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Public Joint Stock Company Gazprom
Gazprom
(Russian: Публи́чное акционе́рное о́бщество «Газпром», Publichnoe Aktsionernoe Obshchestvo Gazprom, abbreviated PAO Gazprom, Russian: ПАО «Газпром», IPA: [ɡɐsˈprom]) is a large Russian company founded in 1989, which carries on the business of extraction, production, transport, and sale of natural gas. The company is majority owned by the Government of Russia, though technically private. Its name is a portmanteau of the Russian words Gazovaya Promyshlennost (Russian: га́зовая промы́шленность - gas industry). The headquarters of Gazprom
Gazprom
are in Moscow. Gazprom
Gazprom
was created in 1989 when the Soviet Ministry of Gas Industry was converted to a corporation, retaining all of its assets. Gazprom is involved in the Russian Government's diplomatic efforts, setting of gas prices, and access to pipelines.[3] Gazprom's production fields are located around the Gulf of Ob
Gulf of Ob
in Western Siberia. Plans have also been made to mine the Yamal Peninsula. Gazprom's gas transport system includes 158,200 kilometres of gas trunk lines. Projects include Nord Stream
Nord Stream
and South Stream. In 2011, Gazprom
Gazprom
produced about 513.2 billion cubic metres (18.12 trillion cubic feet) of natural gas, more than seventeen percent of global gas production. Gazprom
Gazprom
also produced about 32.3 million tons of crude oil and nearly 12.1 million tons of gas condensate. The company has subsidiaries in industrial sectors including finance, media and aviation, and majority stakes in other companies.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Inception (1989 - 1992) 1.2 Privatisation (1993 - 1997) 1.3 Tax evasion and asset-stripping (1998 - 2000) 1.4 Putin's reforms (2000 - 2003) 1.5 Establishment of government control (2005 - 2006) 1.6 Contracts with China
China
(2007 - 2015) 1.7 Notable acquisitions

2 Supply and reserves

2.1 Production 2.2 Imports from Central Asia 2.3 Reserves

3 Development and exploration

3.1 Blue Stream
Blue Stream
Pipeline 3.2 Yamal Peninsula 3.3 Shtokman field 3.4 Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous area ( Arctic
Arctic
shelf) 3.5 Exploration

4 Transportation 5 Sales

5.1 Exports 5.2 Price disputes

6 Company characteristics 7 Shareholders 8 Subsidiaries 9 Management

9.1 Board of directors 9.2 Management committee 9.3 Shareholdings

10 Sports sponsorships 11 Environmental record 12 Controversies

12.1 Yukos
Yukos
Oil fraud 12.2 Greenpeace
Greenpeace
protest against arctic drilling

13 See also 14 References 15 Sources 16 External links

History[edit] Inception (1989 - 1992)[edit] In 1943, during World War II, the government of the Soviet Union developed a domestic gas industry. In 1965, it centralized gas exploration, development, and distribution within the Ministry of Gas Industry. In the 1970s and 1980s, the Ministry of Gas Industry found large natural gas reserves in Siberia, the Ural region and the Volga region. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
became a major gas producer.[4] In August 1989, under the leadership of Viktor Chernomyrdin, the Ministry of Gas Industry was renamed the State Gas Concern Gazprom, and became the Soviet Union's first state run corporate enterprise.[5][6] In late 1991, when the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
dissolved, gas industry assets were transferred to newly established national companies, such as Ukrgazprom
Ukrgazprom
and Turkmengazprom.[7] Gazprom
Gazprom
kept assets located in Russia
Russia
and secured a monopoly in the gas sector.[6] Privatisation (1993 - 1997)[edit] In December 1992, when Boris Yeltsin, the Russian President, appointed Chernomyrdin, Gazprom's Chairman, his Prime Minister, the company's political influence increased. Rem Viakhirev
Rem Viakhirev
took the chairmanship of Gazprom's Board of Directors and Managing Committee.[6] Following the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 5 November 1992 and the Resolution of the Government of Russia
Russia
of 17 February 1993, Gazprom
Gazprom
became a joint-stock company. Gazprom
Gazprom
began to distribute shares under the voucher method. (Each Russian citizen received vouchers to purchase shares of formerly state-owned companies). By 1994, 33% of Gazprom's shares had been bought by 747,000 members of the public, mostly in exchange for vouchers. Fifteen percent of the stock was allocated to Gazprom
Gazprom
employees. The state retained 40% of the shares. That amount was gradually lowered to thirty-eight percent.[6] Trading of Gazprom's shares was heavily regulated. Foreigners were prohibited from owning more than nine-percent of the shares. In October 1996, 1% of Gazprom's equity was offered for sale to foreigners as Global Depository Receipts. In 1997, Gazprom
Gazprom
offered a bond issue of US$2.5 billion. Tax evasion and asset-stripping (1998 - 2000)[edit] Chernomyrdin, as Prime Minister of Russia, ensured Gazprom
Gazprom
avoided tight state regulation. Gazprom
Gazprom
evaded taxes, and the Government of Russia
Russia
received little in dividends. Gazprom
Gazprom
managers and board members, such as Chernomyrdin
Chernomyrdin
and the Gazprom
Gazprom
Chief Executive Officer, Rem Viakhirev, engaged in asset-stripping. Gazprom
Gazprom
assets were shared amongst their relatives. Itera, a gas trading company also received Gazprom
Gazprom
assets.[8] In March 1998, for reasons unrelated to his activities at Gazprom, Chernomyrdin
Chernomyrdin
was fired by Yeltsin.[9] On 30 June 1998, Chernomyrdin
Chernomyrdin
was made Chairman of the Board of Directors of Gazprom. Putin's reforms (2000 - 2003)[edit] When, in June 2000, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
became the President of Russia, he acted to gain control over Russia's oligarchs, and increase the Government of Russia's control in important companies through a program of national champions.[10] Putin fired Chernomyrdin
Chernomyrdin
from his position as the Chairman of the Gazprom
Gazprom
board. The Russian Government's stock in Gazprom
Gazprom
gave Putin the power to vote out Vyakhirev. Chernomyrdin
Chernomyrdin
and Vyakhirev were replaced by Dmitry Medvedev and Alexei Miller. They were Putin's prior employees in Saint Petersburg.[10] Putin's actions were aided by the shareholder activism of Hermitage Capital Management Chief Executive Officer William Browder, and the former Russian Finance Minister Boris Fyodorov. Miller and Medvedev were to stop asset stripping at Gazprom
Gazprom
and to recover losses. Itera
Itera
was denied access to Gazprom's pipelines and came close to bankruptcy. Itera
Itera
agreed to return stolen assets to Gazprom
Gazprom
for a fee.[11] Establishment of government control (2005 - 2006)[edit] In June 2005, Gazprombank, Gazpromivest Holding, Gazfond and Gazprom Finance B. V., subsidiaries of Gazprom, sold a 10.7399% share of their stock for $7 billion to Rosneftegaz (ru), a state owned company. Some analysts said the amount paid by Rosneftegaz for the stock was too low.[12] The sale was completed by 25 December 2005. With the purchased stock and the thirty-eight percent share held by the State Property Committee, the Government of Russia
Russia
gained control of Gazprom.[13] The Government of Russia
Russia
revoked the Gazprom
Gazprom
twenty percent foreign ownership rule and the company became open to foreign investment.[14][15] On 5 July 2006, the Federal Law, On Gas Export, was passed, nearly unanimously, by the State Duma
State Duma
and on the 7 July 2006, by the Federation Council. On 18 July Putin signed the new legislation and on 20 July 2006, the law was published. It gave Gazprom
Gazprom
the exclusive right to export natural gas from Russia.[16][17][18][19] Contracts with China
China
(2007 - 2015)[edit]

The ceremony marking the opening of a LNG production plant built as part of the Sakhalin-II
Sakhalin-II
project.

On 4 September 2012, the European Commission, a Brussels-based competition watchdog, announced an anti-trust investigation into Gazprom's activities. This was based on "concerns that Gazprom
Gazprom
may be abusing its dominant market position in upstream gas supply markets."[20] On 21 May 2014, in Shanghai, Gazprom
Gazprom
and the China
China
National Petroleum Corporation
Corporation
made a contract worth $400 billion over thirty years. The contract was for Gazprom
Gazprom
to deliver 38 billion cubic meters of natural gas per year to China
China
beginning in 2018.[21][22] In August 2014, construction began with pipes for the Power of Siberia
Siberia
pipeline delivered to Lensk, Yakutia.[23] Russia
Russia
will start supplying natural gas to China
China
through the Power of Siberia
Siberia
pipeline on December 20, 2019 as part of the two countries' $400 billion energy pact. Beijing and Moscow
Moscow
are now negotiating over a second Far Eastern gas pipeline.[24] Notable acquisitions[edit] In April 2001, Gazprom
Gazprom
acquired NTV, Russia's only nationwide state-independent television station from Vladimir Gusinsky's company, Media-Most holdings.[25][26][27] In 2002, the Gazprom
Gazprom
subsidiary Gazprom Media acquired all of Gusinsky's shares in companies held by Media-Most.[28] In September 2005, Gazprom
Gazprom
bought 72.633 percent of the oil company Sibneft for $13.01 billion. Sibneft was renamed Gazprom
Gazprom
Neft. The purchase was aided by a $12 billion loan. Gazprom
Gazprom
became Russia's largest company.[29] On the day of the deal the company worth was valued at £69.7 billion (US$123.2 billion.) In December 2006, Gazprom
Gazprom
signed an agreement with Royal Dutch Shell, Mitsui
Mitsui
and Mitsubishi, to take over fifty percent plus one share of Sakhalin Energy.[30] In June 2007, TNK-BP, a subsidiary of BP plc, agreed to sell its stake in Kovykta field
Kovykta field
in Siberia
Siberia
to Gazprom
Gazprom
after the Government of Russia questioned BP's right to export gas from Russia.[31][32][33][34] On 23 June 2007, the governments of Russia
Russia
and Italy signed a memorandum of understanding towards a joint venture between Gazprom and Eni SpA
Eni SpA
to construct a 558-mile (900 km) gas pipeline to carry 1.05 trillion cubic feet (30 km3) gas per year from Russia
Russia
to Europe. This South Stream
South Stream
pipeline would extend under the Black Sea
Black Sea
to Bulgaria
Bulgaria
with a south fork to Italy and a north fork to Hungary.[35][36][37] On 1 December 2007, during a visit to Turkey, Putin said the project would not proceed and 63 billion cubic metres per year (bcm/y) of gas would be shipped to Turkey
Turkey
instead of Bulgaria. Bulgaria
Bulgaria
was being sued by the European Union
European Union
for signing a contract with Russia, which was not aligned with European Union regulations.The president of Bulgaria, Rosen Plevneliev, pressured the European Union
European Union
and Russia
Russia
to quickly resolve the matter.[38][39] In late November 2013, Gazprom
Gazprom
expanded its media interests by acquiring Profmedia from Vladimir Potanin.[40] In June 2014, Gazprom
Gazprom
negotiated with the International Petroleum Investment Company (IPIC of Abu Dhabi) over a 24.9 percent stake in the Austrian oil and gas firm OMV.[41] Supply and reserves[edit] Production[edit] In 2011, Gazprom
Gazprom
produced 513.17 billion cubic metres (18.122 trillion cubic feet) of natural gas, which was 17 percent of the worldwide production and 83 percent of Russian production. Of this amount, the Yamburg subsidiary produced 41 percent, Urengoy 23.6 percent, Nadym
Nadym
10.9 percent, Noyabrsk
Noyabrsk
9.3 percent and others 15.2 percent. In addition, the company produced 32.28 million tons of oil and 12.07 million tons of gas condensate.[42][43][44] Gazprom's main fields are located in the Nadym-Pur-Taz region (near the Gulf of Ob) in Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Western Siberia. HIstorically, the three largest fields are Medvezhe, Urengoy and Yamburg.[45] [46]After more than twenty years of production, the fields are now in decline. Production from the fields has decreased by twenty to twenty-five bcm per year.[47][48] The production at Zaporliarnoe, Gazprom's fourth largest field, increased until 2004, offsetting the decline in the other fields.[47] Since 2004, Gazprom has maintained production by activating new smaller fields and by purchasing production assets from other companies.[47][49] Gazprom Neft produces crude oil. In 2005, Gazprom
Gazprom
purchased 75 percent of the Gazprom Neft shares for $13.1 billion.[50]

billion cubic metres 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Natural gas 552.5 555.0 556.0 548.6 549.7 461.5 508.6 513.2 487.0 487.4 443.9 418.5 419.1

million tons 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Crude oil 0.9 9.5 34.0 34.0 32.0 31.6 32.0 32.3 33.3 33.8 35.3 36.0 39.3

Condensate 11.1 11.5 11.4 11.3 10.9 10.1 11.3 12.1 12.9 14.7 14.5 15.3 15.9

Source: Gazprom
Gazprom
in figures 2004-2008, 2007-2011, 2009-2013 and 2012–2016.[42][43][44][51]

Imports from Central Asia[edit] Gazprom's ability to supply natural gas to dommestic market and for reexport has relied to a large extent on imports from Central Asia.[47][46] In 2007, Gazprom
Gazprom
imported a total of 60.7 billion cubic metres (2.14 trillion cubic feet) from Central Asia: 42.6 billion cubic metres (1.50 trillion cubic feet) from Turkmenistan, 8.5 billion cubic metres (300 billion cubic feet) from Kazakhstan, and 9.6 billion cubic metres (340 billion cubic feet) from Uzbekistan.[47] In particular, Gazprom
Gazprom
purchased seventy-five percent of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
gas exports in order to supply gas to Ukraine. In 2008, Gazprom
Gazprom
paid $130/mcm to $180/mcm for gas from Central Asia.[47] Reserves[edit] In 2015, Gazprom's proved and probable reserves of natural gas were 23.705 trillion cubic metres (837.1 trillion cubic feet), a 3.8% increase from the 2011 figure which represented 18.4% of the world's reserves. In 2015, the reserves of crude oil were 1.355 billion tons and the reserves of gas condensate were 933.3 billion tons.[42][52] 59.8 percent of Gazprom's natural gas reserves (Categories A+B+C1) were located in the Urals Federal District (decreasing), 20.5 percent in the Arctic
Arctic
shelf (increasing), and 8.3 percent in the Southern Federal District
Southern Federal District
and North Caucasus Federal District.[42][43]

trillion cubic metres 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Natural gas 20.90 20.66 20.73 20.84 21.28 21.95 22.52 22.84 23.39 23.26 23.51 23.71

Source: Gazprom
Gazprom
in figures 2004-2008, 2007-2011 and 2009-2013.[42][43][44]

Development and exploration[edit]

Location of the Shtokman gas field

Gazprom
Gazprom
has invested about 480 billion rubles ($20 billion) in new major projects in order to maintain supply.[47][47][49] Nearly 37 percent of Gazprom's reserves are located in the Yamal Peninsula and in the Barents Sea.[46] Blue Stream
Blue Stream
Pipeline[edit] Main article: Blue Stream One of Gazprom's major projects is the Blue Stream
Blue Stream
Pipeline.[53] The Blue Stream
Blue Stream
Pipeline delivers natural gas to Turkey
Turkey
via the Black Sea. In 1997, the Blue Stream
Blue Stream
Pipeline agreement between Turkey
Turkey
and Russia was signed. In 2000, the first joint was welded. The pipeline has transported 16 billion cubic meters each year.[53] Yamal Peninsula[edit] Main article: Yamal project Exploration of the Yamal peninsula has found reserves of over 10 trillion cubic metres of natural gas and over 500 million tons of oil and gas condensate. About 60 percent of these reserves are located in Bovanenkovo, Kharasavey and Novoportovo. The natural gas production capacity of the Bovanenkovo field was estimated to be 115 billion cubic metres per annum (4.1 trillion cubic feet per annum), with potential to increase to 140 billion cubic metres per annum (4.9 trillion cubic feet per annum).[42] Shtokman field[edit] Main article: Shtokman field The Shtokman field
Shtokman field
is one of the world's largest natural gas fields. It is located in the central part of the Barents Sea, 650 kilometres (400 mi) northeast of the city of Murmansk
Murmansk
and 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) west of the Yamal Peninsula. The field is estimated to contain up to 3.7 trillion cubic metres (130 trillion cubic feet) of gas.[47] Potential production is 71 billion cubic metres per annum (2.5 trillion cubic feet per annum) in the initial phases, with a potential increase to 95 billion cubic metres per annum (3.4 trillion cubic feet per annum).[42] Gazprom, Total (France) and Statoil
Statoil
(Norway) created a joint company Shtokman Development AG for development of the field.[54][55][56] Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous area ( Arctic
Arctic
shelf)[edit] On 8 April 2013, in Amsterdam, Alexey Miller, Chairman of the Gazprom Management Committee and Jorma Ollila, Chairman of the Board of Directors of Royal Dutch Shell
Royal Dutch Shell
signed in the presence of Putin and Mark Rutte
Mark Rutte
prime minister of Netherlands
Netherlands
a memorandum outlining the principles of cooperation within hydrocarbons exploration and development in the Arctic
Arctic
shelf and a section of the deep-water shelf. [57] Exploration[edit] In 2008, Gazprom
Gazprom
carried out 284.9 kilometres (177.0 mi) of explorative well drilling; 124,000 kilometres (77,000 mi) of 2D seismic and 6,600 square kilometres (2,500 sq mi) of 3D seismic survey. As a result, gas reserves grew by 583.4 billion cubic metres (20.60 trillion cubic feet), and crude oil and gas condensate reserves grew by 61 million tons. Gazprom
Gazprom
carries out prospecting and exploration in foreign countries such as India, Algeria, Venezuela, Vietnam, Libya, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and Tajikistan.[42] Transportation[edit] Gazprom's Unified Gas Supply System (UGSS) includes 158,200 kilometres (98,300 mi) of gas trunklines and branches and 218 compressor stations with a 41.4 GW capacity. The UGSS is the largest gas transmission system in the world.[58] In 2008, the transportation system carried 714.3 billion cubic metres (25.23 trillion cubic feet) of gas.[42] The UGSS has reached its capacity.[58] Major transmission projects include the Nord Stream
Nord Stream
and South Stream
South Stream
pipelines, as well as pipelines inside Russia.[42]

Natural gas
Natural gas
pipelines from Russia
Russia
to Europe

Sales[edit] In 2006, Gazprom
Gazprom
sold 316 billion cubic metres (11.2 trillion cubic feet) of gas to domestic customers; 162 billion cubic metres (5.7 trillion cubic feet) to the rest of Europe; and 101 billion cubic metres (3.6 trillion cubic feet) to CIS countries and the Baltic states.[47] Gazprom receives about 60 percent of its revenue from its sales to European customers.[59] In 2008, the average gas price paid by Russian industrial customers was $71/mcm, while households paid $54/mcm.[47]

Gazprom
Gazprom
sales of gas 2004-2008 in mega cubic meters (mcm).

2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

Volume Price Volume Price Volume Price Volume Price Volume Price

Russia 306 bcm $47/mcm 307 bcm $36/mcm 316 bcm $43/mcm 307 bcm $42/mcm 287 bcm $67/mcm

CIS+Baltic 66 bcm $36.33/mcm 77 bcm $50.02/mcm 101 bcm $76.37/mcm 100 bcm $91.6/mcm 96.5 bcm $118/mcm

Europe 153 bcm $101.61/mcm 156 bcm $140.09/mcm 162 bcm $192.59/mcm 168.5 bcm $185/mcm 184.4 bcm $313/mcm

Prices are excluding VAT and tax and custom duties. Sources:[47][60]

Since 2000, Natural gas
Natural gas
prices have fluctuated. In late 2007, the price of natural gas at the New York NYMEX
NYMEX
was 7,53 $ per MMBtu, at 26,4 m³ per MMBTU representing a price of $285 per 1000 Cubic metres. At the same time, based on their respective contracts with Gazprom, German customers paid (per cubic metre) $250, Polish customers $290, Ukraine
Ukraine
customers $130 and Russian customers $49.[61] Exports[edit] See also: Russia
Russia
in the European energy sector

CEO of Gazprom
Gazprom
Alexei Miller
Alexei Miller
and Head of the China
China
National Petroleum Company Zhou Jiping signed a $400 billion gas deal for natural gas supplies via the Eastern Route between Gazprom
Gazprom
and CNPC, 21 May 2014[62][63][64]

Gazprom
Gazprom
delivers gas to 25 European countries. Its main export arm is Gazprom
Gazprom
Export LLC, founded in 1973 and before November 1, 2006 known as Gazexport, which has a monopoly on gas exports to countries outside of the former Soviet Union. The majority of Russian gas in Europe is sold on 25 year contracts.[47] In late 2004, Gazprom
Gazprom
was the sole gas supplier to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Estonia, Finland, Macedonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Serbia and Slovakia. It provided 97 percent of Bulgaria's gas, 89 percent of Hungary's gas, 86 percent of Poland's gas, nearly 75 percent of the Czech Republic's, 67 percent of Turkey's, 65 percent of Austria's, about 40 percent of Romania's, 36 percent of Germany's, 27 percent of Italy's, and 25 percent of France's gas.[65][66] The European Union
European Union
receives about 25 percent of its gas supply from Gazprom.[67][68] In 2014, Europe was the source of 40% of Gazprom's revenue. The proportion of Europe’s gas bought in the spot market rose from 15 percent in 2008 to 44 percent in 2012.[69] In September 2013, during the G20
G20
summit, Gazprom
Gazprom
signed an agreement with CNPC
CNPC
that the Henry Hub
Henry Hub
index would not be used to settle prices for their trades.[70] On 21 May 2014, Putin met with Xi Jinping
Xi Jinping
and negotiated a $400bn deal between Gazprom
Gazprom
and CNPC.[71] Under the contract, Russia
Russia
was to supply 38 billion cubic meters of gas annually over 30 years at a cost of $350 per thousand cubic meters beginning in 2018. In 2013, the average price of Gazprom’s gas in Europe was about $380 per thousand cubic meters.[71] China
China
offered a loan of about $50bn to finance development of the gas fields and the construction of the pipeline by Russia
Russia
up to the Chinese border, with the Chinese to build the remaining pipeline.[71] Price disputes[edit] On 1 January 2006, at 10:00 ( Moscow
Moscow
time), during the Russia-Ukraine gas dispute, Gazprom
Gazprom
ceased the supply of gas to the Ukrainian market. Gazprom
Gazprom
called on the government of Ukraine
Ukraine
to increase its payment for natural gas in line with increases in global fuel prices. During the night of 3 January 2006 and early morning of 4 January 2006, Naftogas
Naftogas
of Ukraine
Ukraine
and Gazprom
Gazprom
negotiated a deal that temporarily[72] resolved the long-standing gas price conflict between Russia
Russia
and Ukraine. On 3 April 2006, Gazprom
Gazprom
announced it would triple the price of natural gas to Belarus after 31 December 2006. In December 2006, Gazprom
Gazprom
threatened to cease supply of gas to Belarus at 10 am Moscow
Moscow
time on 1 January 2007, unless Belarus increased payments from $47 to $200 per 1,000 cubic metres or to cede control over its distribution network.[73] Some analysts suggested Moscow
Moscow
was penalising Alexander Lukashenko, the President of Belarus, for not delivering on pledges of closer integration with Russia,[74] while others noted that other countries like Armenia were paying as much for their gas as Belarus would with the new price levels.[75] Gazprom
Gazprom
later requested a price of $105,[76] yet Belarus still refused the agreement. Belarus responded that if supplies were cut, it would deny Gazprom
Gazprom
access to its pipelines, which would impair gas transportation to Europe.[77] However, on 1 January 2007, just a few hours before the deadline, Belarus and Gazprom
Gazprom
signed a last-minute agreement. Under the agreement, Belarus undertook to pay $100 per 1,000 cubic metre in 2007. The agreement also allowed Gazprom
Gazprom
to purchase 50 percent of the shares in Beltransgaz, the Belarusian pipeline network.[78] Immediately following the signing of this agreement, Belarus declared a $42/ton transportation tax on Russian oil travelling through the Gazprom
Gazprom
pipelines crossing its territory. On 13 March 2008, after a three-day period where gas supplies to Ukraine
Ukraine
were halved, Gazprom
Gazprom
agreed to supply Ukraine
Ukraine
with gas for the rest of the year. The contract removed intermediary companies.[79] On 1 April 2014, Gazprom
Gazprom
increased the gas price charged to Ukraine from $268.50 to $385.50 (£231.00) per 1,000 cubic metres. Ukraine's unpaid gas bills to Russia
Russia
stood at $1.7bn (£1.02bn).[80] On 30 October 2014, Russia
Russia
agreed to resume gas supplies to Ukraine
Ukraine
over the winter in a deal brokered by the European Union.[81] Company characteristics[edit] Gazprom
Gazprom
is a vertically integrated company, one which owns its supply and distribution activities.[82] Gazprom
Gazprom
owns all its main gas processing facilities in Russia. It operates Russia's high pressure gas pipelines and since 2006, it has held a legal export monopoly. Other natural gas producers, such as Novatek, Russia's second largest gas company, are forced to use Gazprom's facilities for processing and transport of natural gas.[59][83] At the end of 2008, Gazprom
Gazprom
had 221,300 employees in its major gas production, transportation, underground storage and processing subsidiaries. Of these employees, 9.5 percent were in management, 22.9 percent were specialists, 63.4 percent were workers and 4.2 percent were other employees.[42] Gazprom's headquarters are in the Cheryomushki District, South-Western Administrative Okrug, Moscow.[84] Gazprom
Gazprom
is a national champion, a concept advocated by Putin, in which large companies in strategic sectors are expected not only to seek profit, but also to advance Russia's national interests. For example, Gazprom
Gazprom
sells gas to its domestic market at a price less than that of the global market.[6] In 2008, Gazprom's activities made up 10 percent of the Russian gross domestic product[42] Shareholders[edit] On 29 December 2006, Gazprom's main shareholders were the Russian Federal Agency for Federal Property Management under Rosimushchestvo to May 2008, holding 38.373 percent; Gazprombank, a nominee holder holding 41.235 percent, including 13.2 percent of ADR holders; Rosneftegaz, holding 10.74 percent; Gerosgaz, holding 2.93 percent; and E.ON
E.ON
Ruhrgas, holding 2.5 percent.[85] In 2006, the Russian government controlled 50.23 percent of Gazprom
Gazprom
shares through Rosimushchestvo, Rosneftegaz, and Rosgazifikatsiya.[85] Subsidiaries[edit] Main article: List of Gazprom's subsidiaries Gazprom
Gazprom
has several hundred subsidiaries in Russia
Russia
and abroad which are owned and controlled directly or indirectly by the company. Management[edit]

Gazprom
Gazprom
Headquarters in Moscow

Board of directors[edit] Gazprom's Board of Directors as of 9 August 2015:[86]

Viktor Zubkov
Viktor Zubkov
(Chairman, Russian Special
Special
Presidential Representative for Cooperation with Gas Exporting Countries Forum, First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia, former Prime Minister of Russia) Alexey Miller
Alexey Miller
(Deputy Chairman, Chairman of the Management Committee, CEO, Chairman of Gazprombank, former Deputy Minister of Energy of Russia) Andrey Akimov (Chairman of Gazprombank) Farit Gazizullin (former Minister of State Property of Russia, former Minister of Property Relations of Russia) Timur Kulibaev
Timur Kulibaev
(Chairman of Legal Entities Department) Vitaly Markelov (Deputy Chairman of the Management Committee) Viktor Martynov (Rector of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Professor) Vladimir Mau (Rector of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration) Valery Musin (Head of the Civil Procedure Department, Faculty of Law, Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
State University) Alexander Novak
Alexander Novak
(Minister of Energy of the Russian Federation) Mikhail Sereda (Deputy Chairman of the Management Committee, Head of the Administration of the Management Committee of Gazprom)

Former members of the board:

Burckhard Bergmann (Chairman of the Executive Board of E.ON
E.ON
Ruhrgas AG) Elena Karpel (Head of the Department for Pricing and Economic Expert Analysis, member since 25 June 2004) Viktor Khristenko
Viktor Khristenko
(Minister for Industry of Russia, former Minister for Industry and Energy of Russia, former First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia) Elvira Nabiullina
Elvira Nabiullina
(Minister of Economic Development and Trade of Russia, former First Deputy Minister of Economic Development and Trade) Igor Yusufov
Igor Yusufov
( Special Envoy
Special Envoy
of the Russian President
Russian President
for International Energy Cooperation and Ambassador-at-Large of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Alexander Ananenkov
Alexander Ananenkov
(Deputy Chairman, Gazprom
Gazprom
shareholder until 30 December 2011) Alexandra Levitskaya (until 25 June 2004) Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev
(Former President of Russia, former campaign manager for Vladimir Putin, former First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia, Chairman 2000-2001 and again 2002-2008, current Prime Minister of Russia) Alexander Medvedev (Deputy Chairman, former Director General of Gazprom
Gazprom
Export, President of Kontinental Hockey League, member of the Coordination Committee of RosUkrEnergo) Boris Fyodorov
Boris Fyodorov
( Gazprom
Gazprom
shareholder, former Finance Minister of Russia and of the Russian SFSR, member until 20 November 2008) Viktor Chernomyrdin
Viktor Chernomyrdin
(founder of Gazprom, first Chairman of the Board and the Management Committee 1989-1992, former Prime Minister of Russia, former Acting President of Russia, former Russian ambassador to Ukraine, presidential adviser to Dmitry Medvedev) Rem Viakhirev
Rem Viakhirev
(Chairman of the Board and the Management Committee 1992-2001 (including hiatus 2000-2001) and businessman)

Management committee[edit]

Gazprom
Gazprom
CEO Alexei Miller
Alexei Miller
with the Energy Minister of Ukraine
Ukraine
Yuriy Boyko, June 2012

Gazprom's management committee as of December 2006:[87]

Alexei Miller
Alexei Miller
(Chairman, Deputy Chairman of the Board, CEO, Chairman of Gazprombank, former Deputy Minister of Energy of Russia, member since 2001) Alexander Ananenkov
Alexander Ananenkov
(Deputy Chairman, Deputy Chairman of the Board, Gazprom
Gazprom
shareholder, member since 17 December 2001) Valery Golubev
Valery Golubev
(Deputy Chairman, Head of the Department for Construction and Investment, former Head of the Vasileostrovsky District, former member of the Federation Council of Russia, member since 18 April 2003) Alexander Kozlov (Deputy Chairman, member since 18 March 2005) Andrey Kruglov (Deputy Chairman, Head of the Department for Finance and Economics, member since 2002) Alexander Medvedev (Deputy Chairman, Deputy Chairman of the Board, former Director General of Gazprom
Gazprom
Export, President of Kontinental Hockey League, member of the Coordination Committee of RosUkrEnergo, member since 2002) Mikhail Sereda (Deputy Chairman, Head of Administration, Deputy Chairman of Gazprombank, member since 28 September 2004) Sergei Ushakov (Deputy Chairman, member since 18 April 2003) Elena Vasilyeva (Deputy Chairman, Chief Accountant, member since 2001) Bogdan Budzulyak (Head of the Department of Gas Transportation, Underground Storage and Utilization, member since 1989) Nikolai Dubik (Head of Legal Department, member since 2008) Konstantin Chuychenko
Konstantin Chuychenko
(Head of the Control Department of Russia, presidential aide to Dmitry Medvedev, former chairman of Gazprom Media, executive director of RosUkrEnergo, former KGB
KGB
officer, member since 2002) Viktor Ilyushin (Head of the Department of Relationships with Regional Authorities of the Russian Federation, member since 1997) Olga Pavlova (Head of the Department of Asset
Asset
Management and Corporate Relations, member since 2004) Vasiliy Podyuk (Head of the Department of Gas, Gas Condensate and Oil Production, member since 1997) Vlada Rusakova (Head of the Department of Strategic Development, member since 5 September 2003) Kirill Seleznev (Head of the Department of Marketing and Processing of Gas and Liquid Hydrocarbons, member since 27 September 2002, Director-General of Mezhregiongaz)

Former members of the management committee:

Nikolai Guslisty (1997 – 18 March 2005) Yury Komarov (former Director General and former Acting Director General of Gazprom
Gazprom
Export, former head of development of the Shtokman Field, former Representative of Russia
Russia
to the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum) (8 August 2003 – 12 May 2005) Alexander Ryazanov (former CEO of Surgut
Surgut
Gas Processing Factory, former First Deputy Chairman of the Board, former President of Sibneft, former deputy (i.e. member) of the State Duma) (2001 – 15 November 2006) Mikhail Akselrod (until 18 March 2005) Boris Yurlov (until 16 April 2004) Nikolai Gornovsky (until 18 April 2003) Vladimir Leviev (until 18 April 2003) Sergei Lukash (until 18 April 2003) Vladimir Rezunenko (until 26 June 2003) Alexander Krasnenkov (until 8 August 2003)

Shareholdings[edit] On 5 September 2005, shares of the members of the Board of Directors and Management Committee were:[88]

Alexander Ananenkov
Alexander Ananenkov
- 0.00709654% Alexander Ryazanov - 0.00513865% Bogdan Budzulyak - 0.00443534% Vasily Podyuk - 0.00131962% Elena Karpel - 0.00086595% Vlada Rusakova - 0.00019009% Andrey Kruglov - 0.00006336% Boris Fyodorov
Boris Fyodorov
- 0.00000422% Alexei Miller
Alexei Miller
- 0.00000027%

Others have no share. Sports sponsorships[edit] Gazprom
Gazprom
is the owner and sponsor of the Russian Premier League football club FC Zenit Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
and volleyball club VC Zenit-Kazan and Gazprom-Ugra Surgut
Surgut
at Russian Super League. On 1 January 2007, Gazprom
Gazprom
also became the sponsor of the German Bundesliga club FC Schalke 04
FC Schalke 04
at a cost of up to €25 million per year. On 23 November 2009, the partnership was extended for a further 5 years. The sponsorship is worth $150m (USD) over 5 years.[89] On 9 July 2010, Gazprom
Gazprom
became a sponsor of the Serbian SuperLiga
Serbian SuperLiga
football club Red Star Belgrade. In 2010, Gazprom
Gazprom
was a Gold Partner of the Russian professional cycling team, Team Katusha, together with Itera, and Russian Technologies (Rostekhnologii). On 9 July 2012, Gazprom
Gazprom
became a sponsor of the UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
and UEFA Super Cup. The sponsorship continued for three season until 2015.[90] On 17 July 2012, Gazprom
Gazprom
became the official Global Energy partner of the UEFA Champions League 2012 winners Chelsea. The sponsorship continued for three years to 2015.[91] In September 2013, Gazprom
Gazprom
become an official partner of FIFA tournaments from 2015 to 2018. The contract includes the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia.[92] Gazprom
Gazprom
also was a sponsor for the defunct- Minardi
Minardi
F1 team in 2002-2003. Environmental record[edit] According to geographer Richard Heede,[93] Gazprom
Gazprom
is second on the list of companies with the highest level of CO2 emissions
CO2 emissions
globally in 2013 with 1,135 million tonnes (1.117×109 long tons; 1.251×109 short tons) in 2013, amounting to almost 3.4% of worldwide anthropogenic emissions.[94] Controversies[edit] Yukos
Yukos
Oil fraud[edit] Yuganskneftegaz was the core production subsidiary of the Yukos
Yukos
Oil Company, which was previously run by a Russian businessman, Mikhail Khodorkovsky. In 2003, the Russian tax authorities charged Yukos
Yukos
and Khodorkovsky with tax evasion. On 14 April 2004, Yukos
Yukos
was presented with a bill for over US $35 bn in back taxes and a demand to pay the entire bill the same day. Requests by Yukos
Yukos
to defer payment, allow payment by installments or to discharge the debt by sale of peripheral assets, including its shareholding in the Sibneft oil company, were also refused. The bailiffs froze Yukos’ shares in Yuganskneftegaz and on 19 November 2004, they placed a notice in the Russian government newspaper Rossiyskaya gazeta. Yuganskneftegaz would be sold at an auction thirty days later on 19 December 2004.[95] The conditions for participation in the auction included an advance deposit of US $1.7 bn and prior clearance by the Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service. In early December 2004, Gazprom
Gazprom
submitted an application to participate in the auction via its wholly owned subsidiary, Gazpromneft. On 15 December 2004, Yukos
Yukos
filed for a bankruptcy protection in a Houston
Houston
court, and obtained a temporary injunction prohibiting Gazprom from participating in the auction. On 16 December 2004, a group of Western banks withdrew their financial support for Gazprom's application. On the same day, Baikalfinansgrup, a previously unknown company, applied to participate in the auction. On 19 December 2004, only two companies appeared at the auction, Gazpromneft and Baikalfinansgrup. Gazpromneft declined to place any offer. Baikalfinansgrup acquired Yuganskneftegaz on its first bid. On 23 December 2004, Baikalfinansgrup was acquired by Rosneft. Rosneft later disclosed in its annual financial statement that it had financed the acquisition of Yuganskneftegaz.[96] At the time, Sergey Bogdanchikov was the president of Rosneft
Rosneft
and the chief executive officer of Gazpromneft.[97] Shortly after the auction, the planned merger between Gazprom
Gazprom
and Rosneft
Rosneft
merger was abandoned, and Bogdanchikov resigned his post as chief executive officer of Gazpromneft. On 7 February 2006, in response to a question by a Spanish journalist, Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
disclosed that Rosneft
Rosneft
had used Baikalfinansgrup as a vehicle to acquire Yuganskneftegaz in order to protect itself against litigation.[98] Greenpeace
Greenpeace
protest against arctic drilling[edit] Gazprom's oil drilling in the Arctic
Arctic
has drawn protests from environmental groups, particularly Greenpeace. Greenpeace
Greenpeace
has opposed oil drilling in the Arctic
Arctic
on the grounds that oil drilling would cause damage to the Arctic
Arctic
ecosystem and that there are no safety plans in place to prevent oil spills.[99] In August 2012, Greenpeace
Greenpeace
had staged protests against the Prirazlomnaya oil platform, the world's first off-shore Arctic
Arctic
drill site.[100][101] On 18 September 2013, the Greenpeace
Greenpeace
vessel MV Arctic Sunrise staged a protest and attempted to board Gazprom's Prirazlomnaya oil platform, the world's first off-shore Arctic
Arctic
drill site. Greenpeace
Greenpeace
stated that the drill site could cause massive disruption to the Arctic
Arctic
ecosystem.[102] After arresting two campaigners attempting to climb the rig,[103] the Russian Coast Guard seized control of the Greenpeace
Greenpeace
ship by making a helicopter drop, and arrested thirty Greenpeace
Greenpeace
activists from sixteen different nationalities. The Arctic
Arctic
Sunrise was towed by the Russian Coast Guard to Murmansk. The Russian government intended to charge the Greenpeace
Greenpeace
campaigners with piracy and hooliganism, which carried a maximum penalty of fifteen years imprisonment. Greenpeace
Greenpeace
argued their operatives were in international waters.[104] The Russian government's actions generated protests from governments and environmentalists worldwide.[99][105] According to Phil Radford, Executive Director of Greenpeace
Greenpeace
in the US at the time, the reaction of the Russian coast guard and the courts were the "stiffest response that Greenpeace
Greenpeace
has encountered from a government since the bombing of the Rainbow Warrior in 1985."[106] The charges of piracy were dropped in October 2013. In November 2013, twenty-seven of the campaigners were released on bail.[107][108] Greenpeace
Greenpeace
has not staged a protest at Prirazlomnaya oil platform since, instead choosing to protest against Western drilling operations due to those countries being considerably more tolerant of their activities. In May 2014, the first shipment of Arctic
Arctic
oil arrived at a refinery in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and was purchased by the French company, Total.[109] See also[edit]

Moscow
Moscow
portal Russia
Russia
portal Companies portal Energy portal

Naftogaz[110] CentGas consortium List of Russian companies Enerco Energy Lakhta Center Obskaya–Bovanenkovo Line Energy Triangle

References[edit]

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Sources[edit]

Goldmann, Marshall (2008), Petrostate: Putin, Power and the New Russia, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-534073-0  Gazprom
Gazprom
in figures 2004-2008, Gazprom, 2008 

External links[edit]

Official website Media related to Gazprom
Gazprom
at Wikimedia Commons

v t e

MOEX Russia
Russia
Index

Acron Aeroflot ALROSA Credit Bank of Moscow Detsky Mir DIXY Europlan FGC UES Gazprom Inter RAO Lenta LSR Group Lukoil M.video Magnit Mechel MMK MegaFon Moscow
Moscow
Exchange Mosenergo MTS NCSP Norilsk Nickel NLMK Novatek OAO TMK PhosAgro PIK Group Polymetal Polyus Gold Rosneft Rostelecom Rusal RusAgro RusHydro Russneft Russian Grids Sberbank Severstal Sistema Surgutneftegas Tatneft Transneft Unipro UWC VTB
VTB
Bank Yandex

Valid: from September 22, 2017 Official list: http://moex.com/s777

v t e

Gazprom
Gazprom
subsidiaries (list)

Bosphorus Gaz Corporation Centrex Europe Energy & Gas AG Gazfond Gazprom
Gazprom
Armenia Gazprom
Gazprom
Germania Gazprom
Gazprom
Neft Gazprom
Gazprom
Neftekhim Salavat Gazprom
Gazprom
Promgaz Gazprom
Gazprom
Space Systems Gazprom
Gazprom
Transgaz Belarus Gazprom-Media Gazpromavia Gazprombank Izvestia Latvijas Gāze Mosenergo Nigaz Nord Stream
Nord Stream
AG Northgas NTV (Russia) OGK-2 OGK-6 Overgas Panrusgáz Prometheus Gas RosUkrEnergo Sakhalin Energy Salym Petroleum Development SeverEnergia Sibir Energy Stroytransgaz TGC-1 TyumenNIIgiprogas Vemex VNG – Verbundnetz Gas Wingas YugoRosGaz

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 148641718 LCCN: n2001090116 ISNI: 0000 0001 0592 1907 GND: 45828

.