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Gawain
Gawain
(English: /ɡəˈweɪn/, Welsh: [ˈɡawain]; also called Gwalchmei, Gualguanus, Gauvain, Walwein, etc.) is King Arthur's nephew and a Knight of the Round Table
Round Table
in the Arthurian legend. Under the name Gwalchmei, he appears very early in the legend's development, being mentioned in some of the earliest Welsh Arthurian sources. He is one of a select number of Round Table
Round Table
members to be referred to as one of the greatest knights, most notably in Sir Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight. He is almost always portrayed as the son of Arthur's sister Morgause (or Anna) and King Lot of Orkney
Orkney
and Lothian, and his brothers are Agravain, Gaheris, Gareth, and Mordred. He was well known to be the most trustworthy friend of Sir Lancelot.[1] In some works, Sir Gawain
Gawain
has sisters as well. According to some legends, he would have been the true and rightful heir to the throne of Camelot, after the reign of King Arthur.[2][3] Gawain
Gawain
is often portrayed as a formidable, courteous, and also a compassionate warrior, fiercely loyal to his king and family. He is a friend to young knights, a defender of the poor, and as "the Maidens' Knight", a defender of women as well. In some works, his strength waxes and wanes with the sun; in the most common form of this motif, his might triples by noon, but fades as the sun sets. His knowledge of herbs makes him a great healer,[4] and he is credited with at least three children: Florence, Lovell, and Gingalain, the last of which is also called Libeaus Desconus or Le Bel Inconnu, the Fair Unknown. Gawain
Gawain
appears in English, French and Celtic literature as well as in Italy where he appears in the architecture of the north portal in the cathedral of Modena, constructed in 1184.[5][6]

Contents

1 Name 2 Gwalchmei 3 In early literature 4 In French literature

4.1 Verse romances 4.2 Prose cycles

5 Other medieval literatures

5.1 German and Dutch 5.2 English and Scottish

6 Character 7 The loves of Sir Gawain 8 Modern literature and media 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

Name[edit]

Sir Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight

Gawain
Gawain
is known by different names and variants in different languages. The character corresponds to the Welsh Gwalchmei ap Gwyar, and is known in Latin as Walwen, Gualguanus, Waluanus, etc.; in French as Gauvain; and in English as Gawain. The later forms are generally assumed to derive from the Welsh Gwalchmei.[7] The element Gwalch means hawk, and is a typical epithet in medieval Welsh poetry.[8] The meaning of mei is uncertain. It has been suggested that it refers to the month of May (Mai in Modern Welsh), rendering " Hawk
Hawk
of May", though scholar Rachel Bromwich considers this unlikely. Kenneth Jackson suggests the name evolved from an early Common Brittonic
Common Brittonic
name *Ualcos Magesos, meaning " Hawk
Hawk
of the Plain".[8] Not all scholars accept the gwalch derivation. Celticist John Koch suggests the name could be derived from a Brythonic original *Wolcos Magesos, "Wolf/Errant Warrior of the Plain."[9] Others argue that the continental forms do not ultimately derive from Gwalchmei. Medievalist Roger Sherman Loomis suggests a derivation from the epithet Gwallt Avwyn, found in the list of heroes in Culhwch
Culhwch
and Olwen, which he translates as "hair like reins" or "bright hair".[10][11] Dutch scholar Lauran Toorians proposes that the Dutch name Walewein (attested in Flanders
Flanders
and Northern France c. 1100) was earliest, suggesting it entered Britain during the large settlement of Flemings in Wales
Wales
in the early 12th century.[12] However, most scholarship supports a derivation from Gwalchmei, variants of which are well attested in Wales
Wales
and Brittany. Scholars such as Bromwich, Joseph Loth, and Heinrich Zimmer trace the etymology of the continental versions to a corruption of the Breton form of the name, Walcmoei.[7] Gwalchmei[edit] Gwalchmei was a traditional hero of Welsh legend whose popularity greatly increased after foreign versions, particularly those derived from Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, became known in Wales.[13] The early romance Culhwch and Olwen
Culhwch and Olwen
written in the 11th century and eventually associated with the Mabinogion,[14] ascribes to Gwalchmei the same relationship with Arthur that Gawain
Gawain
is later given: he is Arthur's sister's son and one of his leading warriors.[8] However, he is mentioned only twice in the text; once in the extensive list of Arthur's court towards the beginning of the story, and again as one of the "Six Helpers" who Arthur sends with the protagonist Culhwch
Culhwch
on his journey to find his love Olwen.[13] Unlike the other helpers he takes no further part in the action, suggesting he was added to the romance later, likely under the influence of the Welsh versions of Geoffrey's Historia.[13] Still, Gwalchmei was clearly a traditional figure; other early references to him include the Welsh Triads; the Englynion y Beddau (Stanzas of the Graves), which lists the site of his grave; the Trioedd y Meirch (Triads of the Horses), which praises his horse Keincaled (known as Gringolet to later French authors); and Cynddelw's elegy for Owain Gwynedd, which compares Owain's boldness to that of Gwalchmei.[8] In the Welsh Triads, Triad 4 lists him as one of the "Three Well-Endowed Men of the Isle of Britain" (probably referring to his inheritance),[15] while Triads 75 and 91 praise his generosity to guests and his fearlessness, respectively.[16] Some versions of Triads 42 and 46 also praise his horse Keincaled, echoing the Triads of the Horses.[17] A tale recorded by 16th-century Welsh scholar Sion Dafydd Rhys claims that Gwalchmai destroyed three witches by trickery.[18] The Gwyar (meaning "gore"[19] or "spilled blood/bloodshed"[20]) in Gwalchmei ap Gwyar is likely the name of Gwalchmei's mother, rather than his father as is the standard in the Welsh Triads.[7] Matronyms were sometimes used in Wales, as in the case of Math fab Mathonwy and Gwydion
Gwydion
fab Dôn, and were also fairly common in early Ireland.[7] Gwyar appears as a daughter of Amlawdd Wledig in one version of the hagiographical genealogy Bonedd y Saint. Additionally, the 14th-century Birth of Arthur, a Welsh text adapting scenes from Geoffrey of Monmouth, substitutes Gwyar for "Anna", Geoffrey's name for Gawain's mother.[21] Other sources do not follow this substitution, however, indicating that Gwyar and Anna originated independently.[22] In early literature[edit] A few references to Gawain
Gawain
appear outside Wales
Wales
in the first half of the 12th century; for instance in his Gesta Regum Anglorum of around 1125, William of Malmesbury
William of Malmesbury
writes that "Walwen's" grave had been uncovered in Pembrokeshire
Pembrokeshire
during the reign of William the Conqueror; William recounts that Arthur's formidable nephew had been driven from his kingdom by Hengest's brother, though he continued to harry his enemies severely.[23] However, it was Geoffrey of Monmouth's version of Gawain
Gawain
in the Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136, that brought the character to a wider audience.[24] As in the Welsh tradition, Geoffrey's Gualguanus is the son of Arthur's sister, here named Anna, and her husband is Lot, the prince of Lothian
Lothian
and one of Arthur's key supporters. Gualguanus is depicted as a superior warrior and potential heir to the throne until he is tragically struck down by his traitorous brother Modred's forces.[25] Geoffrey's work was hugely popular, and was adapted into many languages. The Norman version by Wace, the Roman de Brut, ascribes to Gawain
Gawain
the chivalric aspect he would take in later literature, wherein he favors courtliness and love over martial valor.[24] Several later works expand on Geoffrey's mention of Gawain's boyhood spent in Rome, the most important of which is the anonymous Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
romance The Rise of Gawain, Nephew of Arthur, which describes his birth, boyhood and early adventures leading up to his knighting by his uncle.[3] In French literature[edit] Verse romances[edit]

Gawain
Gawain
unwittingly fights Ywain, from Chrétien's Knight of the Lion

Beginning with the five works of Chrétien de Troyes, Gawain
Gawain
became a very popular figure in French chivalric romances in the later 12th century. Chrétien uses Gawain
Gawain
as a major character and establishes some characteristics that pervade later depictions, including his unparalleled courteousness and his way with women. His romances set the pattern often followed in later works in which Gawain
Gawain
serves as an ally to the protagonist and a model of knighthood to whom others are compared. However, in Chrétien's later romances, especially Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart and Perceval, the Story of the Grail, the title heroes prove morally superior to Gawain, who follows the rules of courtliness to the letter rather than the spirit.[24] An influx of romances written in French appeared in Chretien's wake, and in these Gawain
Gawain
was characterized variously. In many of these " Gawain
Gawain
romances", such as Le Chevalier à l'épée and La Vengeance Raguidel, he is the hero; in others he aids the hero; sometimes he is the subject of burlesque humor.[24] In the many variants of the Bel Inconnu or Fair Unknown story, he is the father of the hero.[26] Prose cycles[edit] In the Vulgate Cycle, he is depicted as a proud and worldly knight who demonstrates through his failures the danger of neglecting the spirit for the futile gifts of the material world. On the Grail quest, his intentions are always the purest, but he is unable to use God's grace to see the error in his ways. Later, when his brothers Agravain and Mordred
Mordred
plot to destroy Lancelot
Lancelot
and Guinevere
Guinevere
by exposing their love affair, Gawain
Gawain
tries to stop them. When Guinevere
Guinevere
is sentenced to burn at the stake and Arthur deploys his best knights to guard the execution, Gawain
Gawain
nobly refuses to take part in the deed even though his brothers will be there. But when Lancelot
Lancelot
returns to rescue Guinevere, a battle between Lancelot's and Arthur's knights ensues and Gawain's brothers, except for Mordred, are killed. This turns his friendship with Lancelot
Lancelot
into hatred, and his desire for vengeance causes him to draw Arthur into a war with Lancelot
Lancelot
in France. In the king's absence, Mordred
Mordred
usurps the throne, and the Britons must return to save Britain. Gawain
Gawain
is mortally wounded in battle against Mordred's armies, and writes to Lancelot
Lancelot
apologizing for his actions and asking for him to come to Britain to help defeat Mordred. Other medieval literatures[edit] German and Dutch[edit] The Middle Dutch Roman van Walewein by Penninc and Pieter Vostaert, and the Middle High German romance Diu Crône
Diu Crône
by Heinrich von dem Türlin are both dedicated primarily to Gawain, and in Wirnt von Grafenberg's Middle High German Wigalois he is the father of the protagonist. English and Scottish[edit] For the English and Scots, Gawain
Gawain
remained a respectable and heroic figure. He is the subject of several romances and lyrics in the dialects of those countries. He is the hero of one of the greatest works of Middle English
Middle English
literature, Sir Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight, where he is portrayed as an excellent, but human, knight. In the poem, Gawain
Gawain
must venture to the titular Green Knight
Green Knight
to, assumingly, be killed by the Knight. Gawain
Gawain
does this as it pertains to a deal made between the two without knowing that it is all a test by the Knight.[27] In The Wedding of Sir Gawain
Gawain
and Dame Ragnelle, his wits, virtue and respect for women frees his wife, a loathly lady, from her curse of ugliness. Other important English Gawain
Gawain
romances include The Awntyrs off Arthure (The Adventures of Arthur) and The Avowyng of Arthur. These glowing portraits of Gawain
Gawain
all but ended with Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur, which is based mainly, but not exclusively, on French works from the Vulgate and Post-Vulgate Cycles. Here Gawain
Gawain
partly retains the negative characteristics attributed to him by the later French, and partly retains his earlier positive representations, creating a character seen by some as inconsistent, and by others as a believably flawed hero. Gawain
Gawain
is cited in Robert Laneham's letter describing the entertainments at Kenilworth in 1575,[28] and the recopying of earlier works such as The Greene Knight suggests that a popular tradition of Gawain
Gawain
continued. The Child Ballads include a preserved legend in the positive light, The Marriage of Sir Gawain, a fragmentary version of the story of The Wedding of Sir Gawain
Gawain
and Dame Ragnelle. He also appears in the rescue of Guinevere
Guinevere
and plays a significant role though Lancelot
Lancelot
overshadows him. In Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur, Guinevere
Guinevere
is found guilty; however, Lancelot
Lancelot
returns to help Guinevere
Guinevere
to escape from the castle. But Mordred
Mordred
has sent word to King Arthur; Arthur sends a few knights to capture Lancelot, and Gawain, being a loyal friend to Lancelot, refuses to take part in the mission. The battle between Lancelot
Lancelot
and Arthur's knights results in Gawain's two sons and his brothers, except for Mordred, being slain. This begins the estrangement between Lancelot
Lancelot
and Gawain, thus drawing Arthur into a war with Lancelot
Lancelot
in France. When King Arthur
King Arthur
deploys to France, Mordred
Mordred
seizes the throne, and takes conrol of the kingdom. Gawain wages two wars with Mordred
Mordred
and Lancelot. He is mortally wounded in a duel against Lancelot
Lancelot
who later lies for two nights weeping at Gawain's tomb. Before his death, Gawain
Gawain
repents of his bitterness towards Lancelot
Lancelot
and forgives him, while asking him to join forces with Arthur and save Camelot.[1] Character[edit] Sir Gawain
Gawain
in particular of all Arthur's knights is known for his courteousness and compassion. In "Gawain: His Reputation, His Courtesy and His Appearance in Chaucer’s Squire’s Tale," B.J. Whiting collected quantitative evidence of this quality being stronger in Gawain
Gawain
than in any of the other knights of the Round Table. He notes the words "courteous", "courtesy" and "courteously" being used in reference to Arthur's nephew 178 times in total, which is greater than the tally for all other knights in Arthurian literature.[6] In many romances, he is depicted as a model for this chivalric attribute.[29] In Sir Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight, for example, Gawain
Gawain
receives the kisses of Lady Bertilak
Lady Bertilak
with discretion, at once not wanting to insult her by refusing her advances and not wanting to betray the hospitality of her husband.[30] In the same poem, Gawain's person is also said to be founded in a deep Christian belief in Christ and the Virgin Mary.[31] The loves of Sir Gawain[edit]

Sir Gawaine finds the beautiful Lady, by Howard Pyle
Howard Pyle
from The Story of King Arthur
King Arthur
and His Knights (1903)

Scholar M. Gaston Paris draws attention to the phenomenon that, since Gawain
Gawain
is known in multiple tales as "the Maidens' Knight", his name is thus attached to no woman in particular. He is the champion of all women, and through this reputation, he has avoided the name pairing seen in tales of Eric and Lancelot
Lancelot
(the former being inextricably linked with Enide, the latter with Guinevere). He has, however, been connected to more than one woman in the course of Arthurian literature.[32] In the alliterative Middle-English poem Sir Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight, Sir Bertilak's wife flirts with him. In the aforementioned The Wedding of Sir Gawain
Gawain
and Dame Ragnelle, he marries the cursed Ragnelle, and in giving her "sovereignty" in the relationship, lifts the spell laid upon her that had given her a hag-like appearance.[33] He is also associated with a vague supernatural figure in various tales. The hero of Le Bel Inconnu is the progeny of Gawain
Gawain
and a fairy called Blancemal, and in the Marvels of Rigomer, Gawain
Gawain
is rescued by the fay, Lorie.[29][34] In the German tale Wizalois, the mother of his son is known as Florie, who is likely another version of the Lorie of Rigomer. In her earliest incarnations, Gawain's love is either the princess or queen of the Otherworld.[35] In Sir Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight, based on the bargain to give each other their respective daily gains, Gawain
Gawain
must give the kisses he receives from Lady Bertilak
Lady Bertilak
to Sir Bertilak. This allusion serves to reinforce chivalric ideals of religious, martial and courtly love codes, especially in masculine warrior culture, and shows the ways in which the masculine world can be subverted by female wiles. [36] This undertone of homoeroticism between Gawain
Gawain
and Bertilak underscores the strength of male homosocial bonds, and the fact that sex never occurs reinforces ideals of the masculine chivalric code.[37]

Modern literature and media[edit] Gawain
Gawain
features frequently in modern literature and media. Modern English depictions of him are heavily influenced by Malory, though characterizations are inconsistent. Alfred Tennyson
Alfred Tennyson
adapts episodes from Malory to present Gawain
Gawain
as a worldly and faithless knight in his Idylls of the King.[38][39][40] Similarly, T. H. White's novel The Once and Future King follows Malory, but presents Gawain
Gawain
as more churlish than Malory's torn and tragic portrayal.[41] In contrast, Thomas Berger's Arthur Rex
Arthur Rex
portrays Gawaine as open-minded and introspective about his flaws, qualities that make him the Round Table's greatest knight.[42] Though he usually plays a supporting role, some works feature Gawain
Gawain
as the main character. Vera Chapman's The Green Knight
Green Knight
and Anne Crompton's Gawain
Gawain
and Lady Green offer modern retellings of Sir Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight.[43] Gwalchmai is the protagonist in Gillian Bradshaw's Celtic-tinged Hawk
Hawk
of May and its sequels.[44] An aged Gawain
Gawain
is one of the central characters in Kazuo Ishiguro's novel The Buried Giant.[45] Film portrayals of Gawain, and the Arthurian legend
Arthurian legend
in general, are heavily indebted to Malory; White's The Once and Future King
The Once and Future King
also exerts a heavy influence. Gawain
Gawain
appears as a supporting character in films such as Knights of the Round Table
Round Table
(1953), Monty Python and the Holy Grail
Holy Grail
(1975) and Excalibur
Excalibur
(1981), all of which draw on elements of his traditional characterizations.[46] Other films give Gawain
Gawain
a larger role. In the 1954 adaptation of Prince Valiant, he is a somewhat boorish, though noble and good-natured, foil for his squire and friend, Valiant.[47] He plays his traditional part in the 1963 film Sword of Lancelot, seeking revenge when Lancelot
Lancelot
kills his unarmed brother Gareth, but ultimately coming to Lancelot's aid when he uncovers Mordred's responsibility.[48] Sir Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight has been adapted several times, including 1973's Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight
Green Knight
and 1984's Sword of the Valiant, both directed by Stephen Weeks. Neither film was well reviewed and both deviate substantially from the source material.[49] A 1991 television adaptation by Thames Television, Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight, was both more faithful and better received.[50] The character has appeared in a number of stage productions and operas, mostly interpretations of Sir Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight. Particularly notable among them is the 1991 opera Gawain
Gawain
with music by Harrison Birtwistle
Harrison Birtwistle
and a libretto by David Harsent.[51] In the 2008 BBC television series Merlin, Gawain
Gawain
appears as Sir Gwaine, played by Eoin Macken. Though of noble origin, he passes himself as a peasant due to his mother's mistreatment by the king his father served. He's finally knighted by Arthur due to his personal value. In the short-lived 2011 series Camelot, he was played by Clive Standen. In the 2017 television series Knightfall, Sir Gawain
Gawain
is portrayed as one of the leading figures of the Knights Templar
Knights Templar
in France. Sir Gawain
Gawain
appeared as a Saber-class Servant in Fate/EXTRA, a dungeon crawl style JRPG, where he is voiced by Takahiro Mizushima. He is summoned by his Master, Leonardo B. Harway to participate in the Moon Holy Grail
Holy Grail
War. He later appeared in the sequel Fate/EXTRA
Fate/EXTRA
CCC, and in the mobile game Fate/Grand Order. See also[edit]

St Govan

Notes[edit]

^ a b C. Norris, Ralph (2008). Malory's Library: The Sources of the Morte Darthur. D.S. Brewer. p. 200. ISBN 9781843841548.  ^ Hall, p. 3 ^ a b Day, Mildred Leake (1994), "The Rise of Gawain, Nephew of Arthur", in Wilhelm, James J., The Romance of Arthur, New York: Garland, pp. 365–366  ^ Whiting, p. 194 ^ Hall p.4 ^ a b Whiting, p. 218 ^ a b c d Bromwich, p. 369. ^ a b c d Bromwich, p. 367. ^ Koch, "The Celtic Lands," p. 267. ^ Roger Sherman Loomis, The Grail (Princeton University Press, 1963), p.272 ^ Roger Sherman Loomis, Celtic Myth and Arthurian Romance (Academy Chicago Publishers, 1997), p.63-6. ^ Toorians, Lauran, "Nogmaals 'Walewein van Melle' en de Vlaams-Keltische contacten," Queeste, 2 (1995), 97–112. ^ a b c Bromwich, p. 368. ^ Hall, pp. 2–3. ^ Bromwich, p. 9. ^ Bromwich, p. 205, 234. ^ Bromwich, pp. 111–112, 127–128. ^ Maryjones.us, Rhys, Sion Dafydd. The Giants of Wales. ^ Pughe, p.195 ^ Rhys, p. 169 ^ Bromwich, pp. 369–370. ^ Bromwich, p. 370. ^ Wilhelm, James J. (1994). "Arthur in the Latin Chronicles." In James J. Wilhem, The Romance of Arthur, p. 7. New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8153-1511-2. ^ a b c d Busby, pp. 178–179. ^ Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Regum Britanniae
Historia Regum Britanniae
Books 9–11. ^ Lacy, p. 161. ^ "Sir Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight." From the Norton Anthology of English Literature, edited by Julie Reidhead lines 2331-2365 ^ Performance artist Captain Cox is described as "hardy as Gawin," and knows the Arthurian romances including "Syr Gawain" ^ a b Harper, p. 2 ^ The story of King Arthur
King Arthur
and his knights Retrieved 7 November 2012. ^ "Sir Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight." Translated by Simon Armitage. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Edited by Julie Reidhead. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2012. Lines 642-647. ^ Weston, p. 45 ^ Lupack, p. 314 ^ Weston, p. 46 ^ Weston, p. 52 ^ Boyd, David L. "Sodomy, Misogyny, and Displacement: Occluding Queer Desire in Sir Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight”. ‘’Arthuriana”. (Summer 1998) 8.2 pp. 77–113 ^ Fisher, Sheila; Janet E. Halley (1989). Seeking the Women in Late Medieval and Renaissance Writings: Essays in Feminist Contextual Criticism. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P. p. 277. ISBN 0-870-495917.  ^ Taylor & Brewer, pp. 107–108. ^ George P. Landow (30 November 2004). "Faithless Gawain". victorianweb.com. Retrieved 19 November 2012.  ^ Whiting, pp. 193–194 ^ Blanch & Wasserman, p. 186, 187. ^ Dentzien, p. 219–221. ^ Mediavilla, pp. 65–67. ^ Mediavilla, pp. 64–65. ^ Kakutani, Michiko (23 February 2015). "Review: In 'The Buried Giant,' Ishiguro Revisits Memory and Denial". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 May 2015.  ^ Blanch & Wasserman, p. 185. ^ Blanch & Wasserman, pp. 187–188. ^ Williams, p. 386. ^ Blanch & Wasserman, pp. 190–191 ^ Blanch & Wasserman, pp. 191–193. ^ Windeatt, p. 373–383.

References[edit]

Barber, Richard W. "The English Poems. King Arthur
King Arthur
Hero and Legend. New York: St. Martin's, 1986. ISBN 0-312-45427-9 Benson, C. David. "The Lost Honor of Sir Gawain." De Gustibus: Essays for Alain Renoir. New York: Garland, 1992. Blanch, Robert J.; Wasserman, Julian N. (2010). " Gawain
Gawain
on Film (The Remake): Thames Television
Thames Television
Strikes Back". In Kevin J. Harty. Cinema Arthuriana. McFarland. pp. 185–198. ISBN 0786446838.  Bromwich, Rachel (2006). Trioedd Ynys Prydein: The Triads of the Island of Britain. University Of Wales
Wales
Press. ISBN 0-7083-1386-8. Busby, Keith (1991). "Gawain". In Norris J. Lacy. The New Arthurian Encyclopedia. Garland. ISBN 0-8240-4377-4.  Davenport, W. A. The Art of the Gawain-Poet. New York: Athlone, 1985. Dentzien, Nicole (2004). The Openess of Myth: The Arthurian Tradition in the Middle Ages and Today (vol. 18). Königshausen & Neumann. ISBN 3826028112.  Gustafson, Kevin. "Sir Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight." Companion to Medieval English Literature and Culture. Ed. Peter Brown. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Hall, Louis B., ed. Knightly Tales of Sir Gawain. Chicago: Nelson Hall, 1976. ISBN 0-88229-350-8 Kennedy, Edward D. "Gawain's Family and Friends." People and Texts. Relationships in Medieval Literature. Eds. Thea Summerfield and Keith Busby. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2007. Koch, John T. (1995). "The Celtic Lands." In N. J. Lacy (ed.), Medieval Arthurian Literature: A Guide to Recent Research, pp. 239–322. New York. Lacy, Norris J. (1991). "French literature (Medieval)". In Norris J. Lacy. The New Arthurian Encyclopedia. Garland. pp. 178–179. ISBN 0-8240-4377-4.  Lupack, Alan. "Gawain." Oxford Guide to Arthurian Literature and Legend. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. 291–327. Mediavilla, Cindy (1999). Arthurian Fiction: An Annotated Bibliography. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0810836440.  Pughe, William Owen (1832). A Dictionary of the Welsh Language, Explained in English. London. Online Reichardt, Paul F. " Gawain
Gawain
and the Image of the Wound." PMLA 99.2 (1984): 154–161. JStor. Modern Language Association. Web. 14 November 2009. Rhys, John (2004 [1901]). Studies in the Arthurian Legend. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-8915-5. Taylor, Beverly; Brewer, Elisabeth (1983). The Return of King Arthur: British and American Arthurian Literature Since 1900. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 0859911365. Retrieved 19 November 2012.  Shoaf, R. Allen. "Green Girdle." College of Liberal Arts and Sciences The University of Florida. Web. 14 November 2009. Online Weiss, Victoria L. "Gawain's First Failure: The Beheading Scene in ‘Sir Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight.’ ” The Chaucer Review 10.4 (1976): 361–366. JStor. Penn State University Press. Web. 14 November 2009. Weston, Jessie L. Legend of Sir Gawain: Studies Upon its Original Scope and Significance. New York: AMS, 1972. Whiting, B. J. "Gawain: His Reputation, His Courtesy and His Appearance in Chaucer's Squire's Tale." Mediaeval Studies 9 (1947): 189–234. Wilhelm, James J. (1994). The Romance of Arthur. New York: Garland. ISBN 0-8153-1511-2. Williams, David J. (1997). "Sir Gawain
Gawain
in Films". In Derek Brewer. A Companion to the Gawain-Poet. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 385–392. ISBN 085991433X. Retrieved 20 November 2012.  Windeatt, Barry (1997). "Sir Gawain
Gawain
at the fin de siècle: Novel and Opera". In Derek Brewer. A Companion to the Gawain-Poet. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 373–383. ISBN 085991433X. Retrieved 20 November 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gawain.

Gawain
Gawain
page at the Camelot
Camelot
Project Dr. Anthony Colaianne, Chris Baugh – Medieval English Narrator – listen to recorded excerpts of Medieval English literature with text alongside for translation help. Several excerpts from Sir Gawain. Sir Gawain
Gawain
page including online translation Notes on SGGK

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King Arthur
King Arthur
and the Matter of Britain

Key people

King Arthur Constantine Galahad Gawain Queen Guinevere Igraine Lady of the Lake Lancelot Merlin Mordred Morgan le Fay Morgause Percival Tristan Uther Pendragon

Knights of the Round Table

Aglovale Agravain Bagdemagus Bedivere Bors Breunor Calogrenant Caradoc Dagonet Dinadan Elyan the White Erec Gaheris Gareth Geraint Griflet Hector de Maris Hoel Kay Lamorak Leodegrance Lionel Lucan Morholt Palamedes Pelleas Pellinore Safir Sagramore Segwarides Tor Urien Ywain Ywain
Ywain
the Bastard

Other characters

Balin Balan King Ban Claudas Culhwch Dindrane Ector Elaine of Astolat Elaine of Corbenic Fisher King Galehaut Gorlois Gwenhwyfach Hellawes Iseult Black Knight Green Knight Red Knight Lohengrin King Lot Maleagant King Mark Emperor Lucius Olwen Questing Beast Rience Tom Thumb

Objects

Excalibur Holy Grail Round Table Siege Perilous

Places

Astolat Avalon Brocéliande
Brocéliande
(Paimpont) Caerleon Camelot Celliwig Corbenic Glastonbury Logres Lyonesse Sarras Tintagel

In media

Books Films Various media

Topics

Battle of Badon Battle of Camlann Dolorous Stroke King Arthur's family Historicity of King Arthur King Arthur's messianic return

v t e

Geoffrey of Monmouth

Works

Prophetiae Merlini
Prophetiae Merlini
(c. 1135) Historia Regum Britanniae
Historia Regum Britanniae
(c. 1136) Vita Merlini (c. 1150)

Translations

Roman de Brut Layamon's Brut Brut y Brenhinedd

Characters

Aeneas Saint Alban Albanactus Alhfrith of Deira Allectus Ambrosius Aurelianus Amphibalus Andragius Archgallo Archmail King Arthur Arvirargus Ascanius Augustine of Canterbury Aurelius Conanus Bedivere Beldgabred Beli Mawr Belinus Bladud Bledric ap Custennin Bledudo Brennius Brutus Greenshield Brutus of Troy Budic II of Brittany Cadfan ap Iago Cadoc Cador Cadwaladr Cadwallon ap Cadfan Camber (legendary king) Cap of Britain Capetus Silvius Capoir Caracalla Caradocus Carausius Cassivellaunus Catellus Catigern Cherin Claudius Cledaucus Clotenus Coel Hen Coilus Conan Meriadoc Constans II (usurper) Constantine the Great Constantine III (Western Roman Emperor) Constantine (Briton) Constantius Chlorus Cordelia of Britain Corineus Cunedagius Cunobeline Danius Saint David Digueillus Diocletian Dionotus Dunvallo Molmutius Ebraucus Edadus Edern ap Nudd Edwin of Northumbria Eldol Eldol, Consul of Gloucester Elidurus Eliud Enniaunus Estrildis Eudaf Hen Ferrex Fulgenius Gawain Gerennus Goffar the Pict Gogmagog (folklore) Goneril Gorboduc Gorbonianus Gorlois Gracianus Municeps Guiderius Guinevere Guithelin Gurgintius Gurguit Barbtruc Gurgustius Gwenddoleu ap Ceidio Queen Gwendolen Helena (empress) Helenus Hengist and Horsa Hoel Humber the Hun Iago ap Beli Idvallo Igraine Ingenius of Britain Jago of Britain Julius and Aaron Julius Asclepiodotus Julius Caesar Sir Kay Keredic Kimarcus Kinarius Latinus Lavinia Leil Leir of Britain Locrinus King Lot Lucius of Britain Lucius Tiberius Lud son of Heli Maddan Maelgwn Gwynedd Magnus Maximus Mandubracius Queen Marcia Marganus Marganus II Marius of Britain Mempricius Merianus Merlin Millus Mordred Morgause Morvidus Myrddin Wyllt Nennius of Britain Octa of Kent Oenus Oswald of Northumbria Oswiu of Northumbria Owain mab Urien Penda of Mercia Peredur Peredurus Pir of the Britons Porrex I Porrex II Publius Septimius Geta Quintus Laberius Durus Redechius Redon of Britain Regan (King Lear) Rhydderch Hael Rience Rivallo Rud Hud Hudibras Runo Sawyl Penuchel Septimius Severus Silvius (mythology) Sisillius I Sisillius II Sisillius III Son of Gorbonianus Taliesin Tasciovanus Trahern Turnus Urianus Uther Pendragon Venissa Vespasian Vortigern Vortimer Vortiporius Wulfhere of Mercia Ywain Æthelberht of Kent Æthelfrith of Northumbria Œthelwald of Deira

Topics

Avalon Battle of Arfderydd Battle of Badon Battle of Camlann Battle of Guoloph Brut y Tywysogion Crocea Mors Excalibur Lailoken List of legendary kings of Britain List of legendary rulers of Cornwall Logres Matter of Britain Molmutine Laws Nennius Riothamus River Malvam Siege of Exeter (c. 630) Locations associated with Arthurian legend Treachery of the Long Knives Trinovantum Trojan genealogy of Nennius Walter of Oxford

Wikiquote Wikisource texts

v t e

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
by Pearl Poet

Characters

Green Knight Gawain Lady Bertilak Guinevere Morgan le Fay Caradoc

Film

Gawain
Gawain
and the Green Knight
Green Knight
(1973) Sword of the Valiant
Sword of the Valiant
(1984)

Literature

The Squire, His Knight, and His Lady The Hollowing

Opera

Gawain

Related

The Greene Knight Honi soit qui mal y pense

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 310725

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