In its modern form, a gated community (or walled community) is a form
of residential community or housing estate containing strictly
controlled entrances for pedestrians, bicycles, and automobiles, and
often characterized by a closed perimeter of walls and fences. Gated
communities usually consist of small residential streets and include
various shared amenities. For smaller communities, these amenities may
include only a park or other common area. For larger communities, it
may be possible for residents to stay within the community for most
daily activities. Gated communities are a type of common interest
development, but are distinct from intentional communities.
Given that gated communities are spatially a type of enclave, Setha M.
Low, among other anthropologists,[who?] has argued that they have a
negative effect on the net social capital of the broader community
outside the gated community. Some gated communities, usually called
guard-gated communities, are staffed by private security guards and
are often home to high-value properties, and/or are set up as
retirement villages. Some gated communities are secure enough to
resemble fortresses and are intended as such.
2 Around the world
4 Common economic model types
5 Comparison to closed cities
6.13 New Zealand
6.18 Saudi Arabia
6.19 South Africa
6.22 United Arab Emirates
6.23 United Kingdom
6.24 United States
7 In popular media
7.1 In television
7.2 In film
7.3 In games
7.4 In songs
7.5 In comics
7.6 In literature
8 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
A guarded, gated community located in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
A gated community near Ezeiza, a suburb of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Amenities available in a gated community depend on a number of factors
including geographical location, demographic composition, community
structure, and community fees collected. When there are
subassociations that belong to master associations, the master
association may provide many of the amenities. In general, the larger
the association the more amenities that can be provided. Amenities
also depend on the type of housing. For example, single-family-home
communities may not have a common-area swimming pool, since individual
home-owners have the ability to construct their own private pools. A
condominium, on the other hand, may offer a community pool, since the
individual units do not have the option of a private pool
Typical amenities offered can include one or more:
Community centres or clubhouses
Exercise rooms including workout machines
Around the world
Protective spikes in "security-zone" communities.
The inside of a gated community in Ngaliema, Kinshasa, DRC.
In Brazil, the most widespread form of gated community is called
"condomínio fechado" (closed housing estate) and is the object of
desire of the upper classes. Such a place is a small town with its own
infrastructure (reserve power supply, sanitation, and security
guards). The purpose of such a community is to protect its residents
from exterior violence. The same philosophy is seen on closed
buildings and most shopping centres (many of them can only be accessed
from inside the parking lot or the garage).
In Pakistan, gated communities are located in big as well as small
cities and are considered standard of high quality living. Defence
Housing Authority and Bahria Town are major private gated
community developers and administrators and one of the largest in the
world. The assets of
Bahria Town itself are worth $30 billion. Most
gated communities in Pakistan have public parks, schools,
hospitals, shopping malls, gymnasiums, and country clubs.
In Argentina, they are called "barrios privados" (literal translation
"private neighborhoods") or just "countries" and are often seen as a
symbol of wealth. However, gated communities enjoy dubious social
prestige (many members of the middle and upper middle class regard
gated community dwellers as nouveaux riches or snobs). While most
gated communities have only houses, some bigger ones, such as
Nordelta, have their own hospital, school, shopping mall, and more.
In post-segregation South Africa, gated communities have mushroomed in
response to high levels of violent crime. They are commonly referred
to as "complexes" but also broadly classified as "security villages"
(large-scale privately developed areas) or "enclosed neighborhoods
. Some of the newest neighborhoods being developed are almost
entirely composed of security villages, some with malls and few other
essential services (such as hospitals). In part, property developers
have adopted this response to counter squatting, which local residents
fear due to associated crime, and which often results in a protracted
They are popular in southern China, namely the Pearl River Delta
Region, the most famous of which is Clifford Estates.
In Saudi Arabia, gated communities have existed since the discovery of
oil, mainly to accommodate families from Europe or North America.
After threat levels have increased since the late 1990s against
foreigners in general and U.S. citizens in particular
gates have become armed, sometimes heavily, and all vehicles have been
inspected. Marksmen and
Saudi Arabian National Guard
Saudi Arabian National Guard armored vehicles
appeared in certain times, markedly after recent terrorist attacks in
areas near-by, targeting people from European or North American
Gated communities are rare in continental Europe and Japan.
The Retreat at Twin Lakes
The Retreat at Twin Lakes is the location of the shooting of Trayvon
Proponents of gated communities (and to a lesser degree, of
cul-de-sac) maintain that the reduction or exclusion of people who
would be only passing through, or more generally, of all non-local
people, makes any "stranger" much more recognisable in the closed
local environment, and thus reduces crime danger. Since only a very
small proportion of all non-local people passing through the area are
potential criminals, increased traffic should increase rather than
decrease safety by having more people around whose presence could
deter criminal behaviour or who could provide assistance during an
Another criticism is that gated communities offer a false sense of
security. Some studies indicate that safety in gated communities may
be more illusion than reality and that gated communities in suburban
areas of the United States have no less crime than similar non-gated
A commentary in
The New York Times
The New York Times specifically blames the gated
communities for the shooting death of Trayvon Martin as the columnist
states that "gated communities churn a vicious cycle by attracting
like-minded residents who seek shelter from outsiders and whose
physical seclusion then worsens paranoid groupthink against
Common economic model types
Life-style — country clubs, retirement developments.
Prestige — gates for status appeal
Physical security communities — gates for crime and traffic.
Purpose-designed communities — catering to foreigners (e.g. worker
compounds in Mid-West Asia, built largely for the oil industry)
Comparison to closed cities
The closed cities of Russia are different from the gated communities.
The guard duty in closed cities is free to residents (paid by taxes)
The public transport in closed cities may go with transit checkpoints
or checking passes/passports at technical stops and available to the
others outside the security area. Within a gated community in the best
cases, the bus stop is opposite the checkpoint, a few offer free
buses. Via gated communities buses go due to easement or good will.
Fares and communal payment in closed cities are often equal (in all
cases not greater) if it would be a common city. In gated communities
service companies raise non legally fixed tafiffs because are very
difficult to be changed.
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A limited number of gated communities have long been established for
foreigners in various regions of the world:
The worker compounds in the Middle East, built largely for the oil
The Arbor Oaks subdivision located in El Monte, California, which
appears in the film
Back to the Future Part II
Back to the Future Part II as "Hilldale", is now
gated because of the fans coming to see it in person. Residents are
sometimes angry at fans who come by the development.
There are many gated communities in Argentina, especially in Greater
Buenos Aires, in the county of Pilar, 60 km N of Buenos Aires
city, as well as in other suburban areas, such as Nordelta.
Even though Tortugas Country Club was the first gated community
developed in Argentina, dating from the 1930s/1940s, most date form
the 1990s, when liberal reforms were consolidated.
Buenos Aires has been traditionally regarded as a socially
integrated city, gated communities have been the subject of research
by sociologists. Gated communities are an important way through middle
and upper-class people cope with the high levels of violent criminal
activity in Greater Buenos Aires.
Although gated communities have been rare in Australia, since the
1980s, a few have been built. The most well-known are those at Hope
Island, in particular Sanctuary Cove, on the Gold Coast of Queensland.
Other similar projects are being built in the area. In Victoria, the
first such development is Sanctuary Lakes, in the local government
area of Wyndham, about 16 km south west of Melbourne. In New
South Wales, there is
Macquarie Links gated community as well as
Southgate Estate gated community. Many Australian gated communities
are built within private golf courses.
In the ACT, the only example is Uriarra Village, based around
community horse paddocks and dwellings jointly managed through strata
Alphaville, a gated community in the suburbs of São Paulo, Brazil,
which is also a business center of its city proper, Barueri.
Brazil also has many gated communities, particularly in the
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. For example, one
of São Paulo's suburbs, Tamboré, has at least 6 such compounds known
as Tamboré 1, 2, 3, and so on. Each consists of generously spaced
detached houses with very little to separate front gardens.
One of the first big-scale gated community projects in
São Paulo city
region was Barueri's Alphaville, planned and constructed during the
1970s military dictatorship when the big cities of Brazil faced steep
increases of car ownership by the middle and higher-classes, rural
exodus, poverty, crime, urban sprawl, and downtown decay.
Neighbourhoods with "physical" or explicit gating with security
checkpoints and patrols are extremely rare, being absent in some of
Canada's richest neighbourhoods such as Bridle Path, Toronto.
Furthermore, municipal planning laws in many Canadian provinces ban
locked gates on public roads as a public health issue since they deny
emergency vehicles quick access.
A noted exception in
Canada is Arbutus Ridge, an age-restricted
community constructed between 1988 and 1992 on the southeastern coast
of Vancouver Island.
More common in most Canadian neighbourhoods, especially the largest
cities, is an implicit or symbolic gating which effectively partitions
the private infrastructure and amenities of these communities from
their surrounding neighbourhoods. A classic example of this is the
Montreal suburb of Mount Royal, which has a long fence
running along its side of L'Acadie Boulevard that for all intents and
purposes separates the community from the more working-class
Park Extension. Also, many newer suburban
subdivisions employ decorative gates to give the impression of
exclusivity and seclusion.
In China, some of these compounds, like most other gated communities
around the world, target the rich. Also many foreigners live in gated
communities in Beijing. Often foreign companies choose the locations
where their foreign employees will live, and in most cases they pay
the rent and associated costs (e.g. management fees and garden work).
Similar communities exist in Shanghai, another major Chinese city.
Shanghai Links, an exclusive expatriate community enclosing a golf
course and the Shanghai American School, is an example. Other notable
gated communities in Shanghai include Seasons Villas, a development by
Hutchinson Whampoa, Thomson Golf Villas, and Green Villas.
Other gated communities in China such as those in the Daxing District
of Beijing enclose the homes of rural migrants. These are intended to
reduce crime and increase public order and safety, which the Communist
Party of China-run
People's Daily claims it has, by 73%. The system is
controversial as it segregates migrants and the poor, with some
claiming its true purpose is to keep track of migrants, but it is
scheduled for implementation in
Changping District also.
Guayaquil and Quito, Ecuador have many gated communities. In the
coastal city of Guayaquil, they are mostly located in
Quito in the valleys surrounding the city. They are home mostly for
the wealthiest people, but there is a trend, specially in Guayaquil,
of houses in gated communities with moderate prices as well.
In Greater Cairo, for example, there is Dreamland, Mountain View
Egypt, and in Alexandria, there is el Maamoura.
In India there are many gated neighborhoods (also called 'Colonies' in
New Delhi) in big cities where most of the upper middle-class and
upper-class people live. New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore and the
like all have gated communities. Sometimes these communities are
separated not just by wealth but also by ethnicity. Members of a
particular ethnicity tend to feel more comfortable living among their
own owing to reasons related to common festivals, language, and
cuisine. Examples of this are common in New Delhi where there is a
strong Punjabi community. Many gated neighborhoods are predominantly
Punjabi and there have been cases of discrimination against members of
other ethnic backgrounds living in those communities. Likewise there
also exist Bengali, South Indian, Muslim, and Gujarati neighborhoods.
Nowadays many modern gated communities are being developed like the
Aamby Valley City and Lavasa City in Maharashtra occupying 100 km
squares of area. Now gated communities are being built in Chennai,
Hyderabad, Bangalore by a lot of real estate developers. In Bangalore,
3 locations are having community living those are Bannerghatta, Hebbal
and villas in Devanahalli. As in neighboring countries, the target for
these housing societies seem to be upper-middle or upper class
citizens. Caste and religious discrimination is prevalent in the real
estate industry. Several people have been denied homes based on their
caste or religion regardless of this factor non-residential Indians
are very interested in gated housing.
In Indonesia, some gated communities are luxurious (with lots of up to
740 square metres (8000 sq ft)), and some are very affordable (with
lots ranging from 40 to 120 square metres). From 2000, most of the new
residential area build by private developer are gated community.
Two examples of gated community in Italy are Olgiata in
Rome and the
village of Roccamare, in Castiglione della Pescaia, Tuscany.
In Malaysia, these are known as Gated & Guarded Communities and
have been seeing a steady increase in popularity. Currently,
according to the Town and Country Planning Department, there are four
types of gated communities in Malaysia, namely:
Elite community: this type of gated community is primarily occupied by
the upper-class or high-income group of people. It focuses on
exclusion and status in which security is one of the major concerns
due to the resident’s status within the community.
Lifestyle community: the lifestyle community generally consists of
retirement communities, leisure communities and suburban ‘new
towns’. Activities inside these communities can include golf
courses, horseback riding and residents-oriented leisure activities.
Security zone community: the security zone community is the most
popular type of gated community in which it offers a housing
development that is surrounded by fences or gates. This development is
normally provided with guard services.
Security zone community and lifestyle: this type of gated community
housing development is usually developed within a city centre. It
focuses on both the security aspect and the provision of lifestyle
facilities for its residents.
The gated community is a concept that emerged in response to the rise
of safety and security issues, and offers more advantages in terms of
a calm environment and enhanced safety that is ideal for family
Gated communities in
Mexico are a result of the huge income gap
existing in the country. A 2008 study found that the average income in
an urban area of
Mexico was $26,654, a rate higher than advanced
regions like Spain or Greece while the average income in rural areas
(sometimes just a short distance away) was only $8,403.[citation
needed] This close a proximity of wealth and poverty has created a
large security risk for Mexico's middle class. Gated communities can
be found in virtually every medium and large sized city in
the largest found in major cities, such as Monterrey,
Mexico City or
Luxury or "status" gated communities are very popular with middle to
high income residents in Mexico. Gated luxury communities in Mexico
are considerably cheaper than in countries such as the United States
while retaining houses of similar size and quality due to the
commonness of the communities and the lower cost to build them and are
priced lower to attract middle class residents.
Many gated communities in
Mexico have fully independent and
self-contained infrastructure, such as schools, water and power
facilities, security and fire forces, and medical facilities. Some of
the larger gated communities even retain their own school districts
and police departments. The
Interlomas area of
Mexico City contains
hundreds of gated communities and is the largest concentration of
gated communities in the world, stretching over 140 square kilometres
(54 sq mi). The surrounding areas of Santa Fe,
Bosques-Lomas, Interlomas-Bosque Real, are also made up predominantly
of gated communities and span over 30% of Greater
Many smaller gated communities in
Mexico are not officially classified
as separate gated communities as many municipal rules prohibit closed
off roads. Most of these small neighborhoods cater to lower middle
income residents and offer a close perimeter and check points similar
to an "authentic" gated community. This situation is tolerated and
sometimes even promoted by some city governments due to the lack of
capacity to provide reliable and trusted security forces.
In New Zealand, gated communities have been developed in suburban
areas of the main cities since the 1980s and 1990s.
Bahria Town Rawalpindi in Islamabad Rawalpindi metropolitan
Pakistan has a very large number of gated communities, most of which
target middle class Pakistanis. The largest being Bahria Town, which
is also the largest in
Asia and has communities in major cities.
Defence Housing Authority is also a major developer of gated
Others include WAPDA Town,
Gulberg, Islamabad and Schon Properties,
Emaar Properties also maintains several gated communities in the
country targeting primarily upper class people. Gated communities in
Pakistan are mostly immune from problems of law enforcement and lack
of energy faced by the majority of the other housing societies. In a
short time, the property prices in such communities have greatly
increased – in 2007 a 20-square-meter house in Bahria Town, Lahore
cost around four million rupees ($40,000); a similar property in 2012
costed nine million rupees, while houses are priced around 100-300
Lima, Peru has several gated communities, especially in the wealthy
districts of La Molina and Santiago de Surco. They are home to many
prominent Peruvians.
Philippines has a sizable number of gated communities which are
Philippine English as "subdivisions". Regardless of their
names, such communities may either form part of a larger barangay
(village), or constitute a single barangay in and of themselves.
Aerobus live complex: is the de facto first gated community in
Moscow. Business center is in this complex but outside the residential
Aerial view of the
Santiago de Surco
Santiago de Surco middle class gated community of
Ozero is a cooperative formed around Vladimir Putin's dacha on Lake
Komsomolskoe (Finnish: Kiimajärvi), Priozersky District, Leningrad
In Saudi Arabia, many expatriate workers are required to live in
company-provided housing. After the 2003 attack on Al Hambra, Jadawel,
Siyanco and Vinell by militant Saudi dissidents, the government
established tight military security for those compounds with large
western populations. Many western individuals also reside in the many
other gated compounds or non-gated villas and apartments in the cities
that they work. Saudi Aramco provides a compound in Dhahran which is
one of the largest of its kind within the kingdom. Gated communities
are also popular with many Saudis, which accounts for the limited
availability of open villas in these communities and the premium rent
paid for that housing. These compounds can be found in many of Saudi
Arabia's cities, including but not limited to Abha, Dhahran, Riyadh,
South Africa has an increasing number of gated communities.
Many housing estates in Thailand take the form of gated communities,
targeted to the upper and middle classes. They may be managed by the
development company or by resident committees. Land and Houses, the
country's largest real estate company, operates forty-three such
developments alone. Nichada Thani in
Pak Kret is a large gated
community mostly serving expatriates.
Gated communities are often referred to as mubans in Thailand.
Turkey has several gated communities, especially in Istanbul and
Ankara. Called "site" in Turkish, they are mostly located around the
edge of the city.
United Arab Emirates
In the United Arab Emirates, gated communities have exploded in
popularity, particularly in Dubai, where the 2002 decision to allow
foreigners to own freehold properties has resulted in the construction
of numerous such communities built along various themes. Examples
include The Lakes, Springs, Meadows, and Arabian Ranches.
In the United Kingdom, gated communities are relatively rare. In 2004
there were an estimated 1,000 such communities in
England (i.e. not
Wales and Northern Ireland). They are usually on a
small scale: a gated street of up to 60 or 100 houses, or a single
block of up to 500 or 700 flats. They can be found in London, for
example, in the Docklands (such as New Caledonian Wharf, Kings and
Queen Wharf and Pan Peninsula) and East London (such as
Bow Quarter in
Brick wall separating Naval Square from Grays Ferry Avenue in
Most gated communities in the US are unincorporated[relevant? –
discuss]: some, like Indiana's Briar Ridge, may even span more than
one incorporated municipality. However, there are numerous
incorporated gated cities in Southern California, namely Bradbury,
Canyon Lake, Hidden Hills, Laguna Woods, and Rolling Hills. To
meet legal requirements, the city halls and municipal facilities are
public, and private corporations own parks and other facilities within
the gates. By 1997, an estimated 20,000 gated communities had been
built across the country. Approximately 40% of new homes in
California are behind walls. In 1997, estimates of the number of
people in gated communities ranged from 4 million in 30,000
communities up to around 8 million, with a ½ million in
California alone. One reason that it is difficult to determine how
many gated communities are in the United States is that most are
Brickell Key in Miami, FL, from the northwest is separated by water,
requiring access by bridge
There are other incorporated gated communities outside California,
including Lake Quivira, Kansas, Sea Ranch Lakes, Florida, Anderson
Creek, North Carolina, and North Oaks, Minnesota.
Hot Springs Village, Arkansas
Hot Springs Village, Arkansas is the largest gated community in the
United States with over 26,000 heavily wooded acres. Hot Springs
Village is governed by the Hot Springs Village Property Owners'
Association (or POA for short), a private, tax-exempt home owners
Harbor Springs, Michigan
Harbor Springs, Michigan is the largest gated community
in the Midwestern United States.
The village of Rosemont, Illinois, just outside Chicago, maintains a
security checkpoint at the entrance of its main residential section.
Naval Square was the first in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The neighborhood gives a suburban feel to an otherwise urban
In Downtown Miami, Florida, the neighborhood of
Brickell Key is a
gated island community of high-rise residential towers. Although
anyone can walk onto the island or come via the public bus, only
authorized automobiles may enter.
Brickell Key has some of the most
expensive apartments in Miami.
In 2012, the gated community
The Retreat at Twin Lakes
The Retreat at Twin Lakes was made famous
by the shooting of Trayvon Martin by
George Zimmerman and has been in
the national spotlight well into the year 2013 with the acquittal of
In popular media
(Alphabetical by series title)
In the cartoon As Told By Ginger, the Griplings reside in Protective
On the television show Desperate Housewives, the suburb of Fairview,
Wisteria Lane and the residents of
Desperate Housewives can be
found, is a gated community.
In The Neighbors, a 2012 TV series in the United States, a family has
relocated to a gated townhouse community called "Hidden Hills" in New
Jersey only they discover that the entire community is populated by
residents from another planet who identify themselves by the names of
sport celebrities, patrol the community in golf carts, receive
nourishment through their eyes and mind by reading books rather than
eating, and cry green goo from their ears.
SpongeBob SquarePants episode "Squidville", Squidward Tentacles
temporarily moves to a gated community of squids to get away from
SpongeBob SquarePants and Patrick Star.
The Bravo network reality television series The Real Housewives of
Orange County was initially set primarily in the gated community of
Coto de Caza,
California ("Coto") and followed the lavish livestyles
of "housewives" and their families who resided within Coto. One
housewife, Lauri Waring, who lived in a Ladera Ranch townhouse, was
the exception-to-the-rule that was used as a foil to the extravagant
lifestyle of the other four housewives, who lived "behind the Coto
Most of The Starter Wife miniseries is set within the gated community
where the main character's friend lives. She even becomes friends with
the security guard at the front gate.
The pilot episode of the 2002 revival of The Twilight Zone titled
"Evergreen" deals with a gated community called Evergreen Estates
which has a sinister way of dealing with nonconformity that involves
rebellious children committing those acts being taken to "Arcadia
Fertilizer Company" where they are executed and made into red
fertilizer for the small trees in front of the houses there.
In one episode of
Veggietales (Sherlock Holmes and the Golden Ruler),
Larry sings a song about gated communities in Silly Songs with Larry.
In seasons 1-3 of Weeds, Nancy Botwin and her family inhabit the gated
community of Agrestic.
In The Gates, a 2010 cancelled TV series, Nick Monohan and his family
move from Chicago to a quiet, upscale planned community called The
Gates, where he will be chief of police. They soon realize that their
neighbors are not who they seem to be. The Gates is filled with such
beings as vampires, witches, werewolves, and a succubus.
In the Season Six episode of The X-Files entitled "Arcadia", Mulder
and Scully investigate disappearances within a gated community that
seems to be harboring a terrible secret.
Mexican film La Zona, directed by Rodrigo Plá, talks about a gated
community invaded by a group of very young and poor children.
In the ABC Family movie Picture This starring Ashley Tisdale, Drew
lives in a gated community called Camelot.
In the Spanish movie Secuestrados, kidnappers take the daughter of a
family living in an allegedly secure gated community.
In the 2007 animated movie Alvin and the Chipmunks, the chipmunks and
their guardian Dave Seville live in a gated community.
Grand Theft Auto IV
Grand Theft Auto IV has a gated community called Beachgate, a
fictional rendition of Sea Gate, Brooklyn. It includes the home of
early antagonist Mikhail Faustin.
In "Versace", Drake says: "This is a gated community please get the
fuck off the property"–referring to the gated community of Hidden
Early in The Walking Dead comic book series,
Rick Grimes attempts to
settle in a gated condominium neighborhood. This move proves
disastrous as one of the group members is killed after the survivors
realize the neighborhood is infested with zombies.
(Alphabetical by author's last name)
In Margaret Atwood's novel Oryx and Crake, the characters Snowman and
Crake live and work in corporate-owned gated communities known as
J.G. Ballard has examined the phenomenon in his novella Running Wild
(1988) and in his novel
T.C. Boyle's novel
The Tortilla Curtain
The Tortilla Curtain (1995) is set in and near a
gated community in California.
The novel Parable of the Sower, by Octavia Butler, takes place in a
world where much of civilization lives within gated communities.
In the novel
I Will Fear No Evil by Robert A. Heinlein, the wealthiest
citizens shelter from urban poverty inside fortress-like guarded gated
Ira Levin's novel
The Stepford Wives
The Stepford Wives (1972) takes place inside an
idyllic gated community that secretly enslaves its female members to
conform to the standards of the men.
In the Percy Jackson & the Olympians and The Heroes of Olympus
series by Rick Riordan,
Elysium is depicted as a gated community from
which one could hear laughter and smell barbecue cooking. Besides
having the Isle of the Blessed in the center of a large lake there,
Elysium has neighborhoods of beautiful houses from every time period
in history such as Roman villas, medieval castles, and Victorian
mansions. It also has flowers of silver and gold blooming on the lawns
and grass rippling in rainbow colors.
In Argentina, Claudia Piñeiro's Las viudas de los jueves (Thursday
Widows) became a local bestseller after winning the 2005 edition of El
Clarín newspaper book award. The novel depicts life of dwellers
of a gated community, among them, families who enjoyed high incomes
now facing economic hardships.
In Egypt, Ahmed Khaled Towfik's novel
Utopia takes readers on a
chilling journey beyond the gated communities of the North Coast where
the wealthy are insulated from the bleakness of life outside the
In the novel
Snow Crash (1992) by Neal Stephenson, gated communities
have evolved into "burbclaves" (suburban enclaves) which are
effectively sovereign city-states.
Planned unit development
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