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Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
(German pronunciation: [ˌɡɛlzn̩ˈkɪʁçn̩] ( listen)) is a city in the North Rhine- Westphalia
Westphalia
state of Germany. It is located in the northern part of the Ruhr
Ruhr
area. Its population in 2015 was c. 260,000. Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
was first documented in 1150, but it remained a tiny village until the 19th century, when the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
led to the growth of the entire area. In 1840, when the mining of coal began, 6,000 inhabitants lived in Gelsenkirchen; in 1900 the population had increased to 138,000. In the early 20th century, Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
was the most important coal mining town in Europe. It was called the "city of a thousand fires" for the flames of mine gases flaring at night. In 1928, Gelsenkirchen was merged with the adjoining cities of Buer and Horst (de). The city bore the name Gelsenkirchen-Buer, until it was renamed Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
in 1930. During the Nazi
Nazi
era Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
remained a centre of coal production and oil refining, and for this reason it was bombed in Allied air raids during World War II. There are no longer colliers in Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
with the city searching for a new image, having been hit for decades with one of the highest unemployment rates in Germany. Today Germany's largest solar power plant is located in the city. In Gelsenkirchen-Scholven there is a coal-fired power station with the tallest chimneys in Germany
Germany
(302 m). Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
is home of the famous football club Schalke 04, which is named after the borough Schalke, while the club's stadium, the Veltins-Arena, is located in the borough of Erle.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient and medieval times 1.2 Industrialisation 1.3 Independent city 1.4 Nazi
Nazi
Germany 1.5 After the war 1.6 Jewish
Jewish
history

1.6.1 19th century 1.6.2 20th century 1.6.3 Nazi
Nazi
Germany 1.6.4 The Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
transport 1.6.5 After World War II 1.6.6 Sites

2 Economy and infrastructure

2.1 Transport 2.2 Media 2.3 Education and science

3 Culture 4 Sports 5 Notable people 6 Twin towns 7 References 8 External links

History[edit] Ancient and medieval times[edit] Although the part of town now called Buer was first mentioned by Heribert I in a document as Puira in 1003, there were hunting people on a hill north of the Emscher
Emscher
as early as the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
– and therefore earlier than 1000 BC. They did not live in houses as such, but in small yards gathered together near each other. Later, the Romans pushed into the area. In about 700, the region was settled by the Saxons. A few other parts of town which today lie in Gelsenkirchen's north end were mentioned in documents from the early Middle Ages, some examples being: Raedese (nowadays Resse), Middelvic (Middelich, today part of Resse), Sutheim (Sutum; today part of Beckhausen) and Sculven (nowadays Scholven). Many nearby farming communities were later identified as iuxta Bure ("near Buer"). It was about 1150 when the name Gelstenkerken or Geilistirinkirkin appeared up for the first time. At about the same time, the first church in town was built in what is now Buer. This ecclesia Buron ("church at Buer") was listed in a directory of parish churches by the sexton from Deutz, Theodericus. This settlement belonged to the Mark. However, in ancient times and even in the Middle Ages, only a few dozen people actually lived in the settlements around the Emscher basin. Industrialisation[edit] Up until the middle of the 19th century, the area in and around Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
was only thinly settled and almost exclusively agrarian. In 1815, after temporarily belonging to the Grand Duchy
Grand Duchy
of Berg, the land now comprising the city of Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
passed to the Kingdom of Prussia, which assigned it to the province of Westphalia. Whereas the Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
of that time – not including today's north-end communities, such as Buer – was put in the Amt of Wattenscheid
Wattenscheid
in the Bochum
Bochum
district, in the governmental region of Arnsberg, Buer, which was an Amt in its own right, was along with nearby Horst joined to Recklinghausen
Recklinghausen
district in the governmental region of Münster. This arrangement came to an end only in 1928. After the discovery of coal – lovingly known as "Black Gold" – in the Ruhr
Ruhr
area in 1840, and the subsequent industrialisation, the Cologne– Minden
Minden
Railway and the Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
Main Railway Station were opened. In 1868, Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
became the seat of an Amt within the Bochum
Bochum
district which encompassed the communities of Gelsenkirchen, Braubauerschaft (since 1900, Bismarck (de)), Schalke, Heßler, Bulmke and Hüllen. Friedrich Grillo
Friedrich Grillo
founded the Corporation for Chemical Industry (Aktiengesellschaft für Chemische Industrie) in Schalke in 1872, as well as founding the Vogelsang & Co. with the Grevel family (later Schalker Eisenhütte Maschinenfabrik), and also the Schalke Mining and Ironworks Association (Schalker Gruben- und Hüttenverein). A year later, and once again in Schalke, he founded the Glass and Mirror Factory Incorporated (Glas- und Spiegel-Manufaktur AG). After Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
had become an important heavy-industry hub, it was raised to city in 1875. Independent city[edit]

Former Zeche Nordstern

Contrasts in the inner-city

In 1885, after Bochum
Bochum
district was split up, Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
became the seat of its own district (Kreis), which would last until 1926. The cities of Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
and Wattenscheid, as well as the Ämter of Braubauerschaft (in 1900, Bismarck), Schalke, Ückendorf, Wanne and Wattenscheid
Wattenscheid
all belonged to the Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
district. A few years later, in 1896, Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
split off from Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
district to become an independent city (German: kreisfreie Stadt). In 1891, Horst was split off from the Amt of Buer, which itself was raised to city status in 1911, and to an independent city status the next year. Meanwhile, Horst became the seat of its own Amt. In 1924, the rural community of Rotthausen, which until then had belonged to the Essen district, was made part of the Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
district. In 1928, under the Prussian local government reforms, the cities of Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
and Buer along with the Amt of Horst together became a new kreisfreie Stadt called Gelsenkirchen-Buer, effective on 1 April that year. From that time, the whole city area belonged to the governmental district of Münster. In 1930, on the city's advice, the city's name was changed to Gelsenkirchen, effective 21 May. By this time, the city was home to about 340,000 people. In 1931, the Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
Mining Corporation (German: Gelsenkirchener Bergwerks-Aktien-Gesellschaft) founded the Gelsenberg Petrol Corporation (German: Gelsenberg-Benzin-AG). In 1935, the Hibernia Mining Company founded the Hydrierwerk Scholven AG GE-Buer Coal liquefaction plant. Scholven/Buer began operation in 1936 and achieved a capacity of "200,000 tons/year of finished product, mainly aviation base gasoline."[1] After 1937, Gelsenberg-Benzin-AG opened the Nordstern plant for converting bituminous coal to synthetic oil.[2] Nazi
Nazi
Germany[edit] The 9 November 1938 Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
antisemitic riots destroyed Jewish businesses, dwellings and cemeteries, and a synagogue in Buer and one in downtown Gelsenkirchen. However, a new downtown Gelsenkirchen synagogue was opened on 1 February 2007. Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
was a target of strategic bombing during World War II, particularly during the 1943 Battle of the Ruhr
Ruhr
and the Oil Campaign. Three quarters of Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
was destroyed[3] and many above-ground air-raid shelters such as near the town hall in Buer are in nearly original form. Oberst
Oberst
Werner Mölders
Werner Mölders
the legendary Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
Fighter pilot was born here. The Gelsenberg Lager subcamp of KZ Buchenwald
KZ Buchenwald
was established in 1944[4] to provide forced labor of about 2000 Hungarian women and girls for Gelsenberg-Benzin-AG. About 150 died during September 1944 bombing raids (shelters and protection ditches were forbidden to them).[5] From 1933 to 1945, the city's mayor was the appointed Nazi
Nazi
Carl Engelbert Böhmer. In 1994, the Institute for City History opened the documentation centre " Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
under National Socialism" (Dokumentationsstätte " Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
im Nationalsozialismus"). After the war[edit] On 17 December 1953, the Kokerei Hassel went into operation, billed as Germany's "first new coking plant" since the war. When postal codes (Postleitzahlen) were introduced in 1961, Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
was one of the few cities in West Germany
Germany
to be given two codes: Buer was given 466, while Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
got 465. These were in use until 1 July 1993. The "first comprehensive school in North Rhine-Westphalia" was opened in 1969. Scholven-Chemie AG (the old hydrogenation plant) merged with Gelsenberg-Benzin-AG to form the new corporation VEBA-Oel AG. In 1987, Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
celebrated Mass before 85,000 people at Gelsenkirchen's Parkstadion. The Pope also became an honorary member of FC Schalke 04. In 1997, the Federal Garden Show (Bundesgartenschau or BUGA) was held on the grounds of the disused Nordstern (de) coalmine in Horst. In 1999, the last phase of the Internationale Bauausstellung Emscher Park, an undertaking that brought together many cities in North Rhine-Westphalia, was held. Coke was produced at the old Hassel coking works for the last time on 29 September 1999. This marked the shutdown of the last coking plant in Gelsenkirchen, after being a coking town for more than 117 years. In the same year, Shell Solar Deutschland AG took over production of photovoltaic equipment. On 28 April 2000, the Ewald-Hugo colliery closed – Gelsenkirchen's last colliery. Three thousand coalminers lost their jobs. In 2003, Buer celebrated its thousandth anniversary of first documentary mention, and FC Schalke 04 celebrated on 4 May 2004 its hundredth anniversary. Today, Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
is a centre for sciences, services, and production, with good infrastructure.

Panorama of Gelsenkirchen

Jewish
Jewish
history[edit] 19th century[edit] The Jewish
Jewish
community of Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
was officially established in 1874, relatively late compared to the Jewish
Jewish
Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
communities in Germany. In a list of 1829 to determine the salary for the Chief Rabbi of Westphalia, Abraham Sutro (de), three families were named: the families of Ruben Levi, Reuben Simon, and Herz Heimann families.[6] With the growth of the town during the second half of the 20th century, its Jewish
Jewish
population also grew bigger, with about 120 Jews living in town in 1880, and a synagogue established in 1885. With the growth of the community, a bigger building was built to serve as the community school.[7] 20th century[edit] The community continued to grow and around 1,100 Jews were living in Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
in 1901, a number that reached its peak of 1,300 individuals in 1933. At the turn of the 20th century the Reform Jewish community was the most dominant among all Jewish
Jewish
communities in town, and after an organ was installed inside the synagogue, and most prayers performed mostly in German instead of traditional Hebrew, the town orthodox community decided to stop its attendance of the synagogue and tried to establish a new orthodox community, led by Dr. Max Meyer, Dr. Rubens and Abraham Fröhlich, most of them living on Florastraße.[6] In addition, another Jewish
Jewish
orthodox congregation of Polish Jews was found in town.[8] In 1908, a lot on Wanner Straße was purchased and served the community as its cemetery until 1936, today containing about 400 graves.[6] In addition, another cemetery was built in 1927 in the suburb of Ückendorf (de). Nazi
Nazi
Germany[edit] With the rise of Hitler
Hitler
and National Socialism
National Socialism
in 1933, Jewish
Jewish
life in Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
was still relatively quiet. In August 1938, 160 Jewish businesses were still open in town. In October 1938, though, an official ban restricted these businesses and all Jewish
Jewish
doctors became unemployed. In the same month, the Jewish
Jewish
community of town was expelled. Between 1937 and 1939, the Jewish
Jewish
population of Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
dropped from 1,600 to 1,000. During Kristallnacht, the town synagogue was destroyed, after two thirds of the town's Jewish population had already left. On 27 January 1942, 350 among the 500 remaining Jews in town were deported to the Riga Ghetto; later, the last remaining Jews were deported to Warsaw and Theresienstadt concentration camp. The Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
transport[edit] On 31 March 1942, a Nazi
Nazi
deportation train set out from Gelsenkirchen and, carrying 48 Jews from the town area, made its way to the Warsaw Ghetto. The train was the first to deport Jews to Warsaw and not to Trawniki concentration camp
Trawniki concentration camp
in southern Poland, as used before. After it left Gelsenkirchen, the train was boarded by other Jews from Münster, Dortmund
Dortmund
and a few other stops along the way, and mostly by the Jews of Hanover, 500 in number. The arrival of this transport from Westphalia
Westphalia
and Upper Saxony was recorded in his diaries by Adam Czerniakov, the last chairman of the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Judenrat. He stated that those older than 68 were allowed to stay in Germany. The majority of these deportees were killed later on the different death sites around modern day Poland.[9] After World War II[edit] In 1946, 69 Jews returned to Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
and in 1958, a synagogue and cultural centre were built for the remaining community. In 2005, about 450 Jews were living in town. During the last decade of the 20th century, a noted number of Jews came to the town, after emigrating out of the former USSR. This situation made it necessary to extend the synagogue. Eventually, a new and bigger synagogue was built to serve the increasing Jewish
Jewish
community of Gelsenkirchen. The current community practices Orthodox Judaism, even though no family practices it at home.[6] On 16 May 2014, antisemitic graffiti were painted on the town synagogue.[10] Sites[edit] The building at Husemannstraße 75 belonged to Dr. Max Meyer, who built it between 1920 and 1921. A mezuzah sign can still be seen on the top right side of the door.[6] On Florastraße, near Kennedyplatz, (formerly Schalker Straße 45), stands the house of the Tepper family, a Jewish
Jewish
family that vanished during the Holocaust. As part of the national Stolperstein
Stolperstein
project, five bricks, commemorating the Jewish inhabitants, were installed outside the house.[11] Economy and infrastructure[edit]

Headquarters of the Gelsenwasser AG

Highways and main roads in Gelsenkirchen

Two vintage trams on hand for the reopening of the Essener Straße stop in Horst

Stadtbahn
Stadtbahn
at main railway station

Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
presents itself as a centre of solar technology. Shell Solar Deutschland GmbH produces solar cells in Rotthausen. Scheuten Solar Technology has taken over its solar panel production. There are other large businesses in town: THS Wohnen (de), Gelsenwasser, e.on, BP Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
GmbH, Shell Solar Deutschland GmbH and Pilkington. ZOOM Erlebniswelt Gelsenkirchen
ZOOM Erlebniswelt Gelsenkirchen
is a zoo founded in 1949 as "Ruhr-Zoo" and now operated by the city. Transport[edit] Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
lies on autobahns A 2, A 40, A 42 and A 52, as well as on Bundesstraßen (Federal Highways) B 224, B 226 and B 227. Gelsenkirchen Hauptbahnhof
Gelsenkirchen Hauptbahnhof
(central station) lies at the junction of the Duisburg–Dortmund, the Essen– Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
and the Gelsenkirchen– Münster
Münster
lines. The Rhine–Herne Canal
Rhine–Herne Canal
has a commercial-industrial harbour in Gelsenkirchen. Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
Harbour (de) has a yearly turnover of 2 million tonnes and a water surface area of about 1.2 square kilometres (0.5 square miles), one of Germany's biggest and most important canal harbours, and is furthermore connected to Deutsche Bahn's railway network at Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
Hauptbahnhof. Local transport in Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
is provided by the Bochum/ Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
tramway network and buses run by the Bochum-Gelsenkirchener Straßenbahn AG (BOGESTRA), as well as by buses operated by Vestische Straßenbahnen GmbH in the city's north (despite its name, it nowadays runs only buses). Some Stadtbahn
Stadtbahn
and tram lines are operated by Ruhrbahn (de). All these services have an integrated fare structure within the VRR. There are three tram lines, one light rail line, and about 50 bus routes in Gelsenkirchen. Media[edit] Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
is the headquarters of the Verband Lokaler Rundfunk in Nordrhein-Westfalen e.V. (VLR) (Network of Local Radio in North Rhine- Westphalia
Westphalia
Registered Association). REL (Radio Emscher-Lippe) is also headquartered in Gelsenkirchen. Among newspapers, the Buersche Zeitung was a daily till 2006. The Ruhr Nachrichten ceased publication in Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
in April 2006. Now, the Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung
Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung
is the only local newspaper in Gelsenkirchen. The local station Radio Emscher-Lippe (de) also reports the local news. There is also a free weekly newspaper, the Stadtspiegel Gelsenkirchen, along with monthly, or irregular, local publications called the Familienpost and the Beckhausener Kurier. Education and science[edit] Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
has 51 elementary schools (36 public schools, 12 Catholic schools, 3 Protestant schools), 8 Hauptschulen, 6 Realschulen, 7 Gymnasien, and 4 Gesamtschulen, among which the Gesamtschule Bismarck, as the only comprehensive school run by the Westphalian branch of the Evangelical (Lutheran) Church, warrants special mention. The Fachhochschule Gelsenkirchen, founded in 1992, has also campuses in Bocholt and Recklinghausen
Recklinghausen
with the following course offerings: Economics, Computer Science, Engineering Physics, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Supply and Disposal Engineering. There is a Volkshochschule for adult education as well as a city library with three branches. The Institute for Underground Infrastructure, founded in 1994 and associated with the Ruhr
Ruhr
University Bochum, provides a wide range of research, certification, and colsulting services. The science park created in 1995 by Internationale Bauausstellung Emscher
Emscher
Park, Wissenschaftspark Gelsenkirchen (de), provides a pathway to restructure the local economy from coal- and steel-based industries to solar energy and project management.[12] Culture[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2016)

Musiktheater im Revier Hans-Sachs-Haus (de) Museums Architecture (Brick Expressionism), heritage listings ZOOM Erlebniswelt Gelsenkirchen/Ruhr-Zoo Industrial Heritage Trail
Industrial Heritage Trail
(Route der Industriekultur) – Gelsenkirchen Nordsternpark Ruhr.2010
Ruhr.2010
– European Capital of Culture Rock Hard Festival Filming of The Miracle of Father Malachia'

Sports[edit]

The Veltins-Arena, the stadium of Bundesliga
Bundesliga
club FC Schalke 04

Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
is home of the Bundesliga
Bundesliga
club FC Schalke 04. Schalke's home ground, Veltins-Arena. It was one of 12 German cities to host matches during the 2006 FIFA World Cup, hosting matches between Poland and Ecuador, Argentina and Serbia and Montenegro, Portugal and Mexico, and USA and Czech Republic. German football players İlkay Gündoğan, Mesut Özil, and Manuel Neuer were born in Gelsenkirchen. German football manager Michael Skibbe was also born in Gelsenkirchen. Since 1912, Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
owns the harness racing track Trabrennbahn Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
(also referred as GelsenTrabPark). Notable people[edit]

Alfons Goldschmidt
Alfons Goldschmidt
(1879–1940), journalist, economist, university lecturer Claire Waldoff
Claire Waldoff
(1884–1957), kabarett singer in Berlin Wilhelm Zaisser
Wilhelm Zaisser
(1893–1958), communist politician, first Minister for State Security of East Germany Hans Krahe (1898–1965), philologist, linguist Ernst Kuzorra
Ernst Kuzorra
(1905–1990), football player, 6-times German champion with FC Schalke 04 Anton Stankowski
Anton Stankowski
(1906–1998), graphic designer, photographer, painter Fritz Szepan (1907–1974), football player, 6-times German champion with FC Schalke 04, once DFB-Pokal
DFB-Pokal
winner as manager of Rot-Weiss Essen Werner Mölders
Werner Mölders
(1913–1941), officer of the Luftwaffe Harald zur Hausen
Harald zur Hausen
(born 1936), virologist, Nobel laureate (2008), 1983–2003 chief scientific officer of German Cancer Research Center in Heidelberg Norbert Nigbur (born 1948), football goalkeeper, 393 caps for Schalke 04, DFB-Pokal
DFB-Pokal
winner Heinrich Breloer
Heinrich Breloer
(born 1942), film director Tom Angelripper
Tom Angelripper
(born 1963), singer and bassist of the thrash metal band Sodom Michael Skibbe
Michael Skibbe
(born 1965), former football player and current coach Olaf Thon
Olaf Thon
(born 1966), former player for the Germany
Germany
national football team, world champion 1990 Anne Schwanewilms
Anne Schwanewilms
(born 1967), opera soprano Manuel Neuer
Manuel Neuer
(born 1986), footballer Terry Reintke
Terry Reintke
(born 1987), politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for the Greens-EFA group Mesut Özil
Mesut Özil
(born 1988), footballer İlkay Gündoğan
İlkay Gündoğan
(born 1990), footballer

Twin towns[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
is twinned with:[13]

Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom (since 1948) Zenica, Bosnia and Herzegovina (since 1969) Shakhty, Russia (since 1989) Olsztyn, Poland (since 1992) Cottbus, Germany
Germany
(since 1995)[14] Büyükçekmece, Turkey (since 2004)

References[edit]

^ "Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen". Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW (in German). 18 July 2016.  ^ Becker, Peter W. (1981). "The Role of Synthetic Fuel In World War II Germany: implications for today?". Air University Review. Maxwell Air Force Base.  ^ "World Cup 2006 – Gelsenkirchen", Deutsche Welle, 19 October 2005 ^ Edward Victor. Alphabetical list of camps, subcamps and other camps, Gelsenkirchen ^ Das Gelsenberglager, Außenlager des KZ Buchenwald
KZ Buchenwald
in Gelsenkirchen (in German) ^ a b c d e "Das Judentum in Gelsenkirchen", by Chajm Guski (in German) ^ Gelsenkirchen, Jewish
Jewish
Virtual Library ^ The Encyclopedia of Jewish
Jewish
Life Before and During the Holocaust: A–J by Shmuel Spector and Geoffrey Wigoder, NYU Press 2001, p. 422, ISBN 9780814793565 ^ March 31, 1942, Deportation from Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
to Warsaw Ghetto (English), citing A. Gottwaldt and D. Schulle, Die "Judendeportationen" aus dem Deutschen Reich 1941–1945 ^ "CFCA – Swastika on synagogue in an old city". antisemitism.org.il.  ^ "Stolpersteine Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
– Tepper Family lived here..." stolpersteine-gelsenkirchen.de.  ^ Über uns (About us), Wissenschaftspark Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
(in German) ^ "Partnerstädte" (in German). Gelsenkirchen, Germany: Stadtmarketing Gesellschaft Gelsenkirchen. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.  ^ "Our twin cities – Cottbus". City of Cottbus. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Gelsenkirchen.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1906 New International Encyclopedia article Gelsenkirchen.

Media related to Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
at Wikimedia Commons Official city website, with information in English including British/Irish influence during the 19th century Gelsenzentrum – Documentation center of urban and contemporary history of Gelsenkirchen Musiktheater im Revier Gelsenkirchen
Gelsenkirchen
at MapQuest (interactive) About the football World Cup 2006 in Gelsenkirchen

v t e

Cities in Germany
Germany
by population

1,000,000+

Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich

500,000+

Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart

200,000+

Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal

100,000+

Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Bottrop Dortmund Duisburg Düsseldorf Essen Gelsenkirchen Hagen Hamm Herne Köln (Cologne) Krefeld Leverkusen Mönchengladbach Mülheim Münster Oberhausen Remscheid Solingen Wuppertal

Rural districts

Aachen Borken Coesfeld Düren Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis Euskirchen Gütersloh Heinsberg Herford Hochsauerlandkreis Höxter Kleve (Cleves) Lippe Märkischer Kreis Mettmann Minden-Lübbecke Oberbergischer Kreis Olpe Paderborn Recklinghausen Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis Rhein-Erft-Kreis Rhein-Kreis Neuss Rhein-Sieg-Kreis Siegen-Wittgenstein Soest Steinfurt Unna Viersen Warendorf Wesel

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312800

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