In its modern form, a GATED COMMUNITY (or WALLED COMMUNITY) is a form of residential community or housing estate containing strictly controlled entrances for pedestrians , bicycles , and automobiles , and often characterized by a closed perimeter of walls and fences. Gated communities usually consist of small residential streets and include various shared amenities. For smaller communities, this may be only a park or other common area . For larger communities, it may be possible for residents to stay within the community for most daily activities. Gated communities are a type of common interest development , but are distinct from intentional communities .
Given that gated communities are spatially a type of enclave , Setha M. Low, among other anthropologists , has argued that they have a negative effect on the net social capital of the broader community outside the gated community. Some gated communities, usually called guard-gated communities, are staffed by private security guards and are often home to high-value properties, and/or are set up as retirement villages . Some gated communities are secure enough to resemble fortresses and are intended as such.
* 1 Features * 2 Around the world * 3 Criticism * 4 Common economic model types * 5 Difference with closed cities
* 6 Examples
* 7 In popular media
* 7.1 In television * 7.2 In film * 7.3 In games * 7.4 In songs * 7.5 In comics * 7.6 In literature
* 8 See also * 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links
Amenities available in a gated community depend on a number of factors including geographical location, demographic composition, community structure, and community fees collected. When there are subassociations that belong to master associations, the master association may provide many of the amenities. In general, the larger the association the more amenities that can be provided. Amenities also depend on the type of housing. For example, single-family-home communities may not have a common-area swimming pool, since individual home-owners have the ability to construct their own private pools. A condominium , on the other hand, may offer a community pool, since the individual units do not have the option of a private pool installation.
Typical amenities offered can include one or more:
AROUND THE WORLD
Protective spikes in "security-zone" communities. The inside of a gated community in Ngaliema, Kinshasa, DRC.
In Brazil, the most widespread form of gated community is called "condomínio fechado" (closed housing estate ) and is the object of desire of the upper classes. Such a place is a small town with its own infrastructure (reserve power supply, sanitation, and security guards ). The purpose of such a community is to protect its residents from exterior violence. The same philosophy is seen on closed buildings and most shopping centres (many of them can only be accessed from inside the parking lot or the garage).
In Argentina, they are called "barrios privados" (literal translation "private neighborhoods") or just "countries" and are often seen as a symbol of wealth. However, gated communities enjoy dubious social prestige (many members of the middle and upper middle class regard gated community dwellers as nouveaux riches or snobs ). While most gated communities have only houses, some bigger ones, such as Nordelta , have their own hospital, school, shopping mall, and more.
They are popular in southern China, namely the Pearl River Delta Region, the most famous of which is Clifford Estates .
In Saudi Arabia, gated communities have existed since the discovery of oil, mainly to accommodate families from Europe or North America. After threat levels have increased since the late 1990s against foreigners in general and U.S. citizens in particular gates have become armed, sometimes heavily, and all vehicles have been inspected. Marksmen and Saudi Arabian National Guard armored vehicles appeared in certain times, markedly after recent terrorist attacks in areas near-by, targeting people from European or North American countries.
Gated communities are rare in continental Europe and Japan.
The Retreat at Twin Lakes is the location of the shooting of Trayvon Martin .
Proponents of gated communities (and to a lesser degree, of cul-de-sac ) maintain that the reduction or exclusion of people who would be only passing through, or more generally, of all non-local people, makes any "stranger" much more recognisable in the closed local environment, and thus reduces crime danger. Since only a very small proportion of all non-local people passing through the area are potential criminals, increased traffic should increase rather than decrease safety by having more people around whose presence could deter criminal behaviour or who could provide assistance during an incident.
Another criticism is that gated communities offer a false sense of security. Some studies indicate that safety in gated communities may be more illusion than reality and that gated communities in suburban areas of the United States have no less crime than similar non-gated neighborhoods.
A commentary in
The New York Times
COMMON ECONOMIC MODEL TYPES
* Life-style — country clubs , retirement developments . * Prestige — gates for status appeal * Physical security communities — gates for crime and traffic. * Purpose-designed communities — catering to foreigners (e.g. worker compounds in Mid-West Asia, built largely for the oil industry)
DIFFERENCE WITH CLOSED CITIES
The closed cities of Russia are different from the gated communities.
* The guard duty in closed cities is free to residents (paid by taxes) * The public transport in closed cities may go with transit checkpoints or checking passes/passports at technical stops and aviable to the others outside the security area. In gated community in best cases the bus stop is opposite the checkpoint, a few offer free buses. Via gated communities buses go due to easement or good will. * Fares and communal payment in closed cities are often equal (in all cases not greater) if it would be a common city. In gated communities service companies raise non legally fixed tafiffs because are very difficult to be changed. * Visit to the arendator in closed cities for any reason (most often to hairdresser) does not cause to pass anybody, the pass gives with pass policy. In Krasnoznamensk in additional prerecording to the tax inspector don't let you to pass (unless they called you), you must go to Odintsovo.
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A limited number of gated communities have long been established for foreigners in various regions of the world:
* The worker compounds in the Middle East, built largely for the oil
* The Arbor Oaks subdivision located in
El Monte, California
There are many gated communities in Argentina, especially in Greater
Even though Tortugas Country Club was the first gated community developed in Argentina, dating from the 1930s/1940s, most date form the 1990s, when liberal reforms were consolidated.
Although gated communities have been rare in Australia, since the
1980s, a few have been built. The most well-known are those at Hope
Island , in particular
Sanctuary Cove , on the Gold Coast of
In the ACT, the only example is Uriarra Village, based around community horse paddocks and dwellings jointly managed through strata title.
Brazil also has many gated communities, particularly in the
Rio de Janeiro
One of the first big-scale gated community projects in São Paulo city region was Barueri 's Alphaville , planned and constructed during the 1970s military dictatorship when the big cities of Brazil faced steep increases of car ownership by the middle and higher-classes, rural exodus , poverty, crime, urban sprawl , and downtown decay .
Neighbourhoods with "physical" or explicit gating with security checkpoints and patrols are extremely rare, being absent in some of Canada's richest neighbourhoods such as Bridle Path, Toronto . Furthermore, municipal planning laws in many Canadian provinces ban locked gates on public roads as a public health issue since they deny emergency vehicles quick access.
More common in most Canadian neighbourhoods, especially the largest
cities, is an implicit or symbolic gating which effectively partitions
the private infrastructure and amenities of these communities from
their surrounding neighbourhoods. A classic example of this is the
In China, some of these compounds, like most other gated communities around the world, target the rich. Also many foreigners live in gated communities in Beijing. Often foreign companies choose the locations where their foreign employees will live, and in most cases they pay the rent and associated costs (e.g. management fees and garden work).
Similar communities exist in Shanghai, another major Chinese city. Shanghai Links, an exclusive expatriate community enclosing a golf course and the Shanghai American School, is an example. Other notable gated communities in Shanghai include Seasons Villas, a development by Hutchinson Whampoa, Thomson Golf Villas, and Green Villas.
Other gated communities in China such as those in the Daxing District of Beijing enclose the homes of rural migrants. These are intended to reduce crime and increase public order and safety, which the Communist Party of China -run People\'s Daily claims it has, by 73%. The system is controversial as it segregates migrants and the poor, with some claiming its true purpose is to keep track of migrants, but it is scheduled for implementation in Changping District also.
In India there are many gated neighborhoods (also called 'Colonies' in New Delhi) in big cities where most of the upper middle-class and upper-class people live. New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore and the like all have gated communities. Sometimes these communities are separated not just by wealth but also by ethnicity. Members of a particular ethnicity tend to feel more comfortable living among their own owing to reasons related to common festivals, language, and cuisine. Examples of this are common in New Delhi where there is a strong Punjabi community. Many gated neighborhoods are predominantly Punjabi and there have been cases of discrimination against members of other ethnic backgrounds living in those communities. Likewise there also exist Bengali, South Indian, Muslim, and Gujarati neighborhoods. Nowadays many modern gated communities are being developed like the Aamby Valley City and Lavasa City in Maharashtra occupying 100 km squares of area. Now gated communities are being built in Chennai, Hyderabad, Bangalore by a lot of real estate developers. In Bangalore, 3 locations are having community living those are Bannerghatta, Hebbal and villas in Devanahalli. As in neighboring countries, the target for these housing societies seem to be upper-middle or upper class citizens. Caste and religious discrimination is prevalent in the real estate industry. Several people have been denied homes based on their caste or religion regardless of this factor non-residential Indians are very interested in gated housing.
In Indonesia, some gated communities are luxurious (with lots of up to 740 square metres (8000 sq ft)), and some are very affordable (with lots ranging from 40 to 120 square metres). From 2000, most of the new residential area build by private developer are gated community.
Two examples of gated community in Italy are Olgiata in
In Malaysia, these are known as Gated "> This close a proximity of
wealth and poverty has created a large security risk for Mexico's
middle class. Gated communities can be found in virtually every medium
and large sized city in
Luxury or "status" gated communities are very popular with middle to high income residents in Mexico. Gated luxury communities in Mexico are considerably cheaper than in countries such as the United States while retaining houses of similar size and quality due to the commonness of the communities and the lower cost to build them and are priced lower to attract middle class residents.
Many gated communities in
Many smaller gated communities in
In New Zealand, gated communities have been developed in suburban areas of the main cities since the 1980s and 1990s.
Houses in Bahria Town Rawalpindi in Islamabad Rawalpindi metropolitan area .
Aerobus live complex: de facto first gated community in Moscow. It had the only west checkpoint to bus stop but does not either to local buses that are very curved nor Grazhdanskaya platform. Business center is in this complex but outside area Aerial view of the Santiago de Surco middle class gated community of Lima, Peru.
In Saudi Arabia, many expatriate workers are required to live in company-provided housing. After the 2003 attack on Al Hambra, Jadawel, Siyanco and Vinell by militant Saudi dissidents, the government established tight military security for those compounds with large western populations. Many western individuals also reside in the many other gated compounds or non-gated villas and apartments in the cities that they work. Saudi Aramco provides a compound in Dhahran which is one of the largest of its kind within the kingdom. Gated communities are also popular with many Saudis, which accounts for the limited availability of open villas in these communities and the premium rent paid for that housing. These compounds can be found in many of Saudi Arabia's cities, including but not limited to Abha, Dhahran, Riyadh, and Taif.
See also: Crime in
Many housing estates in Thailand take the form of gated communities, targeted to the upper and middle classes. They may be managed by the development company or by resident committees. Land and Houses , the country's largest real estate company, operates forty-three such developments alone. Nichada Thani in Pak Kret is a large gated community mostly serving expatriates.
Turkey has several gated communities, especially in Istanbul and Ankara. Called "site" in Turkish, they are mostly located around the edge of the city.
UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
In the United Arab Emirates, gated communities have exploded in
popularity, particularly in
Brick wall separating Naval Square from Grays Ferry Avenue in Philadelphia, PA.
Most gated communities in the US are unincorporated: some, like
Briar Ridge , may even span more than one incorporated
municipality. However, there are numerous incorporated gated cities in
Southern California , namely Bradbury , Canyon Lake , Hidden Hills ,
Laguna Woods , and Rolling Hills . To meet legal requirements, the
city halls and municipal facilities are public, and private
corporations own parks and other facilities within the gates. By 1997,
an estimated 20,000 gated communities had been built across the
country. Approximately 40% of new homes in
Hot Springs Village, Arkansas
The village of
In Downtown Miami , Florida , the neighborhood of Brickell Key is a gated island community of high-rise residential towers. Although anyone can walk onto the island or come via the public bus, only authorized automobiles may enter. Brickell Key has some of the most expensive apartments in Miami.
In 2012, the gated community
The Retreat at Twin Lakes was made
famous by the shooting of Trayvon Martin by
IN POPULAR MEDIA
(Alphabetical by series title)
* In the cartoon
As Told By Ginger , the Griplings reside in
* On the television show
Desperate Housewives , the suburb of
Fairview , where
Wisteria Lane and the residents of Desperate
Housewives can be found, is a gated community.
* In The Neighbors , a 2012 TV series in the United States, a family
has relocated to a gated townhouse community called "Hidden Hills" in
New Jersey only they discover that the entire community is populated
by residents from another planet who identify themselves by the names
of sport celebrities, patrol the community in golf carts , receive
nourishment through their eyes and mind by reading books rather than
eating, and cry green goo from their ears.
* In the
SpongeBob SquarePants episode "Squidville", Squidward
Tentacles temporarily moves to a gated community of squids to get away
SpongeBob SquarePants and Patrick Star.
* The Bravo network reality television series The Real Housewives of
Orange County was initially set primarily in the gated community of
Coto de Caza,
* Mexican film La Zona , directed by
* In "Versace ", Drake says: "This is a gated community please get the fuck off the property"–referring to the gated community of Hidden Hills, California .
* Early in The Walking Dead comics series, Rick Grimes attempts to settle in a gated condominium neighborhood. This move proves disastrous as one of the group members is killed after the survivors realize the neighborhood is infested with zombies.
(Alphabetical by author's last name)
Margaret Atwood 's novel
Oryx and Crake , the characters
Snowman and Crake live and work in corporate-owned gated communities
known as compounds.
* J.G. Ballard has examined the phenomenon in his novella Running
Wild (1988) and in his novel
* T.C. Boyle 's novel
The Tortilla Curtain (1995) is set in and near
a gated community in
* ^ "Low, S (2001) The Edge and the Center: Gated Communities and
the Discourse of Urban Fear, American Anthropologist, March, Vol. 103,
No. 1, pp. 45-58 Posted online on December 10, 2004."
* ^ http://m.zameen.com
* ^ http://dhakarachi.org
* ^ http://bahriatown.com
* ^ http://bahriatowntoday.com
* ^ http://www.citihousing.pk
* ^ http://ghar47.com/new-projects/
* ^ Clarin
* ^ A B Nordelta
* ^ http://www.gatedcomsa.co.za/docs/enclosed_neighbour.pdf
* ^ Can Streets Be Made Safe? - Hillier, Bill; Bartlett School of
Graduate Studies, University College London
* ^ Blakely, E.J., and M.G. Snyder (1998), "Separate places: Crime
and security in gated communities." in: M. Felson and R.B. Peiser
(eds.), Reducing crime through real estate development and management,
pp. 53-70. Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute.
* ^ "Did Gated
* Arizaga, Maria Cecilia: El Mito de comunidad en la Ciudad
Mundializada. ISBN 987-9035-28-3
* Blakely, Edward J. and Mary Gail Snyder;
* t * e
Real estate developments
* Apartment complex * Bungalow court * City block * Company town * Golf course community * Gated community * Housing estate * Intentional community * Mixed-use development * Model dwellings for the poor * Multi-family residential * Private community * Public housing * Residential area * Retirement community * Revenue house * Single room occupancy * Subdivision * Tract housing
SCIENCE / EDUCATION
* GND : 4545083-3