSA has earned a LEED rating for 24 green buildings. Some of green
offerings at new buildings includes green roofs (planted roofs that
can substantially reduce rainwater run-off during storms and provide
significant insulation for the buildings), underfloor air
distribution (that delivers cooling and heating air at floor level
instead of from the ceiling), purchasing and using renewable power
from utility companies, and light shelves (located outside of the
building that reduce the amount of heat radiating into the building
from the sun while increasing the amount of natural light and high
ceilings that help direct daylight deep into the work
environment). The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
made available not less than $4.5 billion for measures necessary to
convert GSA facilities to High-Performance Green Buildings, as defined
Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007
Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (Public Law
The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program
facilitates to the GSA the implementation, through project transaction
services, applied technology services and decision support services,
to deploy renewable energy technologies and cultivate change to
embrace energy efficiency.
In 2004, the GSA was presented with the
Honor Award from the National
Building Museum for "success in creating and maintaining innovative
environments for the federal community as well as providing a positive
federal presence for the public."
Federal vehicle fleet management
This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date
information. Please update this article to reflect recent events or
newly available information. (November 2010)
See also: List of official vehicles of the President of the United
States and fleet vehicle
GSA contributes to the management of U.S. Federal property, including
a 210,000 vehicle motor pool.
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (stimulus bill)
included $300 million to acquire energy-efficient motor vehicles for
the federal fleet. President
Barack Obama announced that GSA was to
U.S. auto industry
U.S. auto industry with orders for about 17,600 new
fuel-efficient vehicles by June 1, 2009, on an accelerated schedule,
with money from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. The GSA
was to pay $285 million to General Motors Corporation, Chrysler LLC,
and Ford Motor Company. It was to include 2,500 hybrid sedans—the
largest one–time purchase yet of hybrid vehicles for the federal
government—and each new vehicle was claimed to yield at least a 10%
fuel economy improvement over its predecessor. The GSA was to spend
$15 million more that year on a pilot fleet of advanced-technology
vehicles, including all-electric vehicles and hybrid buses.
Hybrids accounted for about 10 percent of the 145,473 vehicles the
General Services Administration
General Services Administration bought during the fiscal years
2009 and 2010, after making up less than 1 percent of government
vehicle purchases in 2008. As for specific models, Obama took a
buy-American stance. The U.S. government bought about two-thirds of
the Chevrolet Malibu Hybrids sold during the past two years, and
almost a third of the Ford Fusion Hybrids, but only 17 Toyota Prius
hybrids and five Honda Civic Hybrids. Ground Force One, so
designated when transporting the POTUS, is one of two armored buses
procured in 2010 for the transportation of dignitaries under
protection of the Secret Service, at a cost of $1.1 million each. The
coaches were assembled in
Tennessee on frames made in Canada.
Interagency Resources Management Conference
This article contains content that is written like an advertisement.
Please help improve it by removing promotional content and
inappropriate external links, and by adding encyclopedic content
written from a neutral point of view. (March 2013) (Learn how and when
to remove this template message)
The Interagency Resources Management Conference (TIRMCO) was a federal
executive conference of the General Services Administration, hosting
about 300 federal and industry leaders each year. The Interagency
Resources Management Conference began in 1961 as the ADPCO conference.
In 1979, the Department of Commerce, GSA and the Office of Management
and Budget (OMB) jointly sponsored a conference for Senior Executive
Service (SES) officials at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. At the same time,
the National Archives hosted a small records management conference for
senior executives, also located in Gettysburg. These two conferences
merged with ADPCO and became The Interagency Resources Management
Conference. Over the years, the conference has evolved its focus from
highly specialized to integrated. In 1996, when U.S. Congress mandated
the role of Chief Information Officer (CIO), these new federal
executives were invited to attend The Interagency Resources Management
The Interagency Resources Management Conference was the government's
primary senior executive conference when it was held as an offsite
retreat for leaders from across government. Originally, industry
participation was managed by a division of the Washington Post,
Post-Newsweek Tech Media, and from 1999 to 2008, Post-Newsweek, with
the assistance of a small, woman-owned business, Hosky Communications
Inc., developed a strong following from the SES community for the
event, on average generating 3-400 attendees with a 3:1 government to
industry ratio. GSA leadership crafted conference content that
directly addressed the Administration's goals throughout those years
which the industry showcase demonstrated the roles that partners play
in executing cost-cutting technology solutions for government.
In 2008, Hosky was awarded a competitive contract to continue to
manage and develop the forum. From 2008 to 2010, TIRMCO drew attendees
from about 65 federal agencies, and diverse disciplines including
information technology, human resources, acquisition, management and
Once travel restrictions and budget concerns surfaced late 2010,
TIRMCO was moved to a local venue under the management services of
A-S-K Associates, where primary attendance by industry was established
as a means to inform commercial firms on GSA policies. TIRMCO 2011 was
held in Washington, D.C., at the Kellogg Conference Center and Hotel
on the campus of Gallaudet University.
Shortly after TIRMCO 2011, GSA's Associate Administrator for
Governmentwide Policy, Kathleen Turco, announced to media that she and
other GSA officials felt that TIRMCO had lost its spark and retired
Technology Transformation Service
Since 1997, the GSA .gov program has managed government websites.
In 2014 GSA launched a technology 'start-up' program called 18F. 18F
is a digital services agency which makes digital products for
government organizations and uses lean startup methods, open source
code, and contemporary programming languages.
The Technology Transformation Service, a new subunit starting in May
2016, will incorporate 18F, the Presidential Innovation Fellows
program, and the Office of Citizen Services and Innovative
Technologies. "Phaedra Chrousos, formerly associate administrator of
OCSIT, [will be] the Technology Transformation Service's first
commissioner. Her deputy will be Aaron Snow, executive director of
18F." The Technology Transformation Service is to be a "service line
of business", parallel to the two others GSA offers, the Federal
Acquisition Service and the Public Buildings Service.
Section 1122 Program
In 2009, Section 1122 of the FY 1994 National Defense Authorization
Act for Fiscal Year 2009 was added. This expanded the program from
buying counter-drug materials and equipment at a discount to homeland
security and emergency response operations. Besides the GSA, the
Department of Defense (DOD) and the
Defense Logistics Agency
Defense Logistics Agency (DLA)
provide equipment, as in the 1033 program.
Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants
Federal Building (other)
Public Works and Government Services Canada
^ "GSA site, scroll down to Agency Data section". GSA. Retrieved
^ a b "GSA Organization". U.S. General Services Administration.
^ "Mission and Priorities". U.S. General Services Administration.
2013-01-15. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
^ "Office of Products and Programs". U.S. General Services
^ "GSA Assists in Coordinated Effort To Transform
White House Press
Briefing Room". U.S. General Services Administration. Archived from
the original on 2008-09-20. Retrieved 2012-07-08.
National Park Service
National Park Service (2009-03-13). "National Register Information
System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park
^ a b c "A Brief History of GSA". GSA.gov. Retrieved March 18,
^ "GSA Releases Draft FTS/FSS Reorganization Plan (GSA News Release
#10161)" (Press release). U.S. General Services Administration. June
2, 2005. Archived from the original on May 28, 2014.
^ a b Brockell, Gillian (2012-04-04). "Former GSA head faults regional
commissioners in spending scandal". FederalNewsRadio.com. Retrieved
^ "The African Burial Ground". U.S. General Services Administration.
African Burial Ground National Monument
African Burial Ground National Monument New York". National Park
Service. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
^ O'Harrow Jr., Robert;
Scott Higham (May 1, 2008). "Doan Ends Her
Stormy Tenure as GSA Chief". Washington Post. Retrieved
^ Elliott, Philip. "GSA head resigns amid reports of lavish spending".
MSNBC. Washington DC. Associated Press. Archived from the original on
12 April 2012.
^ Berger, Judson (April 7, 2010). "Agency under fire for Vegas
conference had ballooning budgets in recent years". Fox News.
^ Rein, Lisa; Smith, Timothy R. (2011-06-28). "GSA conference went
'over the top'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
^ Elliott, Phillip (April 2, 2012). "GSA head resigns amid reports of
lavish spending at
Las Vegas conference".
Las Vegas Review-Journal.
Retrieved March 18, 2017.
^ Subramanian, Courtney (April 18, 2012). "GSA Scandal" So What Does
$823,000 Buy You in Las Vegas?". Time Magazine. Retrieved March 18,
^ Management Deficiency Report: General Services Administration,
Public Buildings Service, 2010 WESTERN REGIONS CONFERENCE, Office of
Investigations, Office of Inspector General, U.S. General Services
Administration, 2 April 2012
General Services Administration
General Services Administration Administrators".
^ "GSA Office of Inspector General".
^ "U.S. Civilian Board of Contract Appeals".
^ "FAS Initiatives". U.S. General Services Administration. 2012-12-17.
^ "GSA Schedules". U.S. General Services Administration. 29 January
2013. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
^ "GSA Schedule Price Reduction Clause (PRC) Compliance".
General Services Administration
General Services Administration Acquisition Manual (GSAM), U.S.
General Services Administration, 1 October 2012
^ "SFTool - Sustainable Facilities Tool - GSA Sustainable Facilities
^ "38.000 Scope of part". Acquisition.gov. Retrieved 2016-03-25.
^ a b "Public Buildings Service". U.S. General Services
Administration. Archived from the original on 2010-07-14. Retrieved
^ a b "CRS Report: RS20630 - Surplus Federal Property - NLE".
Congressional Research Service (CRS), part of the U.S. Library of
Congress. Archived from the original on July 26, 2011.
^ "LEED Certified Projects". U.S. General Services Administration.
2013-01-25. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
^ "Green Roof Building Information". U.S. General Services
Administration. 2012-05-18. Archived from the original on 2013-03-12.
^ "Wayne L. Morse Courthouse (Eugene, OR)". U.S. General Services
Administration. 2012-02-13. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
^ "(Unknown title: dead link)". U.S. General Services Administration.
Archived from the original on 2012-01-11.
^ "Federal Energy Management Program". U.S. Department of Energy.
2013-01-14. Retrieved 2013-02-08.
^ "A Salute to the U.S. General Services Administration". National
Building Museum. June 3, 2004. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
White House Office of the Press Secretary (April 9, 2009).
"President Obama Announces Accelerated Purchase of 17,600 New American
Vehicles for Government Fleet " (Press release). The White House
(www.Whitehouse.gov). Retrieved 2012-06-12.
^ Scott Doggett (November 11, 2010). "Obama Administration Buys Nearly
1 in 4 Hybrids as Consumer Market Slumps - AutoObserver".
Blogs.edmunds.com. Archived from the original on 2010-11-28. Retrieved
^ Robert Farley (25 August 2011). "Obama's Canadian-American Bus".
FactCheck. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
^ "CIO Council - Cohen Part II". Chief Information Officers Council
(Cio.gov). 1998-01-01. Archived from the original on 2012-06-10.
^ "Washington DC Conference Center and Hotel, Plan Business Meetings
and Events". Kellogg Conference Center. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
^ Weigelt, Matthew. (2012-03-15) IRMCO is done, Acquisition Excellence
takes its place. FCW. Retrieved on 2013-07-19.
^ "Welcome - DOTGOV".
^ Billy Mitchell. GSA launches tech service for agencies.
Fedscoop.com. May 3, 2016.
^ GSA. "1122 Program". GSA. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
General Services Administration
General Services Administration in the Federal Register
ISNI: 0000 0001 2253