GENERAL MOTORS COMPANY, commonly abbreviated as GM, is an American
multinational corporation headquartered in
Detroit that designs,
manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and
sells financial services. With global headquarters in Detroit's
Renaissance Center , GM manufactures cars and trucks in 35 countries.
In 2008, 8.35 million GM cars and trucks were sold globally under
various brands. GM reached the milestone of selling 10 million
vehicles in 2016. Current auto brands are
Chevrolet , GMC ,
Holden , and Wuling . Former GM automotive brands
include Daewoo , McLaughlin , Oakland ,
Pontiac , Hummer
, Saab , Saturn , as well as Vauxhall , and
Opel , which were bought
Groupe PSA in 2017.
The company was founded by
William C. Durant on September 16, 1908 as
a holding company. The company was the largest automobile manufacturer
from 1931 through 2007.
In addition to brands selling assembled vehicles, GM has also had
various automotive-component and non-automotive brands, many of which
it divested in the 1980s through 2000s. These have included Euclid and
Terex (earthmoving/construction/mining equipment Electro-Motive Diesel
(locomotive, marine, and industrial diesel engines );
(automotive and industrial diesel engines); Allison (aircraft engines,
transmissions , gas turbine engines );
including refrigeration and air conditioning ); New Departure
Delco Electronics and
ACDelco (electrical and electronic
components); GMAC (finance ); General Aviation and North American
GM Defense (military vehicles); and Electronic
Data Systems (information technology ).
General Motors produces vehicles in 37 countries under various brands
Buick , GMC ,
Holden , HSV ,
Baojun , Jie Fang , and Ravon .
The current company,
General Motors Company ("new GM"), was formed in
2009 following the bankruptcy of GENERAL MOTORS CORPORATION ("old
GM"), which became
Motors Liquidation Company . The new company
purchased the majority of the assets of the old GM, including the
brand "General Motors".
* 1 Business units
* 2 History
* 2.1 Chapter 11 bankruptcy
* 3 Corporate governance
* 3.1 Financial results
* 3.2 Board of Directors
* 4 World presence
* 4.1 North America
* 4.2 South America
* 4.3 Europe
* 4.4 Asia
* 4.5 Africa
* 4.6 Oceania
* 5 Motorsports
Research and development
* 7 Small car sales
* 8 Environmental initiatives
* 8.1 Hybrid electric vehicles
* 8.2 All-electric vehicles
* 8.3 Battery packs for electric vehicles
* 8.4 Hydrogen initiative
* 8.5 Flexible-fuel vehicles
* 9 Philanthropy
* 10 Brand reorganization
* 10.1 Discontinued brands
* 10.2 Former subsidiaries
* 10.3 Current affiliates
* 10.4 Former affiliates
* 10.5 Spin-offs
* 11 Controversies
Ralph Nader and the Corvair
* 11.2 Defective ignition system investigation
* 12 See also
* 13 References
* 14 Further reading
* 15 External links
In addition to its twelve brands,
General Motors also holds a 20%
stake in IMM , and a 77% stake in
GM Korea . It also has a number of
Shanghai GM ,
GM-AvtoVAZ in Russia,
GM Uzbekistan ,
General Motors India
General Motors India ,
General Motors Egypt , and
Isuzu Truck South Africa . General Motors
employs 212,000 people and does business in more than 140 countries.
General Motors is divided into five business segments: GM North
Opel Group , GM International Operations (GMIO), GM
South America (GMSA), and
GM Financial . :12, 13
The company also operates a mobility division called Maven , which
operates car sharing services in the United States, and is studying
alternatives to individual vehicle ownership.
General Motors led global vehicle sales for 77 consecutive years from
1931 through 2007, longer than any other automaker, and in 2012 was
among the world's largest automakers by vehicle unit sales.
General Motors acts in most countries outside the U.S. via wholly
owned subsidiaries, but operates in
China through 10 joint
ventures.:18, 96 GM's
OnStar subsidiary provides vehicle safety,
security and information services.
General Motors shed several brands, closing Saturn , Pontiac
Hummer , and emerged from a government-backed Chapter 11
reorganization . In 2010, the reorganized GM made an initial public
offering that was one of the world's top five largest IPOs to date,
and returned to profitability later that year.
History of General Motors
History of General Motors
General Motors Corporation was formed on September 16, 1908, in
Flint, Michigan , as a holding company controlled by William C. Durant
, owner of
Buick . At the beginning of the 20th century, there were
fewer than 8,000 automobiles in America, and Durant had become a
leading manufacturer of horse-drawn vehicles in Flint before making
his foray into the automotive industry in 1904 by purchasing the
Buick Motor Company. GM's co-founder was Charles Stewart
Mott , whose carriage company was merged into
Buick prior to GM's
creation. Over the years, Mott became the largest single stockholder
in GM, and spent his life with his Mott Foundation , which has
benefited the city of Flint, his adopted home. GM acquired Oldsmobile
later that year. In 1909, Durant brought in
Cadillac , Elmore ,
Oakland , and several others. Also in 1909, GM acquired the Reliance
Motor Truck Company of
Owosso, Michigan , and the Rapid Motor Vehicle
Pontiac, Michigan , the predecessors of GMC Truck . Durant,
along with R. S. McLaughlin , lost control of GM in 1910 to a bankers'
trust, because of the large amount of debt taken on in its
acquisitions, coupled with a collapse in new vehicle sales. The
longest-lived continuous automobile nameplate still in production in
the world is the
The next year, Durant started the
Car Company in the
U.S., and in
Canada in 1915, and through this, he secretly purchased a
controlling interest in GM. Durant took back control of the company
after one of the most dramatic proxy wars in American business
history. Durant then reorganized
General Motors Company into General
Motors Corporation in 1916, merging
Chevrolet with GM and merging
General Motors of
Canada Limited as an ally in 1918. Shortly
thereafter, he again lost control, this time for good, after the new
vehicle market collapsed.
Alfred P. Sloan was picked to take charge of
the corporation, and led it to its post-war global dominance when the
seven manufacturing facilities operated by
Chevrolet before GM
acquired the company began to contribute to GM operations. These
facilities were added to the individual factories that were exclusive
to Cadillac, Buick, Oldsmobile, Oakland, and other companies acquired
by GM. This unprecedented growth of GM would last into the early
1980s, when it employed 349,000 workers and operated 150 assembly
CHAPTER 11 BANKRUPTCY
General Motors Chapter 11 reorganization
On June 1, 2009, after heavy losses,
General Motors went bankrupt.
Stockholders lost essentially all of their investment. The 2nd
Buick LaCrosse has been cited as an example of a GM's
revival following its restructuring in the aftermath of the Great
On July 10, 2009,
General Motors emerged from government backed
Chapter 11 reorganization after an initial filing on June 8, 2009.
Through the Troubled
Asset Relief Program the US Treasury invested
$49.5 billion in
General Motors and recovered $39 billion when it sold
its shares on December 9, 2013 resulting in a loss of $10.3 billion.
The Treasury invested an additional $17.2 billion into GM's former
financing company, GMAC (now Ally). The shares in Ally were sold on
December 18, 2014 for $19.6 billion netting $2.4 billion. A study by
the Center for Automotive Research found that the GM bailout saved 1.2
million jobs and preserved $34.9 billion in tax revenue.
Also in 2009 as part
General Motors Chapter 11 Bankruptcy, the
company shed several brands, closing Saturn ,
Pontiac , and
Saab Automobile to Dutch automaker Spyker , and emerged
from a government-backed Chapter 11 reorganization . In 2010, the
reorganized GM made an initial public offering that was one of the
world's top five largest IPOs to date and returned to profitability
later that year.
GM World Headquarters in
Based on global sales,
General Motors is routinely among the world's
largest automakers. Headquartered at the
Renaissance Center in
Detroit, GM employs approximately 202,000 people around the world. In
General Motors sold 6.5 million cars and trucks globally; in
2010, it sold 8.39 million.
As of March 2017 ,
Mary Barra is the chief executive officer (CEO)
and chairman of the board and Daniel Ammann is the president. The
head of design,
Edward T. Welburn , was the first African American to
lead a global automotive design organization, and as of 2014 the
highest ranking African American in the US motor industry.
As part of the company's advertising, Ed Whitacre announced the
company's 60-day money-back guarantee and repayment of $6.7 billion
loan from government ahead of schedule. On December 12, 2013, GM
announced that Mary Barra, 51, executive vice president, Global
Product Development, Purchasing and Supply Chain, was elected by the
board of directors to become the next CEO of the company succeeding
Dan Akerson on January 15, 2014. Barra also joined the GM board. From
June 2009 to March 2011, the company had three chief executive
officers and three chief financial officers.
The company has reported annual profits since 2010. It can carry
forward previous losses to reduce tax liability on future earnings. It
earned $4.7 billion in 2010. The Wall Street Journal estimated the tax
break, including credits for costs related to pensions and other
expenses can be worth as much as $45 billion over the next 20 years.
General Motors ranked second on the list with 8.5 million
units produced globally. In 2011, GM returned to the first place with
9.025 million units sold worldwide, corresponding to 11.9% market
share of the global motor vehicle industry. The top two markets in
2011 were China, with 2,547,203 units, and the United States, with
2,503,820 vehicles sold. The
Chevrolet brand was the main contributor
to GM performance, with 4.76 million vehicles sold around the world in
2011, a global sales record.
In May 2013 during a commencement speech, CEO Dan Akerson suggested
that GM was on the cusp of rejoining the S">U.S. sales
In a filing before the Superior Court of Ontario (Canada), General
Canada is a privately owned Canadian company with the
corporation as indirect parent. The employees are not all Canadian, as
some salaried personnel are from the U.S. and work for the
corporation. GM products focus primarily on its four core divisions
– Chevrolet, Cadillac, Buick, and GMC. The GM restructuring has
resulted in a lower break even point for annual sales and renewed
In the mid-2005, GM announced that its corporate chrome power emblem
Mark of Excellence " would begin appearing on all recently introduced
and all-new 2006 model vehicles produced and sold in North America.
However, in 2009 the "New GM" reversed this, saying that emphasis on
its four core divisions would downplay the GM logo.
GM typically reports as among the largest auto makers in the United
States. In May 2012, GM recorded an 18.4% market share in the U.S.
In 2008 the third largest individual country by sales was
some 550,000 GM vehicles sold. In that year the other South American
countries Argentina, Colombia, and
Venezuela sold another 300,000 GM
vehicles, suggesting that the total GM sales in South America
(including sales in other South American countries such as Chile,
Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, etc.) in that year were at a similar level to
sales in China.
On April 20, 2017,
General Motors announced that the Venezuelan
government had seized the
General Motors Venezolana plant in Valencia
General Motors Europe
Prior to their sale to
Groupe PSA in 2017,
Opel was the main GM brand
name in Europe except in the United Kingdom, where Opel's British
subsidiary, Vauxhall , used its own "Vauxhall" brand name.
Chevrolet brand was reintroduced in Europe in 2005, selling
mostly rebranded Daewoo cars acquired by
GM Korea . After having lost
approximately $18B over 12 years, GM began phasing out mainstream
Chevrolet in Europe in late 2013, and finished by late 2015,
to focus on Opel/Vauxhall. Chevrolets continue to be sold in Russia
Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States , through the GM Uzbekistan
Chevrolet still has a limited presence in Europe
through imports of the Corvette and Camaro , while
a limited presence as well.
PSA Peugeot Citroen and
General Motors formed an alliance,
General Motors acquiring seven percent of the PSA
Group. The ownership was soon divested on December 13, 2013,
generating "gross proceeds of €0.25 billion." By 2017, Groupe PSA
considered taking over
Opel from GM, after GM reported a loss of $257
million from its European operations on 2016, the sixteenth
consecutive loss-making year for GM in Europe, bringing its amount
losses in Europe since 2000 to more than US$15 billion. On March 6,
2017 the sale of
Opel and Vauxhall to the PSA Group for $2.3 billion
GM worldwide 2008 vehicle sales
in GM LOCATION
The company manufactures most of its
China market vehicles locally.
Shanghai GM , a joint venture with the Chinese company
SAIC Motor ,
was created on March 25, 1997. The
Shanghai GM plant was officially
opened on December 15, 1998, when the first Chinese-built
off the assembly line. The
SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile joint-venture is
also successfully selling microvans under the Wuling brand (34 percent
owned by GM). Much of General Motors' recent growth has been in the
People's Republic of China, where its sales rose 66.9 percent in 2009,
selling 1,830,000 vehicles and accounting for 13.4 percent of the
Buick is strong in China, being led by the
Buick Excelle subcompact.
The last emperor of
China owned a Buick. The
Cadillac brand was
China in 2004, starting with exports to China. GM pushed
the marketing of the
Chevrolet brand in
China in 2005 as well,
Buick Sail to that brand.
In August 2009 the joint venture of FAW GM Light Duty Commercial
Vehicle Co Ltd was formed that mainly produces Jiefang light-duty
General Motors vehicle sales in
China rose 28.8 percent to a record
2,351,610 units in 2010. GM set up an auto research center as part of
a US250 million corporate campus in Shanghai to develop
'gasoline-hybrid cars , electric vehicles and alternative fuels ,
engines and new technologies'. The company plans to double its sales
from 2010 to about 5 million units in
China by 2015.
SAIC-GM-Wuling established the low-cost
Baojun brand to better
compete with domestic rivals, Chery , Geely and BYD for first-time
buyers of cars priced around USD10,000. It is estimated that such
China is about 5 million vehicles a year, larger than the
auto market in
France and Britain combined. However, some are worried
that 'local brands like
Baojun could eventually become threats to
their parent brands if they compete more against established models
over time'. Shanghai-GM-Wuling sold 1.23 million vehicles in 2010,
mainly commercial vans and trucks, of which about 700,000 units were a
van called Sunshine.
GM maintains a dealership presence in Japan, called GM Chevrolet
Shop, previously known as GM Auto World Shop. Current GM Japan
dealerships were either former Saturn dealerships or
locations. GM products are also currently sold by the company Yanase
Co., Ltd. since 1915.
In August 2011, GM announced plans to reactivate its plant that
previously produced rebadged
Chevrolet Blazer as
Opel as well as
Brazilian Blazer, and also build a new plant in
West Java ,
Indonesia, which would produce 40,000 passenger cars per year for the
Southeast Asian market. It is the third plant in Southeast Asia, after
Thailand , and the
In October 2011, the
South Korea Free Trade Agreement opened up the
South Korean auto market to American made cars. GM owns (per December
31, 2011) 77.0% of its joint venture in
South Korea ,
GM Korea . :p.96
On March 11, 2013, GM opened a new 190,300 square-foot manufacturing
plant in Bekasi, Indonesia. In February 2015, GM announced they will
Bekasi plant by the end of June and stop production of the
Thailand by mid-year.
GM announced on May 18, 2017 that it would exit the Indian market,
which it had entered for the second time in 1996. The first time was
in 1928, when it became the first car maker to manufacture cars in
India. GM would however continue to manufacture cars from its Talegaon
Maharashtra plant for the export market. This plant has a capacity
of 1,60,000 units annually. The older Halol, Gujarat plant with a
capacity for 50,000 units stopped production on April 28, 2017. It
will be sold, with GM in talks with China's
SAIC Motor Corporation
India arm's domestic sales for April 2016 – March 2017
declined to 25,823 units from 32,540 the previous year and market
share contracted from 1.17 percent to 0.85 percent for the same
period. However, exports surged 89 percent during the same period to
70,969 units. GMTC-I, GM's technical center in Bengaluru,
continue doing its global work. About 400 employees, 8 percent of GM's
total Indian work-force, would be affected by the pull-out. Weak
product line-up and below par service quality were the reasons for the
poor showing by GM in India. It will also affect 10,000 employees
working with about 120 Outlets/Dealership of GM in India.
Global locations of General Motors' assembly factories.
GM has a long history in
Egypt which began in the 1920s with the
assembly of cars and light pickup trucks for the local market. In the
mid of the 1950s, GM withdrew from the Egyptian market. Some years
later, the Ghabbour Brothers began to assemble
Cadillac , Chevrolet
Buick models up to the 1990s. Since 1983 GM and Al-Monsour
Automotive Company have owned
General Motors Egypt , which is
currently the only manufacturer of traditional GM branded vehicles in
In the 1920s Miller Brothers
Nigeria was founded as an importer of
commercial vehicles of the Bedford brand into the country. In 1949,
the company opened its own assembly plant and operated under the name
Nigeria Motors. In 1965 the plant and its distribution network
was split into different companies and renamed as Federated Motors
Industries. In 1991 the company was taken in by a joint venture
between GENERAL MOTORS and UACN of
Another manufacturing base of the GM for the African markets is the
Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines headquartered in
Tunisia , which assembles
Mazda models for the Maghreb
Formed in 1975,
General Motors East Africa (GMEA) was the largest
assembler of commercial vehicles in the region exporting them from
Kenya to East and Central African countries including
Malawi , Rwanda and
Burundi . Its facility located in
Nairobi assembled a wide range of
Isuzu trucks and buses including the
Isuzu N-Series versatile light commercial vehicle, TF Series
Isuzu bus chassis. In addition to assembly, GMEA also
Chevrolet products Spark and Optra. Selling entire GM's
57.7 per cent stake in
General Motors East Africa to
announced on February 28, 2017. After finishing the sale, GMEA was
Isuzu East Africa Limited, effective from August 1, 2017.
General Motors began operating in
South Africa in 1913 through its
wholly owned subsidiary,
General Motors South Africa . Following the
passage of the
Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act in 1986, GM was forced
to divest from South Africa, and GMSA became the independent Delta
Motor Corporation. GM purchased a 49% stake in Delta in 1997 following
the end of apartheid , and acquired the remaining 51% in 2004,
reverting the company to its original name. By 2014 it was targeting
the production of 50,000 cars a year but was being hampered by
national labour unrest, strikes and protests. In May 2017, GM
announced that it would exit the
South Africa market by the end of
2017 by selling part of the business to
Isuzu and look for a buyer for
the rest of the business.
Australia , GM has been represented by the
Holden brand since
1948, GM having acquired the company in 1931. In 2012, GM
began to be imported into
Australia as a niche marque under their own
brand name. However, as of August 2013, GM has made the decision to
Opel brand from
Australia noting poor adoption and sales.
In New Zealand, GM was represented by locally assembled Chevrolet,
Pontiac and Vauxhall cars from 1926. In 1954 sales of fully imported
Holdens began. New Zealand assembly of Holdens begun in 1957 was
slowly phased in through the early 1960s to replace most Vauxhall and
Chevrolet cars. Thirty years later,
Australia tariff protection
was removed and local assembly plants closed in 1984 and 1990. GM
became a national sales company and a parts distribution centre. In
the early 1990s
General Motors New Zealand sold a few
Isuzu and Opel
models rebranded as Holdens while GM New Zealand was renamed
On December 10, 2013, GM announced that
Holden would cease engine
and vehicle manufacturing operations in
Australia by the end of 2017.
Beyond 2017 Holden's Australian presence will consist of: a national
sales company, a parts distribution centre and, a global design
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Chevrolet "Impala" themed
NASCAR race car driven by
NASCAR's Jimmie Johnson
Chevrolet Cruze in the WTCC
Corvette Racing Team in the
American Le Mans Series The Holden
VE Commodore of
James Courtney (
Holden Racing Team ) at the 2012
Clipsal 500 Adelaide
GM has participated over the years in the World Touring Car
24 Hours of Le Mans
24 Hours of Le Mans ,
SCCA , Supercars
Championship , and many other world venues.
GM's engines were highly successful in the
Indy Racing League (IRL)
throughout the 1990s, winning many races in the small V-8 class. GM
has also done much work in the development of electronics for GM auto
racing . An unmodified Aurora V-8 in the Aerotech, captured 47 world
records, including the record for speed endurance in the Motorsports
Hall of Fame of America. Recently, the
Cadillac V-Series has entered
GM has also used many cars in the American racing series
Chevrolet SS is the only entry in the series, but in the
Pontiac Grand Prix ,
Buick Regal ,
Oldsmobile Cutlass ,
Chevrolet Lumina ,
Chevrolet Malibu and the
Chevrolet Monte Carlo were
also used. GM has won a total of 40
NASCAR Sprint Cup Series
manufacturer\'s championships , including 34 with Chevrolet, the most
of any make in
NASCAR history, 3 with Oldsmobile, 2 with Buick, and 1
with Pontiac. GM leads all other automobile manufacturers in races won
in NASCAR's premier series at 1,011.
Chevrolet leads individual makes
with 677 wins.
In Australia, there is the
V8 Supercar Championship which is battled
out by the two main rivals of (GM)
Holden and Ford . The current
Holden Racing Team cars are based on the
Holden Commodore and run a
5.0-litre V8-cylinder engine producing 635 bhp (474 kW). These cars
have a top speed of 298 km/h (185 mph) and run 0–100 km/h in 3.8
Holden Racing Team is Australia's most successful team in
Australian touring car history. In 2006 and 2007, the drivers'
championship was won by the very closely linked (now defunct) HSV
Dealer Team .
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
General Motors Technical Center and
General Motors Proving
Research and development (R&D) at
General Motors began organically as
the continuation of such R it was whatever key people in each company
had been competent enough to organize and pursue. R. S. McLaughlin 's
Carriage Company in 1876 was designing and inventing Carriage Gear.
The McLaughlin Companies became
General Motors of
Charles F. Kettering 's Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company
Dayton, Ohio , was still an independent firm at this time.
Its work was well known to GM central management through its
relationship as a supplier and consultancy to
Cadillac and Buick.
In 1916, Durant organized the United Motors Corporation as an
amalgamation of parts suppliers, supplying GM and other OEMs but
independent of GM.
Alfred P. Sloan , head of the newly acquired Hyatt
Roller Bearing Corporation , became United Motors' CEO. United Motors
acquired Delco, and Kettering began his association with Sloan. United
Motors also acquired at this time the original Remy corporation
Remy Electric Company), a competitor of Delco. In 1918
General Motors bought United Motors. Various entities grew out of the
original Delco and Remy, including the Dayton Metal Products
General Motors Research Corporation, the Delco
Remy Electric Division of GM,
Delco Remy (now Remy
International, Inc. ),
Delco Electronics , and others.
Today's main successor corporation is
Delphi Automotive , which
nowadays is an independent parent corporation.
General Motors Research Corporation, at Dayton under Kettering,
became a true automotive research center. During the next few decades
it led the development of:
* many electrical-appliance features for cars and trucks
* In 1911, Charles F. Kettering, with Henry M. Leland, of Dayton
Engineering Laboratories Company (DELCO) invented and filed U.S.
Patent 1,150,523 for the first electric starter in America.
* In 1914,
Cadillac introduced the first mass-produced production
V-8 in the world.
* In 1921,
General Motors patented the use of
Tetraethyllead as an
antiknock agent leading to the development of higher compression
engines resulting in more power and efficiency.
* In 1937, Jominy recognized today as a bad idea environmentally ,
but a technological wonder of its day)
* commercially practical two-stroke diesel engines
* better transmissions for track-laying vehicles
* many other advancements
Although GM R&D (as it is known in colloquial shorthand) began as an
organization largely built around one man (Kettering), it eventually
evolved into a more modern organization whose path is shaped by
individuals but not dominated entirely by any of them. World War II
was a turning point wherein military affairs, after mingling with the
technologies of applied science for some 80 years, first started to
become fundamentally reinvented by them. Civilian life, too, changed
in this direction. By the 1950s, corporations such as GM and many
others were facing a new era of R&D, different from earlier ones. Less
about genius inventors and individual inventions, and more about
organizational progress and integrated systems, it raised new
questions about where the capital for R&D would come from in an era of
limitless demand for R">
Today, GM R">
On September 7, 2014, at the Intelligent Transport Systems World
Detroit GM disclosed it would be introducing auto-pilot
features into certain 2017 models of its cars, which would go on sale
in 2016. The "super cruise" or vehicle-to-vehicle V2V technology is
likely to be first introduced to the
Cadillac range, enabling drivers
to switch in and out of semi-automated mode. In December 2016,
General Motors announced it would begin testing self-driving vehicles
on public roads in Michigan, after Gov. Rick Snyder signed a package
of bills legalizing the operation of autonomous vehicles.
In March 2016,
General Motors bought Cruise Automation, a San
Francisco self-driving vehicle start-up, to develop self-driving cars
that could be used in ride-sharing fleets.
In October 2017,
General Motors acquired Strobe, a solid state LIDAR
company. Strobe's prototypes produce brief "chirps" of
frequency-modulated (FM) laser light, where the frequency within each
chirp varies linearly. Measuring the phase and frequency of the
echoing chirp allows the system to directly measure both the distance
and the velocity of objects in the road ahead. Strobe, Cruise and GM
will work together to develop the technology for future self-driving
In November 2017 Two self-driving Chevy Bolt EV cars were seen during
a media event by Cruise Automation, GM's autonomous car unit, in San
Francisco, California, U.S.. The automaker is already operating
self-driving Chevy Bolts in San Francisco as part of a beta test run
by the company's subsidiary.
SMALL CAR SALES
Chevrolet Aveo Concept, later went into production as the
Chevrolet Aveo, UK and the
Chevrolet Sonic, US
From the 1920s onward,
General Motors always maintained an internal
dialog about what its economy-car and small-car policies should be.
The economy and size considerations often naturally overlapped,
although a strong distinction was always drawn in the 20th century
between policies for the U.S. market and policies for other markets.
Economy (in some form) always had good demand anywhere, but its
definition in the U.S. was long considered different from that in
other markets. In this view, "economy" in the U.S. did not mean
"small" in the sense of what qualified as "small" outside the U.S. The
policy discussion often focused on topics like the higher demand for
truly small cars in non-U.S. markets than in the U.S., and whether it
made more sense to import a car into a certain country or to build it
domestically within that country, either as some variant of knockdown
or with truly extensive domestic sourcing. GM's acquisitions of
Vauxhall Motors Ltd (UK, 1925) and Adam
Opel AG (Germany, 1929),
rather than starting new domestic companies to compete against them,
were based on analyses that convinced GM managers that acquiring an
existing domestic manufacturer was a better business decision.
Although GM since the 1920s has always offered economy models in the
U.S. market (relative to that market's definition in any given
decade), and had done research and development in the 1940s and 1950s
in preparation for any potential rise of strong demand for truly small
cars in the U.S. market, it has also been criticized over the decades
for not doing enough to promote fuel efficiency in the U.S. market in
the 1970s through 1990s. GM's response has been that it has always
responded to market demands, and that most Americans, despite anything
they said to the contrary, did not actually demand (at
purchasing-decision time) small size or fuel efficiency in their
vehicles to any great or lasting extent. Although some U.S. consumers
flocked temporarily to the ideal of fuel economy whenever fuel supply
crises arose (such as 1973 and 1979), they flocked equally
enthusiastically to SUVs when cheap fuel of the 1980s and 1990s
temporarily shielded them from any downside to these choices.
Since the return of high fuel prices in the 2000s and 2010s, GM's
interest in truly small-car programs for the U.S. market has been
renewed. As part of
General Motors Company development, GM revived one
of its idled U.S. factories for the production of a small car in
Orion, Michigan , with the creation of 1,200 American jobs. This will
be the first time that GM produced a sub compact car in the United
States since the
Chevrolet Chevette ended production in 1986. This
retooled plant will be capable of building 160,000 cars annually,
including both small and compact vehicles. Production started in late
2011 with the
Chevrolet Sonic .
Chevrolet Volt , a plug-in electric vehicle.
Chevrolet Volt .
General Motors has published principles regarding the environment and
maintains an extensive website to inform the public. In 2008, General
Motors committed to engineering half of its manufacturing plants to be
landfill-free. In order to achieve its landfill-free status,
production waste is recycled or reused in the manufacturing process.
The world\'s largest rooftop solar power installation was installed
General Motors Spanish Zaragoza Manufacturing Plant in fall 2008.
The Zaragoza solar installation has about 2,000,000 square feet
(190,000 m2) of roof at the plant and contains about 85,000 solar
panels. The installation was created, owned and operated by Veolia
Environment and Clairvoyant Energy, who lease the rooftop area from
General Motors. In 2011,
General Motors also invested $7.5 million
in solar-panel provider Sunlogics, which will install solar panels on
GM has long worked on alternative-technology vehicles , and has led
the industry with ethanol-burning flexible-fuel vehicles that can run
E85 (ethanol) or gasoline. The company was the first to use
turbochargers and was an early proponent of V6 engines in the 1960s,
but quickly lost interest as muscle car popularity increased. They
demonstrated gas turbine vehicles powered by kerosene , an area of
interest throughout the industry, but abandoned the alternative engine
configuration in view of the
1973 oil crisis . In the 1970s and 1980s,
GM pushed the benefits of diesel engines and cylinder deactivation
technologies with disastrous results due to poor durability in the
Oldsmobile diesels and drivability issues in the
variable-cylinder engines. In 1987, GM, in conjunction with
AeroVironment , built the
Sunraycer , which won the inaugural World
Solar Challenge and was a showcase of advanced technology. Much of the
Sunraycer found its way into the Impact prototype
electric vehicle (also built by Aerovironment) and was the predecessor
General Motors EV1 .
GM supported a compromise version of the Corporate Average Fuel
Economy (CAFE) standard increase from 27 to 35 mpg‑US (8.7 to 6.7
L/100 km; 32 to 42 mpg‑imp), the first such increase in over 20
years. GM announced they will introduce more Volt-based plug-in
HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES
Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid
In May 2004, GM delivered the world's first full-sized hybrid
pickups, the 1/2-ton Silverado/Sierra. These mild hybrids did not use
electrical energy for propulsion, like GM's later designs. In 2005,
Opel Astra diesel Hybrid concept vehicle was introduced. The 2006
Saturn Vue Green Line was the first hybrid passenger vehicle from GM
and is also a mild design. GM has hinted at new hybrid technologies to
be employed that will be optimized for higher speeds in freeway
GM currently offers the
2-mode hybrid system used by the Chevrolet
Cadillac Escalade, and GM 1/2 half-ton pickups and
will later be used on other vehicles.
Within the framework of its vehicle electrification strategy, GM
Chevrolet Volt in 2010, an electric vehicle with
back-up generators powered by gasoline. The production
was available in late 2010 as a 2011 model with limited availability.
GM delivered the first Volt during December 2010.
The GM Magic Bus is a hybrid-powered bus.
General Motors EV1 was introduced in California
in 1996. The
Chevrolet Bolt EV is scheduled to be released in
California by late 2016. Further information: Who Killed the
Electric Car? § Batteries
General Motors was the first company (in the modern era) to release
an all-electric automobile. In 1990, GM debuted the "Impact" concept
car at the Los Angeles Auto Show. It was the first car with
zero-emissions marketed in the US in over three decades. The Impact
was eventually produced as the
EV1 for the 1996 model year. It was
available through dealers located in only a few regions (e.g.,
California, Arizona, Georgia). Vehicles were leased, rather than sold,
to individuals. In 1999 GM decided to cease production of the
vehicles. When the individual leases had expired, they declined to
renew the leases or allow the lessors to purchase them. All of the
EV1s were eventually returned to
General Motors and, with the
exception of a few which were donated to museums, all were destroyed.
The documentary film
Who Killed the Electric Car? covered the EV1
The EV1's cancellation had disappointed supporters of electric
vehicles. In 2010, GM debuted the
Chevrolet Volt , an plug-in hybrid
electric vehicle with back-up generators powered by gasoline
(range-extended electric vehicle ).
General Motors has announced that
it is building a prototype two-seat electric vehicle with Segway . An
early prototype of the Personal Urban Mobility and Accessibility
vehicle—dubbed Project P.U.M.A. – was presented in New York at the
New York International Auto Show
New York International Auto Show .
In October 2011,
General Motors announced the production of the
Chevrolet Spark EV , an all-electric version of the third generation
Chevrolet Spark , with availability limited to select U.S. and global
markets. In October 2012,
GM Korea announced it will start making and
selling the Spark EV domestically in 2013. The production version was
unveiled at the 2012
Los Angeles Auto Show . Within the framework of
GM's vehicle electrification strategy, the Spark EV is the first
all-electric passenger car marketed by
General Motors in the U.S.
EV1 was discontinued in 1999. The Spark EV was released in
the U.S. in selected markets in California and Oregon in June 2013.
Retail sales began in
South Korea in October 2013. GM also plans to
sell the Spark EV in limited quantities in
Canada and select European
GM began production of the
Chevrolet Bolt EV in October 2016, the
first ever affordable mass market all-electric car with a range of
more than 200 miles (320 km). Deliveries in California are scheduled
to begin in late 2016. The vehicle will be launched in all 50 US
states and analysts expect it to sell around 30,000 units per year,
though GM itself has not confirmed these estimates. The battery pack
and most drivetrain components are built by LG and assembled in GM's
Lake Orion plant.
BATTERY PACKS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES
GM builds battery packs in southern
Michigan . GM also established
an automotive battery laboratory in Michigan. GM will be responsible
for battery management systems and power electronics, thermal
management, as well as the pack assembly. An existing GM facility at
Brownstown Township was chosen to be upgraded as battery pack plant.
LG Chem's U.S. subsidiary, Compact Power of Troy, Michigan, has been
building the prototype packs for the development vehicles and will
continue to provide integration support and act as a liaison for the
Sequel , a fuel cell-powered vehicle from GM
The 1966 GM Electrovan is credited with being the first hydrogen fuel
cell car ever produced. Though fuel cells have been around since the
General Motors was the first to use a fuel cell, supplied
by Union Carbide, to power the wheels of a vehicle with a budget of
"millions of dollars". In 2002, it was reported that GM spent about
$100 million a year in research and development of fuel cell vehicle.
In June 2007, Larry Burns, vice president of research and development,
said he's not yet willing to say exactly when hydrogen vehicles would
be mass-produced, but he said it should happen before 2020, the year
many experts have predicted. He said "I sure would be disappointed if
we weren't there" before 2020.
On July 2, 2013, GM and Honda announced a partnership to develop fuel
cell systems and hydrogen storage technologies for the 2020 time
frame. GM and Honda are leaders in fuel cell technology, ranking No. 1
and No. 2, respectively, in total fuel cell patents filed between 2002
and 2012, with more than 1,200 between them according to the Clean
Energy Patent Growth Index.
Chevrolet Impala LT 2009 (USA).
GM produces several flexible-fuel vehicles that can operate on E85
ethanol fuel or gasoline, or any blend of both. Since 2006 GM started
featuring a bright yellow gas cap to remind drivers of the E85
GM is the leader in
E85 flex fuel vehicles, with over 6 million
FlexFuel vehicles on the road in the U.S. In 2010, GM pledged to have
more than half of their annual vehicle production be
E85 or biodiesel
capable by 2012. As of 2012, GM offers 20 ethanol-enabled FlexFuel
cars and trucks in the US, and offers more FlexFuel vehicles models
than any other automaker.
General Motors Foundation
General Motors has donated over $23 million in cash and
vehicles to the
Nature Conservancy , and funding from GM supports many
In 1996, GMC partnered with the fashion industry as a part of the
GM/CFDA Concept: Cure, a collaboration between
General Motors and the
Fashion industry bringing awareness to and raising funds for breast
cancer. The program involved 5 designers, each lending their artistic
talents to customize 5 different vehicles.
Nicole Miller , Richard
Anna Sui ,
Todd Oldham and Mark Eisen were tasked with
Cadillac STS ,
Buick Riviera ,
GMC Yukon , Oldsmobile
Chevrolet Camaro Z28, respectively. The cars were then
auctioned with the proceeds presented to the Nina Hyde Center at the
Los Angeles Auto Show in 1997.
Since 1997, the GM Foundation has been a source of funding for Safe
Kids USA 's "Safe Kids Buckle Up" program, a national initiative to
ensure child automobile safety through education and inspection.
Through 2002, the PACE Awards program, led by GM, EDS, and SUN
Microsystems, has given over $1.2 billion of in-kind contributions
which includes computers to over 18 universities to support
engineering education. In 2009, the GM led group has helped the Pace
Awards program worldwide.
In 2004, GM gave $51,200,000 in cash contributions and $17,200,000
in-kind donations to charitable causes.
General Motors Foundation (GM Foundation) receives philanthropic
bequests from General Motors. It is a 501(c)(3) foundation
incorporated in 1976.
As it emerged from bankruptcy and company reorganization in 2010, GM
reorganized the content and structure of its brand portfolio (its
brand architecture ). Some nameplates like Pontiac, Saturn, Hummer,
and service brands like Goodwrench were discontinued. Others, like
Saab , were sold. The practice of putting the "GM Mark of Excellence"
on every car, no matter what the brand, was discontinued in August
2009. The company has moved from a corporate-endorsed hybrid brand
architecture structure, where GM underpinned every brand to a multiple
brand corporate invisible brand architecture structure. The company's
familiar square blue "badge" has been removed from the Web site and
advertising, in favor of a new, subtle all-text logo treatment on its
U.S. site; the Canadian site still retains the blue "badge". In
2011, GM discontinued the Daewoo brand in
South Korea and replaced it
GM describes their brand politics as having "two brands" which "will
drive our global growth. They are Chevrolet, which embodies the
qualities of value, reliability, performance and expressive design;
and Cadillac, which creates luxury vehicles that are provocative and
powerful. At the same time, the
Buick , GMC, Baojun,
Vauxhall brands are being carefully cultivated to satisfy as many
customers as possible in select regions." :p.182
YEAR BEGAN MAKING AUTOS
YEAR JOINED GM
MARKETS SERVED TODAY
North America, China
North America, Europe, Middle East, China, Japan, South Korea
Australia and New Zealand
North America, Middle East
Australia, New Zealand
This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this
section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material
may be challenged and removed . (February 2017) (Learn how and when to
remove this template message )
(Note on dates: the dates below are the years each brand existed,
which are not always the same as the dates they were part of GM.)
* Winton (1897–1937)
* Welch (1903–11)
* Marquette (1904–12, 1929–30)
* Rainier (1905–11)
* Oakland (1907–31)
* Ewing (1908–11)
* McLaughlin (1908–42)
* Elmore (1909–12)
* Rapid Truck (1909–12)
* Reliance Truck (1909–12)
* Peninsular (1912)
Samson Tractor (1917–22)
* Sheridan (1921–22)
Yellow Coach (1925–43)
* LaSalle (1927–40)
* Viking (1929–31)
* Bedford (1930–86)
Cleveland Diesel (1937–62)
General Motors Diesel Division
General Motors Diesel Division (1938–87)
* Envoy (1960–70)
* Acadian (1962–71)
* Beaumont (1966–69)
* Ranger (1968–76)
* Statesman (1971–84)
* Saehan (1976–82)
* Daewoo (1982–2011)
* Passport (1988–91)
* Geo (1989–97)
* Saturn (1990–2010)
This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please
help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources .
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2017)
(Learn how and when to remove this template message )
Frigidaire (1919–1979), sold to Ohio-based White Consolidated
Euclid Trucks (1953–1968), sold to White Consolidated
Terex (1968–1980) (1983–1986), sold to IBH Holdings of
Germany , bought back after IBH failed; sold to Northwest Engineering
General Motors Diesel Division
General Motors Diesel Division (1938–1987) sold to Motor Coach
* Lotus (1986–1993), sold to
Luxembourg -based A.C.B.N. Holdings
American Axle (–1994) – former axle division sold off
Allison Engine Company (1929–1995) sold to Rolls-Royce North
Hughes Aircraft (1985–1999) – 1997 Hughes Defense sold to
Raytheon , 1999 Hughes Satellite sold to
* Delphi Interior & Lighting (–1998) lighting plants sold to
Palladium Equity Partners and renamed Guide Corporation
* Delphi Interior broken up and portion sold to the former
Chrysler AG (now
Daimler AG ); now part of
* DIESEL DIVISION OF GENERAL MOTORS OF CANADA LIMITED spun off and
later acquired by
General Motors Canada as Diesel Division of General
* EDS –
Electronic Data Systems
Delco Remy (1918–1994) – spun off
* Magnaquench (–1994) – spun off
Hughes Electronics sold to
News Corporation in 2003
* 1999 GM spun off its parts making operations as Delphi
RALPH NADER AND THE CORVAIR
1961–63 Corvair swing-axle rear suspension
UNSAFE AT ANY SPEED by
Ralph Nader , published in 1965, is a
pioneering book accusing car manufacturers of being slow to introduce
safety features, and reluctant to spend money on improving safety. The
subject for which the book is probably most widely known, the
Chevrolet Corvair , is covered in the first chapter.
It relates to the first (1960–1964) models that had a swing-axle
suspension design which was prone to "tuck under" in certain
circumstances. In substitution for the cost-cutting lack of a front
stabilizer bar (anti-roll bar), Corvairs required tire pressures which
were outside of the tire manufacturer's recommended tolerances. The
Corvair relied on an unusually high front to rear pressure
differential (15psi front, 26psi rear, when cold; 18 psi and 30psi
hot), and if one inflated the tires equally, as was standard practice
for all other cars at the time, the result was a dangerous oversteer.
In early March 1966, several media outlets, including The New
The New York Times
The New York Times , alleged that GM had tried to
Ralph Nader , hiring private detectives to tap his phones
and investigate his past, and hiring prostitutes to trap him in
compromising situations. Nader sued the company for invasion of
privacy and settled the case for $425,000. Nader's lawsuit against GM
was ultimately decided by the
New York Court of Appeals , whose
opinion in the case expanded tort law to cover "overzealous
surveillance". Nader used the proceeds from the lawsuit to start the
pro-consumer Center for Study of Responsive Law.
A 1972 safety commission report conducted by Texas Aborder:solid #aaa
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* GM people
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* List of automobile manufacturers of the
List of GM engines
* List of GM factories
List of GM platforms
List of GM platforms
List of GM transmissions
United States Council for Automotive Research
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