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GENERAL MOTORS COMPANY, commonly abbreviated as GM, is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit
Detroit
that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services. With global headquarters in Detroit's Renaissance Center
Renaissance Center
, GM manufactures cars and trucks in 35 countries. In 2008, 8.35 million GM cars and trucks were sold globally under various brands. GM reached the milestone of selling 10 million vehicles in 2016. Current auto brands are Buick
Buick
, Cadillac
Cadillac
, Chevrolet
Chevrolet
, GMC , Holden
Holden
, and Wuling . Former GM automotive brands include Daewoo , McLaughlin , Oakland , Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
, Pontiac
Pontiac
, Hummer , Saab , Saturn , as well as Vauxhall , and Opel
Opel
, which were bought by Groupe PSA in 2017.

The company was founded by William C. Durant on September 16, 1908 as a holding company. The company was the largest automobile manufacturer from 1931 through 2007.

In addition to brands selling assembled vehicles, GM has also had various automotive-component and non-automotive brands, many of which it divested in the 1980s through 2000s. These have included Euclid and Terex (earthmoving/construction/mining equipment Electro-Motive Diesel (locomotive, marine, and industrial diesel engines ); Detroit
Detroit
Diesel (automotive and industrial diesel engines); Allison (aircraft engines, transmissions , gas turbine engines ); Frigidaire (appliances including refrigeration and air conditioning ); New Departure (bearings ); Delco Electronics and ACDelco
ACDelco
(electrical and electronic components); GMAC (finance ); General Aviation and North American Aviation (airplanes); GM Defense (military vehicles); and Electronic Data Systems (information technology ).

General Motors
General Motors
produces vehicles in 37 countries under various brands that include: Chevrolet
Chevrolet
, Buick
Buick
, GMC , Cadillac
Cadillac
, Holden
Holden
, HSV , Wuling , Baojun
Baojun
, Jie Fang , and Ravon .

The current company, General Motors
General Motors
Company ("new GM"), was formed in 2009 following the bankruptcy of GENERAL MOTORS CORPORATION ("old GM"), which became Motors Liquidation Company . The new company purchased the majority of the assets of the old GM, including the brand "General Motors".

CONTENTS

* 1 Business units

* 2 History

* 2.1 Chapter 11 bankruptcy

* 3 Corporate governance

* 3.1 Financial results * 3.2 Board of Directors

* 4 World presence

* 4.1 North America * 4.2 South America * 4.3 Europe * 4.4 Asia * 4.5 Africa * 4.6 Oceania

* 5 Motorsports * 6 Research and development * 7 Small car sales

* 8 Environmental initiatives

* 8.1 Hybrid electric vehicles * 8.2 All-electric vehicles * 8.3 Battery packs for electric vehicles * 8.4 Hydrogen initiative * 8.5 Flexible-fuel vehicles

* 9 Philanthropy

* 10 Brand reorganization

* 10.1 Discontinued brands * 10.2 Former subsidiaries * 10.3 Current affiliates * 10.4 Former affiliates * 10.5 Spin-offs

* 11 Controversies

* 11.1 Ralph Nader and the Corvair * 11.2 Defective ignition system investigation

* 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links

BUSINESS UNITS

In addition to its twelve brands, General Motors
General Motors
also holds a 20% stake in IMM , and a 77% stake in GM Korea
GM Korea
. It also has a number of joint-ventures, including Shanghai GM , SAIC-GM-Wuling
SAIC-GM-Wuling
and FAW-GM in China, GM-AvtoVAZ in Russia, GM Uzbekistan
GM Uzbekistan
, General Motors India
General Motors India
, General Motors Egypt , and Isuzu Truck South Africa . General Motors employs 212,000 people and does business in more than 140 countries. General Motors
General Motors
is divided into five business segments: GM North America (GMNA), Opel
Opel
Group , GM International Operations (GMIO), GM South America (GMSA), and GM Financial . :12, 13

The company also operates a mobility division called Maven , which operates car sharing services in the United States, and is studying alternatives to individual vehicle ownership.

General Motors
General Motors
led global vehicle sales for 77 consecutive years from 1931 through 2007, longer than any other automaker, and in 2012 was among the world's largest automakers by vehicle unit sales.

General Motors
General Motors
acts in most countries outside the U.S. via wholly owned subsidiaries, but operates in China
China
through 10 joint ventures.:18, 96 GM's OnStar subsidiary provides vehicle safety, security and information services.

In 2009, General Motors
General Motors
shed several brands, closing Saturn , Pontiac , and Hummer
Hummer
, and emerged from a government-backed Chapter 11 reorganization . In 2010, the reorganized GM made an initial public offering that was one of the world's top five largest IPOs to date, and returned to profitability later that year.

HISTORY

Main article: History of General Motors
History of General Motors

General Motors
General Motors
Corporation was formed on September 16, 1908, in Flint, Michigan , as a holding company controlled by William C. Durant , owner of Buick
Buick
. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were fewer than 8,000 automobiles in America, and Durant had become a leading manufacturer of horse-drawn vehicles in Flint before making his foray into the automotive industry in 1904 by purchasing the fledgling Buick
Buick
Motor Company. GM's co-founder was Charles Stewart Mott , whose carriage company was merged into Buick
Buick
prior to GM's creation. Over the years, Mott became the largest single stockholder in GM, and spent his life with his Mott Foundation , which has benefited the city of Flint, his adopted home. GM acquired Oldsmobile later that year. In 1909, Durant brought in Cadillac
Cadillac
, Elmore , Oakland , and several others. Also in 1909, GM acquired the Reliance Motor Truck Company of Owosso, Michigan , and the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac, Michigan , the predecessors of GMC Truck . Durant, along with R. S. McLaughlin , lost control of GM in 1910 to a bankers' trust, because of the large amount of debt taken on in its acquisitions, coupled with a collapse in new vehicle sales. The longest-lived continuous automobile nameplate still in production in the world is the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Suburban

The next year, Durant started the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Motor Car
Car
Company in the U.S., and in Canada
Canada
in 1915, and through this, he secretly purchased a controlling interest in GM. Durant took back control of the company after one of the most dramatic proxy wars in American business history. Durant then reorganized General Motors
General Motors
Company into General Motors Corporation in 1916, merging Chevrolet
Chevrolet
with GM and merging General Motors
General Motors
of Canada
Canada
Limited as an ally in 1918. Shortly thereafter, he again lost control, this time for good, after the new vehicle market collapsed. Alfred P. Sloan was picked to take charge of the corporation, and led it to its post-war global dominance when the seven manufacturing facilities operated by Chevrolet
Chevrolet
before GM acquired the company began to contribute to GM operations. These facilities were added to the individual factories that were exclusive to Cadillac, Buick, Oldsmobile, Oakland, and other companies acquired by GM. This unprecedented growth of GM would last into the early 1980s, when it employed 349,000 workers and operated 150 assembly plants.

CHAPTER 11 BANKRUPTCY

Main article: General Motors Chapter 11 reorganization

On June 1, 2009, after heavy losses, General Motors
General Motors
went bankrupt. Stockholders lost essentially all of their investment. The 2nd generation Buick
Buick
LaCrosse has been cited as an example of a GM's revival following its restructuring in the aftermath of the Great Recession .

On July 10, 2009, General Motors
General Motors
emerged from government backed Chapter 11 reorganization after an initial filing on June 8, 2009. Through the Troubled Asset
Asset
Relief Program the US Treasury invested $49.5 billion in General Motors
General Motors
and recovered $39 billion when it sold its shares on December 9, 2013 resulting in a loss of $10.3 billion. The Treasury invested an additional $17.2 billion into GM's former financing company, GMAC (now Ally). The shares in Ally were sold on December 18, 2014 for $19.6 billion netting $2.4 billion. A study by the Center for Automotive Research found that the GM bailout saved 1.2 million jobs and preserved $34.9 billion in tax revenue.

Also in 2009 as part General Motors
General Motors
Chapter 11 Bankruptcy, the company shed several brands, closing Saturn , Pontiac
Pontiac
, and Hummer
Hummer
, while selling Saab Automobile to Dutch automaker Spyker , and emerged from a government-backed Chapter 11 reorganization . In 2010, the reorganized GM made an initial public offering that was one of the world's top five largest IPOs to date and returned to profitability later that year.

CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

GM World Headquarters in Detroit
Detroit

Based on global sales, General Motors
General Motors
is routinely among the world's largest automakers. Headquartered at the Renaissance Center
Renaissance Center
in Detroit, GM employs approximately 202,000 people around the world. In 2009, General Motors
General Motors
sold 6.5 million cars and trucks globally; in 2010, it sold 8.39 million.

As of March 2017 , Mary Barra is the chief executive officer (CEO) and chairman of the board and Daniel Ammann is the president. The head of design, Edward T. Welburn , was the first African American to lead a global automotive design organization, and as of 2014 the highest ranking African American in the US motor industry.

As part of the company's advertising, Ed Whitacre announced the company's 60-day money-back guarantee and repayment of $6.7 billion loan from government ahead of schedule. On December 12, 2013, GM announced that Mary Barra, 51, executive vice president, Global Product Development, Purchasing and Supply Chain, was elected by the board of directors to become the next CEO of the company succeeding Dan Akerson on January 15, 2014. Barra also joined the GM board. From June 2009 to March 2011, the company had three chief executive officers and three chief financial officers.

FINANCIAL RESULTS

The company has reported annual profits since 2010. It can carry forward previous losses to reduce tax liability on future earnings. It earned $4.7 billion in 2010. The Wall Street Journal estimated the tax break, including credits for costs related to pensions and other expenses can be worth as much as $45 billion over the next 20 years.

In 2010, General Motors
General Motors
ranked second on the list with 8.5 million units produced globally. In 2011, GM returned to the first place with 9.025 million units sold worldwide, corresponding to 11.9% market share of the global motor vehicle industry. The top two markets in 2011 were China, with 2,547,203 units, and the United States, with 2,503,820 vehicles sold. The Chevrolet
Chevrolet
brand was the main contributor to GM performance, with 4.76 million vehicles sold around the world in 2011, a global sales record.

In May 2013 during a commencement speech, CEO Dan Akerson suggested that GM was on the cusp of rejoining the S">U.S. sales (vehicles) CHG/YR.

1998 4,603,991

1999 5,017,150 9.0%

2000 4,953,163 1.3%

2001 4,904,015 1.0%

2002 4,858,705 0.9%

2003 4,756,403 2.1%

2004 4,707,416 1.0%

2005 4,517,730 4.0%

2006 4,124,645 8.7%

2007 3,866,620 6.3%

2008 2,980,688 22.9%

2009 2,084,492 30.1%

2010 2,215,227 6.3%

2011 2,503,820 13.7%

2012 2,595,717 3.7%

2013 2,786,078 7.3%

2014 2,935,008 5.3%

2015 3,082,366 5.0%

2016 3,042,773 1.3%

2017 3,002,241 1.3%

NORTH AMERICA

In a filing before the Superior Court of Ontario (Canada), General Motors Canada
Canada
is a privately owned Canadian company with the corporation as indirect parent. The employees are not all Canadian, as some salaried personnel are from the U.S. and work for the corporation. GM products focus primarily on its four core divisions – Chevrolet, Cadillac, Buick, and GMC. The GM restructuring has resulted in a lower break even point for annual sales and renewed profits.

In the mid-2005, GM announced that its corporate chrome power emblem " Mark of Excellence " would begin appearing on all recently introduced and all-new 2006 model vehicles produced and sold in North America. However, in 2009 the "New GM" reversed this, saying that emphasis on its four core divisions would downplay the GM logo.

GM typically reports as among the largest auto makers in the United States. In May 2012, GM recorded an 18.4% market share in the U.S.

SOUTH AMERICA

In 2008 the third largest individual country by sales was Brazil
Brazil
with some 550,000 GM vehicles sold. In that year the other South American countries Argentina, Colombia, and Venezuela
Venezuela
sold another 300,000 GM vehicles, suggesting that the total GM sales in South America (including sales in other South American countries such as Chile, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, etc.) in that year were at a similar level to sales in China.

On April 20, 2017, General Motors
General Motors
announced that the Venezuelan government had seized the General Motors
General Motors
Venezolana plant in Valencia .

EUROPE

Further information: General Motors Europe

Prior to their sale to Groupe PSA in 2017, Opel
Opel
was the main GM brand name in Europe except in the United Kingdom, where Opel's British subsidiary, Vauxhall , used its own "Vauxhall" brand name.

The Chevrolet
Chevrolet
brand was reintroduced in Europe in 2005, selling mostly rebranded Daewoo cars acquired by GM Korea
GM Korea
. After having lost approximately $18B over 12 years, GM began phasing out mainstream sales of Chevrolet
Chevrolet
in Europe in late 2013, and finished by late 2015, to focus on Opel/Vauxhall. Chevrolets continue to be sold in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
, through the GM Uzbekistan joint venture. Chevrolet
Chevrolet
still has a limited presence in Europe through imports of the Corvette and Camaro , while Cadillac
Cadillac
maintains a limited presence as well.

In 2012, PSA Peugeot Citroen and General Motors
General Motors
formed an alliance, which involved General Motors
General Motors
acquiring seven percent of the PSA Group. The ownership was soon divested on December 13, 2013, generating "gross proceeds of €0.25 billion." By 2017, Groupe PSA considered taking over Opel
Opel
from GM, after GM reported a loss of $257 million from its European operations on 2016, the sixteenth consecutive loss-making year for GM in Europe, bringing its amount losses in Europe since 2000 to more than US$15 billion. On March 6, 2017 the sale of Opel
Opel
and Vauxhall to the PSA Group for $2.3 billion was confirmed.

GM worldwide 2008 vehicle sales (thousands)

Rank in GM LOCATION Vehicle sales Market share (%)

1 United States
United States
2,981 20.1%

2 China
China
1095 12.0%

3 Brazil
Brazil
549 19.5%

4 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
384 15.4%

5 Canada
Canada
359 21.4%

6 Russia
Russia
338 11.1%

7 Germany
Germany
300 8.8%

8 Mexico
Mexico
212 19.8%

9 Australia
Australia
133 13.1%

10 South Korea
South Korea
117 9.7%

11 France
France
114 4.4%

12 Spain
Spain
107 7.8%

13 Argentina
Argentina
95 15.5%

14 Venezuela
Venezuela
91 33.3%

15 Colombia
Colombia
80 36.3%

16 India
India
66 3.3%

ASIA

The company manufactures most of its China
China
market vehicles locally. Shanghai GM , a joint venture with the Chinese company SAIC Motor , was created on March 25, 1997. The Shanghai GM plant was officially opened on December 15, 1998, when the first Chinese-built Buick
Buick
came off the assembly line. The SAIC-GM-Wuling
SAIC-GM-Wuling
Automobile joint-venture is also successfully selling microvans under the Wuling brand (34 percent owned by GM). Much of General Motors' recent growth has been in the People's Republic of China, where its sales rose 66.9 percent in 2009, selling 1,830,000 vehicles and accounting for 13.4 percent of the market.

Buick
Buick
is strong in China, being led by the Buick
Buick
Excelle subcompact. The last emperor of China
China
owned a Buick. The Cadillac
Cadillac
brand was introduced in China
China
in 2004, starting with exports to China. GM pushed the marketing of the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
brand in China
China
in 2005 as well, transferring Buick
Buick
Sail to that brand.

In August 2009 the joint venture of FAW GM Light Duty Commercial Vehicle Co Ltd was formed that mainly produces Jiefang light-duty trucks.

General Motors
General Motors
vehicle sales in China
China
rose 28.8 percent to a record 2,351,610 units in 2010. GM set up an auto research center as part of a US250 million corporate campus in Shanghai to develop 'gasoline-hybrid cars , electric vehicles and alternative fuels , engines and new technologies'. The company plans to double its sales from 2010 to about 5 million units in China
China
by 2015.

SAIC-GM-Wuling
SAIC-GM-Wuling
established the low-cost Baojun
Baojun
brand to better compete with domestic rivals, Chery , Geely and BYD for first-time buyers of cars priced around USD10,000. It is estimated that such market in China
China
is about 5 million vehicles a year, larger than the auto market in France
France
and Britain combined. However, some are worried that 'local brands like Baojun
Baojun
could eventually become threats to their parent brands if they compete more against established models over time'. Shanghai-GM-Wuling sold 1.23 million vehicles in 2010, mainly commercial vans and trucks, of which about 700,000 units were a van called Sunshine.

GM maintains a dealership presence in Japan, called GM Chevrolet Shop, previously known as GM Auto World Shop. Current GM Japan dealerships were either former Saturn dealerships or Isuzu
Isuzu
dealership locations. GM products are also currently sold by the company Yanase Co., Ltd. since 1915.

In August 2011, GM announced plans to reactivate its plant that previously produced rebadged Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Blazer as Opel
Opel
as well as Brazilian Blazer, and also build a new plant in Bekasi
Bekasi
, West Java
West Java
, Indonesia, which would produce 40,000 passenger cars per year for the Southeast Asian market. It is the third plant in Southeast Asia, after the Rayong plant, Thailand
Thailand
, and the Hanoi
Hanoi
plant, Vietnam
Vietnam
.

In October 2011, the South Korea
South Korea
Free Trade Agreement opened up the South Korean auto market to American made cars. GM owns (per December 31, 2011) 77.0% of its joint venture in South Korea
South Korea
, GM Korea
GM Korea
. :p.96

On March 11, 2013, GM opened a new 190,300 square-foot manufacturing plant in Bekasi, Indonesia. In February 2015, GM announced they will close the Bekasi
Bekasi
plant by the end of June and stop production of the Sonic in Thailand
Thailand
by mid-year.

GM announced on May 18, 2017 that it would exit the Indian market, which it had entered for the second time in 1996. The first time was in 1928, when it became the first car maker to manufacture cars in India. GM would however continue to manufacture cars from its Talegaon , Maharashtra
Maharashtra
plant for the export market. This plant has a capacity of 1,60,000 units annually. The older Halol, Gujarat plant with a capacity for 50,000 units stopped production on April 28, 2017. It will be sold, with GM in talks with China's SAIC Motor Corporation Ltd. The India
India
arm's domestic sales for April 2016 – March 2017 declined to 25,823 units from 32,540 the previous year and market share contracted from 1.17 percent to 0.85 percent for the same period. However, exports surged 89 percent during the same period to 70,969 units. GMTC-I, GM's technical center in Bengaluru, India
India
will continue doing its global work. About 400 employees, 8 percent of GM's total Indian work-force, would be affected by the pull-out. Weak product line-up and below par service quality were the reasons for the poor showing by GM in India. It will also affect 10,000 employees working with about 120 Outlets/Dealership of GM in India.

AFRICA

Global locations of General Motors' assembly factories.

GM has a long history in Egypt
Egypt
which began in the 1920s with the assembly of cars and light pickup trucks for the local market. In the mid of the 1950s, GM withdrew from the Egyptian market. Some years later, the Ghabbour Brothers began to assemble Cadillac
Cadillac
, Chevrolet and Buick
Buick
models up to the 1990s. Since 1983 GM and Al-Monsour Automotive Company have owned General Motors Egypt , which is currently the only manufacturer of traditional GM branded vehicles in Egypt.

In the 1920s Miller Brothers Nigeria
Nigeria
was founded as an importer of commercial vehicles of the Bedford brand into the country. In 1949, the company opened its own assembly plant and operated under the name Niger
Niger
/ Nigeria
Nigeria
Motors. In 1965 the plant and its distribution network was split into different companies and renamed as Federated Motors Industries. In 1991 the company was taken in by a joint venture between GENERAL MOTORS and UACN of Nigeria
Nigeria
.

Another manufacturing base of the GM for the African markets is the Industries Mécaniques Maghrébines headquartered in Kairouan
Kairouan
, Tunisia
Tunisia
, which assembles Isuzu
Isuzu
and Mazda
Mazda
models for the Maghreb region.

Formed in 1975, General Motors
General Motors
East Africa (GMEA) was the largest assembler of commercial vehicles in the region exporting them from Kenya to East and Central African countries including Uganda
Uganda
, Tanzania, Malawi
Malawi
, Rwanda and Burundi
Burundi
. Its facility located in Nairobi
Nairobi
assembled a wide range of Isuzu
Isuzu
trucks and buses including the popular Isuzu
Isuzu
N-Series versatile light commercial vehicle, TF Series pick-ups and Isuzu
Isuzu
bus chassis. In addition to assembly, GMEA also marketed the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
products Spark and Optra. Selling entire GM's 57.7 per cent stake in General Motors
General Motors
East Africa to Isuzu
Isuzu
was announced on February 28, 2017. After finishing the sale, GMEA was renamed to Isuzu
Isuzu
East Africa Limited, effective from August 1, 2017.

General Motors
General Motors
began operating in South Africa
South Africa
in 1913 through its wholly owned subsidiary, General Motors South Africa . Following the passage of the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act in 1986, GM was forced to divest from South Africa, and GMSA became the independent Delta Motor Corporation. GM purchased a 49% stake in Delta in 1997 following the end of apartheid , and acquired the remaining 51% in 2004, reverting the company to its original name. By 2014 it was targeting the production of 50,000 cars a year but was being hampered by national labour unrest, strikes and protests. In May 2017, GM announced that it would exit the South Africa
South Africa
market by the end of 2017 by selling part of the business to Isuzu
Isuzu
and look for a buyer for the rest of the business.

OCEANIA

In Australia
Australia
, GM has been represented by the Holden
Holden
brand since 1948, GM having acquired the company in 1931. In 2012, GM Opel
Opel
cars began to be imported into Australia
Australia
as a niche marque under their own brand name. However, as of August 2013, GM has made the decision to remove the Opel
Opel
brand from Australia
Australia
noting poor adoption and sales.

In New Zealand, GM was represented by locally assembled Chevrolet, Pontiac
Pontiac
and Vauxhall cars from 1926. In 1954 sales of fully imported Holdens began. New Zealand assembly of Holdens begun in 1957 was slowly phased in through the early 1960s to replace most Vauxhall and all Chevrolet
Chevrolet
cars. Thirty years later, Australia
Australia
tariff protection was removed and local assembly plants closed in 1984 and 1990. GM became a national sales company and a parts distribution centre. In the early 1990s General Motors
General Motors
New Zealand sold a few Isuzu
Isuzu
and Opel models rebranded as Holdens while GM New Zealand was renamed Holden
Holden
in 1994.

On December 10, 2013, GM announced that Holden
Holden
would cease engine and vehicle manufacturing operations in Australia
Australia
by the end of 2017. Beyond 2017 Holden's Australian presence will consist of: a national sales company, a parts distribution centre and, a global design studio.

MOTORSPORTS

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2008 Chevrolet
Chevrolet
"Impala" themed NASCAR
NASCAR
race car driven by NASCAR's Jimmie Johnson Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Cruze in the WTCC Corvette Racing Team in the American Le Mans Series The Holden VE Commodore of James Courtney ( Holden
Holden
Racing Team ) at the 2012 Clipsal 500 Adelaide

GM has participated over the years in the World Touring Car Championship (WTCC), 24 Hours of Le Mans
24 Hours of Le Mans
, NASCAR
NASCAR
, SCCA , Supercars Championship , and many other world venues.

GM's engines were highly successful in the Indy Racing League (IRL) throughout the 1990s, winning many races in the small V-8 class. GM has also done much work in the development of electronics for GM auto racing . An unmodified Aurora V-8 in the Aerotech, captured 47 world records, including the record for speed endurance in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America. Recently, the Cadillac
Cadillac
V-Series has entered motorsports racing.

GM has also used many cars in the American racing series NASCAR
NASCAR
. Currently the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
SS is the only entry in the series, but in the past the Pontiac
Pontiac
Grand Prix , Buick
Buick
Regal , Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
Cutlass , Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Lumina , Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Malibu and the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Monte Carlo were also used. GM has won a total of 40 NASCAR
NASCAR
Sprint Cup Series manufacturer\'s championships , including 34 with Chevrolet, the most of any make in NASCAR
NASCAR
history, 3 with Oldsmobile, 2 with Buick, and 1 with Pontiac. GM leads all other automobile manufacturers in races won in NASCAR's premier series at 1,011. Chevrolet
Chevrolet
leads individual makes with 677 wins.

In Australia, there is the V8 Supercar
V8 Supercar
Championship which is battled out by the two main rivals of (GM) Holden
Holden
and Ford . The current Holden
Holden
Racing Team cars are based on the Holden
Holden
Commodore and run a 5.0-litre V8-cylinder engine producing 635 bhp (474 kW). These cars have a top speed of 298 km/h (185 mph) and run 0–100 km/h in 3.8 seconds. The Holden
Holden
Racing Team is Australia's most successful team in Australian touring car history. In 2006 and 2007, the drivers' championship was won by the very closely linked (now defunct) HSV Dealer Team .

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

See also: General Motors Technical Center and General Motors
General Motors
Proving Grounds

Research and development (R&D) at General Motors
General Motors
began organically as the continuation of such R it was whatever key people in each company had been competent enough to organize and pursue. R. S. McLaughlin 's Carriage Company in 1876 was designing and inventing Carriage Gear. The McLaughlin Companies became General Motors
General Motors
of Canada
Canada
Limited. Charles F. Kettering 's Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (Delco), at Dayton, Ohio , was still an independent firm at this time. Its work was well known to GM central management through its relationship as a supplier and consultancy to Cadillac
Cadillac
and Buick.

In 1916, Durant organized the United Motors Corporation as an amalgamation of parts suppliers, supplying GM and other OEMs but independent of GM. Alfred P. Sloan , head of the newly acquired Hyatt Roller Bearing Corporation , became United Motors' CEO. United Motors acquired Delco, and Kettering began his association with Sloan. United Motors also acquired at this time the original Remy corporation (called the Remy Electric Company), a competitor of Delco. In 1918 General Motors
General Motors
bought United Motors. Various entities grew out of the original Delco and Remy, including the Dayton Metal Products Corporation, the General Motors
General Motors
Research Corporation, the Delco Division and Remy Electric Division of GM, Delco Remy
Delco Remy
(now Remy International, Inc. ), ACDelco
ACDelco
, Delco Electronics , and others. Today's main successor corporation is Delphi Automotive , which nowadays is an independent parent corporation.

The General Motors
General Motors
Research Corporation, at Dayton under Kettering, became a true automotive research center. During the next few decades it led the development of:

* many electrical-appliance features for cars and trucks * In 1911, Charles F. Kettering, with Henry M. Leland, of Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company (DELCO) invented and filed U.S. Patent 1,150,523 for the first electric starter in America. * In 1914, Cadillac
Cadillac
introduced the first mass-produced production V-8 in the world. * In 1921, General Motors
General Motors
patented the use of Tetraethyllead
Tetraethyllead
as an antiknock agent leading to the development of higher compression engines resulting in more power and efficiency. * In 1937, Jominy recognized today as a bad idea environmentally , but a technological wonder of its day) * commercially practical two-stroke diesel engines * better transmissions for track-laying vehicles * many other advancements

Although GM R&D (as it is known in colloquial shorthand) began as an organization largely built around one man (Kettering), it eventually evolved into a more modern organization whose path is shaped by individuals but not dominated entirely by any of them. World War II was a turning point wherein military affairs, after mingling with the technologies of applied science for some 80 years, first started to become fundamentally reinvented by them. Civilian life, too, changed in this direction. By the 1950s, corporations such as GM and many others were facing a new era of R&D, different from earlier ones. Less about genius inventors and individual inventions, and more about organizational progress and integrated systems, it raised new questions about where the capital for R&D would come from in an era of limitless demand for R">

Today, GM R">

On September 7, 2014, at the Intelligent Transport Systems World Congress in Detroit
Detroit
GM disclosed it would be introducing auto-pilot features into certain 2017 models of its cars, which would go on sale in 2016. The "super cruise" or vehicle-to-vehicle V2V technology is likely to be first introduced to the Cadillac
Cadillac
range, enabling drivers to switch in and out of semi-automated mode. In December 2016, General Motors
General Motors
announced it would begin testing self-driving vehicles on public roads in Michigan, after Gov. Rick Snyder signed a package of bills legalizing the operation of autonomous vehicles.

In March 2016, General Motors
General Motors
bought Cruise Automation, a San Francisco self-driving vehicle start-up, to develop self-driving cars that could be used in ride-sharing fleets.

In October 2017, General Motors
General Motors
acquired Strobe, a solid state LIDAR company. Strobe's prototypes produce brief "chirps" of frequency-modulated (FM) laser light, where the frequency within each chirp varies linearly. Measuring the phase and frequency of the echoing chirp allows the system to directly measure both the distance and the velocity of objects in the road ahead. Strobe, Cruise and GM will work together to develop the technology for future self-driving cars.

In November 2017 Two self-driving Chevy Bolt EV cars were seen during a media event by Cruise Automation, GM's autonomous car unit, in San Francisco, California, U.S.. The automaker is already operating self-driving Chevy Bolts in San Francisco as part of a beta test run by the company's subsidiary.

SMALL CAR SALES

Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Aveo Concept, later went into production as the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Aveo, UK and the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Sonic, US

From the 1920s onward, General Motors
General Motors
always maintained an internal dialog about what its economy-car and small-car policies should be. The economy and size considerations often naturally overlapped, although a strong distinction was always drawn in the 20th century between policies for the U.S. market and policies for other markets. Economy (in some form) always had good demand anywhere, but its definition in the U.S. was long considered different from that in other markets. In this view, "economy" in the U.S. did not mean "small" in the sense of what qualified as "small" outside the U.S. The policy discussion often focused on topics like the higher demand for truly small cars in non-U.S. markets than in the U.S., and whether it made more sense to import a car into a certain country or to build it domestically within that country, either as some variant of knockdown or with truly extensive domestic sourcing. GM's acquisitions of Vauxhall Motors Ltd (UK, 1925) and Adam Opel
Opel
AG (Germany, 1929), rather than starting new domestic companies to compete against them, were based on analyses that convinced GM managers that acquiring an existing domestic manufacturer was a better business decision.

Although GM since the 1920s has always offered economy models in the U.S. market (relative to that market's definition in any given decade), and had done research and development in the 1940s and 1950s in preparation for any potential rise of strong demand for truly small cars in the U.S. market, it has also been criticized over the decades for not doing enough to promote fuel efficiency in the U.S. market in the 1970s through 1990s. GM's response has been that it has always responded to market demands, and that most Americans, despite anything they said to the contrary, did not actually demand (at purchasing-decision time) small size or fuel efficiency in their vehicles to any great or lasting extent. Although some U.S. consumers flocked temporarily to the ideal of fuel economy whenever fuel supply crises arose (such as 1973 and 1979), they flocked equally enthusiastically to SUVs when cheap fuel of the 1980s and 1990s temporarily shielded them from any downside to these choices.

Since the return of high fuel prices in the 2000s and 2010s, GM's interest in truly small-car programs for the U.S. market has been renewed. As part of General Motors
General Motors
Company development, GM revived one of its idled U.S. factories for the production of a small car in Orion, Michigan , with the creation of 1,200 American jobs. This will be the first time that GM produced a sub compact car in the United States since the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Chevette ended production in 1986. This retooled plant will be capable of building 160,000 cars annually, including both small and compact vehicles. Production started in late 2011 with the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Sonic .

ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVES

The 2011 Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Volt , a plug-in electric vehicle. Second generation Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Volt .

General Motors
General Motors
has published principles regarding the environment and maintains an extensive website to inform the public. In 2008, General Motors committed to engineering half of its manufacturing plants to be landfill-free. In order to achieve its landfill-free status, production waste is recycled or reused in the manufacturing process.

The world\'s largest rooftop solar power installation was installed at General Motors
General Motors
Spanish Zaragoza Manufacturing Plant in fall 2008. The Zaragoza solar installation has about 2,000,000 square feet (190,000 m2) of roof at the plant and contains about 85,000 solar panels. The installation was created, owned and operated by Veolia Environment and Clairvoyant Energy, who lease the rooftop area from General Motors. In 2011, General Motors
General Motors
also invested $7.5 million in solar-panel provider Sunlogics, which will install solar panels on GM facilities.

GM has long worked on alternative-technology vehicles , and has led the industry with ethanol-burning flexible-fuel vehicles that can run on either E85 (ethanol) or gasoline. The company was the first to use turbochargers and was an early proponent of V6 engines in the 1960s, but quickly lost interest as muscle car popularity increased. They demonstrated gas turbine vehicles powered by kerosene , an area of interest throughout the industry, but abandoned the alternative engine configuration in view of the 1973 oil crisis . In the 1970s and 1980s, GM pushed the benefits of diesel engines and cylinder deactivation technologies with disastrous results due to poor durability in the Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
diesels and drivability issues in the Cadillac
Cadillac
V8-6-4 variable-cylinder engines. In 1987, GM, in conjunction with AeroVironment , built the Sunraycer , which won the inaugural World Solar Challenge and was a showcase of advanced technology. Much of the technology from Sunraycer found its way into the Impact prototype electric vehicle (also built by Aerovironment) and was the predecessor to the General Motors EV1 .

GM supported a compromise version of the Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standard increase from 27 to 35 mpg‑US (8.7 to 6.7 L/100 km; 32 to 42 mpg‑imp), the first such increase in over 20 years. GM announced they will introduce more Volt-based plug-in hybrids.

HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Tahoe Hybrid

In May 2004, GM delivered the world's first full-sized hybrid pickups, the 1/2-ton Silverado/Sierra. These mild hybrids did not use electrical energy for propulsion, like GM's later designs. In 2005, the Opel
Opel
Astra diesel Hybrid concept vehicle was introduced. The 2006 Saturn Vue Green Line was the first hybrid passenger vehicle from GM and is also a mild design. GM has hinted at new hybrid technologies to be employed that will be optimized for higher speeds in freeway driving.

GM currently offers the 2-mode hybrid system used by the Chevrolet Tahoe/GMC Yukon/ Cadillac
Cadillac
Escalade, and GM 1/2 half-ton pickups and will later be used on other vehicles.

Within the framework of its vehicle electrification strategy, GM introduced the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Volt in 2010, an electric vehicle with back-up generators powered by gasoline. The production Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Volt was available in late 2010 as a 2011 model with limited availability. GM delivered the first Volt during December 2010.

The GM Magic Bus is a hybrid-powered bus.

ALL-ELECTRIC VEHICLES

The all-electric General Motors EV1 was introduced in California in 1996. The Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Bolt EV is scheduled to be released in California by late 2016. Further information: Who Killed the Electric Car? § Batteries

General Motors
General Motors
was the first company (in the modern era) to release an all-electric automobile. In 1990, GM debuted the "Impact" concept car at the Los Angeles Auto Show. It was the first car with zero-emissions marketed in the US in over three decades. The Impact was eventually produced as the EV1 for the 1996 model year. It was available through dealers located in only a few regions (e.g., California, Arizona, Georgia). Vehicles were leased, rather than sold, to individuals. In 1999 GM decided to cease production of the vehicles. When the individual leases had expired, they declined to renew the leases or allow the lessors to purchase them. All of the EV1s were eventually returned to General Motors
General Motors
and, with the exception of a few which were donated to museums, all were destroyed. The documentary film Who Killed the Electric Car? covered the EV1 story.

The EV1's cancellation had disappointed supporters of electric vehicles. In 2010, GM debuted the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Volt , an plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with back-up generators powered by gasoline (range-extended electric vehicle ). General Motors
General Motors
has announced that it is building a prototype two-seat electric vehicle with Segway . An early prototype of the Personal Urban Mobility and Accessibility vehicle—dubbed Project P.U.M.A. – was presented in New York at the 2009 New York International Auto Show
New York International Auto Show
.

In October 2011, General Motors
General Motors
announced the production of the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Spark EV , an all-electric version of the third generation Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Spark , with availability limited to select U.S. and global markets. In October 2012, GM Korea
GM Korea
announced it will start making and selling the Spark EV domestically in 2013. The production version was unveiled at the 2012 Los Angeles Auto Show . Within the framework of GM's vehicle electrification strategy, the Spark EV is the first all-electric passenger car marketed by General Motors
General Motors
in the U.S. since the EV1 was discontinued in 1999. The Spark EV was released in the U.S. in selected markets in California and Oregon in June 2013. Retail sales began in South Korea
South Korea
in October 2013. GM also plans to sell the Spark EV in limited quantities in Canada
Canada
and select European markets.

GM began production of the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Bolt EV in October 2016, the first ever affordable mass market all-electric car with a range of more than 200 miles (320 km). Deliveries in California are scheduled to begin in late 2016. The vehicle will be launched in all 50 US states and analysts expect it to sell around 30,000 units per year, though GM itself has not confirmed these estimates. The battery pack and most drivetrain components are built by LG and assembled in GM's Lake Orion plant.

BATTERY PACKS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

GM builds battery packs in southern Michigan
Michigan
. GM also established an automotive battery laboratory in Michigan. GM will be responsible for battery management systems and power electronics, thermal management, as well as the pack assembly. An existing GM facility at Brownstown Township was chosen to be upgraded as battery pack plant. LG Chem's U.S. subsidiary, Compact Power of Troy, Michigan, has been building the prototype packs for the development vehicles and will continue to provide integration support and act as a liaison for the program.

HYDROGEN INITIATIVE

Sequel , a fuel cell-powered vehicle from GM

The 1966 GM Electrovan is credited with being the first hydrogen fuel cell car ever produced. Though fuel cells have been around since the early 1800s, General Motors
General Motors
was the first to use a fuel cell, supplied by Union Carbide, to power the wheels of a vehicle with a budget of "millions of dollars". In 2002, it was reported that GM spent about $100 million a year in research and development of fuel cell vehicle. In June 2007, Larry Burns, vice president of research and development, said he's not yet willing to say exactly when hydrogen vehicles would be mass-produced, but he said it should happen before 2020, the year many experts have predicted. He said "I sure would be disappointed if we weren't there" before 2020.

On July 2, 2013, GM and Honda announced a partnership to develop fuel cell systems and hydrogen storage technologies for the 2020 time frame. GM and Honda are leaders in fuel cell technology, ranking No. 1 and No. 2, respectively, in total fuel cell patents filed between 2002 and 2012, with more than 1,200 between them according to the Clean Energy Patent Growth Index.

FLEXIBLE-FUEL VEHICLES

E85 FlexFuel Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Impala LT 2009 (USA).

GM produces several flexible-fuel vehicles that can operate on E85 ethanol fuel or gasoline, or any blend of both. Since 2006 GM started featuring a bright yellow gas cap to remind drivers of the E85 capabilities.

GM is the leader in E85 flex fuel vehicles, with over 6 million FlexFuel vehicles on the road in the U.S. In 2010, GM pledged to have more than half of their annual vehicle production be E85 or biodiesel capable by 2012. As of 2012, GM offers 20 ethanol-enabled FlexFuel cars and trucks in the US, and offers more FlexFuel vehicles models than any other automaker.

PHILANTHROPY

See also: General Motors Foundation

Since 1994, General Motors
General Motors
has donated over $23 million in cash and vehicles to the Nature Conservancy , and funding from GM supports many conservation projects.

In 1996, GMC partnered with the fashion industry as a part of the GM/CFDA Concept: Cure, a collaboration between General Motors
General Motors
and the Fashion industry bringing awareness to and raising funds for breast cancer. The program involved 5 designers, each lending their artistic talents to customize 5 different vehicles. Nicole Miller , Richard Tyler , Anna Sui
Anna Sui
, Todd Oldham and Mark Eisen were tasked with transforming a Cadillac
Cadillac
STS , Buick
Buick
Riviera , GMC Yukon , Oldsmobile Bravada and Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Camaro Z28, respectively. The cars were then auctioned with the proceeds presented to the Nina Hyde Center at the Greater Los Angeles Auto Show in 1997.

Since 1997, the GM Foundation has been a source of funding for Safe Kids USA 's "Safe Kids Buckle Up" program, a national initiative to ensure child automobile safety through education and inspection.

Through 2002, the PACE Awards program, led by GM, EDS, and SUN Microsystems, has given over $1.2 billion of in-kind contributions which includes computers to over 18 universities to support engineering education. In 2009, the GM led group has helped the Pace Awards program worldwide.

In 2004, GM gave $51,200,000 in cash contributions and $17,200,000 in-kind donations to charitable causes.

The General Motors Foundation (GM Foundation) receives philanthropic bequests from General Motors. It is a 501(c)(3) foundation incorporated in 1976.

BRAND REORGANIZATION

As it emerged from bankruptcy and company reorganization in 2010, GM reorganized the content and structure of its brand portfolio (its brand architecture ). Some nameplates like Pontiac, Saturn, Hummer, and service brands like Goodwrench were discontinued. Others, like Saab , were sold. The practice of putting the "GM Mark of Excellence" on every car, no matter what the brand, was discontinued in August 2009. The company has moved from a corporate-endorsed hybrid brand architecture structure, where GM underpinned every brand to a multiple brand corporate invisible brand architecture structure. The company's familiar square blue "badge" has been removed from the Web site and advertising, in favor of a new, subtle all-text logo treatment on its U.S. site; the Canadian site still retains the blue "badge". In 2011, GM discontinued the Daewoo brand in South Korea
South Korea
and replaced it with the Chevrolet
Chevrolet
brand.

GM describes their brand politics as having "two brands" which "will drive our global growth. They are Chevrolet, which embodies the qualities of value, reliability, performance and expressive design; and Cadillac, which creates luxury vehicles that are provocative and powerful. At the same time, the Holden
Holden
, Buick
Buick
, GMC, Baojun, Opel
Opel
and Vauxhall brands are being carefully cultivated to satisfy as many customers as possible in select regions." :p.182

BRAND YEAR FOUNDED YEAR BEGAN MAKING AUTOS YEAR JOINED GM MARKETS SERVED TODAY

Baojun
Baojun
2010 2010 2010 China

Buick
Buick
1899 1903 1908 North America, China

Cadillac
Cadillac
1902 1902 1909 North America, Europe, Middle East, China, Japan, South Korea

Chevrolet
Chevrolet
1911 1911 1917 Global, except Australia
Australia
and New Zealand

GMC 1901 1901 1909 North America, Middle East

Holden
Holden
1856 1908 1931 Australia, New Zealand

Jiefang 2011 2011 2011 China

Wuling 2002 2002 2002 China

DISCONTINUED BRANDS

This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (February 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

(Note on dates: the dates below are the years each brand existed, which are not always the same as the dates they were part of GM.)

* Oldsmobile
Oldsmobile
(1897–2004) * Winton (1897–1937) * Welch (1903–11) * Marquette (1904–12, 1929–30) * Cartercar
Cartercar
(1905–15) * Rainier (1905–11) * Oakland (1907–31) * Ewing (1908–11) * McLaughlin (1908–42) * Elmore (1909–12) * Rapid Truck (1909–12) * Reliance Truck (1909–12) * Peninsular (1912) * Scripps-Booth (1912–22) * Samson Tractor
Samson Tractor
(1917–22) * Sheridan (1921–22) * Yellow Coach (1925–43) * Pontiac
Pontiac
(1926–2010) * LaSalle (1927–40) * Viking (1929–31) * Bedford (1930–86) * Cleveland Diesel
Cleveland Diesel
(1937–62) * General Motors Diesel Division
General Motors Diesel Division
(1938–87) * Envoy (1960–70) * Acadian (1962–71) * Beaumont (1966–69) * Ranger (1968–76) * Statesman (1971–84) * Saehan (1976–82) * Daewoo (1982–2011) * Passport (1988–91) * Geo (1989–97) * Saturn (1990–2010) * Hummer
Hummer
(1992–2010) * Asüna
Asüna
(1993–95) * Alpheon (2010–15)

FORMER SUBSIDIARIES

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* Frigidaire (1919–1979), sold to Ohio-based White Consolidated Industries * Euclid Trucks (1953–1968), sold to White Consolidated Industries * Terex (1968–1980) (1983–1986), sold to IBH Holdings of Germany
Germany
, bought back after IBH failed; sold to Northwest Engineering Co. * General Motors Diesel Division
General Motors Diesel Division
(1938–1987) sold to Motor Coach Industries * Lotus (1986–1993), sold to Luxembourg
Luxembourg
-based A.C.B.N. Holdings S.A. * American Axle (–1994) – former axle division sold off * Allison Engine Company (1929–1995) sold to Rolls-Royce North America * Hughes Aircraft (1985–1999) – 1997 Hughes Defense sold to Raytheon
Raytheon
, 1999 Hughes Satellite sold to Boeing
Boeing
* Delphi Interior & Lighting (–1998) lighting plants sold to Palladium Equity Partners and renamed Guide Corporation * Delphi Interior broken up and portion sold to the former Daimler Chrysler
Chrysler
AG (now Daimler AG
Daimler AG
); now part of Daimler AG
Daimler AG
* DIESEL DIVISION OF GENERAL MOTORS OF CANADA LIMITED spun off and later acquired by General Motors Canada as Diesel Division of General Motors of Canada
Canada
Limited * EDS – Electronic Data Systems * Delco Remy
Delco Remy
(1918–1994) – spun off * Magnaquench (–1994) – spun off * Hughes Electronics
Hughes Electronics
sold to News Corporation
News Corporation
in 2003 * 1999 GM spun off its parts making operations as Delphi

CONTROVERSIES

RALPH NADER AND THE CORVAIR

1961–63 Corvair swing-axle rear suspension

UNSAFE AT ANY SPEED by Ralph Nader , published in 1965, is a pioneering book accusing car manufacturers of being slow to introduce safety features, and reluctant to spend money on improving safety. The subject for which the book is probably most widely known, the rear-engined GM Chevrolet
Chevrolet
Corvair , is covered in the first chapter. It relates to the first (1960–1964) models that had a swing-axle suspension design which was prone to "tuck under" in certain circumstances. In substitution for the cost-cutting lack of a front stabilizer bar (anti-roll bar), Corvairs required tire pressures which were outside of the tire manufacturer's recommended tolerances. The Corvair relied on an unusually high front to rear pressure differential (15psi front, 26psi rear, when cold; 18 psi and 30psi hot), and if one inflated the tires equally, as was standard practice for all other cars at the time, the result was a dangerous oversteer.

In early March 1966, several media outlets, including The New Republic and The New York Times
The New York Times
, alleged that GM had tried to discredit Ralph Nader , hiring private detectives to tap his phones and investigate his past, and hiring prostitutes to trap him in compromising situations. Nader sued the company for invasion of privacy and settled the case for $425,000. Nader's lawsuit against GM was ultimately decided by the New York Court of Appeals , whose opinion in the case expanded tort law to cover "overzealous surveillance". Nader used the proceeds from the lawsuit to start the pro-consumer Center for Study of Responsive Law.

A 1972 safety commission report conducted by Texas Aborder:solid #aaa 1px">

* United States
United States
portal * Metro Detroit
Detroit
portal * Cars portal * Companies portal

* History of General Motors
History of General Motors
* Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers * ASOTRECOL * Crucible Industries * EcoCAR
EcoCAR
* General Motors EV1 * General Motors Hy-wire
General Motors Hy-wire
* General Motors streetcar conspiracy * GM people * GM vehicles by brand * List of automobile manufacturers of the United States
United States
* List of GM engines * List of GM factories * List of GM platforms
List of GM platforms
* List of GM transmissions * United States
United States
Council for Automotive Research * VIA Motors

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FURTHER READING

ARTICLES

* "G.M.\'s Road From Prosperity to Crisis". The New York Times. May 31, 2009. Retrieved June 1, 2009. * Bunkley, Nick (May 25, 2011). "Automotive Industry Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved September 9, 2012.

BOOKS

* Barabba, Vincent P. (2004). Surviving Transformation: Lessons from GM\'s Surprising Turnaround. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-517141-9 . OCLC
OCLC
474580094 . * Chandler, Alfred D., Jr. (1964). Giant Enterprise: Ford, General Motors, and the Automobile Industry. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World. ISBN 978-0-405-13349-7 . OCLC
OCLC
63017200 . * Cray, Ed (1980). Chrome Colossus: General Motors
General Motors
and Its Times. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-013493-5 . OCLC
OCLC
6223723 . * Farber, David R. (2002). Sloan Rules: Alfred P. Sloan and the Triumph of General Motors. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-23804-3 . OCLC
OCLC
49558636 . * Gustin, Lawrence R. (2008) . Billy Durant: Creator of General Motors. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan
Michigan
Press. ISBN 978-0-472-03302-7 . OCLC
OCLC
179794253 . * Halberstam, David (1986). The Reckoning. A Thomas Congdon book. New York: Morrow. ISBN 978-0-688-04838-9 . OCLC
OCLC
246158814 . * Keller, Maryann (1989). Rude Awakening: The Rise, Fall, and Struggle for Recovery of General Motors. New York: Morrow. ISBN 978-0-688-07527-9 . OCLC
OCLC
423222597 . * Kimes, Beverly Rae (editor) (1989). The Standard Catalogue of American Cars 1805–1942, 2nd edition. Iola, Wisconsin: Krause Publications. ISBN 0-87341-111-0 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Leslie, Stuart W. (1983). Boss Kettering. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-05600-7 . OCLC
OCLC
8845819 . * Maxton, Graeme P. ; Wormald, John (2004). Time for a Model Change: Re-Engineering the Global Automotive Industry. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83715-6 . OCLC
OCLC
54826137 . * Maynard, Micheline (2003). The End of Detroit: How the Big Three Lost Their Grip on the American Car
Car
Market. New York: Currency/Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-50769-1 . OCLC
OCLC
52623614 . * Pelfrey, William (2006). Billy, Alfred, and General Motors: The Story of Two Unique Men, a Legendary Company, and a Remarkable Time in American History. New York: AMACOM. ISBN 978-0-8144-0869-8 . OCLC 61362777 . * Rae, John Bell (1965). The American Automobile; A Brief History. The Chicago history of American civilization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. OCLC
OCLC
236834 . * Robertson, Heather (1995). Driving force: The McLaughlin family and the age of the car. McClelland & Stewart . ISBN 0-7710-7556-1 . A history of the businesses of Samuel McLaughlin and family, and the beginnings of General Motors Canada Ltd. * Weisberger, Bernard A. (1979). The Dream Maker: William C. Durant, Founder of General Motors. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-92874-8 . OCLC
OCLC
5736758 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

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