• Under the
Palestinian Authority according to the Oslo
• De facto Administrated by
Hamas since July 2007.
• Claimed by the State of Palestinea
and largest city
31°31′N 34°27′E / 31.517°N 34.450°E / 31.517; 34.450
∟ Palestinian bedouin
365 km2 (141 sq mi)
• End 2015 estimate
5,046/km2 (13,069.1/sq mi)
Israeli new shekelb (ILS)
(see also Palestinian currency)
Palestine Standard Time (UTC+2)
• Summer (DST)
Palestine Summer Time (UTC+3)
State of Palestine
State of Palestine is recognized by 137 members of the United
Used since 1986; as in Israel, replaced the old Israeli shekel
(1980–1985) and the
Israeli lira (1967–1980).
Gaza Strip (/ˈɡɑːzə/; Arabic: قطاع غزة Qiṭāʿ
Ġazzah [qɪˈtˤɑːʕ ˈɣazza]), or simply Gaza, is a
self-governing Palestinian territory on the
eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders
Egypt on the
southwest for 11 kilometers (6.8 mi) and
Israel on the east and
north along a 51 km (32 mi) border. Gaza, together with the
West Bank, constitute the
Palestinian territories claimed by the
Palestinians as the State of Palestine. The territories of Gaza and
West Bank are separated from each other by Israeli territory. Both
fall under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority, but Gaza
has since June 2007 been governed by Hamas, a Palestinian Islamic
organization which came to power in free elections in 2006. It has
been placed under an Israeli and U.S.-led international economic and
political boycott from that time onwards.
The territory is 41 kilometers (25 mi) long, and from 6 to 12
kilometers (3.7 to 7.5 mi) wide, with a total area of 365 square
kilometers (141 sq mi). With around 1.85 million
Palestinians on some 362 square kilometers, Gaza ranks as the 3rd
most densely populated polity in the world. An extensive
Israeli buffer zone within the Strip renders much land off-limits to
Gaza's Palestinians. Gaza has an annual population growth rate of
2.91% (2014 est.), the 13th highest in the world, and is often
referred to as overcrowded. The population is expected to
increase to 2.1 million in 2020. By that time, Gaza may be rendered
unliveable, if present trends continue. Due to the Israeli and
Egyptian border closures and the Israeli sea and air blockade, the
population is not free to leave or enter the Gaza Strip, nor allowed
to freely import or export goods.
Sunni Muslims make up the
predominant part of the Palestinian population in the Gaza Strip.
Despite the 2005 Israeli disengagement from Gaza, the United
Nations, international human rights organisations, and the majority of
governments and legal commentators consider the territory to be still
occupied by Israel, supported by additional restrictions placed on
Gaza by Egypt.
Israel maintains direct external control over Gaza and
indirect control over life within Gaza: it controls Gaza's air and
maritime space, and six of Gaza's seven land crossings. It reserves
the right to enter Gaza at will with its military and maintains a
no-go buffer zone within the Gaza territory. Gaza is dependent on
Israel for its water, electricity, telecommunications, and other
Hamas won the Palestinian legislative election, 2006, Palestinian
Fatah refused to join the proposed coalition, until a
short-lived unity government agreement was brokered by Saudi Arabia.
When this collapsed under joint Israeli and United States pressure,
Palestinian Authority instituted a non-
Hamas government in the
West Bank while
Hamas formed a government on its own in Gaza.
Further economic sanctions were imposed by
Israel and the European
Quartet against Hamas. A brief civil war between the two groups had
broken out in Gaza when, apparently under a U.S.-backed plan, Fatah
contested Hamas’s administration.
Hamas emerged the victor and
expelled Fatah-allied officials and members of the PA's security
apparatus from the Strip, and has remained the sole governing
power in Gaza since that date.
Gaza Strip, with Israeli-controlled borders and limited fishing zone
Gaza City skyline, 2007
Downtown Gaza, 2012
Gaza, August 2014 after Israeli bombardments
1.1 Rule over Gaza, overview
1.2 Prior to 1923
1.3 1923–48 British Mandate
1.4 1948 All-Palestine government
1.5 1959–67 Egyptian occupation
1.6 1967 Israeli occupation
1.7 1979 Israel–
Egypt Peace Treaty
1.8 1994: Gaza under Palestinian Authority
1.9 2000 Second Intifada
1.10 2005 Israel's unilateral disengagement
1.11 Post-2006 elections violence
1.13 2007 issues
1.13.2 Egyptian border barrier breach
1.14 2008 Gaza War
1.15 A 2014 unity government with Fatah
1.16 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict
1.16.1 Connections to Sinai insurgency
2.2 Other political and militant groups in Gaza
2.3 Deal with Fatah
3.1 Military occupation
3.2 Control over airspace
3.3 Buffer Zone
3.4 Gaza blockade
3.4.1 Movement of people
4.1 After Oslo (1994–2007)
Hamas takeover (2007–present)
4.2.1 2012 fuel crisis
4.2.2 Current budget
5 Geography and climate
6 Natural resources
8 Religion and culture
8.1 Religious compliance of population to Islam
8.1.1 Islamic law in Gaza
8.1.2 Islamic politics
10.2 Healthcare availability
11 Culture and sports
11.1 Fine arts
12 Transport and communications
12.1.2 Rail transport
12.1.3 Marine transport
12.1.4 Air transport
12.2.1 Telephone service
12.2.2 Television and radio
13 See also
14 Notes and references
16 External links
Further information: History of Gaza
Rule over Gaza, overview
Gaza was part of the Ottoman Empire, before it was occupied by the
United Kingdom (1918–1948),
Egypt (1948–1967), and then Israel,
which in 1994 granted the
Palestinian Authority in Gaza limited
self-governance through the Oslo Accords. Since 2007, the Gaza Strip
has been de facto governed by Hamas, which claims to represent the
Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority and the Palestinian people.
The territory is still considered to be occupied by
Israel by the
United Nations, International human rights organisations, and the
majority of governments and legal commentators, despite the 2005
Israeli disengagement from Gaza.
Israel maintains direct external
control over Gaza and indirect control over life within Gaza: it
controls Gaza's air and maritime space, and six of Gaza's seven land
crossings. It reserves the right to enter Gaza at will with its
military and maintains a no-go buffer zone within the Gaza territory.
Gaza is dependent on
Israel for its water, electricity,
telecommunications, and other utilities.
Gaza Strip acquired its current northern and eastern boundaries at
the cessation of fighting in the 1948 war, confirmed by the
Egypt Armistice Agreement on 24 February 1949. Article V
of the Agreement declared that the demarcation line was not to be an
international border. At first the
Gaza Strip was officially
administered by the All-Palestine Government, established by the Arab
League in September 1948. All-Palestine in the
Gaza Strip was managed
under the military authority of Egypt, functioning as a puppet state,
until it officially merged into the
United Arab Republic
United Arab Republic and dissolved
in 1959. From the time of the dissolution of the All-Palestine
Government until 1967, the
Gaza Strip was directly administered by an
Egyptian military governor.
Israel captured the
Gaza Strip from
Egypt in the
Six-Day War in 1967.
Pursuant to the
Oslo Accords signed in 1993, the Palestinian Authority
became the administrative body that governed Palestinian population
Israel maintained control of the airspace, territorial
waters and border crossings with the exception of the land border with
Egypt which is controlled by Egypt. In 2005,
Israel withdrew from the
Gaza Strip under their unilateral disengagement plan.
In July 2007, after winning the 2006 Palestinian legislative election,
Hamas became the elected government. In 2007,
the rival party
Fatah from Gaza. This broke the Unity Government
Gaza Strip and the West Bank, creating two separate
governments for the Occupied Palestinian Territories.
In 2014, following reconciliation talks,
Fatah formed a
Palestinian unity government within the
West Bank and Gaza. Rami
Hamdallah became the coalition's Prime Minister and has planned for
elections in Gaza and the West Bank. In July 2014, a set of lethal
Israel led to the 2014 Israel–Gaza
Following the takeover of Gaza by Hamas, the territory has been
subjected to a blockade, maintained by
Israel and Egypt, with
Israel arguing that it is necessary to impede
Hamas from rearming and
Palestinian rocket attacks
Palestinian rocket attacks and
Egypt preventing Gaza
residents from entering Egypt. The blockades by
Israel and Egypt
extends to drastic reductions in basic construction materials, medical
supplies, and food stuffs.[unreliable source?]
Under the blockade, Gaza is viewed by some critics as an "open-air
prison", although the claim is contested.
Prior to 1923
Further information: History of Gaza
1923–48 British Mandate
Gaza War Cemetery
The Palestine Mandate
The Palestine Mandate was based on the principles contained in Article
22 of the draft
Covenant of the League of Nations
Covenant of the League of Nations and the San Remo
Resolution of 25 April 1920 by the principal Allied and associated
powers after the First World War. The mandate formalized British
rule in the southern part of
Ottoman Syria from 1923–1948.
1948 All-Palestine government
On 22 September 1948, towards the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War,
All-Palestine Government was proclaimed in the Egyptian-occupied
Gaza City by the Arab League. It was conceived partly as an Arab
League attempt to limit the influence of Transjordan in Palestine. The
All-Palestine Government was quickly recognized by six of the then
seven members of the Arab League: Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi
Arabia, and Yemen, but not by Transjordan. It was not recognized
by any country outside the Arab League.
After the cessation of hostilities, the Israel-
Agreement of 24 February 1949 established the separation line between
Egyptian and Israeli forces, and established what became the present
boundary between the
Gaza Strip and Israel. Both sides declared that
the boundary was not an international border. The southern border with
Egypt continued to be the international border which had been drawn in
1906 between the
Ottoman Empire and the British Empire.
Palestinians living in the
Gaza Strip or
Egypt were issued
Egypt did not offer them citizenship. From
the end of 1949, they received aid directly from UNRWA. During the
Suez Crisis (1956), the
Gaza Strip and the
Sinai Peninsula were
occupied by Israeli troops, who withdrew under international pressure.
The government was accused of being little more than a façade for
Egyptian control, with negligible independent funding or influence. It
subsequently moved to
Cairo and dissolved in 1959 by decree of
Egyptian President Gamal Abdul Nasser.
1959–67 Egyptian occupation
Main article: Occupation of the
Gaza Strip by Egypt
Che Guevara visiting Gaza in 1959
After the dissolution of the
All-Palestine Government in 1959, under
the excuse of pan-Arabism,
Egypt continued to occupy the Gaza Strip
Egypt never annexed the Gaza Strip, but instead treated it
as a controlled territory and administered it through a military
governor. The influx of over 200,000 refugees from former
Mandatory Palestine, roughly a quarter of those who fled or were
expelled from their homes during, and in the aftermath of, the 1948
Arab–Israeli War into Gaza resulted in a dramatic decrease in
the standard of living. Because the Egyptian government restricted
movement to and from the Gaza Strip, its inhabitants could not look
elsewhere for gainful employment.
1967 Israeli occupation
In June 1967, during the Six-Day War,
Israel Defense Forces captured
the Gaza Strip.
According to Tom Segev, moving the
Palestinians out of the country had
been a persistent element of Zionist thinking from early times. In
December 1967, during a meeting at which the Security Cabinet
brainstormed about what to do with the Arab population of the newly
occupied territories, one of the suggestions Prime Minister Levi
Eshkol proffered regarding Gaza was that the people might leave if
Israel restricted their access to water supplies, stating: "Perhaps if
we don't give them enough water they won't have a choice, because the
orchards will yellow and wither."[undue weight? – discuss]A
number of measures, including financial incentives, were taken shortly
afterwards to begin to encourage Gazans to emigrate elsewhere,
Subsequent to this military victory,
Israel created the first
settlement bloc in the Strip, Gush Katif, in the southwest corner near
Rafah and the Egyptian border on a spot where a small kibbutz had
previously existed for 18 months between 1946–48. In total,
between 1967 and 2005,
Israel established 21 settlements in Gaza,
comprising 20% of the total territory.
The economic growth rate from 1967 to 1982 averaged roughly 9.7
percent per annum, due in good part to expanded income from work
opportunities inside Israel, which had a major utility for the latter
by supplying the country with a large reserve of unskilled and
semi-skilled manpower. Gaza's agricultural sector was adversely
affected as one-third of the Strip was appropriated by Israel,
competition for scarce water resources stiffened, and the lucrative
cultivation of citrus declined with the advent of Israeli policies,
such as prohibitions on planting new trees and taxation that gave
breaks to Israeli producers, factors which militated against growth.
Gaza's direct exports of these products to Western markets, as opposed
to Arab markets, was prohibited except through Israeli marketing
vehicles, in order to assist Israeli citrus exports to the same
markets. The overall result was that large numbers of farmers were
forced out of the agricultural sector.
Israel places quotas on all
goods exported from Gaza, while abolishing restrictions on the flow of
Israeli goods into the Strip.
Sara Roy characterised the pattern as
one of structural de-development 
Egypt Peace Treaty
On March 26, 1979,
Egypt signed the Israel-
Treaty. Among other things, the treaty provided for the withdrawal
Israel of its armed forces and civilians from the Sinai Peninsula,
Israel had captured during the Six-Day War. The Egyptians agreed
to keep the
Sinai Peninsula demilitarized. The final status of the
Gaza Strip, and other relations between
Israel and Palestinians, was
not dealt with in the treaty.
Egypt renounced all territorial claims
to territory north of the international border. The Gaza Strip
remained under Israeli military administration until 1994. During that
time, the military was responsible for the maintenance of civil
facilities and services.
Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty
Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty 1979, a 100-meter-wide
buffer zone between Gaza and
Egypt known as the
Philadelphi Route was
established. The international border along the Philadelphi corridor
Egypt and the
Gaza Strip is 7 miles (11 km) long.
1994: Gaza under Palestinian Authority
In September 1992, Israeli Prime Minister
Yitzhak Rabin told a
delegation from the
Washington Institute for Near East Policy
Washington Institute for Near East Policy "I would
like Gaza to sink into the sea, but that won't happen, and a solution
must be found."
In May 1994, following the Palestinian-Israeli agreements known as the
Oslo Accords, a phased transfer of governmental authority to the
Palestinians took place. Much of the Strip (except for the settlement
blocs and military areas) came under Palestinian control. The Israeli
Gaza City and other urban areas, leaving the new
Palestinian Authority to administer and police those areas. The
Palestinian Authority, led by Yasser Arafat, chose
Gaza City as its
first provincial headquarters. In September 1995,
Israel and the PLO
signed a second peace agreement, extending the Palestinian Authority
West Bank towns.
Between 1994 and 1996,
Israel built the
Israeli Gaza Strip barrier
Israeli Gaza Strip barrier to
improve security in Israel. The barrier was largely torn down by
Palestinians at the beginning of the
Al-Aqsa Intifada in September
View of Gaza in 2003.
2000 Second Intifada
Second Intifada broke out in September 2000 with waves of protest,
civil unrest and bombings against Israeli military and civilians, many
of them perpetrated by suicide bombers. The
Second Intifada also
marked the beginning of rocket attacks and bombings of Israeli border
localities by Palestinian guerrillas from Gaza Strip, especially by
Palestinian Islamic Jihad
Palestinian Islamic Jihad movements.
Between December 2000 and June 2001, the barrier between Gaza and
Israel was reconstructed. A barrier on the Gaza Strip-
Egypt border was
constructed starting in 2004. The main crossing points are the
Erez Crossing into
Israel and the southern
into Egypt. The eastern Karni Crossing used for cargo, closed down in
Israel controls the Gaza Strip's northern borders, as well
as its territorial waters and airspace.
Egypt controls Gaza Strip's
southern border, under an agreement between it and Israel. Neither
Egypt permits free travel from Gaza as both borders are
heavily militarily fortified. "
Egypt maintains a strict blockade on
Gaza in order to isolate
Hamas from Islamist insurgents in the
2005 Israel's unilateral disengagement
Main article: Israeli disengagement from Gaza
In February 2005, the
Knesset approved a unilateral disengagement plan
and began removing Israeli settlers from the
Gaza Strip in 2005. All
Israeli settlements in the
Gaza Strip and the joint
Israeli-Palestinian Erez Industrial Zone were dismantled, and 9,000
Israelis, most living in Gush Katif, were forcibly evicted.
On 12 September 2005, the Israeli cabinet formally declared an end to
Israeli military occupation of the Gaza Strip.
"The Oslo Agreements gave
Israel full control over Gaza's airspace,
but established that the
Palestinians could build an airport in the
area..." and the disengagement plan states that: "
Israel will hold
sole control of Gaza airspace and will continue to carry out military
activity in the waters of the Gaza Strip." "Therefore, Israel
continues to maintain exclusive control of Gaza's airspace and the
territorial waters, just as it has since it occupied the
Gaza Strip in
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch has advised the UN Human Rights Council
that it (and others) consider
Israel to be the occupying power of the
Gaza Strip because
Israel controls Gaza Strip's airspace, territorial
waters and controls the movement of people or goods in or out of Gaza
by air or sea. The EU considers Gaza to be occupied.
Israel also withdrew from the Philadelphi Route, a narrow strip of
land adjacent to the border with Egypt, after
Egypt agreed to secure
its side of the border. Under the Oslo Accords, the Philadelphi Route
was to remain under Israeli control to prevent the smuggling of
weapons and people across the Egyptian border, but
Egypt (under EU
supervision) committed itself to patrolling the area and preventing
such incidents. With the Agreement on Movement and Access, known as
Rafah Agreement in the same year
Israel ended its presence in the
Philadelphi Route and transferred responsibility for security
Egypt and the PA under the supervision of the EU.
Egyptian army has since destroyed some
Gaza Strip smuggling
tunnels "in order to fight any element of terrorism", according to an
Egyptian security official. The Gaza border crossing into Egypt
remains under the full control of Egypt.
Egypt has alternately
restricted or allowed goods and people to cross that terrestrial
Israel maintained control over the crossings in and out of
Gaza, and the
Rafah crossing between
Egypt and Gaza was monitored by
special surveillance cameras.
Israel Defense Forces left the
Gaza Strip on 1 September 2005 as
Israel's unilateral disengagement plan
Israel's unilateral disengagement plan and all Israeli
citizens were evicted from the area. In November 2005, an "Agreement
on Movement and Access" between
Israel and the Palestinian Authority
was brokered by then US Secretary of State
Condoleezza Rice to improve
Palestinian freedom of movement and economic activity in the Gaza
Strip. Under its terms, the
Rafah crossing with
Egypt was to be
reopened, with transits monitored by the Palestinian National
Authority and the European Union. Only people with Palestinian ID, or
foreign nationals, by exception, in certain categories, subject to
Israeli oversight, were permitted to cross in and out. All goods,
vehicles and trucks to and from
Egypt passed through the Kerem Shalom
Crossing, under full Israeli supervision. Goods were also
permitted transit at the
Karni crossing in the north.
After the Israeli withdrawal in 2005 the
Oslo Accords give the
Palestinian Authority administrative authority in the Gaza Strip. The
Border Crossing has been supervised by EU
Rafah under an agreement finalized in November 2005. The
Oslo Accord permits
Israel to control the airspace and sea space.
Post-2006 elections violence
Main article: Fatah–
In the Palestinian parliamentary elections held on 25 January 2006,
Hamas won a plurality of 42.9% of the total vote and 74 out of 132
total seats (56%). When
Hamas assumed power the next month,
Israel, the United States, the European Union,
Russia and the United
Nations demanded that
Hamas accept all previous agreements, recognize
Israel's right to exist, and renounce violence; when Hamas
refused, they cut off direct aid to the Palestinian Authority,
although some aid money was redirected to humanitarian organizations
not affiliated with the government. The resulting political
disorder and economic stagnation led to many
from the Gaza Strip.
In January 2007, fighting erupted between
Hamas and Fatah. The
deadliest clashes occurred in the northern Gaza Strip, where General
Muhammed Gharib, a senior commander of the Fatah-dominated Preventive
Security Force, died when a rocket hit his home.
On 30 January 2007, a truce was negotiated between
Hamas. However, after a few days, new fighting broke out. On 1
Hamas killed 6 people in an ambush on a Gaza convoy which
delivered equipment for Abbas' Palestinian Presidential Guard,
according to diplomats, meant to counter smuggling of more powerful
weapons into Gaza by
Hamas for its fast-growing "Executive Force".
According to Hamas, the deliveries to the Presidential Guard were
intended to instigate sedition (against Hamas), while withholding
money and assistance from the Palestinian people.
stormed a Hamas-affiliated university in the Gaza Strip. Officers from
Abbas' presidential guard battled
Hamas gunmen guarding the Hamas-led
In May 2007, new fighting broke out between the factions. Interior
Minister Hani Qawasmi, who had been considered a moderate civil
servant acceptable to both factions, resigned due to what he termed
harmful behavior by both sides.
Fighting spread in the Gaza Strip, with both factions attacking
vehicles and facilities of the other side. Following a breakdown in an
Israel launched an air strike which destroyed
a building used by Hamas. Ongoing violence prompted fear that it could
bring the end of the Fatah-
Hamas coalition government, and possibly
the end of the Palestinian authority.
Moussa Abu Marzouk
Moussa Abu Marzouk blamed the conflict between Hamas
Fatah on Israel, stating that the constant pressure of economic
sanctions resulted in the "real explosion." Associated Press
reporter Ibrahim Barzak wrote an eyewitness account stating: "Today I
have seen people shot before my eyes, I heard the screams of terrified
women and children in a burning building, and I argued with gunmen who
wanted to take over my home. I have seen a lot in my years as a
journalist in Gaza, but this is the worst it's been."
From 2006–2007 more than 600
Palestinians were killed in fighting
Hamas and Fatah. In the aftermath of the Gaza War, a
series of violent acts killed 54 Palestinians, while hundreds have
claimed they were tortured. 349
Palestinians were killed in
fighting between factions in 2007. 160
Palestinians killed each other
in June alone.
Main article: Fatah–
Hamas battle in Gaza
Al Deira Hotel
Al Deira Hotel on the Gaza coast, 2009
Following the victory of
Hamas in the 2006 Palestinian legislative
Fatah formed the Palestinian authority national
unity government headed by Ismail Haniya. Shortly after,
control of the
Gaza Strip in the course of the Battle of Gaza,
seizing government institutions and replacing
Fatah and other
government officials with its own. By 14 June,
controlled the Gaza Strip. Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas
responded by declaring a state of emergency, dissolving the unity
government and forming a new government without
PNA security forces in the
West Bank arrested a number of Hamas
In late June 2008, Egypt,
Saudi Arabia and
Jordan declared the West
Bank-based cabinet formed by Abbas as "the sole legitimate Palestinian
Egypt moved its embassy from Gaza to the West Bank.
Saudi Arabia and
Egypt supported reconciliation and a new unity
government and pressed Abbas to start talks with Hamas. Abbas had
always conditioned this on
Hamas returning control of the Gaza Strip
to the Palestinian Authority.
Hamas visited a number of countries,
including Russia, and the EU member states. Opposition parties and
politicians called for a dialogue with
Hamas as well as an end to the
After the takeover,
Egypt closed their border crossings
with Gaza. Palestinian sources reported that
European Union monitors
Border Crossing, on the Gaza–
Egypt border for fear of
being kidnapped or harmed. Arab foreign ministers and Palestinian
officials presented a united front against control of the border by
Meanwhile, Israeli and Egyptian security reports said that Hamas
continued smuggling in large quantities of explosives and arms from
Egypt through tunnels. Egyptian security forces uncovered 60 tunnels
After Hamas' June win, it ousted Fatah-linked officials from positions
of power and authority (such as government positions, security
services, universities, newspapers, etc.) and strove to enforce law by
progressively removing guns from the hands of peripheral militias,
clans, and criminal groups, and gaining control of supply tunnels.
According to Amnesty International, under
Hamas rule, newspapers were
closed down and journalists were harassed.
were forbidden or suppressed, as in the case of a large demonstration
on the anniversary of Yasser Arafat's death, which resulted in the
deaths of seven people, after protesters hurled stones at Hamas
Hamas and other militant groups continued to fire Qassam rockets
across the border into Israel. According to Israel, between the Hamas
takeover and the end of January 2008, 697 rockets and 822 mortar bombs
were fired at Israeli towns. In response,
Israel targeted Qassam
launchers and military targets and declared the
Gaza Strip a hostile
entity. In January 2008,
Israel curtailed travel from Gaza, the entry
of goods, and cut fuel supplies, resulting in power shortages. This
brought charges that
Israel was inflicting collective punishment on
the Gaza population, leading to international condemnation. Despite
multiple reports from within the Strip that food and other essentials
were in short supply,
Israel said that Gaza had enough food and
energy supplies for weeks.
The Israeli government uses economic means to pressure Hamas. Among
other things, it caused Israeli commercial enterprises like banks and
fuel companies to stop doing business with the Gaza Strip. The role of
private corporations in the relationship between
Israel and the Gaza
Strip is an issue that has not been extensively studied.
Due to continued rocket attacks including 50 in one day, in March
2008, air strikes and ground incursions by the IDF led to the deaths
of over 110
Palestinians and extensive damage to Jabalia.
Violence against Christians was recorded. The owner of a Christian
bookshop was abducted and murdered and, on 15 February 2008, the
Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) library in
Gaza City was
Watchtower on the border between
Rafah and Egypt.
Egyptian border barrier breach
On 23 January 2008, after months of preparation during which the steel
reinforcement of the border barrier was weakened,
several parts of the wall dividing Gaza and
Egypt in the town of
Rafah. Hundreds of thousands of Gazans crossed the border into Egypt
seeking food and supplies. Due to the crisis, Egyptian President Hosni
Mubarak ordered his troops to allow the
Palestinians in but to verify
that they did not bring weapons back across the border. Egypt
arrested and later released several armed
Hamas militants in the Sinai
who presumably wanted to infiltrate into Israel. At the same time,
Israel increased its state of alert along the length of the
Egypt Sinai border, and warned its citizens to leave Sinai
Border Monitors initially monitored the border because Hamas
guaranteed their safety, but they later fled. The Palestinian
Authority demanded that
Egypt deal only with the Authority in
negotiations relating to borders.
Israel eased restrictions on the
delivery of goods and medical supplies but curtailed electricity by 5%
in one of its ten lines. The
Rafah crossing remained closed into
In February 2008,
2008 Israel-Gaza conflict
2008 Israel-Gaza conflict intensified, with rockets
launched at Israeli cities. Aggression by
Hamas led to Israeli
military action on 1 March 2008, resulting in over 110 Palestinians
being killed according to BBC News, as well as 2 Israeli soldiers.
Israeli human rights group
B'Tselem estimated that 45 of those killed
were not involved in hostilities, and 15 were minors.
After a round of tit-for-tat arrests between
Hamas in the
Gaza Strip and West Bank, the
Hilles clan from Gaza were relocated to
Jericho on 4 August 2008. Retiring Prime Minister Ehud Olmert
said on 11 November 2008, "The question is not whether there will be a
confrontation, but when it will take place, under what circumstances,
and who will control these circumstances, who will dictate them, and
who will know to exploit the time from the beginning of the ceasefire
until the moment of confrontation in the best possible way.” On 14
Israel blockaded its border with Gaza after a
five-month ceasefire broke down. In 2013
Gaza’s lone power plant back to life for the first time in seven
weeks, bringing relief to the Palestinian coastal enclave where a lack
of cheap fuel has contributed to the overflow of raw sewage, 21-hour
blackouts and flooding after a ferocious winter storm. "Palestinian
officials said that a $10 million grant from
Qatar was covering the
cost of two weeks’ worth of industrial diesel that started entering
Gaza by truckload from Israel."
On 25 November 2008,
Israel closed its cargo crossing with Gaza after
Qassam rockets were fired into its territory. On 28 November,
after a 24-hour period of quiet, the IDF facilitated the transfer of
over thirty truckloads of food, basic supplies and medicine into Gaza
and transferred fuel to the area's main power plant.
2008 Gaza War
Main article: Gaza War (2008–09)
Buildings damaged during Operation "Cast Lead".
Monthly rocket and mortar hits in Israel, 2008.
Israelis killed by
Israel (blue) and Palestinians
killed by Israelis in Gaza (red)
On 27 December 2008, Israeli
F-16 fighters launched a series of
air strikes against targets in Gaza following the breakdown of a
temporary truce between
Israel and Hamas. Israeli defense sources
said that Defense Minister
Ehud Barak instructed the IDF to prepare
for the operation six months before it began, using long-term planning
Various sites that
Israel claimed were being used as weapons depots
were struck: police stations, schools, hospitals, UN warehouses,
Hamas government buildings and other buildings.
Israel said that the attack was a response to
Hamas rocket attacks on
southern Israel, which totaled over 3,000 in 2008, and which
intensified during the few weeks preceding the operation. Israel
advised people near military targets to leave before the attacks.
Palestinian medical staff claimed at least 434
killed, and at least 2,800 wounded, consisting of many civilians and
an unknown number of
Hamas members, in the first five days of Israeli
strikes on Gaza. The IDF denied that the majority of the dead were
Israel began a ground invasion of the
Gaza Strip on 3
Israel rebuffed many cease-fire calls but later
declared a cease fire although
Hamas vowed to fight on.
A total of 1,100–1,400
Palestinians (295–926 civilians) and
13 Israelis were killed in the 22-day war.
The conflict damaged or destroyed tens of thousands of homes, 15
of Gaza’s 27 hospitals and 43 of its 110 primary health care
facilities, 800 water wells, 186 greenhouses, and
nearly all of its 10,000 family farms; leaving 50,000
homeless, 400,000–500,000 without running water, one
million without electricity, and resulting in acute food
shortages. The people of Gaza still suffer from the loss of these
facilities and homes, especially since they have great challenges to
By February 2009, food availability returned to pre-war levels but a
shortage of fresh produce was forecast due to damage sustained by the
A 2014 unity government with Fatah
On 5 June 2014
Fatah signed a unity agreement with
2014 Israel–Gaza conflict
See also: 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict
Connections to Sinai insurgency
See also: Sinai Insurgency
Sinai Peninsula borders the
Gaza Strip and Israel. Its vast
and desolate terrain has transformed it into a hotbed of illicit and
militant activity. Although most of the area's inhabitants are
tribal Bedouins, there has been a recent increase in al-Qaeda inspired
global jihadi militant groups operating in the region. Out
of the approximately 15 main militant groups operating in the Sinai
desert, the most dominant and active militant groups have close
relations with the Gaza Strip.
According to Egyptian authorities, the Army of Islam, a U.S.
designated "terrorist organization" based in the Gaza Strip, is
responsible for training and supplying many militant organizations and
jihadist members in Sinai. Mohammed Dormosh, the Army of Islam's
leader, is known for his close relationships to the Hamas
leadership. Army of Islam smuggles members into the Gaza Strip
for training, then returns them to the
Sinai Peninsula to engage in
militant and jihadist activities.
Governance of the Gaza Strip
Governance of the Gaza Strip and
Hamas Government of
Damaged UN school and remmants of the Ministry of Interior in Gaza
City, December 2012
Hamas government of 2012 was the second Palestinian
Hamas-dominated government, ruling over the Gaza Strip, since the
split of the
Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority in 2007. It was announced
in early September 2012. The reshuffle of the previous government
was approved by Gaza-based
Hamas MPs from the Palestinian Legislative
Council (PLC) or parliament.
Other political and militant groups in Gaza
The Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine, also known as the Palestinian
Islamic Jihad (PIJ) is a Palestinian militant organization operating
West Bank and Gaza Strip. The group has been labelled as a
terrorist group by the United States, the European Union,
the United Kingdom, Japan, Canada, Australia and
Iran is a major financial supporter of the PIJ.
Islamic Jihad is the second largest militant Islamic group in Gaza
with 8,000 fighters present in the Gaza strip. In June 2013, the
Islamic Jihad broke ties with
Hamas leaders after
Hamas police fatally
shot the commander of Islamic Jihad's military wing.
Deal with Fatah
On September 25, 2014,
Hamas agreed to let the Palestinian Authority
resume control over the
Gaza Strip and its border crossings with Egypt
and Israel.
The international community regards all of the Palestinian territories
including Gaza as occupied.
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch has declared at
UN Human Rights Council
UN Human Rights Council that it views
Israel as a de facto
occupying power in the Gaza Strip, even though
Israel has no military
or other presence, because the
Oslo Accord authorizes
control the airspace and the territorial sea.
In his statement on the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict, Richard
United Nations Special Rapporteur
United Nations Special Rapporteur wrote that international
humanitarian law applied to
Israel "in regard to the obligations of an
Occupying Power and in the requirements of the laws of war."
Amnesty International, the World Health Organization, Oxfam, the
International Committee of the Red Cross, The United Nations, the
United Nations General Assembly, the UN Fact Finding Mission to Gaza,
international human rights organizations, US government websites, the
UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office, and a significant number of legal
commentators (Geoffrey Aronson, Meron Benvenisti, Claude Bruderlein,
Sari Bashi and Kenneth Mann, Shane Darcy and John Reynolds, Yoram
Dinstein, John Dugard, Marc S. Kaliser, Mustafa Mari, Iain Scobbie,
and Yuval Shany maintain that Israel's extensive direct external
control over Gaza, and indirect control over the lives of its internal
population mean that Gaza remained occupied.
Israel states that it does not exercise effective control or authority
over any land or institutions in the
Gaza Strip and thus the Gaza
Strip is no longer subject to the former military
occupation. Foreign Affairs Minister of
Israel Tzipi Livni
stated in January 2008: "
Israel got out of Gaza. It dismantled its
settlements there. No Israeli soldiers were left there after the
disengagement." In spite of Israel's withdrawal from Gaza in
Hamas Government in Gaza considers Gaza as occupied
Control over airspace
As agreed between
Israel and the
Palestinian Authority in the Oslo
Israel has exclusive control over the airspace. It can
interfere with radio and TV transmissions, and the Palestinian
Authority cannot engage in independent initiatives for operating a
seaport or airport. The Accords also permitted
construct an airport, which was duly built and opened in 1998. Israel
destroyed Gaza's only airport in 2001 and 2002, during the Second
The Israeli army makes use of drones, which can launch precise
missiles. They are equipped with high-resolution cameras and other
sensors. In addition, the missile fired from a drone has its own
cameras that allow the operator to observe the target from the moment
of firing. After a missile has been launched, the drone operator can
remotely divert it elsewhere. Drone operators can view objects on the
ground in detail during both day and night. Israeli drones
routinely patrol over Gaza.
Part of the territory is depopulated because of the imposition of
buffer zones on both the Israeli and Egyptian borders.
Israel imposed a 50-meter buffer zone in Gaza. In
2000, it was expanded to 150 meters. Following the 2005 Israeli
disengagement from Gaza, an undefined buffer zone was maintained,
including a no-fishing zone along the coast.
Israel expanded the buffer zone to 300
meters. In 2010, the UN estimated that 30 percent of the
arable land in Gaza had been lost to the buffer zone.
On 25 February 2013, pursuant to a November 2012 ceasefire, Israel
declared a buffer zone of 100 meters on land and 6 nautical miles
offshore. In the following month, the zone was changed to 300 meters
and 3 nautical miles. The 1994 Gaza
Jericho Agreement allows
20 nautical miles, and the 2002 Bertini Commitment allows
12 nautical miles.
In August 2015, the IDF confirmed a buffer zone of 300 meters for
residents and 100 meters for farmers, but without explaining how to
distinguish between the two. As of 2015[update], on a third of
Gaza's agricultural land, residents risk Israeli attacks. According to
PCHR, Israeli attacks take place up to approximately 1.5 km
(0.9 mi) from the border, making 17% of Gaza's total territory a
Israel says the buffer zone is needed to protect Israeli communities
just over the border from sniper fire and rocket attacks. In the 18
months until November 2010, one Thai farm worker in
Israel was killed
by a rocket fired from Gaza, and in 2010, according to IDF figures,
180 rockets and mortars had been fired into
Israel by militants. In 6
months, however, 11
Palestinians civilians, including four children,
had been killed by Israeli fire and at least 70 Palestinian civilians
were injured in the same period, including at least 49 who were
working collecting rubble and scrap metal.
A buffer zone was also created on the Egyptian side of the
Egypt border. In 2014, scores of homes in
Rafah were destroyed
for the buffer zone. According to Amnesty International, more
than 800 homes had been destroyed and more than 1,000 families
evicted. Palestinian President
Mahmoud Abbas agreed with the
destruction of smuggling tunnels by flooding them, and then punishing
the owners of the houses that contained entrances to the tunnels,
including demolishing their houses, arguing that the tunnels had
produced 1,800 millionaires, and were used for smuggling weapons,
drugs, cash, and equipment for forging documents.
Egypt maintain a blockade of the Gaza Strip, although
Israel allows in limited quantities of medical humanitarian aid. The
Red Cross claimed that the blockade harms the economy and causes a
shortage of basic medicines and equipment such as painkillers and
Israel claims the blockade is necessary to prevent the smuggling of
weapons into Gaza. For example, in 2014, a Panamanian-flagged ship
claiming to be carrying construction materials was boarded by the IDF
and was found to contain Syrian produced rockets. Israel
maintains that the blockade is legal and necessary to limit
Palestinian rocket attacks
Palestinian rocket attacks from the
Gaza Strip on its cities and to
Hamas from obtaining other weapons.
Director of the
Shin Bet (
Israel Security Agency)
Yuval Diskin did not
oppose easing trade restrictions, but said that smuggling tunnels in
Sinai and an open seaport in the
Gaza Strip endangered Israel's
security. According to Diskin,
Hamas and Islamic Jihad had smuggled in
over "5,000 rockets with ranges up to 40 km (25 mi)." Some
of the rockets could reach as far as the Tel Aviv Metropolitan
Israeli spokesman Mark Regev described Israel's actions as
"sanctions," not a blockade, but a Gazan legal consultant for UNRWA
called the blockade "an action outside of international law.”
In July 2010, British Prime Minister
David Cameron said, "humanitarian
goods and people must flow in both directions. Gaza cannot and must
not be allowed to remain a prison camp." In response, the
spokesman for the Israeli embassy in London said, "The people of Gaza
are the prisoners of the terrorist organization Hamas. The situation
in Gaza is the direct result of Hamas' rule and priorities."
Tent camp, April 2009, after Cast Lead.
Arab League accused
Israel of waging a financial war. The IDF
strictly controlled travel within the area of the crossing points
Israel and the Gaza Strip, and sealed its border with Gaza.
U.S. government travel guides warned tourists that the region was
Facing mounting international pressure,
Israel lessened the
restrictions starting in June 2010, when the
Rafah border crossing
Egypt to Gaza was partially opened by Egypt. Egypt’s foreign
ministry said that the crossing would remain open mainly for people,
but not for supplies.
Israel announced that it would allow the
passage of civilian goods but not weapons and items that could be used
for dual purposes. In December 2015,
Israel not to
allow Turkish aid to get through to the Gaza Strip. Benjamin
Netanyahu said that it is impossible to lift the siege on Gaza and
that the security of
Israel is the primary issue for him. He confirmed
Israel is the only country that currently sends supplies to the
In January and February 2011, the United Nations Office for the
Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) assessed measures taken
to ease the blockade and concluded that they were helpful but not
sufficient to improve the lives of the local inhabitants. UNOCHA
Israel to reduce restrictions on exports and the import of
construction materials, and to lift the general ban on movement
between Gaza and the
West Bank via Israel. After Egypt's
Hosni Mubarak resigned on 28 May 2011,
opened its border with the
Gaza Strip to students, medical patients,
and foreign passport holders. Following the 2013 Egyptian
coup d'état, Egypt's military has destroyed most of the 1,200 tunnels
which are used for smuggling food, weapons, and other goods to
Gaza. After the
August 2013 Rabaa Massacre
August 2013 Rabaa Massacre in Egypt, the border
crossing was closed 'indefinitely.'
Israel has alternately restricted or allowed goods and people to cross
the terrestrial border and handles vicariously the movement of goods
into and out of Gaza by air and sea.
Israel largely provides for
Gaza's water supply, electricity, and communications infrastructure.
While the import of food is restricted through the Gaza blockade, the
Israeli military destroys agricultural crops by spraying toxic
chemicals over the Gazan lands, using aircraft flying over the border
zone. According to the IDF, the spraying is intended "to prevent the
concealment of IED's [Improvised Explosive Devices], and to disrupt
and prevent the use of the area for destructive purposes."
Also Gaza's agricultural research and development station was
destroyed in 2014 and again in January 2016, while import of new
equipment is obstructed.
Movement of people
Because of the Israeli–Egyptian blockade, the population is not free
to leave or enter the Gaza Strip. Only in exceptional cases are people
allowed to pass through the
Erez Crossing or the
Crossing. In 2015, a Gazan woman was not allowed to
Jordan on her way to her own wedding. The
Israeli authorities found she did not meet the criteria for travel,
namely only in exceptional humanitarian cases.
Under the long-term blockade, the
Gaza Strip is often described as a
"prison-camp or open air prison for its collective denizens". The
comparison is done by observers, ranging from
Roger Cohen and Lawrence
Weschler to NGOs, such as B'tselem, and politicians and diplomats,
such as David Cameron, Noam Chomsky, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, David
Shoebridge and Sir John Holmes
In 2014 French President
François Hollande called for the
demilitarization of Gaza and a lifting of the blockade, saying "Gaza
must neither be an open prison nor a military base."
An anonymous Israeli analyst has called it "Israel's Alcatraz".
While Lauren Booth, Philip Slater, Giorgio Agamben
compare it to a "concentration camp". For Robert S. Wistrich, and
Philip Mendes, such analogies are designed to offend Jews, while
Philip Seib dismisses the comparison as absurd, and claims that it
arises from sources like Al Jazeera and statements by Arab
See also: Economy of Gaza City, Economy of the Palestinian
territories, and Blockade of the Gaza Strip
Sea-view from the
Al Deira Hotel
Al Deira Hotel on the Gaza coast
The economy of the
Gaza Strip is severely hampered by
Israel's almost total blockade, the high population density, limited
land access, strict internal and external security controls, the
effects of Israeli military operations, and restrictions on labor and
trade access across the border.
Per capita income (PPP) was estimated
at US$3,100 in 2009, a position of 164th in the world. Seventy
percent of the population is below the poverty line according to a
Gaza Strip industries are generally small family
businesses that produce textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and
The main agricultural products are olives, citrus, vegetables, Halal
beef, and dairy products. Primary exports are citrus and cut flowers,
while primary imports are food, consumer goods, and construction
materials. The main trade partners of the
Gaza Strip are
The EU described the Gaza economy as follows: "Since
control of Gaza in 2007 and following the closure imposed by Israel,
the situation in the Strip has been one of chronic need,
de-development and donor dependency, despite a temporary relaxation on
restrictions in movement of people and goods following a flotilla raid
in 2010. The closure has effectively cut off access for exports to
traditional markets in Israel, transfers to the
West Bank and has
severely restricted imports. Exports are now down to 2% of 2007
According to Sara Roy, one senior IDF officer told an UNWRA official
in 2015 that Israel's policy towards the
Gaza Strip consisted of: "No
development, no prosperity, no humanitarian crisis."
After Oslo (1994–2007)
Economic output in the
Gaza Strip declined by about one-third between
1992 and 1996. This downturn was attributed to Israeli closure
policies and, to a lesser extent, corruption and mismanagement by
Yasser Arafat. Economic development has been hindered by Israel
refusing to allow the operation of a sea harbour. A seaport was
planned to be built in Gaza with help from
France and The Netherlands,
but the project was bombed by
Israel in 2001.
Israel said that the
reason for bombing was that Israeli settlements were being shot at
from the construction site at the harbour. As a result, international
transports (both trade and aid) had to go through Israel, which was
hindered by the imposition of generalized border closures. These also
disrupted previously established labor and commodity market
Israel and the Strip. A serious negative social
effect of this downturn was the emergence of high unemployment.
For its energy, Gaza is largely dependent on
Israel either for import
of electricity or fuel for its sole power plant. The
Oslo Accords set
limits for the Palestinian production and importation of energy.
Pursuant to the Accords, the
Israel Electric Corporation exclusively
supplies the electricity (63% of the total consumption in 2013).
The amount of electricity has consistently been limited to 120
megawatts, which is the amount
Israel undertook to sell to Gaza
pursuant to the Oslo Accords.
Israel's use of comprehensive closures decreased over the next few
years. In 1998,
Israel implemented new policies to ease security
procedures and allow somewhat freer movement of Gazan goods and labor
into Israel. These changes led to three years of economic recovery in
the Gaza Strip, disrupted by the outbreak of the al-Aqsa Intifada in
the last quarter of 2000. Before the second Palestinian uprising in
September 2000, around 25,000 workers from the
Gaza Strip (about 2% of
the population) worked in
Israel on a daily basis.
Second Intifada led to a steep decline in the economy of Gaza,
which was heavily reliant upon external markets. Israel—which had
begun its occupation by helping Gazans to plant approximately 618,000
trees in 1968, and to improve seed selection—over the first 3-year
period of the second intifada, destroyed 10 percent of Gazan
agricultural land, and uprooted 226,000 trees. The population
became largely dependent on humanitarian assistance, primarily from UN
The al-Aqsa Intifada triggered tight IDF closures of the border with
Israel, as well as frequent curbs on traffic in Palestinian self-rule
areas, severely disrupting trade and labor movements. In 2001, and
even more so in early 2002, internal turmoil and Israeli military
measures led to widespread business closures and a sharp drop in GDP.
Civilian infrastructure, such as the Palestine airport, was destroyed
by Israel. Another major factor was a drop in income due to
reduction in the number of Gazans permitted entry to work in Israel.
After the Israeli withdrawal from Gaza, the flow of a limited number
of workers into
Israel resumed, although
Israel said it would reduce
or end such permits due to the victory of
Hamas in the 2006
The Israeli settlers of
Gush Katif built greenhouses and experimented
with new forms of agriculture. These greenhouses provided employment
for hundreds of Gazans. When
Israel withdrew from the
Gaza Strip in
the summer of 2005, more than 3,000 (about half) of the greenhouses
were purchased with $14 million raised by former
World Bank president
James Wolfensohn, and given to
Palestinians to jump-start their
economy. The rest were demolished by the departing settlers before
there were offered a compensation as an inducement to leave them
behind. The farming effort faltered due to limited water supply,
Palestinian looting, restrictions on exports, and corruption in the
Palestinian Authority. Many Palestinian companies repaired the
greenhouses damaged and looted by the
Palestinians after the Israeli
In 2005, after the Israeli withdrawal from the Gaza Strip, Gaza
businessmen envisaged a "magnificent future". $1.1 million was
invested in an upscale restaurant, Roots, and plans were made to turn
one of the Israeli settlements into a family resort.
Hamas takeover (2007–present)
European Union states: "Gaza has experienced continuous economic
decline since the imposition of a closure policy by
Israel in 2007.
This has had serious social and humanitarian consequences for many of
its 1.7 million inhabitants. The situation has deteriorated further in
recent months as a result of the geo-political changes which took
place in the region during the course of 2013, particularly in Egypt
and its closure of the majority of smuggling tunnels between
Gaza as well as increased restrictions at Rafah." Israel, the
United States, Canada, and the
European Union have frozen all funds to
the Palestinian government after the formation of a Hamas-controlled
government after its democratic victory in the 2006 Palestinian
legislative election. They view the group as a terrorist organization,
and have pressured
Hamas to recognize Israel, renounce violence, and
make good on past agreements. Prior to disengagement, 120,000
Palestinians from Gaza had been employed in
Israel or in joint
projects. After the Israeli withdrawal, the gross domestic product of
Gaza Strip declined. Jewish enterprises shut down, work
relationships were severed, and job opportunities in
Israel dried up.
After the 2006 elections, fighting broke out between
Fatah and Hamas,
Hamas won in the
Gaza Strip on 14 June 2007.
Israel imposed a
blockade, and the only goods permitted into the Strip through the land
crossings were goods of a humanitarian nature, and these were
permitted in limited quantities.
An easing of Israel's closure policy in 2010 resulted in an
improvement in some economic indicators, although exports were still
restricted. According to the
Israeli Defense Forces
Israeli Defense Forces and the
Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the economy of the Gaza
Strip improved in 2011, with a drop in unemployment and an increase in
GDP. New malls opened and local industry began to develop. This
economic upswing has led to the construction of hotels and a rise in
the import of cars. Wide-scale development has been made possible
by the unhindered movement of goods into Gaza through the Kerem Shalom
Crossing and tunnels between the
Gaza Strip and Egypt. The current
rate of trucks entering Gaza through Kerem Shalom is 250 trucks per
day. The increase in building activity has led to a shortage of
construction workers. To make up for the deficit, young people are
being sent to learn the trade in Turkey.
Mahmoud Zahar said that Gaza's economic
situation has improved and Gaza has become self-reliant "in several
aspects except petroleum and electricity" despite Israel's blockade.
Zahar said that Gaza's economic conditions are better than those in
the West Bank. In 2014, the EU's opinion was: "Today, Gaza is
facing a dangerous and pressing humanitarian and economic situation
with power outages across Gaza for up to 16 hours a day and, as a
consequence, the closure of sewage pumping operations, reduced access
to clean water; a reduction in medical supplies and equipment; the
cessation of imports of construction materials; rising unemployment,
rising prices and increased food insecurity. If left unaddressed, the
situation could have serious consequences for stability in Gaza, for
security more widely in the region as well as for the peace process
2012 fuel crisis
Usually, diesel for Gaza came from Israel, but in 2011, Hamas
started to buy cheaper fuel from Egypt, bringing it via a network of
underground tunnels, and refused to allow it from Israel.
In early 2012, due to internal economic disagreement between the
Palestinian Authority and the
Hamas Government in Gaza, decreased
Egypt and through tunnel smuggling, and Hamas's refusal
to ship fuel via Israel, the
Gaza Strip plunged into a fuel crisis,
bringing increasingly long electricity shut downs and disruption of
Egypt had attempted for a while to stop the use of
underground tunnels for delivery of Egyptian fuel purchased by
Palestinian authorities, and had severely reduced supply through the
tunnel network. As the crisis broke out,
Hamas sought to equip the
Rafah terminal between
Egypt and Gaza for fuel transfer, and refused
to accept fuel to be delivered via the Kerem Shalom crossing between
Israel and Gaza.
In mid-February 2012, as the crisis escalated,
Hamas rejected an
Egyptian proposal to bring in fuel via the Kerem Shalom Crossing
Israel and Gaza to reactivate Gaza's only power plant. Ahmed
Abu Al-Amreen of the Hamas-run Energy Authority refused it on the
grounds that the crossing is operated by
Israel and Hamas' fierce
opposition to the existence of Israel.
Egypt cannot ship diesel fuel
to Gaza directly through the
Rafah crossing point, because it is
limited to the movement of individuals.
In early March 2012, the head of Gaza's energy authority stated that
Egypt wanted to transfer energy via the Kerem Shalom Crossing, but he
personally refused it to go through the "Zionist entity" (Israel) and
Egypt transfer the fuel through the
although this crossing is not equipped to handle the half-million
liters needed each day.
In late March 2012,
Hamas began offering carpools for people to use
Hamas state vehicles to get to work. Many Gazans began to wonder how
these vehicles have fuel themselves, as diesel was completely
unavailable in Gaza, ambulances could no longer be used, but Hamas
government officials still had fuel for their own cars. Many Gazans
Hamas confiscated the fuel it needed from petrol stations
and used it exclusively for their own purposes.
Egypt agreed to provide 600,000 liters of fuel to Gaza daily, but it
had no way of delivering it that
Hamas would agree to.
Israel introduced a number of goods and vehicles into the
Gaza Strip via the Kerem Shalom Crossing, as well as the normal diesel
Israel also shipped 150,000 liters of diesel through
the crossing, which was paid for by the Red Cross.
In April 2012, the issue was resolved as certain amounts of fuel were
supplied with the involvement of the Red Cross, after the Palestinian
Hamas reached a deal. Fuel was finally transferred via
the Israeli Kerem Shalom Crossing, which
Hamas previously refused to
transfer fuel from.
Most of the
Gaza Strip administration funding comes from outside as an
aid, with large portion delivered by UN organizations directly to
education and food supply. Most of the Gaza GDP comes as foreign
humanitarian and direct economic support. Of those funds, the major
part is supported by the U.S. and the European Union. Portions of the
direct economic support have been provided by the Arab League, though
it largely has not provided funds according to schedule. Among other
alleged sources of Gaza administration budget is Iran.
A diplomatic source told Reuters that
Iran had funded
Hamas in the
past with up to $300 million per year, but the flow of money had not
been regular in 2011. "Payment has been in suspension since August,"
said the source.
In January 2012, some diplomatic sources said that
Turkey promised to
Gaza Strip administration with $300 million to
support its annual budget.
In April 2012, the
Hamas government in Gaza approved its budget for
2012, which was up 25 percent year-on-year over 2011 budget,
indicating that donors, including Iran, benefactors in the Islamic
world, and Palestinian expatriates, are still heavily funding the
movement. Chief of Gaza's parliament's budget committee Jamal
Nassar said the 2012 budget is $769 million, compared to $630 million
Geography and climate
Gaza Strip is located in the
Middle East (at 31°25′N
34°20′E / 31.417°N 34.333°E / 31.417; 34.333Coordinates:
31°25′N 34°20′E / 31.417°N 34.333°E / 31.417;
34.333). It has a 51 kilometers (32 mi) border with Israel, and
an 11 km (7 mi) border with Egypt, near the city of Rafah.
Khan Yunis is located 7 kilometers (4.3 mi) northeast of Rafah,
and several towns around
Deir el-Balah are located along the coast
between it and Gaza City.
Beit Lahia and
Beit Hanoun are located to
the north and northeast of Gaza City, respectively. The Gush Katif
bloc of Israeli settlements used to exist on the sand dunes adjacent
Rafah and Khan Yunis, along the southwestern edge of the 40
kilometers (25 mi) Mediterranean coastline. Al Deira beach is a
popular venue for surfers.
Gaza Strip has a hot semi-arid climate, with warm winters during
which practically all the annual rainfall occurs, and dry, hot
summers. Despite the dryness, humidity is high throughout the year.
Annual rainfall is higher than in any other part of
Egypt at around
300 to 400 millimetres (12 to 16 in), but almost all of this
falls between November and February. The terrain is flat or rolling,
with dunes near the coast. The highest point is Abu 'Awdah (Joz Abu
'Auda), at 105 meters (344 ft) above sea level. Environmental
problems include desertification; salination of fresh water; sewage
treatment; water-borne diseases; soil degradation; and depletion and
contamination of underground water resources.
Natural resources of Gaza include arable land—about a third of the
strip is irrigated. Recently, natural gas was discovered. The Gaza
Strip is largely dependent on water from Wadi Gaza, which also
Natural gas in the Gaza Strip
Gaza's marine gas reserves extend 32 kilometres from the Gaza Strip's
coastline and were calculated at 35 BCM.
Main article: Demographics of the Palestinian territories
Schoolgirls in Gaza lining up for class, 2009
In 2010 approximately 1.6 million
Palestinians lived in the Gaza
Strip, almost 1.0 million of them UN-registered refugees.
The majority of the
Palestinians descend from refugees who were driven
from or left their homes during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The Strip's
population has continued to increase since that time, one of the main
reasons being a total fertility rate of 4.24 children per woman (2014
est). In a ranking by total fertility rate, this places Gaza 34th of
224 regions. According to the UN, unless remedial steps are taken
to repair the basic infrastructure by 2020, with a further demographic
increase of 500,000 and intensified housing problems, the Gaza Strip
will become effectively uninhabitable.
Sunni Muslims make up the
predominant part of the Palestinian population in the Gaza Strip.
Most of the inhabitants are Sunni Muslims, with an estimated 2,000 to
3,000 Arab Christians, making the region 99.8 percent Sunni
Muslim and 0.2 percent Christian.
Religion and culture
Gaza Strip Religions (2012 est.)
Religious compliance of population to Islam
Main article: Islamization of the Gaza Strip
Islamic law in Gaza
From 1987 to 1991, during the First Intifada,
Hamas campaigned for the
wearing of the hijab head-cover and for other measures (such as the
promotion of polygamy, segregating women from men and insisting they
stay at home). In the course of this campaign, women
who chose not to wear the hijab were verbally and physically harassed
Hamas activists, leading to hijabs being worn "just to avoid
problems on the streets".
In October 2000, Islamic extremists burned down the Windmill Hotel,
owned by Basil Eleiwa, when they learned it had served alcohol.
Hamas took over in 2007, attempts have been made by Islamist
activists to impose "Islamic dress" and to require women to wear the
hijab. The government's "Islamic Endowment Ministry" has
deployed Virtue Committee members to warn citizens of the dangers of
immodest dress, card playing and dating. However, there are no
government laws imposing dress and other moral standards, and the
Hamas education ministry reversed one effort to impose Islamic dress
on students. There has also been successful resistance[by whom?]
to attempts by local
Hamas officials to impose
Islamic dress on
According to Human Rights Watch, the Hamas-controlled government
stepped up its efforts to "Islamize" Gaza in 2010, efforts it says
included the "repression of civil society" and "severe violations of
Palestinian researcher Khaled Al-Hroub has criticized what he called
the "Taliban-like steps"
Hamas has taken: "The Islamization that has
been forced upon the Gaza Strip—the suppression of social, cultural,
and press freedoms that do not suit Hamas's view[s]—is an egregious
deed that must be opposed. It is the reenactment, under a religious
guise, of the experience of [other] totalitarian regimes and
Hamas officials denied having any plans to impose
Islamic law. One legislator stated that "[w]hat you are seeing are
incidents, not policy" and that "we believe in persuasion".
In October 2012 Gaza youth complained that security officers had
obstructed their freedom to wear saggy pants and to have haircuts of
their own choosing, and that they faced being arrested. Youth in Gaza
are also arrested by security officers for wearing shorts and for
showing their legs, which have been described by youth as embarrassing
incidents, and one youth explained that "My saggy pants did not harm
anyone." However, a spokesman for Gaza's Ministry of Interior denied
such a campaign, and denied interfering in the lives of Gaza citizens,
but explained that "maintaining the morals and values of the
Palestinian society is highly required".
Muslim worshippers in Gaza
Iran was the largest state supporter of Hamas, and the Muslim
Brotherhood also gave support, but these political relationships have
recently been disrupted following the
Arab Spring by Iranian support
for and the position of
Hamas has declined as support diminishes.
In addition to Hamas, a
Salafist movement began to appear about 2005
in Gaza, characterized by "a strict lifestyle based on that of the
earliest followers of Islam". As of 2015[update], there are
estimated to be only "hundreds or perhaps a few thousand" Salafists in
Gaza. However, the failure of
Hamas to lift the Israeli blockade
of Gaza despite thousands of casualties and much destruction during
2008-9 and 2014 wars has weakened Hamas's support and led some in
Hamas to be concerned about the possibility of defections to the
Salafist "Islamic State".
The movement has clashed with
Hamas on a number of occasions. In 2009,
Salafist leader, Abdul Latif Moussa, declared an Islamic emirate in
the town of Rafah, on Gaza's southern border. Moussa and 19 other
people were killed when
Hamas forces stormed his mosque and house. In
2011, Salafists abducted and murdered a pro-Palestinian Italian
activist, Vittorio Arrigoni. Following this
Hamas again took action to
Gaza Museum of Archaeology was established by Jawdat N. Khoudary
University College of Applied Sciences, the largest college in Gaza
In 2010, illiteracy among Gazan youth was less than 1%. In 2012, there
were five universities in the
Gaza Strip and eight new schools are
under construction. According to
UNRWA figures, there are 640
schools in Gaza: 383 government schools, 221
UNRWA schools and 36
private schools, serving a total of 441,452 students.
In 2010, Al Zahara, a private school in central Gaza introduced a
special program for mental development based on math computations. The
program was created in
Malaysia in 1993, according to the school
principal, Majed al-Bari.
The Community College of Applied Science and Technology (CCAST) was
established in 1998 in Gaza City. In 2003, the college moved into its
new campus and established the Gaza Polytechnic Institute (GPI) in
2006 in southern Gaza. In 2007, the college received accreditation to
award BA degrees as the
University College of Applied Sciences
University College of Applied Sciences (UCAS).
In 2010, the college had a student population of 6,000 in eight
departments offering over 40 majors.
In June 2011, some Gazans, upset that
UNRWA did not rebuild their
homes that were lost in the Second Intifada, blocked
performing its services and shut down UNRWA's summer camps. Gaza
residents also closed UNRWA's emergency department, social services
office and ration stores.
Islamic University of Gaza
In Gaza, there are hospitals and additional healthcare facilities.
Because of the high number of young people the mortality rate is one
of the lowest in the world, at 0.315% per year. The infant
mortality rate is ranked 105th highest out of 224 countries and
territories, at 16.55 deaths per 1,000 births. The Gaza Strip
places 24th out of 135 countries according to Human Poverty Index.
A study carried out by
Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University (U.S.) and Al-Quds
University (in Abu Dis) for CARE International in late 2002 revealed
very high levels of dietary deficiency among the Palestinian
population. The study found that 17.5% of children aged 6–59 months
suffered from chronic malnutrition. 53% of women of reproductive age
and 44% of children were found to be anemic. Insecurity in obtaining
sufficient food as of 2016 affects roughly 70% of Gaza households, as
the number of people requiring assistance from UN agencies has risen
from 72,000 in 2000, to 800,000 in 2014
Hamas takeover of the
Gaza Strip health conditions in Gaza
Strip faced new challenges.
World Health Organization
World Health Organization (WHO) expressed
its concerns about the consequences of the Palestinian internal
political fragmentation; the socioeconomic decline; military actions;
and the physical, psychological and economic isolation on the health
of the population in Gaza. In a 2012 study of the occupied
territories, the WHO reported that roughly 50% of the young children
and infants under two years old and 39.1% of pregnant women receiving
antenatal services care in Gaza suffer from iron-deficiency anemia.
The organization also observed chronic malnutrition in children under
five "is not improving and may be deteriorating."
Dr. Mohammed Abu Shaban, director of the Blood Tumors Department in
Al-Rantisy Hospital in Gaza witnessed an increase in blood cancer. In
March 2010 the department had seen 55 cases that year, compared to 20
to 25 cases normally seen in an entire year.[dubious –
discuss]According to the United Nations Development Programme, the
average life expectancy in the
Gaza Strip is 72.
See also: Khalida Jarrar § Israeli denial of medical treatment
According to Palestinian leaders in the Gaza Strip, the majority of
medical aid delivered are "past their expiration date." Mounir
el-Barash, the director of donations in Gaza's health department,
claims 30% of aid sent to Gaza is used.
Gazans who desire medical care in Israeli hospitals must apply for a
medical visa permit. In 2007, State of
Israel granted 7,176 permits
and denied 1,627.
In 2012, two hospitals funded by
Saudi Arabia were under
Culture and sports
Gaza amusement park.
Gaza Strip has been home to a significant branch of the
contemporary Palestinian art movement since the mid 20th century.
Notable artists include painters Ismail Ashour, Shafiq Redwan, Bashir
Senwar, Majed Shalla, Fayez Sersawi, Abdul Rahman al Muzayan and
Ismail Shammout, and media artists Taysir Batniji (who lives in
France) and Laila al Shawa (who lives in London). An emerging
generation of artists is also active in nonprofit art organizations
such as Windows From Gaza and Eltiqa Group, which regularly host
exhibitions and events open to the public.
In 2010, Gaza inaugurated its first
Olympic-size swimming pool
Olympic-size swimming pool at the
As-Sadaka club. The opening ceremony was held by the Islamic
Society. The swimming team of as-Sadaka holds several gold and
silver medals from Palestinian swimming competitions.
Transport and communications
Damaged part of Gaza airport, May 2002
Oslo Accords ceded control of the airspace and territorial waters
to Israel. Any external travel from Gaza requires cooperation from
Egypt or Israel.
Salah al-Din Road
Salah al-Din Road (also known as the Salah ad-Deen Highway) is the
main highway of the
Gaza Strip and extends over 45 km
(28 mi), spanning the entire length of the territory from the
Rafah Crossing in the south to the
Erez Crossing in the north.
The road is named after the 12th-century Ayyubid general Salah
Former railway: see Palestine Railways#Railway in the Gaza Strip
Port of Gaza
Port of Gaza has been an important and active port since
antiquity. Despite plans under the Oslo Peace Accords to expand the
port, it has been under a blockade since
Hamas was elected as a
majority party in the 2006 elections. Both the Israeli Navy and Egypt
enforce the blockade, which continues currently and has limited many
aspects of life in Gaza, especially, according to Human Rights Watch,
the movement of people and commerce, with exports being most affected.
The improvement and rebuilding of infrastructure is also negatively
impacted by these sanctions. Plans to expand the port were halted
after the outbreak of the al-Aqsa Intifada.
Yasser Arafat International Airport opened on 24 November 1998
after the signing of the
Oslo II Accord
Oslo II Accord and the Wye River Memorandum.
It was closed by
Israel in October 2000. Its radar station and control
tower were destroyed by
Israel Defense Forces aircraft in 2001 during
the al-Aqsa Intifada, and bulldozers razed the runway in January
2002. The only remaining runway in the strip, at the Gush
Katif Airport, fell into disuse following Israeli disengagement. The
airspace over Gaza may be restricted by the
Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force as the
Oslo Accords authorized.
Gaza Strip has rudimentary land line telephone service provided by
an open-wire system, as well as extensive mobile telephone services
provided by PalTel (Jawwal) and Israeli providers such as Cellcom.
Gaza is serviced by four internet service providers that now compete
ADSL and dial-up customers.
Television and radio
Most Gaza households have a radio and a TV (70%+), and approximately
20% have a personal computer. People living in Gaza have access to FTA
satellite programs, broadcast TV from the Palestinian Broadcasting
Israel Broadcasting Authority, and the Second Israeli
Enclave and exclave
Gaza Security Force
Governance of the Gaza Strip
Human rights in the Palestinian territories
International recognition of the State of Palestine
Military equipment of Israel
Palestinian Declaration of Independence
Palestinian National Security Forces
Southern District (Israel)
Notes and references
^ Mideast accord: the overview; Rabin and Arafat sign accord ending
Israel's 27-year hold on
Jericho and the Gaza Strip. Chris Hedges, New
York Times, 5 May 1994.
^ a b c d The Gaza Strip: The Humanitarian Impact of the Blockade
Archived 17 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. UN OCHA, July 2015.
Palestinians in Gaza are ‘locked in’, denied free
access to the remainder of the occupied Palestinian territory and the
outside world." Available at Fact Sheets.
^ a b Table 3: Projected Population in the
State of Palestine
State of Palestine by
Governorate, End Year 2015. PCBS,
Palestinians at the End of 2015, p.
^ The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X
– p.761 "
Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the
control of the
Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE
Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...".
^ "WORKING IN THE GAZA STRIP". UNRWA. Retrieved 8 February 2016. The
Gaza Strip is a coastal strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea,
Egypt at the south-west and
Israel to the north and
^ James Kraska, 'Rule Selection in the Case of Israel's Blockade of
Gaza:Law of Naval Warfare or Law of Sea?,' in M.N. Schmitt, Louise
Arimatsu, Tim McCormack (eds.,) Yearbook of International Humanitarian
Law, Springer Science & Business Media, 2011 pp.367–395,
p.387:'There are no Israeli troops in Gaza, which everybody regards as
a self-governing enclave cut from the Middle East.'
^ "Life in the Gaza Strip". BBC News. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 8
^ "Gaza: The Basics". Slate. 25 January 2008. Retrieved 8 February
^ "What's The Difference Between The
West Bank and The Gaza Strip?".
International Business Times. 18 June 2014. Retrieved 8 February
^ "Environmental Assessment of the Gaza Strip" (PDF). United Nations
Environment Programme. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on
2010-06-28. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
^ "Everything You Need to Know About the Israel-Gaza Conflict". ABC
News. 31 July 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
^ Joshua Castellino, Kathleen A. Cavanaugh, Minority Rights in the
Middle East, Oxford University Press 2013 p.150:'
occupation in the
West Bank and Gaza constitute a majority
(demographically) with representation by the Palestinian National
Authority (PNA), a self-governing body run by
Fatah in the West Bank,
Hamas in the Gaza Strip'.
^ Tristan Dunning, Hamas, Jihad and Popular Legitimacy: Reinterpreting
Resistance in Palestine, Routledge, 2016 p.212:'Since taking sole
control of Gaza in June 2007,
Hamas has proven itself to be a
remarkably resilient and resourceful government entity. The movement
has clearly entrenched itself as the hegemonic power in the coastal
enclave to such an extent that the International Crisis Group contends
that the power struggle in Gaza is no longer between
Hamas and Fatah.
Rather the main source of confrontation is between
Hamas and other
more hardline Islamists and salafists. . .
Hamas has been far more
successful in an administrative sense than the Palestinian Authority
in the West Bank, despite having access to only a fraction of the
^ Sara Roy,
Hamas and Civil Society in Gaza: Engaging the Islamist
Social Sector, Princeton University Press, 2013 p.41:'Hamas's
democratic victory, however, was short-lived . .followed as it was in
June 2006 by an Israeli and U.S.-led international political and
economic boycott of the new Palestinian government. The boycott
amounted to a form of collective punishment against the entire
Palestinian population and, to my knowledge, was the first time in the
history of the conflict that the international community imposed
sanctions on the occupied rather than the occupier.'
^ Arnon, Arie (Autumn 2007). "Israeli Policy towards the Occupied
Palestinian Territories: The Economic Dimension, 1967–2007" (PDF).
Middle East Journal. 61 (4): 575. Archived from the original (PDF) on
^ a b
Gaza Strip Entry at the CIA World Factbook
^ Thomas E. Copeland, Drawing a Line in the Sea: The Gaza Flotilla
Incident and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Lexington Books, 2011
^ Doug Suisman, Steven Simon, Glenn Robinson, C. Ross Anthony, Michael
Schoenbaum (eds.) The Arc: A Formal Structure for a Palestinian State,
Rand Corporation, 2007 p.79
^ Hilmi S.Salem, 'Social, Environmental and Security Impacts of
Climate Change on the Eastern Mediterranean,' in Hans Günter Brauch,
Úrsula Oswald Spring, Czeslaw Mesjasz, John Grin, Patricia
Kameri-Mbote, Béchir Chourou, Pál Dunay, Joern Birkmann (eds.),
Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security:
Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks, Springer Science &
Business Media, 2011 pp.421–445 p.431.
^ The Palestinians: In Search of a Just Peace – Page 52, Cheryl
Rubenberg – 2003
^ a b Report on UNCTAD assistance to the Palestinian people:
Developments in the economy of the Occupied Palestinian Territory,
para 20. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 6 July
2015 (doc.nr. TD/B/62/3). Source.
para 40: "The study stressed that Gaza's population would increase
from 1.6 million in 2011 to 2.1 million in 2020, and concluded that
for Gaza to be a liveable place in 2020 "herculean efforts" needed to
be accelerated in such sectors as health, education, energy, water and
sanitation (United Nations, 2012). However, instead of such efforts,
the tragedy in Gaza has deteriorated and its de-development was
accelerated by destruction in 2014." para 43: "The social, health and
security-related ramifications of the high population density and
overcrowding are among the factors that may render Gaza unliveable by
2020, if present trends continue"
^ a b c d Sanger, Andrew (2011). M.N. Schmitt, Louise Arimatsu, Tim
McCormack, eds. "The Contemporary Law of Blockade and the Gaza Freedom
Flotilla". Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law 2010. Springer
Science & Business Media. 13: 429.
doi:10.1007/978-90-6704-811-8_14. ISBN 978-90-6704-811-8. Israel
claims it no longer occupies the Gaza Strip, maintaining that it is
neither a Stale nor a territory occupied or controlled by Israel, but
rather it has 'sui generis' status. Pursuant to the Disengagement
Israel dismantled all military institutions and settlements in
Gaza and there is no longer a permanent Israeli military or civilian
presence in the territory. However the Plan also provided that Israel
will guard and monitor the external land perimeter of the Gaza Strip,
will continue to maintain exclusive authority in Gaza air space, and
will continue to exercise security activity in the sea off the coast
Gaza Strip as well as maintaining an Israeli military presence
on the Egyptian-Gaza border. and reserving the right to reenter Gaza
Israel continues to control six of Gaza's seven land crossings, its
maritime borders and airspace and the movement of goods and persons in
and out of the territory.
Egypt controls one of Gaza's land crossings.
Troops from the Israeli Defence Force regularly enter pans of the
territory and/or deploy missile attacks, drones and sonic bombs into
Israel has declared a no-go buffer zone that stretches deep into
Gaza: if Gazans enter this zone they are shot on sight. Gaza is also
Israel for water, electricity, telecommunications and
other utilities, currency, issuing IDs, and permits to enter and leave
Israel also has sole control of the Palestinian
Population Registry through which the Israeli Army regulates who is
classified as a Palestinian and who is a Gazan or West Banker. Since
2000 aside from a limited number of exceptions
Israel has refused to
add people to the Palestinian Population Registry.
It is this direct external control over Gaza and indirect control over
life within Gaza that has led the United Nations, the UN General
Assembly, the UN Fact Finding Mission to Gaza, International human
rights organisations, US Government websites, the UK Foreign and
Commonwealth Office and a significant number of legal commentators, to
reject the argument that Gaza is no longer occupied. CS1 maint:
Uses editors parameter (link)
* Scobbie, Iain (2012). Elizabeth Wilmshurst, ed. International Law
and the Classification of Conflicts. Oxford University Press.
p. 295. ISBN 978-0-19-965775-9. Even after the accession to
power of Hamas, Israel's claim that it no longer occupies Gaza has not
been accepted by UN bodies, most States, nor the majority of academic
commentators because of its exclusive control of its border with Gaza
and crossing points including the effective control it exerted over
Rafah crossing until at least May 2011, its control of Gaza's
maritime zones and airspace which constitute what Aronson terms the
'security envelope' around Gaza, as well as its ability to intervene
forcibly at will in Gaza.
* Gawerc, Michelle (2012). Prefiguring Peace: Israeli-Palestinian
Peacebuilding Partnerships. Lexington Books. p. 44.
ISBN 9780739166109. While
Israel withdrew from the immediate
territory, it remained in control of all access to and from Gaza
through the border crossings, as well as through the coastline and the
airspace. In addition, Gaza was dependent upon
Israel for water,
electricity sewage communication networks and for its trade (Gisha
2007. Dowty 2008). ln other words, while
Israel maintained that its
occupation of Gaza ended with its unilateral disengagement
Palestinians – as well as many human right organizations and
international bodies – argued that Gaza was by all intents and
purposes still occupied.
^ a b Dennis J. Deeb II, Israel, Palestine, & the Quest for Middle
East Peace, University Press of America, 2013.
^ David Rose, 'The Gaza Bombshell,' Vanity Fair April,2008.'The plan
was for forces led by Dahlan, and armed with new weapons supplied at
America’s behest, to give
Fatah the muscle it needed to remove the
democratically elected Hamas-led government from power. . But the
secret plan backfired, resulting in a further setback for American
foreign policy under Bush. Instead of driving its enemies out of
power, the U.S.-backed
Fatah fighters inadvertently provoked
seize total control of Gaza.'
^ Sara Roy,
Hamas and Civil Society in Gaza, p.45.' Dahlan, who was
supported by U.S. officials, has been a bitter enemy of
his 1996 crackdown on the movement. He consistently refused to accept
the Palestinian unity government brokered by the Saudi government in
the Mecca Agreement "and made his opposition intolerable to
he refused to subject the security forces under his command, armed and
trained by the U.S., to the legitimate Palestinian unity government as
Hamas and Fatah." Alistair Crooke, a former Middle East
adviser to the EU foreign policy chief Javier Solana, similarly
observed, "Dahlan refused to deal with (the independent interior
minister appointed to the unity government), and put his troops on the
streets in defiance of the interior minister.
Hamas felt that they had
little option but to take control of security away from forces which
were in fact creating insecurity." Hence,
Hamas was not attempting a
coup against the government or the
Fatah organization as a whole but
also against Dahlan's U.S.-funded militia (and individual Fatah
loyalists it blamed for the murder of
Israel Armistice Agreement UN Doc S/1264/Corr.1 23 February
^ Goldenberg, Suzanne (2008-03-04). "US plotted to overthrow Hamas
after election victory". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved
^ Gürbey, Gülistan; Hofmann, Sabine; Seyder, Ferhad Ibrahim
(2017-03-23). Between State and Non-State: Politics and Society in
Iraq and Palestine. Springer.
^ Amer, Adnan Abu. "Three issues that could derail the Fatah-Hamas
deal". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2017-12-09.
^ Peter Beaumont in Jerusalem. "Palestinian unity government of Fatah
Hamas sworn in World news". theguardian.com. Retrieved
^ Seib 2012, p. 148.
^ a b Samira Shackle (14 October 2013). "
Israel tightens its blockade
of Gaza for 'security reasons'".
Middle East Monitor. Archived from
the original on 14 October 2013. :'Yet critics point out that it
is not just military supplies that cannot enter Gaza, but basic
construction materials, medical supplies, and food stuffs. The issue
came to international attention in 2010, when a flotilla of activists
attempted to break the blockade and carry humanitarian aid into Gaza.
Nine were killed when the Israeli navy entered the flotilla. The
incident shone a spotlight onto the blockade of Gaza. At one stage,
prohibited materials included coriander, ginger, nutmeg and
newspapers. A relaxation of the rules in June 2009 meant that
processed hummus was allowed in, but not hummus with extras such as
pine nuts or mushrooms. One of the biggest issues has been building
materials. The strict restrictions on goods going into Gaza meant that
it was impossible to start reconstruction work after intensive air
strikes on the city in December 2008. A leaked UN report in 2009
warned that the blockade was "devastating livelihoods" and causing
gradual "de-development". It pointed out that glass was prohibited; it
was therefore impossible to repair shattered windows to keep out the
^ Dion Nissenbaum. "Olmert aide supports free Gaza". McClatchy
Newspapers. 8 December 2008:'Since
Hamas took control of Gaza last
Israel has dramatically reduced the amount of food, fuel and
supplies going through its border crossings with Gaza that are the
main Palestinian lifeline to the outside world. Since the Israeli
military operation on Nov. 4th, according to humanitarian groups,
about 700 truck loads of goods have gone into Gaza. That's what should
be going in-and-out on a single day.'
^ a b "Gaza's Tunnel Economy". Borgen Magazine. 4 August 2014.
^ a b "Inquiry urged into
Israel convoy raid". BBC. 1 June 2010.
^ "Gaza Strip, overview". Freedom House.
Jonathan Cook, 'How
Israel is turning Gaza into a super-max prison,'
The National (Abu Dhabi)
The National (Abu Dhabi) October 27, 2014: 'One Israeli analyst has
compared the proposed solution to transforming a third-world prison
into a modern US super-max incarceration facility.'
Noam Chomsky: My Visit to Gaza, the World's Largest Open-Air Prison.
Truthout, 9 November 2012: 'And it hardly takes more than a day in
Gaza to appreciate what it must be like to try to survive in the
world's largest open-air prison,'
David Cameron, Havens Are Few, if Not Far, for
Palestinians in Gaza
Strip. NYT, 20 July 2014: "Prime Minister
David Cameron of Britain in
2010 called Gaza “an open-air prison,” drawing criticism from
Alistair Dawber, 'Tales from Gaza: What is life really like in 'the
world's largest outdoor prison'?'
The Independent 13 April
2013.'Locals call it "the world's biggest prison", and it's not
difficult to understand why...Mr Jnead's children, and their prospects
in what is often referred to as the world's largest open prison, is
top of his concerns.'
Zaki Chehab, Inside Hamas: The Untold Story of Militants, Martyrs and
Spies, I.B.Tauris, 2007 p.182:'The Rafiah crossing is the gateway to
Palestinians refer to as their open-air prison – the Gaza
Anna Ball, 'Impossible Intimacies,' in Anastasia Valassopoulos (ed.)
Arab Cultural Studies: History, Politics and the Popular, Routledge
2013 pp71-91 p.73: "...
Gaza Strip Barrier, a structure that has sealed
Gaza's border with
Israel and has led to Gaza's description as ″the
world's largest open-air prison",
^ Erick Stakelbeck, The
Terrorist Next Door: How the Government is
Deceiving You About the Islamist Threat, Regnery Publishing, 2011
^ Palestine Royal Commission Report Presented by the Secretary of
State for the Colonies to Parliament by Command of His Majesty, July
1937, Cmd. 5479 Archived 27 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine.. His
Majesty’s Stationery Office., London, 1937. 404 pages + maps.
^ "All-Palestine Government, by Shlaim, Avi". Answers.com. Retrieved
25 January 2013.
^ Gardus, Yehuda; Shmueli, Avshalom, eds. (1978–79). The Land of the
Negev (English title) (in Hebrew). Ministry of Defense
Publishing. pp. 369–370.
^ "How has the
Gaza Strip influenced the Israeli-Palestinian
conflict?" entry at ProCon.org citing "An Historical Encyclopedia of
the Arab-Israeli Conflict"
^ Elisha Efrat, The
West Bank and Gaza Strip: A Geography of
Occupation and Disengagement, Routledge, 2006 pp.74–75.
^ Baster, James, "Economic Problems in the Gaza Strip," Middle East
Journal, Vol. 9, No. 3 (Summer, 1955), pp. 323–327.
^ a b
Tom Segev 1967: Israel, the War, and the Year that Transformed
the Middle East, Henry Holt and Company, 2007 p.532
^ Jonathan Ofir, Liberal Israeli leaders were contemplating genocide
in Gaza already in 1967
Mondoweiss on November 17, 2017.
^ Ofer Aderet, 'Israeli Prime Minister After Six-Day War: 'We'll
Deprive Gaza of Water, and the
Arabs Will Leave'
Haaretz 17 November
^ Nur Masalha, The politics of denial:
Israel and the Palestinian
refugee problem. Pluto Press, 2003 p.104.
^ The kibbutz community had been established as part of the Jewish
Agency's "11 points in the Negev" plan, in which 11 Jewish villages
were built across the Negev in a single night as a response to the
Morrison-Grady Plan, which threatened to exclude the Negev from a
future Jewish State. See 
^ Sara Roy, 'The Gaza Strip: A Case of Economic De-Development,'
Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Autumn, 1987), pp.
^ Harkabi, Yehoshafat (1988). Israel's Fateful Hour. New York: Harper
& Row Publishers. p. 87.
Middle East Analysis: Hopeless in Gaza". BBC News. 2000-11-20.
^ Almog, Major General Doron (23 December 2004). "Lessons of the Gaza
Security Fence for the West Bank". 4 (12 ed.). Jerusalem Centre for
^ Barnard, Anne (22 October 2006). "Life in Gaza Steadily Worsens".
The Boston Globe.
^ Myre, Greg (4 March 2006). "Gaza Crossing:Choked Passages to
Frustration". The New York Times.
^ a b "Gaza crisis: key maps and timeline". BBC News. 6 January 2009.
Retrieved 1 June 2010.
Egypt Opens Gaza
Border Crossing for the Injured – Middle East
– Arutz Sheva". Israelnationalnews.com. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
^ "Israel's control of the airspace and the territorial waters of the
Gaza Strip". btselem.org.
^ a b "Human Rights Council
Special Session on the Occupied
Palestinian Territories" 6 July 2006;
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch considers
Gaza still occupied.
^ a b Levs, Josh (6 January 2009). "Is Gaza 'occupied' territory?".
CNN. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
^ a b "Israel/Occupied Palestinian Territories: The conflict in Gaza:
A briefing on applicable law, investigations and accountability".
Amnesty International. 19 January 2009. Archived from the original on
12 May 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2009.
^ a b c d e "EU Heads of Missions' report on Gaza 2013".
Eccpalestine.org. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
^ "Philadelphi Route". Reut Institute. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
Egypt resumes demolition of Gaza tunnels". Ma'an News Agency.
Retrieved 16 September 2012.
^ Tanya Reinhart, The Road to Nowhere, Verso, London 2006 pp.134–5
Border Assistance Mission for
Rafah Crossing Point (EU BAM Rafah)
(PDF). EUBAM Rafah. July 2014 . Archived from the original (PDF)
on 12 February 2015.
^ S. Daniel Abraham (8 March 2013). "Israel's Dreaded Tipping Point
Has Finally Arrived". The Atlantic. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
^ Counting underway in Palestinian elections, International Herald
Tribune, 25 January 2006.[dead link]
^ Election officials reduce
Hamas seats by two,
ABC News Online, 30
January 2006. Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
^ John Pike. "
Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement)".
Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
^ Weisman, Steven R. (8 April 2006). "U.S. and Europe Halt Aid to
Palestinian Government". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
Palestinians flee homelands". Archived from the original on 15
May 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2007. , Sarah El Deeb, Associated
Press, 9 December 2006.
^ Palestinian Cease-Fire Holds on 1st Day. Ibrahim Barzak, Associated
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^ "Six killed in
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Sinai Peninsula 'energized' by crackdown
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Hamas announces cabinet reshuffle in Gaza".
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^ a b "Islamic Militant Group". Foxnews.com. 23 June 2013. Retrieved
^ See the short video Reality Check: Gaza is still occupied on Al
Jazeera, showing the arguments
^ Richard Falk, Statement by Prof. Richard Falk, United Nations
Special Rapporteur for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories,
United Nations Human Rights Council, 27 December 2008.
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Flotilla,' in M.N. Schmitt, Louise Arimatsu, Tim McCormack (eds.),
Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law – 2010, Springer, 2011
^ Dore Gold, JCPA Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is
Still "Occupied" Even After
Israel Withdraws, Jerusalem Centre for
Public Affairs, Vol. 5, No. 3, 26 August 2005.
^ International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to
Self-Defense, Jerusalem Centre for Public Affairs, Vol. 7, No. 29 28
^ Israeli MFA Address by Israeli Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th
Herzliya Conference Archived 26 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.,
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Israel), 22 January 2008.
Israel ended its occupation of the
Gaza Strip when it withdrew from
Gaza in 2005, so why does
Hamas continue to fire rockets into Israel?.
FAQ on the official
Hamas website. Accessed November 2015. "This is
one of the myths perpetuated by Israel's propaganda ... Israel
re-deployed its military occupation forces and evacuated its illegal
settlers outside the population centers in Gaza. BUT Israel
effectively controls the sea, land and air spaces and border crossings
that link the
Gaza Strip to the outside world. According to the UN and
human rights organizations,
Israel still maintains its occupation of
Gaza Strip and subjects the 1.8 million
Palestinians in this tiny
strip to a horrendous siege and blockade that constitute a war crime
under international law." Here,
Hamas cites the view of the
^ 'Israel's control of the airspace and the territorial waters of the
B'Tselem 1 January 2013.
^ a b Grounded in Gaza, but hoping to fly again, MSNBC, 19 May 2005
^ a b Years of delays at Gaza airport, Johnston, Alan. BBC News, 15
^ Precisely Wrong—Gaza Civilians Killed by Israeli Drone-Launched
Missiles. Human Rights Watch, 30 June 2009
^ a b c Hard times drive Gazans into perilous ′buffer zone′. BBC,
10 November 2010
^ a b c d PCHR-Gaza: Israeli Buffer Zone Policies Typically Enforced
with Live Fire. PCHR, 11 May 2015
^ Israeli forces release 5 detained fishermen in Gaza. Ma'an, 4 June
^ a b c Palestinian Killed in Gaza Buffer Zone. IMEMC, 5 April 2011
^ Peaceful march reaches Gaza buffer zone. Ma'an News Agency, 18
^ IDF spokesman provides contradictory answers regarding the width of
the “no-go zone” which residents of the
Gaza Strip are prohibited
from entering. Gisha, August 2015
^ “Look for Another Homeland”. Human Rights Watch, September 2015
^ a b Abbas:
Egypt Right to Create Buffer Zone on Gaza
20 August 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Jack Khoury, Haaretz, 1
December 2014 (premium). ″Abbas believed the destruction of the
tunnels was the best solution. The Palestinian president said he had
recommended previously the sealing or destruction of the tunnels by
flooding them and then punishing the owners of the homes that
contained entrances to the tunnels, including demolishing their
^ "Red Cross:
Israel trapping 1.5m Gazans in despair". Haaretz. 29
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August 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
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Retrieved 4 November 2012.
^ "Position paper on the naval blockade on Gaza". idf.il. 2010-09-08.
Archived from the original on 2012-01-16. Retrieved 28 January
2015. (Full version in Hebrew)
^ Gaza: Donors, UN Should Press
Israel on Blockade, Human Rights
Watch, 12 October 2014.
^ "Diskin: No aid crisis in Gaza". Jpost.com. 15 June 2010. Retrieved
12 December 2010.
^ John Pike. "ISRAEL-OPT: UN report details grim effects of Israeli
blockade on Gaza". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
^ Watt, Nicholas (27 July 2010). "David Cameron: Israeli blockade has
Gaza Strip into a 'prison camp'". The Guardian. London.
Retrieved 28 July 2010.
^ Arab League :
Israel waging a financial war
Egypt eases own Gaza blockade after
Israel Freedom Flotilla raid,
Christian Science Monitor, 2 June 2010 (page 2)
^ Rabinowitz, Gavin (20 June 2010). "AFP:
Israel to allow more
'civilian' goods into Gaza: official". Google.com. Archived from the
original on 25 May 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
Israel not to let Turkish aid through to Gaza. MEMO, 28
Israel confirms it has not reached an agreement with Turkey. MEMO,
24 December 2015
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on the population of the Gaza Strip" (PDF). UNITED NATIONS Office for
the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs occupied Palestinian
territory. March 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July
2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
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Hamas activities in Egypt. Reuters. Mar 4, 2014
Rafah crossing closed after
Egypt violence – Middle East". Al
Jazeera English. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
^ Israeli military admits destroying Gaza crops on border. MEMO, 31
^ No Grow Zone IDF destroys Palestinian crops in Gaza. Video RT.com, 5
Israel spraying toxins over Palestinian crops in Gaza. Belal
Aldabbour, Al Jazeera, 19 January 2016
^ Gaza crossings’ operations status:Monthly update—September 2015
Archived 28 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. UN OCHA. Available
at Gaza Crossings’ Operations Status: Monthly Update Archived 16
October 2015 at the Wayback Machine..
^ Open Gaza's crossings—Keeping Gazans locked in the crowded Strip
is immoral and strategically unwise. Jack Khoury and Reuters, Haaretz,
28 May 2015
^ So near and yet so far—Implications of Israeli‐Imposed Seclusion
Gaza Strip on Palestinians’ Right to Family Life[permanent dead
link]. Hamoked and B'Tselem, January 2014. Here available
^ Gisha to the High Court: Allow a woman from Gaza to attend her own
wedding. Gisha, 18 November 2015
^ 'What Will
Israel Become?,'. New York Times, 20 December 2014. Roger
Cohen: 'The 140-square-mile area is little better than an open-air
prison. As incubators for violent extremism go, it is hard to imagine
a more effective setting than Gaza.'
^ My Visit to Gaza, the World's Largest Open-Air Prison. Truthout , 9
November 2012. Noam Chomsky: 'And it hardly takes more than a day in
Gaza to appreciate what it must be like to try to survive in the
world's largest open-air prison,'
Israel Has Been Bitten by a Bat,'
Truthdig 18 July 2014. Lawrence
Weschler:'I’m tired, for example, of hearing about how vital and
cosmopolitan and democratic are the streets and cafes and nightclubs
of Tel Aviv. For the fact is that one simply can’t sustain such
cosmopolitan vitality 40 miles from a prison camp containing close to
2 million people: It’s a contradiction in terms.'
^ ' Gaza:One Big Prison,'. B'tselem,12 May 2007.
^ 'Gaza is 'open-air prison',?. The National (Abu Dhabi), March 12,
2010. The Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and
Emergency Relief Coordinator, Sir John Holmes
^ 'David Cameron: Israeli blockade has turned
Gaza Strip into a
'prison camp'. The Guardian, 27 July 2010. British Prime Minister
David Cameron: in Nicholas Watt, Harriet Sherwood
^ 'Erdogan: Palestine an open-air prison,'. Ynet, 31 January
2009.Recep Tayyip Erdoğan: "Palestine today is an open-air prison.
Hamas, as much as they tried, could not change the situation. Just
imagine, you imprison the speaker of a country as well as some
ministers of its government and members of its parliament. And then
you expect them to sit obediently?"
^ 'Two Australian MPs slam Israel's treatment of Palestinians; Labor
MP compares former occupation of
Lebanon with Nazi Germany,' .
Jerusalem Post, 15 March 2013.
^ Hollande calls for demilitarization of Gaza. Ynet, 20 August 2014
^ Alain Gresh, Dominique Vidal, The New A-Z of the Middle East, 2nd
ed. I.B.Tauris, 2004 p.91.
^ Noa Raz,'Blair sister-in-law: Gaza world’s largest concentration
camp,' Ynet, 11 September 2008, for Tony Blair’s sister-in law,
^ Ron Shlaifer, Psychological Warfare [in the Arab-Israeli Conflict,
Palgrave Macmillan, 2014 p.203 – Lauren Booth's expression
^ Philip Slater, ‘A Message to Israel: Time to Stop Playing the
Victim Role,’ Huffington Post, 25 May 2011:'Calling
'aggressor' is undignified. The Gaza strip is little more than a large
Israeli concentration camp, in which
Palestinians are attacked at
will, starved of food, fuel, energy—even deprived of hospital
supplies. They cannot come and go freely, and have to build tunnels to
smuggle in the necessities of life.’
^ Jessica Whyte, Catastrophe and Redemption: The Political Thought of
Giorgio Agamben, SUNY Press, 2013 p.95.
^ Holocaust Denial: The Politics of Perfidy, Walter de Gruyter, 2012
^ Jews and the Left: The Rise and Fall of a Political Alliance,
Palgrave Macmillan, 2014 p.91.
^ Seib, Philip (2012). Al Jazeera English: Global News in a Changing
World. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 153. ISBN 1137015748.
^ a b c d e f "CIA — The World Factbook — Gaza Strip".
CIA. 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
^ Sara Roy, 'The Gaza Strip’s Last Safety Net Is in Danger,' The
Nation 6 August 2015.
^ Minister Erdan proposes to cut power supply to the Gaza Strip. Is he
not aware of the state’s position?. Gisha, 13 May 2012
^ "AFP". AFP. 10 October 2007. Archived from the original on 9 January
2009. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
^ Neve Gordon, Israel's Occupation, University of California Press,
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(US). Retrieved 25 October 2012.
^ "Afleveringen". ZEMBLA. 18 April 2010. Archived from the original on
29 May 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
^ Israeli Settlers Demolish Greenhouses and Gaza Jobs New York Times,
15 July 2005
^ "Looters strip Gaza greenhouses". MSNBC. 13 September 2005.
Retrieved 1 June 2010.
^ With Israeli departure, Gaza's dreamers emerge, New York Times
^ "Economic improvement in the Gaza Strip". Idf.il. Archived from the
original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
^ Issacharoff, Avi (4 December 2012). "Egypt's holy war against Sinai
jihadists leaves many questions unanswered". Haaretz.com. Retrieved 25
^ "Zahhar: Gaza more secure than West Bank". Maan. 16 September 2012.
Retrieved 16 September 2012.
^ "Humanitarian & Civilian Activities towards the Gaza Strip"
(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 November 2013. Retrieved
2 August 2014.
^ a b Abu, Saud (18 February 2012). "
Egypt Plan to Bring
Gaza Fuel Via Israeli Crossing". bloomberg.com. Retrieved 25 January
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^ محمد عنان (4 March 2012). "مصر ستزود غزة
بالوقود لشهر والطاقة تبحث البدائل".
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بـ600 ألف لتر وقود يوميا". paltimes.net. Archived
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2013. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ "Fuel tankers arrive in Gaza". maannews.net. Retrieved 25 January
^ a b  "The head of the
Hamas government in Gaza, Ismail Haniyeh,
Qatar on Monday, beginning a regional tour that is also
expected to take him to Kuwait,
Bahrain and Iran."
^ a b "Iran, benefactors boost Hamas's 2012 budget".
English.alarabiya.net. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
^ Roug, Louise (23 August 2007). "In Gaza, surfers find peace and
freedom riding the deep blue". Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved 25
^ Clive Lipchin; Eric Pallant; Danielle Saranga; Allyson Amster
(2007). Integrated Water Resources Management and Security in the
Middle East. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 109.
^ Nafeez Mosaddeq Ahmed, 'Israel’s War for Gaza’s Gas,' Le Monde
diplomatique, November 2012.
^ Steven W. Popper, Claude Berrebi, James Griffin, Thomas Light, Endy
Y. Min, Natural Gas and Israel's Energy Future: Near-Term Decisions
from a Strategic Perspective, Rand Corporation, 2009 p.11.
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FAO Seminar, Rome 27 and 28 February 2013
Middle East Christians: Gaza pastor BBC News, 21 December 2005
The World Factbook
The World Factbook – Gaza Strip
^ Rubenberg, C., Palestinian Women: Patriarchy and Resistance in the
West Bank (USA, 2001) p.230-231
^ With Israeli departure, Gaza's dreamers emerge, New York Times
^ a b
Hamas Fights Over Gaza's Islamist Identity New York Times, 5
Hamas encourages Gaza women to follow Islamic code".
News.xinhuanet.com. 3 January 2010. Archived from the original on 14
May 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
^ a b
Hamas Bans Women Dancers, Scooter Riders in Gaza Push By Daniel
Williams, Bloomberg, 30 November 2009
Hamas patrols beaches in Gaza to enforce conservative dress code The
Guardian (UK), 18 October 2009
^ "In Gaza, prisoners twice over;
Palestinians are being squeezed by
the Israeli blockade and Hamas' 'Islamizing' actions," Bill Van
Esveld, Bill Van Esveld is a
Middle East researcher for Human Rights
Watch, 27 June 2010, Los Angeles Times.
Hamas Enterprise and the Talibanization of Gaza, Khaled
Al-Hroub, Al-Ayyam (Palestinian Authority), 11 October 2010.
Translation by the
Middle East Research Institute, 22 October 2010.
^ "Youths in Gaza complain of curbs against saggy pants, haircuts". Al
Arabiya. 19 October 2012. Retrieved 21 October 2012.
^ a b c d e Knell, Yolande (12 June 2015). "Can
Hamas hold back
Islamic State in Gaza?". BBC News. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
^ Museum Offers Gray Gaza a View of Its Dazzling Past, Ethan Bronner,
New York Times, 25 July 2008
^ Hamas-Run Schools Set Out to Teach ‘the Language of the Enemy’,
New York Times
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original on 1 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
^ "This Math Class May Figure Out Israel". Ipsnews.net. 24 August
2010. Archived from the original on 10 October 2010. Retrieved 12
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Retrieved 25 January 2013.
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Ma'an News Agency 13 September 2016.
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^ Yoshie Furuhashi. "Maymanah Farhat, "Under the Voices of Fire:
Artists in Gaza"". monthlyreview.org.
^ Gaza opens first Olympic-size swimming pool, 18 May 2010, Ma'an News
^ السباحة صالة الالعاب الرياضية
والساونا في النادي Archived 11 May 2011 at the Wayback
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