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Gay
Gay
pride or LGBT
LGBT
pride is the positive stance against discrimination and violence toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people to promote their self-affirmation, dignity, equality rights, increase their visibility as a social group, build community, and celebrate sexual diversity and gender variance. Pride, as opposed to shame and social stigma, is the predominant outlook that bolsters most LGBT
LGBT
rights movements throughout the world. Pride has lent its name to LGBT-themed organizations, institutes, foundations, book titles, periodicals and even a cable TV station and the Pride Library. Ranging from solemn to carnivalesque, pride events are typically held during LGBT
LGBT
Pride Month or some other period that commemorates a turning point in a country's LGBT
LGBT
history, for example Moscow Pride
Moscow Pride
in May for the anniversary of Russia's 1993 decriminalization of homosexuality. Some pride events include LGBT
LGBT
pride parades and marches, rallies, commemorations, community days, dance parties, and large festivals, such as Sydney Mardi Gras, which spans several weeks. Common symbols of pride are the rainbow or pride flag, the lowercase Greek letter lambda (λ), the pink triangle and the black triangle, these latter two reclaimed from use as badges of shame in Nazi concentration camps.[1]

Contents

1 Historical background

1.1 Pride precursors

1.1.1 Annual Reminders 1.1.2 " Gay
Gay
is Good"

1.2 Christopher Street Liberation Day 1.3 Spread 1.4 1980s and 1990s 1.5 LGBT
LGBT
Pride Month

2 Criticism

2.1 Initiatives and criticism by governments and political leaders

2.1.1 Brazil 2.1.2 Spain 2.1.3 Turkey 2.1.4 Uganda

2.2 In-group 2.3 "Straight Pride" analogy

3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Historical background

Gay
Gay
equality activist Barbara Gittings
Barbara Gittings
picketing Independence Hall
Independence Hall
in 1965

Pride precursors Main article: List of LGBT
LGBT
actions in the United States
United States
prior to the Stonewall riots Annual Reminders The 1950s and 1960s in the United States
United States
was an extremely repressive legal and social period for LGBT
LGBT
people. In this context American homophile organizations such as the Daughters of Bilitis
Daughters of Bilitis
and the Mattachine Society
Mattachine Society
coordinated some of the earliest demonstrations of the modern LGBT
LGBT
rights movement. These two organizations in particular carried out pickets called "Annual Reminders" to inform and remind Americans that LGBT
LGBT
people did not receive basic civil rights protections. Annual Reminders began in 1965 and took place each July 4 at Independence Hall
Independence Hall
in Philadelphia. " Gay
Gay
is Good" The anti- LGBT
LGBT
discourse of these times equated both male and female homosexuality with mental illness. Inspired by Stokely Carmichael's "Black is Beautiful", Gay
Gay
civil rights pioneer and participant in the Annual Reminders Frank Kameny
Frank Kameny
originated the slogan " Gay
Gay
is Good" in 1968[2] to counter social stigma and personal feelings of guilt and shame. Christopher Street Liberation Day See also: Stonewall riots Early on the morning of Saturday, June 28, 1969, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning persons rioted following a police raid on the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar at 43 Christopher Street, New York City. This riot and further protests and rioting over the following nights were the watershed moment in modern LGBT
LGBT
rights movement and the impetus for organizing LGBT
LGBT
pride marches on a much larger public scale. On November 2, 1969, Craig Rodwell, his partner Fred Sargeant, Ellen Broidy, and Linda Rhodes proposed the first pride march to be held in New York City
New York City
by way of a resolution at the Eastern Regional Conference of Homophile
Homophile
Organizations (ERCHO) meeting in Philadelphia.[3]

"That the Annual Reminder, in order to be more relevant, reach a greater number of people, and encompass the ideas and ideals of the larger struggle in which we are engaged—that of our fundamental human rights—be moved both in time and location.

We propose that a demonstration be held annually on the last Saturday in June in New York City
New York City
to commemorate the 1969 spontaneous demonstrations on Christopher Street and this demonstration be called CHRISTOPHER STREET LIBERATION DAY. No dress or age regulations shall be made for this demonstration.

We also propose that we contact Homophile
Homophile
organizations throughout the country and suggest that they hold parallel demonstrations on that day. We propose a nationwide show of support.[4][5][6][7] All attendees to the ERCHO meeting in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
voted for the march except for Mattachine Society
Mattachine Society
of New York, which abstained.[4] Members of the Gay
Gay
Liberation Front (GLF) attended the meeting and were seated as guests of Rodwell's group, Homophile
Homophile
Youth Movement in Neighborhoods (HYMN).[8] Meetings to organize the march began in early January at Rodwell's apartment in 350 Bleecker Street.[9] At first there was difficulty getting some of the major New York City
New York City
organizations like Gay Activists Alliance (GAA) to send representatives. Craig Rodwell and his partner Fred Sargeant, Ellen Broidy, Michael Brown, Marty Nixon, and Foster Gunnison of Mattachine made up the core group of the CSLD Umbrella Committee (CSLDUC). For initial funding, Gunnison served as treasurer and sought donations from the national homophile organizations and sponsors, while Sargeant solicited donations via the Oscar Wilde Memorial Bookshop
Oscar Wilde Memorial Bookshop
customer mailing list and Nixon worked to gain financial support from GLF in his position as treasurer for that organization.[10][11] Other mainstays of the organizing committee were Judy Miller, Jack Waluska, Steve Gerrie and Brenda Howard
Brenda Howard
of GLF.[12] Believing that more people would turn out for the march on a Sunday, and so as to mark the date of the start of the Stonewall uprising, the CSLDUC scheduled the date for the first march for Sunday, June 28, 1970.[13] With Dick Leitsch's replacement as president of Mattachine NY by Michael Kotis in April 1970, opposition to the march by Mattachine ended.[14] Brenda Howard
Brenda Howard
is known as the "Mother of Pride" for her work in coordinating the march. Howard also originated the idea for a week-long series of events around Pride Day which became the genesis of the annual LGBT
LGBT
Pride celebrations that are now held around the world every June.[15][16] Additionally, Howard along with fellow LGBT Activists Robert A. Martin (aka Donny the Punk) and L. Craig Schoonmaker are credited with popularizing the word "Pride" to describe these festivities.[17] As LGBT
LGBT
rights activist Tom Limoncelli put it, "The next time someone asks you why LGBT
LGBT
Pride marches exist or why [LGBT] Pride Month is June tell them 'A bisexual woman named Brenda Howard
Brenda Howard
thought it should be.'"[18]

There was little open animosity, and some bystanders applauded when a tall, pretty girl carrying a sign "I am a Lesbian" walked by. – The New York Times coverage of Gay
Gay
Liberation Day, 1970[19]

Christopher Street Liberation Day on June 28, 1970 marked the first anniversary of the Stonewall riots
Stonewall riots
with an assembly on Christopher Street and the first Gay
Gay
Pride march in U.S. history, covering the 51 blocks to Central Park. The march took less than half the scheduled time due to excitement, but also due to wariness about walking through the city with gay banners and signs. Although the parade permit was delivered only two hours before the start of the march, the marchers encountered little resistance from onlookers.[20] The New York Times reported (on the front page) that the marchers took up the entire street for about 15 city blocks.[19] Reporting by The Village Voice was positive, describing "the out-front resistance that grew out of the police raid on the Stonewall Inn
Stonewall Inn
one year ago".[21] Spread

The Visby
Visby
police house displaying the LGBT
LGBT
pride flag during the Stockholm
Stockholm
pride week, 2014.

On the same weekend gay activist groups on the West Coast of the United States
United States
held a march in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and a march and "Gay-in" in San Francisco.[22][23] One day earlier, on Saturday, June 27, 1970, Chicago Gay
Gay
Liberation organized a march[24][full citation needed] from Washington Square Park ("Bughouse Square") to the Water Tower at the intersection of Michigan and Chicago avenues, which was the route originally planned, and then many of the participants extemporaneously marched on to the Civic Center (now Richard J. Daley) Plaza.[25] The date was chosen because the Stonewall events began on the last Saturday of June and because organizers wanted to reach the maximum number of Michigan Avenue shoppers. Subsequent Chicago parades have been held on the last Sunday of June, coinciding with the date of many similar parades elsewhere. The next year, Gay
Gay
Pride marches took place in Boston, Dallas, Milwaukee, London, Paris, West Berlin, and Stockholm.[21] By 1972 the participating cities included Atlanta, Brighton,[26] Buffalo, Detroit, Washington D.C., Miami, and Philadelphia,[27] as well as San Francisco. Frank Kameny
Frank Kameny
soon realized the pivotal change brought by the Stonewall riots. An organizer of gay activism in the 1950s, he was used to persuasion, trying to convince heterosexuals that gay people were no different than they were. When he and other people marched in front of the White House, the State Department and Independence Hall
Independence Hall
only five years earlier, their objective was to look as if they could work for the U.S. government.[28] Ten people marched with Kameny then, and they alerted no press to their intentions. Although he was stunned by the upheaval by participants in the Annual Reminder
Annual Reminder
in 1969, he later observed, "By the time of Stonewall, we had fifty to sixty gay groups in the country. A year later there was at least fifteen hundred. By two years later, to the extent that a count could be made, it was twenty-five hundred."[29] Similar to Kameny's regret at his own reaction to the shift in attitudes after the riots, Randy Wicker came to describe his embarrassment as "one of the greatest mistakes of his life".[30] The image of gays retaliating against police, after so many years of allowing such treatment to go unchallenged, "stirred an unexpected spirit among many homosexuals".[30] Kay Lahusen, who photographed the marches in 1965, stated, "Up to 1969, this movement was generally called the homosexual or homophile movement.... Many new activists consider the Stonewall uprising the birth of the gay liberation movement. Certainly it was the birth of gay pride on a massive scale."[31] 1980s and 1990s In the 1980s there was a major cultural shift in the Stonewall Riot commemorations. The previous loosely organized, grassroots marches and parades were taken over by more organized and less radical elements of the gay community. The marches began dropping "Liberation" and "Freedom" from their names under pressure from more conservative members of the community, replacing them with the philosophy of "Gay Pride"[citation needed] (in the more liberal San Francisco, the name of the gay parade and celebration was not changed from Gay
Gay
Freedom Day Parade to Gay
Gay
Pride Day Parade until 1994). The Greek lambda symbol and the pink triangle which had been revolutionary symbols of the Gay Liberation Movement, which is headed by were tidied up and incorporated into the Gay
Gay
Pride, or Pride, movement, providing some symbolic continuity with its more radical beginnings[clarification needed]. The pink triangle was also the inspiration for the homomonument in Amsterdam, commemorating all gay men and lesbians who have been subjected to persecution because of their homosexuality. LGBT
LGBT
Pride Month

I call upon all Americans to observe this month by fighting prejudice and discrimination in their own lives and everywhere it exists. – Proclamation by U.S President Barack Obama, May 28, 2010[32]

HBT rally in Carmel, Haifa, Israel

Boise Pride at the Idaho Capitol.

The month of June was chosen for LGBT
LGBT
Pride Month to commemorate the Stonewall riots, which occurred at the end of June 1969. As a result, many pride events are held during this month to recognize the impact LGBT
LGBT
people have had in the world. Brenda Howard
Brenda Howard
is known as the "Mother of Pride", for her work in coordinating the first LGBT
LGBT
Pride march, and she also originated the idea for a week-long series of events around Pride Day which became the genesis of the annual LGBT Pride celebrations that are now held around the world every June.[15][16] Additionally, Howard along with fellow LGBT
LGBT
rights activists Robert A. Martin (aka Donny the Punk) and L. Craig Schoonmaker are credited with popularizing the word "Pride" to describe these festivities.[17] As LGBT
LGBT
rights activist Tom Limoncelli put it, "The next time someone asks you why LGBT
LGBT
Pride marches exist or why [LGBT] Pride Month is June tell them 'A bisexual woman named Brenda Howard
Brenda Howard
thought it should be.'"[18] On several occasions, the President of the United States
United States
has officially declared a Pride Month. First, President Bill Clinton declared June " Gay
Gay
& Lesbian
Lesbian
Pride Month" on June 11, 1999 [33] and in 2000.[34][35] Then, in 2009,[36] 2010,[32] 2011,[37] 2012,[38] 2013,[39] 2014,[40] 2015,[41] and 2016,[42] President Barack Obama declared June Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender
Transgender
Pride Month. Beginning in 2012, Google
Google
displayed some LGBT-related search results with different rainbow-colored patterns each year during June.[43][44][45] In 2017, Google
Google
also included rainbow coloured streets on Google
Google
Maps to display Gay
Gay
Pride marches occurring across the world.[46] Criticism From both outside and inside the LGBT
LGBT
community, there is criticism and protest against pride events. Bob Christie's documentary Beyond Gay: The Politics of Pride evaluates gay pride events in different countries within the context of local opposition. Initiatives and criticism by governments and political leaders

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2017)

Brazil In August 2011, Sao Paulo
Sao Paulo
city alderman Carlos Apolinário of the right-wing Democrats Party sponsored a bill to organize and sponsor "Heterosexual Pride Day" on the third Sunday of December. The bill was passed by the city council, and awaits the signature of mayor Gilberto Kassab. Apolinário, an Evangelical Protestant, stated that the intent of the parade was a "struggle ... against excesses and privileges". Members of Grupo Gay
Gay
da Bahia and the Workers' Party criticized the bill as enhancing "the possibility of discrimination and prejudice".[47] However, no events have ever been held.[citation needed] A Brazilian photographer was arrested after refusing to delete photos of police attacking two young people participating in a gay pride parade on October 16, 2011 in the city of Itabuna, Bahia, reported the newspaper Correio 24 horas. According to the website Notícias de Ipiau, Ederivaldo Benedito, known as Bené, said four police officers tried to convince him to delete the photos soon after they realized they were being photographed. When he refused, they ordered him to turn over the camera. When the photographer refused again, the police charged him with contempt and held him in jail for over 21 hours until he gave a statement. According to Chief Marlon Macedo, the police alleged that the photographer was interfering with their work, did not have identification, and became aggressive when he was asked to move. Bené denied the allegations, saying the police were belligerent and that the scene was witnessed by "over 300 people", reported Agência Estado.[48] Spain In a 2008 interview for the biography book La Reina muy cerca (The Queen Up Close) by Spanish journalist and writer Pilar Urbano, Queen Sofía of Spain sparked off controversy by voicing her disapproval of LGBT
LGBT
pride in addition to overstepping her official duties as a member of the Royal Family by censuring the Spanish Law on Marriage in how it names equal same-sex unions “matrimonio” (marriage). Albeit without using the slogan "Straight Pride", Queen Sofía was directly quoted as saying that if heterosexuals were to take the streets as the LGBT
LGBT
community does for Gay
Gay
Pride parades, that the former collective would bring Madrid to a standstill.[49] Even though the Royal Household of Spain approved publication of the interview and Pilar Urbano offered to share the interview recording, both Queen Sofía and the Royal Household have refuted the comments in question.[49] Turkey In 2015 police dispersed the LGBT
LGBT
Pride Parade using tear gas and rubber bullets.[50] In 2016 and 2017 Istanbul Governor’s Office didn't allow the LGBT Pride Parade, citing security concerns and public order.[51] Uganda Ugandan police break up gay pride event[52] In-group In a special queer issue of The Stranger in 1999, openly gay author, pundit, and journalist Dan Savage
Dan Savage
questioned the relevance of pride thirty years later, writing that pride was an effective antidote to shame imposed on LGBT
LGBT
people, but that pride is now making LGBT
LGBT
people dull and slow as a group, as well as being a constant reminder of shame. However, he also states that pride in some simpler forms are still useful to individuals struggling with shame. Savage writes that gay pride can also lead to disillusionment where an LGBT
LGBT
individual realises the reality that sexual orientation doesn't say much about a person's personality, after being led by the illusion that LGBT individuals are part of a co-supportive and inherently good group of people.[53] The growth and commercialization of Christopher Street Days, coupled with their de-politicalisation, has led to an alternative CSD in Berlin, the so-called "Kreuzberger CSD" or "Transgenialer" ("Transgenial"/Trans Ingenious") CSD. Political party members are not invited for speeches, nor can parties or companies sponsor floats. After the parade there is a festival with a stage for political speakers and entertainers. Groups discuss lesbian/transsexual/transgender/gay or queer perspectives on issues such as poverty and unemployment benefits (Hartz IV), gentrification, or "Fortress Europe". In June 2010, American philosopher and theorist Judith Butler
Judith Butler
refused the Civil Courage Award (Zivilcouragepreis) of the Christopher Street Day Parade in Berlin, Germany at the award ceremony, arguing and lamenting in a speech that the parade had become too commercial, and was ignoring the problems of racism and the double discrimination facing homosexual or transsexual migrants. According to Butler, even the organizers themselves promote racism.[54] The general manager of the CSD committee, Robert Kastl, countered Butler's allegations and pointed out that the organizers already awarded a counselling center for lesbians dealing with double discrimination in 2006. Regarding the allegations of commercialism Kastl explained further that the CSD organizers don't require small groups to pay a participation fee which starts at 50 € and goes up to 1500 €. He also distanced himself from all forms of racism and islamophobia.[55] A number of associations and social movements have been denouncing in recent years which, in its views, is a depletion of the claims of these demonstrations and the merchandization of the parade. In this respect, they defend, in countries like Spain, USA or Canada, a Critical Pride celebration to have a political meaning again.[56][57][58][59] Gay
Gay
Shame, a radical movement within the LGBT community, opposes the assimilation of LGBT
LGBT
people into mainstream, heteronormative society, the commodification of non-heterosexual identity and culture, and in particular the (over) commercialization of pride events.[citation needed] "Straight Pride" analogy Main article: Straight pride "Straight Pride" and "Heterosexual Pride" are analogies and slogans that oppose heterosexuality to homosexuality by copying the phrase " Gay
Gay
Pride".[60] Originating from the Culture Wars in the United States, "Straight Pride" is a form of conservative backlash as there is no straight or heterosexual civil rights movement. While criticism from inside and outside the LGBT
LGBT
community abounds, the "Straight Pride" incidents have, however, gained some media attention especially when they involve government and public institutions. See also

Christopher Street Day Council on Religion and the Homosexual Europride InterPride / IALGPC

LGBT
LGBT
portal

List of LGBT
LGBT
events Sexuality and gender identity-based cultures World's biggest LGBT
LGBT
events by participants

Notes

^ "Symbols of the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender
Transgender
Movements". Lambda. Archived from the original on August 16, 2007. Retrieved July 30, 2007.  ^ "Kameny, Frank". glbtq. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011.  ^ Sargeant, Fred. "1970: A First-Person Account of the First Gay
Gay
Pride March." The Village Voice. June 22, 2010. retrieved January 3, 2011. ^ a b Carter, p. 230 ^ Marotta, pp. 164–165 ^ Teal, pp. 322–323 ^ Duberman, pp. 255, 262, 270–280 ^ Duberman, p. 227 ^ Nagourney, Adam. "For Gays, a Party In Search of a Purpose; At 30, Parade Has Gone Mainstream As Movement's Goals Have Drifte." The New York Times. June 25, 2000. retrieved January 3, 2011. ^ Carter, p. 247 ^ Teal, p. 323 ^ Duberman, p. 271 ^ Duberman, p. 272 ^ Duberman, p. 314 n93 ^ a b Channel 13/WNET Out! 2007: Women In the Movement Archived January 18, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b The Gay
Gay
Pride Issue: Picking Apart The Origin of Pride Archived July 12, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Dynes, Wayne R. Pride (trope), Homolexis Archived July 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b https://web.archive.org/web/20060214163344/http://www.bisquish.com/squishive/2005/07/27/in-memoriam-brenda-howard-2/ ^ a b Fosburgh, Lacey (June 29, 1970). "Thousands of Homosexuals Hold A Protest Rally in Central Park", The New York Times, p. 1. ^ Clendinen, p. 62–64. ^ a b LaFrank, p. 20. ^ "The San Francisco
San Francisco
Chronicle", June 29, 1970 ^ "As of early 1970, Neil Briggs became the vice-chairman of the LGBTQ Association", CanPress, February 28, 1970. [1] ^ Chicago Tribune, June 28, 1970, p. A3 ^ "Outspoken: Chicago's Free Speech Tradition". Newberry Library. Retrieved 2008-09-07.  ^ "A History of Lesbian
Lesbian
& Gay
Gay
Brighton: A Community Comes of Age, 1988-2001". Brighton
Brighton
Ourstory.  ^ Armstrong, Elizabeth A., Crage, Suzanna M. (October 2006). "Movements and Memory: The Making of the Stonewall Myth", American Sociological Review, 71 (5) pp. 724–752. doi 10.1177/000312240607100502 ^ Cain, p. 91–92. ^ Carter, p. 251. ^ a b Clendinen, p. 25. ^ LaFrank, p. 21. ^ a b  Proclamation 8429. Wikisource. 28 May 2010.  ^ Clinton, Bill (11 June 1999).  Proclamation 7203. Wikisource.  ^ "Clinton Declares June 2000 Gay
Gay
& Lesbian
Lesbian
Pride Month". Archived from the original on 2017-02-06.  ^ Clinton, Bill (2 June 2000).  Proclamation 7316. Wikisource.  ^  Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender
Transgender
Pride Month, 2009. Wikisource. 1 June 2009.  ^ "Presidential Proclamation--Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month".  ^ "Presidential Proclamation--Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Pride Month, 2012".  ^ http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/06/03/presidential-proclamation-lgbt-pride-month ^ "Presidential Proclamation -- Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender
Transgender
Pride Month, 2014" (Press release). The White House Office of the Press Secretary. May 30, 2014.  ^ "Presidential Proclamation-- LGBT
LGBT
Pride Month, 2015" (Press release). The White House Office of the Press Secretary. May 29, 2015.  ^ "Presidential Proclamation -- LGBT
LGBT
Pride Month, 2016" (Press release). The White House Office of the Press Secretary. May 31, 2016.  ^ Google
Google
marks LGBT
LGBT
pride through a rainbow curtain underneath search-bars retrieved June 16, 2012 ^ Google
Google
shows its support for Gay
Gay
Pride Month with rainbow art for LGBT
LGBT
search terms retrieved June 19, 2017 ^ Gilbert Baker Google
Google
doodle celebrates LGBT-rights activists & creator of the iconic rainbow flag retrieved June 19, 2017 ^ "How tech companies are recognising Pride Month".  retrieved June 26, 2017 ^ Andrew Downie (August 4, 2011). "'Heterosexual Pride Day' in São Paulo?". The Christian Science Monitor.  ^ Natalia Mazotte (October 24, 2011). "Photos of police attack at gay pride parade land Brazilian journalist in jail". Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas, Moody College of Communication, The University of Texas at Austin. ZD.  ^ a b Pilar Urbano attribute to Queen Sofía polemic comments La Vanguardia. ^ "Governor's Office bans LGBT
LGBT
Pride March in Istanbul". Hurriyet Daily News.  ^ "Governor's Office bans LGBT
LGBT
Pride March in Istanbul". hurriyet.  ^ "Ugandan police break up gay pride event". CTV News. Associated Press. August 5, 2016.  ^ "Pride". The Stranger. Archived from the original on March 21, 2012.  ^ Butler, Judith. I must distance myself from this complicity with racism (Video) Archived March 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. (Transcript). Archived March 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Christopher Street Day
Christopher Street Day
'Civil Courage Prize' Day Refusal Speech. European Graduate School. June 19, 2010. ^ Ataman, Ferda / Kögel, Annette / Hasselmann, Jörg: "Butler-Auftritt: Heftige Diskussionen nach Kritik an CSD", Der Tagesspiegel (Berlin). July 20, 2010. ^ (in Spanish) Gaypitalismo: Orgullo Empresarial. Público. July 2, 2014 ^ (in Spanish) "Mercadeo rosa para la amnesia del movimiento". Diagonal Periódico. July 2, 2015 ^ LGBT
LGBT
Night March decries Pride's corporate sponsorship". Toronto Star. June 28, 2016 ^ Too straight, white and corporate: why some queer people are skipping SF Pride. The Guardian. June 25, 2016 ^ "Making colleges and universities safe for gay and lesbian students: Report and recommendations of the Governor's Commission on Gay
Gay
and Lesbian
Lesbian
Youth" (PDF). Massachusetts. Governor's Commission on Gay
Gay
and Lesbian
Lesbian
Youth. , page 20. "A relatively recent tactic used in the backlash opposing les/bi/gay/trans campus visibility is the so-called "heterosexual pride" strategy".

References

Alwood, Edward (1996), Straight News: Gays, Lesbians, and the News Media Columbia University Press, New York (ISBN 0-231-08436-6). Carter, David (2004), Stonewall: The Riots That Sparked The Gay Revolution, St. Martin's Press (ISBN 0-312-34269-1). Duberman, Martin (1993), Stonewall Dutton, New York (ISBN 0-452-27206-8). Loughery, John (1998), The Other Side of Silence – Men's Lives and Gay
Gay
Identities: A Twentieth-Century History, New York, Henry Holt and Company (ISBN 0-8050-3896-5). Marotta, Toby (1981), The Politics of Homosexuality, Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company (ISBN 0-395-31338-4). Teal, Donn (1971), The Gay
Gay
Militants, New York, Stein and Day (ISBN 0-8128-1373-1).

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to LGBT
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Pride.

Interpride - an international Pride organization Gay
Gay
Pride Coast To Coast – photos by CBS News

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Holidays, observances, and celebrations in the United States

January

New Year's Day
New Year's Day
(federal) Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Martin Luther King Jr. Day
(federal)

Confederate Heroes Day (TX) Fred Korematsu Day
Fred Korematsu Day
(CA, FL, HI, VA) Idaho Human Rights Day (ID) Inauguration Day (federal quadrennial, DC area) Kansas Day (KS) Lee–Jackson Day
Lee–Jackson Day
(formerly Lee–Jackson–King Day) (VA) Robert E. Lee Day
Robert E. Lee Day
(FL) Stephen Foster Memorial Day (36) The Eighth (LA, former federal)

January–February

Super Bowl Sunday

February American Heart Month Black History Month

Washington's Birthday/Presidents' Day (federal) Valentine's Day

Georgia Day (GA) Groundhog Day Lincoln's Birthday
Lincoln's Birthday
(CA, CT, IL, IN, MO, NJ, NY, WV) National Girls and Women in Sports Day National Freedom Day (36) Primary Election Day (WI) Ronald Reagan Day
Ronald Reagan Day
(CA) Rosa Parks Day
Rosa Parks Day
(CA, MO) Susan B. Anthony Day
Susan B. Anthony Day
(CA, FL, NY, WI, WV, proposed federal)

February–March

Mardi Gras

Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
(religious) Courir de Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
(religious) Super Tuesday

March Irish-American Heritage Month National Colon Cancer Awareness Month Women's History Month

St. Patrick's Day (religious) Spring break
Spring break
(week)

Casimir Pulaski Day
Casimir Pulaski Day
(IL) Cesar Chavez Day
Cesar Chavez Day
(CA, CO, TX, proposed federal) Evacuation Day (Suffolk County, MA) Harriet Tubman Day
Harriet Tubman Day
(NY) Holi
Holi
(NY, religious) Mardi Gras
Mardi Gras
(AL (in two counties), LA) Maryland Day
Maryland Day
(MD) National Poison Prevention Week
National Poison Prevention Week
(week) Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole Day (HI) Saint Joseph's Day
Saint Joseph's Day
(religious) Seward's Day (AK) Texas Independence Day
Texas Independence Day
(TX) Town Meeting Day (VT)

March–April

Easter
Easter
(religious)

Palm Sunday
Palm Sunday
(religious) Passover
Passover
(religious) Good Friday
Good Friday
(CT, NC, PR, religious) Easter
Easter
Monday (religious)

April Confederate History Month

420 Day April Fools' Day Arbor Day Confederate Memorial Day
Confederate Memorial Day
(AL, MS) Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust
Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust
(week) Earth Day Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
(DC) Thomas Jefferson's Birthday
Jefferson's Birthday
(AL) Pascua Florida (FL) Patriots' Day
Patriots' Day
(MA, ME) San Jacinto Day
San Jacinto Day
(TX) Siblings Day Walpurgis Night
Walpurgis Night
(religious)

May Asian Pacific American Heritage Month Jewish American Heritage Month

Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(federal) Mother's Day (36) Cinco de Mayo

Harvey Milk Day
Harvey Milk Day
(CA) Law Day (36) Loyalty Day (36) Malcolm X Day
Malcolm X Day
(CA, IL, proposed federal) May Day Military Spouse Day National Day of Prayer
National Day of Prayer
(36) National Defense Transportation Day (36) National Maritime Day (36) Peace Officers Memorial Day
Memorial Day
(36) Truman Day
Truman Day
(MO)

June Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender
Transgender
Pride Month

Father's Day (36)

Bunker Hill Day
Bunker Hill Day
(Suffolk County, MA) Carolina Day
Carolina Day
(SC) Emancipation Day
Emancipation Day
In Texas / Juneteenth
Juneteenth
(TX) Flag Day (36, proposed federal) Helen Keller Day
Helen Keller Day
(PA) Honor America Days (3 weeks) Jefferson Davis Day
Jefferson Davis Day
(AL, FL) Kamehameha Day
Kamehameha Day
(HI) Odunde Festival
Odunde Festival
(Philadelphia, PA) Senior Week (week) West Virginia Day
West Virginia Day
(WV)

July

Independence Day (federal)

Lā Hoʻihoʻi Ea (HI, unofficial) Parents' Day
Parents' Day
(36) Pioneer Day (UT)

July–August

Summer vacation

August

American Family Day (AZ) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Day (IL) Bennington Battle Day (VT) Hawaii Admission Day / Statehood Day (HI) Lyndon Baines Johnson Day
Lyndon Baines Johnson Day
(TX) National Aviation Day
National Aviation Day
(36) Service Reduction Day (MD) Victory over Japan Day (RI, former federal) Women's Equality Day
Women's Equality Day
(36)

September Prostate Cancer Awareness Month

Labor Day
Labor Day
(federal)

California Admission Day
California Admission Day
(CA) Carl Garner Federal Lands Cleanup Day (36) Constitution Day (36) Constitution Week (week) Defenders Day
Defenders Day
(MD) Gold Star Mother's Day
Gold Star Mother's Day
(36) National Grandparents Day
National Grandparents Day
(36) National Payroll Week (week) Native American Day (CA, TN, proposed federal) Patriot Day
Patriot Day
(36)

September–October Hispanic Heritage Month

Oktoberfest

Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
(religious) Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
(religious)

October Breast Cancer Awareness Month Disability Employment Awareness Month Filipino American History Month LGBT
LGBT
History Month

Columbus Day
Columbus Day
(federal) Halloween

Alaska Day (AK) Child Health Day (36) General Pulaski Memorial Day German-American Day Indigenous Peoples' Day
Indigenous Peoples' Day
(VT) International Day of Non-Violence Leif Erikson Day
Leif Erikson Day
(36) Missouri Day (MO) National School Lunch Week Native American Day (SD) Nevada Day
Nevada Day
(NV) Sweetest Day White Cane Safety Day
White Cane Safety Day
(36)

October–November

Diwali
Diwali
(religious)

November Native American Indian Heritage Month

Veterans Day
Veterans Day
(federal) Thanksgiving (federal)

Day after Thanksgiving (24) Election Day (CA, DE, HI, KY, MT, NJ, NY, OH, PR, WV, proposed federal) Family Day (NV) Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(religious) Lā Kūʻokoʻa (HI, unofficial) Native American Heritage Day (MD, WA) Obama Day
Obama Day
(Perry County, AL)

December

Christmas
Christmas
(religious, federal)

Alabama Day (AL) Christmas
Christmas
Eve (KY, NC, SC) Day after Christmas
Christmas
(KY, NC, SC, TX) Festivus Hanukkah
Hanukkah
(religious, week) Indiana Day
Indiana Day
(IN) Kwanzaa
Kwanzaa
(religious, week) National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
(36) New Year's Eve Pan American Aviation Day (36) Rosa Parks Day
Rosa Parks Day
(OH, OR) Wright Brothers Day (36)

Varies (year round)

Eid al-Adha
Eid al-Adha
(religious) Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr
(religious) Ramadan
Ramadan
(religious, month)

Legend: (federal) = federal holidays, (state) = state holidays, (religious) = religious holidays, (week) = weeklong holidays, (month) = monthlong holidays, (36) = Title 36 Observances and Ceremonies Bold indicates major holidays commonly celebrated in the United States, which often represent the major celebrations of the month. See also: Lists of holidays, Hallmark holidays, public holidays in the United States, New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands.

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