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Gaspard Bauhin
Gaspard Bauhin
or Caspar Bauhin (Latinised Casparus Bauhinus; 17 January 1560 – 5 December 1624), was a Swiss botanist whose Phytopinax (1596) described thousands of plants and classified them in a manner that draws comparisons to the later binomial nomenclature of Linnaeus. He was a disciple of the famous Italian physician Girolamo Mercuriale and he also worked on human anatomical nomenclature. Linnaeus honored the Bauhin brothers Gaspard and Jean in the genus name Bauhinia.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Works 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Biography[edit]

Caspar Bauhin (1623), Pinax Theatri Botanici, page 291. On this page, a number of Tithymalus species (now Euphorbia) is listed, described and provided with synonyms and references. Bauhin already used binomial names but did not consistently give all species throughout the work binomials.

Jean and Gaspard were the sons of Jean Bauhin (1511–1582), a French physician who had to leave his native country on becoming a convert to Protestantism. Gaspard was born at Basel
Basel
and studied medicine at Padua, Montpellier, and in Germany. Returning to Basel
Basel
in 1580, he was admitted to the degree of doctor, and gave private lectures in botany and anatomy. In 1582 he was appointed to the Greek professorship in the University of Basel, and in 1588 to the chair of anatomy and botany. He was later made city physician, professor of the practice of medicine, rector of the university, and dean of his faculty. The Pinax theatri botanici (English, Illustrated exposition of plants) is a landmark of botanical history, describing some 6,000 species and classifying them. The classification system was not particularly innovative, using traditional groups such as "trees", "shrubs", and "herbs", and using other characteristics such as utilization, for instance grouping spices into the Aromata. He did correctly group grasses, legumes, and several others. His most important contribution is in the description of genera and species. He introduced many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus, and remain in use. For species he carefully pruned the descriptions down to as few words as possible; in many cases a single word sufficed as description, thus giving the appearance of a two-part name. However, the single-word description was still a description intended to be diagnostic, not an arbitrarily-chosen name (in the Linnaean system, many species names honor individuals, for instance). In addition to Pinax Theatri Botanici, Gaspard planned another work, a Theatrum Botanicum, meant to be comprised in twelve parts folio, of which he finished three; only one, however, was published (1658), long after his death. He also gave a copious catalogue of the plants growing in the environs of Basel, its flora, and edited the works of Pietro Andrea Mattioli
Andrea Mattioli
(1500–1577) with considerable additions. His principal work on anatomy was Theatrum Anatomicum infinitis locis auctum (1592).

Works[edit]

Phytopinax, 1596 Prodromus theatri botanici, 1620, the introduction to his projected magnum opus Pinax theatri botanici, 1623

See also[edit]

Herman Boerhaave Joseph Pitton de Tournefort

The standard author abbreviation C.Bauhin is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name.[1] References[edit]

^ IPNI.  C.Bauhin. 

Duane Isely, One Hundred and One Botanists (Iowa State University Press, 1994), pp. 49–52  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Bauhin, Gaspard". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

External links[edit]

University of Kyoto Online Pinax theatri botanici (1623) Online Galleries, History of Science Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries High resolution images of works by and/or portraits of Gaspard Bauhin
Gaspard Bauhin
in .jpg and .tiff format. Images from Theatrum anatomicum From The College of Physicians of Philadelphia Digital Library Caspari (Gaspard) Bauhini, Prodromos Theatri Botanici (1620) Digitized Copy on Archive.org

v t e

Natural history

Pioneering naturalists

Classical antiquity

Aristotle
Aristotle
(History of Animals) Theophrastus
Theophrastus
(Historia Plantarum) Aelian (De Natura Animalium) Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(Natural History) Dioscorides (De Materia Medica)

Renaissance

Gaspard Bauhin
Gaspard Bauhin
(Pinax theatri botanici) Otto Brunfels Hieronymus Bock Andrea Cesalpino Valerius Cordus Leonhart Fuchs Conrad Gessner
Conrad Gessner
(Historia animalium) Frederik Ruysch William Turner (Avium Praecipuarum, New Herball) John Gerard
John Gerard
(Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes)

Enlightenment

Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
(Micrographia) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek William Derham Hans Sloane Jan Swammerdam Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
(Systema Naturae) Georg Steller Joseph Banks Johan Christian Fabricius James Hutton John Ray
John Ray
(Historia Plantarum) Comte de Buffon (Histoire Naturelle) Bernard Germain de Lacépède Gilbert White
Gilbert White
(The Natural History of Selborne) Thomas Bewick
Thomas Bewick
(A History of British Birds) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
(Philosophie Zoologique)

19th century

George Montagu (Ornithological Dictionary) Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
(Le Règne Animal) William Smith Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
(On the Origin of Species) Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace
(The Malay Archipelago) Henry Walter Bates
Henry Walter Bates
(The Naturalist on the River Amazons) Alexander von Humboldt John James Audubon
John James Audubon
(The Birds of America) William Buckland Charles Lyell Mary Anning Jean-Henri Fabre Louis Agassiz Philip Henry Gosse Asa Gray William Jackson Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker William Jardine (The Naturalist's Library) Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
(Kunstformen der Natur) Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker
(The Royal Natural History)

20th century

Abbott Thayer (Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom) Hugh B. Cott
Hugh B. Cott
(Adaptive Coloration in Animals) Niko Tinbergen (The Study of Instinct) Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
(On Aggression) Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
(The Dancing Bees) Ronald Lockley
Ronald Lockley
(Shearwaters)

Topics

Natural history
Natural history
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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 24714069 LCCN: n85112012 ISNI: 0000 0001 2124 6403 GND: 11884962X SELIBR: 276954 SUDOC: 03469093X BNF: cb125418895 (data) HDS: 14280 Botanist: C.Bau

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