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Gazankulu
Gazankulu
was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government to be a semi-independent homeland for the Tsonga people. It was located in both the Northern Transvaal, now Limpopo
Limpopo
province and Eastern Transvaal, now Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
province. It must not be confused with the Gaza kingdom
Gaza kingdom
which once existed in Mozambique.

Contents

1 History 2 Townships of Gazankulu 3 Hospitals of Gazankulu 4 Shopping Centres of Gazankulu 5 Hotels and Resorts of Gazankulu 6 Airport of Gazankulu 7 Industrial Zones of Gazankulu 8 Forced Removals and land reduction 9 Lost chieftainship and their lands 10 Gazankulu
Gazankulu
today 11 Districts in 1991 12 Gazankulu
Gazankulu
lost kingdoms 13 References

History[edit] GazankuluIt received self-rule from the central government in 1969, with its capital at Giyani. Gazankulu
Gazankulu
homeland officially starts at Elim Hospital, near Makhado, from Elim it then heads east towards the Levubu
Levubu
river valley, the villages of Valdezia
Valdezia
and Bungeni
Bungeni
being the two largest Tsonga settlements in the Levubu
Levubu
river valley, with a combined population of more than 50 000 people, according to the mid-2015 population statistics and stretched down up to Skukuza
Skukuza
near Hazyview
Hazyview
in Mpumalanga. Total length of Gazankulu, from Elim Hospital to Hazyview, was 317 km long, which is a distance equivalent of travelling from Pretoria
Pretoria
to Bandelierkop
Bandelierkop
in Limpopo. The homeland consisted of the 'Mainland Gazankulu' which were Elim, Giyani
Giyani
and Malamulele, with 3 large exclaves, which were Bushbuckridge, Tzaneen and Phalaborwa. Before the 1913 Land Act, Bushbuckridge, Phalaborwa
Phalaborwa
and Tzaneen
Tzaneen
were not Tsonga exclaves, they were physically connected with other Tsongas of Elim, Giyani
Giyani
and Malamulele. The 1913 Land Act resulted in 3 large Tsonga exclaves, during the 1960s, Professor H.W.E Ntsanwisi fought unsuccessfully against the central government's unilateral land demarcations, which unfortunately resulted in 3 large Tsonga exclaves. Despite Professor H.W.E Ntsanwisi's protests at unilateral land demarcations, the central government went ahead to create 3 large Tsonga exclaves, which the Tsonga people
Tsonga people
opposed unconditionally throughout the 1960s, 1970's and 1980's. Gazankulu
Gazankulu
shared borders with other black homelands, which were, Venda, Lebowa
Lebowa
and Kangwane. These 3 other black homelands, like Gazankulu, also experienced land grabs and unfair land allocations from the central government. Townships of Gazankulu[edit] Gazankulu
Gazankulu
had 10 formal townships, which were all created and build by the Apartheid
Apartheid
Government
Government
from the late 1960s until the late 1980s, they are; Waterval
Waterval
in Elim, Giyani
Giyani
in Giyani, Malamulele
Malamulele
in Malamulele, Nkowankowa
Nkowankowa
in Tzaneen, Lulekani
Lulekani
in Phalaborwa, Acornhoek in Bushbuckridge, Thulamahashe in Bushbuckridge, Dwarsloop in Bushbuckridge
Bushbuckridge
and Mkhuhlu in Hazyview. The above townships were curved out of land owned by local Traditional leaders or tribal chiefs. In Waterval, the land traditionally belong to Hosi Nhjakanhjaka of the Mukhari-Xilumani clan, in Giyani, the land belong to Hosi Risinga of the Chabalala clan, in Nkowankowa, the land belong to Hosi Mhlaba of the Nkuna clan, in Lulekani, the land belong to Hosi Majeje of the Maluleke clan, in Thulamahashe, the land belong to Hosi Nxumalo of the Ndwandwe-Zwide clan and in Mkhuhlu, the land belong to Hosi Hoxani of the Nkuna Clan. Hospitals of Gazankulu[edit] Gazankulu
Gazankulu
had 9 district hospitals, which are; Elim Hospital in Elim, Nkhensani Hospital in Giyani, eVuxakeni Psychiatrist Hospital in Giyani, Malamulele
Malamulele
Hospital in Malamulele, Letaba Hospital in Tzaneen, Shiluvane
Shiluvane
hospital in Tzaneen, Tintswalo Hospital in Bushbuckridge, Masana hospital in Bushbuckridge
Bushbuckridge
and Matikwana Hospital in Hazyview. In addition, these district hospitals are attached to more than 150 Community Health Centres and clinics. Masana Hospital was later, in 1976, given to Mapulana people, a close neighbor of Tsonga people
Tsonga people
in Bushbuckridge
Bushbuckridge
and is known today as Mapulaneng Hospital. Elim Hospital in Waterval, Masana Hospital in Bushbuckridge
Bushbuckridge
and Shiluvane
Shiluvane
Hospital in Tzaneen
Tzaneen
were Swiss Mission Hospitals, having established by the Swiss Missionaries who brought Gospel to the Tsonga people. Shopping Centres of Gazankulu[edit] Gazankulu
Gazankulu
had 15 modern shopping centres, which are; Elim Mall in Elim, Hubyeni Shopping Centre in Elim, Giyani
Giyani
Regional Mall ( under construction in Giyani), Masingita shopping complex (Giyani), Masingita Mall (Giyani), Masingata Plaza (Giyani), Malamulele
Malamulele
Crossing (Malamulele), Mangalani Shopping complex (Malamulele), Acornhoek
Acornhoek
Plaza (Bushbuckridge), Acornhoek
Acornhoek
Mall (Bushbuckridge), Thulamahashe Plaza (Bushbuckridge), Thula Mall in Thulamahashe (Bushbuckridge), Dwaarsloop Mall (Bushbuckridge) and Mkhuhlu Plaza (Hazyview). In addition to these shopping centres, modern South African malls, such as the fully Air-Conditioned Double-level Blue Haze mall in Hazyview, known today as Lowveld mall in Hazyview, is located 5 km from the Tsonga homeland of Mkhuhlu and Hoxani tribal areas. Another fully air-conditioned double-level mall, Tsaneng mall in Tzaneen, is less than 10 km away from Nkowankowa
Nkowankowa
township under Hosi Mhlaba. Despite the location of these modern Air-Conditioned double-level malls in "South African towns" of Hazyview
Hazyview
and Tzaneen, the Tsonga people have been shopping, breakfasting, dining and wining in these beautiful malls since they were established some years back and regards them as their own malls as well since they are both located less than 12 km from the Tsonga homeland of Gazankulu. Hotels and Resorts of Gazankulu[edit] Gazankulu
Gazankulu
is the number one Safari destination in South Africa, attracting more than 1.6 Million tourists per year in its beautiful safari land of Kruger National Park, this is home to South Africa's exclusive and luxurious game lodges. The number of tourists here exceed that of Table Mountain
Table Mountain
National Park, which is 1 million tourist per year. The top five tourists come from Germany, Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States and France, tourist from these countries make up 20% of all visitors, the rest are South African tourists, who make up 80%. Hotels and Resorts in Gazankulu
Gazankulu
includes; Protea Hotel Paul Kruger Gate in Skukuza, the New Skukuza
Skukuza
Safari Lodge Resorts (under construction) Ulusaba
Ulusaba
Private Game Reserve, Mala Mala private Game reserve, Singita Lebombo Private Game reserve, Londolozi Private Game reserve, Sabi Sand Lion Private Game reserve, Phinda private game reserve, Skukuza
Skukuza
rest camp, Satara restcamp and many more. Airport of Gazankulu[edit] Skukuza
Skukuza
Airport, located in Skukuza, is the only Airport within Gazankulu
Gazankulu
territory, it is a viable and a profitable airport that is served by both OR Tambo International Airport and Cape Town International Airport. Four Schedule Flights, operated by Airlink, enter Skukuza
Skukuza
every day, Skukuza
Skukuza
airport dates back from the 1960s but was closed down by the South African Government. It was reopened in 2013 by President Jacob Zuma's cabinet. However, before 1994, Skukuza fell outside the political boundaries of Gazankulu
Gazankulu
homeland and was part of the Republic of South Africa, but historically, that is Tsonga land. Restitution of land rights Act, 1994 has enabled the Tsonga people to reclaim the entire game reserve, totalling more than 100 000 hectares of lush beautiful land that runs parallel to the mighty Sabie River
River
for 50 km, from Hazyview
Hazyview
to Skukuza
Skukuza
rest camp. Industrial Zones of Gazankulu[edit] There were two major Industrial Zones in Gazankulu, which were Letaba in Tzaneen
Tzaneen
and Mkhuhlu in Hazyview. All Investments in the Homeland of Gazankulu
Gazankulu
were concentrated in these two towns, which were also Industrial Zones in the old Transvaal Province. Forced Removals and land reduction[edit] The land of the Tsonga people
Tsonga people
proper starts from Elim Hospital near Makhado / Louis Trichardt
Louis Trichardt
and ends in Skukuza
Skukuza
near Hazyview
Hazyview
in Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
Province. From the year 1899 until the 1960s, the land was cut off into small pieces by the Colonial Government
Government
until the Tsonga land was reduced to four territories. The cutting off of Tsonga land was in line with 1913 Land Act, where 13% of South African land was allocated to Homelands. Under the leadership of Professor H.W.E Ntsanwisi, Gazankulu
Gazankulu
has successfully resisted forced removal of Tsonga people
Tsonga people
in the following areas during the 1960s, Elim Shirley community, the central government has already finalised the plan to forcibly remove the Tsonga from Elim Shirley farms and to dump them at an arid place in around Malamulele. Professor H.W.E Ntsanwisi successfully challenged the government of the day against the forced removal of the Elim Shirley community, to this day, the Tsonga people
Tsonga people
at Elim Shirley still enjoy their land rights. Elim Hospital, which was also scheduled to be removed into a village in Malamulele, is today a living Tsonga monument within the Elim Shirley community. Valdezia
Valdezia
community, the only remaining Tsonga community in the heart of the Levubu
Levubu
river, was also threatened with forced removal during the 1960s, the central government has already finalised the removal of the entire community to an unknown location. With regards to Valdezia, Professor H.W.E Ntsanwisi has issued a warning and declaration of war against the central government, he told Pretoria
Pretoria
during the 1970s that "there will be bloodshed if the central government goes ahead and forcibly remove the people of Valdezia", the threat to forcibly remove the people of Valdezia
Valdezia
went on until 1984 when the South African government announced that " Valdezia
Valdezia
will no longer be removed as originally planned by the central government, rather it will be retained as a detached area of Gazankulu". For more than 18-years, Professor H.W.E Ntsanwisi successfully resisted the forced removal of the people of Valdezia, to this day, the community of Valdezia
Valdezia
still enjoy their land rights, which wouldn't be possible today should the central government had gone ahead with forced removal. Ribolla community of Mbhokota, Chavani, Bokisi, Riverplaats and some parts of Nwaxinyamani. As the name suggests, these communities are found on the western, southern and eastern parts of Mount Ribola, a prominent landmark mountain around Elim. Forced removals were a reality in this part of Gazankulu. These lands were collectively known as the "Tsonga finger" by the apartheid government and the Tsonga people were to be removed in their great numbers, this is a proud home of the Tsonga people
Tsonga people
in the Elim area. Professor H.W.E Ntsanwisi successfully claimed back the "Tsonga finger"after the central government failed to forcibly removed the tsonga people. After a successfully land claims by Professor H.W.E Ntsanwisi, the land became known as the "Tsonga finger" because on the South African map, it looks like a finger. However, after the central government's failure to remove all the Tsonga people
Tsonga people
from the "Tsonga finger", they did managed to remove one Tsonga chief from his land, Hosi Bokisi in 1968. In 2016, a descendant of the late chief Bokisi managed to get back all his grandfather's land that was taken, the old Bokisi has been claimed back and chief Bokisi has demarcated residential stands, next to chavani village, alongside the Elim road. Bungeni
Bungeni
community, the largest Tsonga settlement in the Levubu
Levubu
river valley and the most populous Tsonga settlement in the whole Elim area, was, alongside its neighbour, Valdezia
Valdezia
community, to be removed from the entire area completely and relocated into unknown location. Professor H.W.E Ntsanwisi successfully claimed back the entire Bungeni community against the central government's intention to forcibly remove them from the entire Levubu
Levubu
valley. To this day, the Bungeni community still enjoy their land rights, a right that wouldn't have been possible if they were removed. The Bungeni
Bungeni
community is still waiting for the transfer of the eastern part of Nwaxinyamani village back into its tribal authority, the piece of land was stolen during the 1960s when demarcation were done between Nkhensani tribal authority (people of Chavani village) and Bungeni
Bungeni
tribal authority (people of Bungeni). Lost chieftainship and their lands[edit] Hosi Mtsetweni During the 1960s, many Vatsonga chiefs lost their status as senior chiefs and have their lands greatly reduced when homelands were created and political boundaries demarcated. One of the most important chief in the Elim area to have his land and chieftainship taken away was Hosi Mtsetweni, a fully fledged senior chief with a vast land. After he was de-recognized by the government, he was given to Hosi Bungeni
Bungeni
as his headman, his land greatly reduced into a very small village called ka-Mtsetweni 3 km south of Levubu
Levubu
Agricultural plantation. Before he was de-recognized by the government in 1960, he had the same status as Hosi Bungeni, also in terms of land mass. After the 1994 democratic elections, the new government is still trying to solve this problem through its Katla commission. Hosi Bokisi Another important chief in the Elim area had his chieftainship interfered with, his land was reduced into a small village on a mountain slope just east of Elim. He was given to Hosi Chavani as his headman. Hosi Bokisi, just like Hosi Mtsetweni, is a fully fledged senior chief of the Bokisi community but was reduced to a status of a headman, his land greatly reduced to few hundred hectares. Hosinkulu Nhjakanhjaka This is a paramount chief of all Vatsonga in the whole Makhado area, his jurisdiction covers almost all areas where Tsonga people
Tsonga people
live in the Makhado area. However, his paramountancy as chief of all Vatsonga in the Makhado area was highly contested by João Albasini , who declared himself chief of all Vatsonga people in the Makhado area. The paramount chieftainship was lost in 1930 upon the death of Hosinkulu Nhjakanhjaka at waterval Shirley farm, after the death of the great Nhjakanhjaka, the whole village of Elim was run and managed by the Swiss Mission Church, known today as Evangelical Presbyterian Church in South Africa
South Africa
(EPCSA). The Swiss missionaries at Elim were responsible for the disappearance of Nhjakanhjaka paramount chieftainship since they are the ones that decided that Elim, as a 'Capital' site of the Swiss Mission Church in South Africa, should be run and managed by the Church, as a result, no new chief of the Nhjakanhjaka clan was appointed after 1930. The Swiss Mission Church in South Africa
South Africa
was later, during the 1960s, to play a positive role and to the benefit of the Nhjakanhjaka chieftainship since they actively opposed the forced removal of the Elim Shirley Community. Between 1930 up until 1995, the nhjakanhjaka chieftainship disappeared from the scene, it was only restored in 1995 by President Nelson Mandela. However, the status of nhjakanhjaka as a paramount chief was not restored, he was only recognized as a senior chief. However, during the 1960s, the apartheid government gave some form of recognition to the Nhjakanhjaka chieftainship, the incumbent was given a status of an independent headman without a chief, but a tribal office was not granted until 1995. The land of Hosinkulu Njhakanhjaka was greatly reduced to the village of Elim, Lemana, Shirley, Waterval, Magangeni, eka-Mabobo and Nhjakanhjaka. Hosi Malele The fate that befell hosi Malele and his Wayeni community during the 1960s was rather regrettable. His land was reduced into a small village and his seniority taken away, he was given to Hosi Bungeni
Bungeni
as his headman. Malele' land was big and he occupied the rolling hills south east of Elim known to the apartheid government as "Bellevue". Hosi Malele was an independent senior chief with a big land like hosi Bokisi. Today, he is trying to reassert his autonomy by refusing to participate in the Bungeni
Bungeni
tribal authority since originally he never reported nor fell under Hosi Bungeni. Gazankulu
Gazankulu
today[edit] Gazankulu, as a political entity, no longer exists, it is today part of Limpopo
Limpopo
and Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
provinces. In 1994, Gazankulu
Gazankulu
was sub-divided into different municipalities cross-cutting linguistic and cultural boundaries, a feature of a new democratic South Africa. The western district of former Hlanganani
Hlanganani
was allocated to Makhado Local Municipality (130 000 people), the southern part of Hlanganani
Hlanganani
was divided and allocated to Greater Letaba Local Municipality
Greater Letaba Local Municipality
(45 000 people), while the eastern part of Hlanganani
Hlanganani
was allocated to Greater Giyani
Giyani
Local Municipality (35 000 people). In total, Hlanganani district lost 80 000 people to both the Greater Giyani
Giyani
and Greater Letaba local Municipalities in 1994, while Makhado local municipality was the biggest beneficiary of the former Hlanganani
Hlanganani
district, it took more than 130 000 people from the former Hlanganani
Hlanganani
in 1994 when the district was broken-up. The Greater Giyani
Giyani
Local Municipality was merged with some parts of Bolobedu (Northern Sotho speaking), Malamulele
Malamulele
was merged with Thulamela Local Municipality
Thulamela Local Municipality
and Lulekani was merged with Namakgale
Namakgale
to form a new Municipality with Phalaborwa known as Ba- Phalaborwa
Phalaborwa
Local Municipality. Shiluvane, under Hosi Muhlaba and other Tsonga areas in Ritavi has been merged to form Greater Tzaneen
Tzaneen
Local Municipality. In Bushbuckridge, the whole area has been merged with Northern Sotho and the Swazi to form Bushbuckridge
Bushbuckridge
Local Municipality. East of Hazyview, Mkhuhlu and other areas around Hoxane have been merged with Tshabalala tribal authority (Swazi) to form Mbombela Local Municipality. So in 1994, Gazankulu
Gazankulu
has been divided into 8 large local municipalities, totalling 1.7 million Tsonga speakers, who mixed with the Swazi, the Venda
Venda
and the Northern Sotho to form diverse communities with others South Africans, an ideal that former President Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
fought for during his lifetime. The population of the former Gazankulu, according to the 2011 census, is spread out as follows; Limpopo
Limpopo
1.1 million or 17% of the province, Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
500 000 or 11.5% of the province and Gauteng
Gauteng
800 000 or 4% of the province. Total population is 2,3 million or 5% of South Africa's population. All the Tsonga people
Tsonga people
working and schooling in Gauteng
Gauteng
comes from Gazankulu, so the 800 000 Tsonga people
Tsonga people
in Gauteng have their homes in Gazankulu, it can therefore be assumed that when these Tsonga people
Tsonga people
return to Limpopo
Limpopo
and Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
during Easter and December holidays, the Tsonga population in both Limpopo
Limpopo
and Mpumalanga
Mpumalanga
rises sharply. Districts in 1991[edit] Districts of the homeland and population in the 1991 census.[2]

Mhala: 253,297 Ritavi: 143,702 Giyani: 212,226 Malamulele: 179,326 Lulekani: 38,770 Hlanganani: 127,450

Gazankulu
Gazankulu
lost kingdoms[edit] The Tsonga Kingdoms in the southern, central and northern Kruger National Park
National Park
are home to South Africa's big five game, before the creation of South Africa's biggest game reserve (Kruger National Park), the entire land, equivalent in size to the State of Israel, was controlled by the Tsonga people. These 'Tsonga lands' were taken from the control of the Tsonga people
Tsonga people
and annexed to colonial South Africa between 1890 and 1926. From Skukuza, Manyeleti in the southern Kruger, Klaserie, Timbavati
Timbavati
in the central Kruger and Makuleke
Makuleke
in the Pafuri triangle in the northern Kruger are all Tsonga lands taken during colonial times. All these areas are part of Gazankulu
Gazankulu
but were considered white areas during the apartheid years. Luxurious game reserve in the Tsonga land are Protea Hotel Kruger gate (5-Star), Ulusaba
Ulusaba
game reserve (5-Star), Singita game reserve (5-Star), Londolozi game reserve (5-star), Skukuza
Skukuza
rest camp (5-Star), Satara game reserve (5-star), Leopard Hill (5-star), Sabi Sand Game Reserve game reserve (5-Star) and many more. These game reserves were considered part of white South Africa, but historically, they are all Tsonga country. The above luxurious game reserves are world-class, tourist from all over the world visit them annually, Ulusaba
Ulusaba
and Skukuza
Skukuza
have the largest concentration of Africa's big five, they are both served by Skukuza
Skukuza
Airport. While game reserves such as Timbavati and Manyeleti in Central Kruger are served by Eastgate Airport in Hoedspruit. The Tsonga people, who used to control the whole park before colonization, are now active participants in Tourism, they are mainly employed in the game reserves, including the Protea Hotel Kruger gate in Hazyview. References[edit]

^ Sally Frankental; Owen Sichone (2005-01-01). South Africa's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-57607-674-3. Retrieved 2013-09-18.  ^ a b "Census > 1991 > RSA > Variable Description > Person file > District code". Statistics South Africa
South Africa
- Nesstar WebView. Retrieved 18 August 2013. 

v t e

Apartheid
Apartheid
Bantustans in South Africa
South Africa
and South West Africa

South Africa

Nominal independence

Bophuthatswana Ciskei Transkei Venda

Self-governance

Gazankulu KaNgwane KwaNdebele KwaZulu Lebowa QwaQwa

South West Africa

Self-governance

East Caprivi Hereroland Kavangoland Ovamboland

No self-governance

Bushmanland Damaraland Kaokoland Namaland Rehoboth Tswanaland

Leaders and Administrators

After Nominal Independence

Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana

Head of State:

Lucas Mangope (1968–94) Rocky Malebane-Metsing (Feb 1988)

Administrator:

Tjaart Van der Walt and Job Mokgoro (Mar–Apr 1994)

Bushmanland

No central government established

Ciskei
Ciskei

Head of State:

Lennox Sebe (1981–90) Oupa Gqozo (1990–94)

Administrator:

Pieter van Rensburg Goosen and Bongani Blessing Finca (Mar–Apr 1994)

Damaraland
Damaraland

Head of State:

Justus ǁGaroëb
Justus ǁGaroëb
(1980–89)

Kaokoland
Kaokoland

No central government established

Namaland
Namaland

Head of State:

Cornelius Cloete (1980–85) Daniel Luipert (1985–89)

Rehoboth

Head of State:

Johannes "Hans" Diergaardt (1979–89)

Transkei
Transkei

Head of State:

Botha Sigcau (1976–78) Zwelibanzi Maneli Mabandla (1978–79) Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima (1979–86) Tutor Nyangelizwe Vulindlela Ndamase (1986–94)

Administrator:

Bantu Holomisa (1987–94) (Head of Military Council)

Tswanaland

Head of State:

Constance Kgosiemang
Constance Kgosiemang
(1980–89)

Venda
Venda

Head of State:

Patrick Mphephu (1978–88) Frank N. Ravele (1988–90) Gabriel Ramushwana (1990–94) Tshamano G. Ramabulana (Jan–Apr 1994)

After Self-Governance

East Caprivi
East Caprivi

Chief Minister:

Josiah Moraliswane (Mar–Sept 1976) Richard Muhinda Mamili (1976–81)

Chairman:

Josiah Moraliswane (1981–84) H.J. Becker (Jul–Aug 1984) F.P.J. Visagie (1984–86) I.J. van der Merwe (Mar–Aug 1986) A.G. Visser
A.G. Visser
(1986–89)

Gazankulu
Gazankulu

Chief Minister:

Hudson William Edison Ntsanwisi (1973–93) Edward Mhinga (Mar-Apr 1993) Samuel Dickenson Nxumalo (1993–94)

Hereroland
Hereroland

Chairman:

Hosea Kutako (1968–70) Clemens Kapuuo (1970–78) Kuaima Riruako
Kuaima Riruako
(1978–80) Thimoteus Tjamuaha (1980–84) Erastus Tjejamba (1987–88) Gottlob Mbaukua (1984–89)

KaNgwane
KaNgwane

Chief Minister:

Enos John Mabuza (1970–81, 1984-91) Mangisi Cephas Zitha (1991–94)

Administrator:

N.J. Badenhorst (June-Dec 1982) Enos John Mabuza (1982–84)

Kavangoland
Kavangoland

Chief Minister:

Linus Shashipapo (1973–77) Alfons Shashipapo (1977–81) Sebastiaan Kamwanga (1981–89)

KwaNdebele
KwaNdebele

Chief Minister:

Simon Skosana (1981–86) Klaas Mtshiweni (Nov 1986) George Majozi Mahlangu (1986–89) Jonas Masana Mabena (1989–90) James Mahlangu (1990–94)

KwaZulu
KwaZulu

Chief Minister:

Mangosuthu Buthelezi
Mangosuthu Buthelezi
(1977–94)

Lebowa
Lebowa

Chief Minister:

Mokgama Maurice Matlala (1972–73) Cedric Namedi Phatudi (1973–87) Z.T. Seleka (Oct 1987) Mogoboya Nelson Ramodike (1987–94)

Ovamboland
Ovamboland

Chief Minister:

Filemon Elifas (1973–75) Cornelius Thuhageni Njoba (1975–81) Peter Kalangula (1981–89)

QwaQwa
QwaQwa

Chief Minister:

Wessel Motha (1974–75) Tsiame Kenneth Mopeli (1975–94)

v t e

Other South African Governments

Kingdoms Colonies Boer States Bantustans National

Kingdom of Mapungubwe
Kingdom of Mapungubwe
(c. 1075–c. 1220) Mthethwa Paramountcy
Mthethwa Paramountcy
(c. 1780–1817) Ndwandwe
Ndwandwe
Kingdom (c. 1780–1819) Zulu Kingdom
Zulu Kingdom
(1816–97)

Dutch Cape Colony
Colony
(1652–1806) Cape Colony
Colony
(1795–1910) Natal Colony
Colony
(1843–1910) Orange River
River
Colony
Colony
(1902–10) Transvaal Colony
Colony
(1902–10)

Natalia Republic
Natalia Republic
(1839–43) Orange Free State
Orange Free State
(1854–1902) Griqualand East
Griqualand East
(1861–79) Griqualand West
Griqualand West
(1870–73) Goshen (1882–83) Stellaland
Stellaland
(1882–85) Nieuwe Republiek
Nieuwe Republiek
(1884–88) Upingtonia
Upingtonia
(1885–87) Klein Vrystaat
Klein Vrystaat
(1886–91)

Gazankulu
Gazankulu
(1971–94) Lebowa
Lebowa
(1972–94) QwaQwa
QwaQwa
(1974–94) Transkei
Transkei
(1976–94) Bophuthatswana
Bophuthatswana
(1977–94) Venda
Venda
(1979–94) Ciskei
Ciskei
(1981–94) KaNgwane
KaNgwane
(1981–94) KwaNdebele
KwaNdebele
(1981–94) KwaZulu
KwaZulu
(1981–94)

Cape Qualified Franchise
Cape Qualified Franchise
(1853–1910) South African Republic
South African Republic
(1856–1902) Union of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–61) Republic of South Africa
Republic of South Africa
(1961–Present)

Current Government

Coordinates: 23°18′36″S 30°42′23″E / 23.3100°S 30.7064°E /

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